## Causal Set Theory and the Origin of Mass-ratio

**Authors:** Carey R Carlson

Quantum theory is reconstructed using standalone causal sets. The frequency ratios
inherent in causal sets are used to define energy-ratios, implicating the causal link as the
quantum of action. Space-time and its particle-like sequences are then constructed from
causal links. A 4-D time-lattice structure is defined and then used to model neutrinos and
electron clouds, which together constitute a 4-D manifold. A 6-D time-lattice is used to
model the nucleons. The integration of the nucleus with its electron cloud affords
calculation of the mass-ratio of the proton (or the neutron) with respect to the electron.
Arrow diagrams, along with several ball-and-stick models, are used to streamline the
presentation.

**Comments:** 16 pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 30 Jun 2010

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 1345 times

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.*

*
*