## Causal Set Theory and the Origin of Mass-ratio

**Authors:** Carey R Carlson

Quantum theory is reconstructed using standalone causal sets. The frequency ratios
inherent in causal sets are used to define energy-ratios, implicating the causal link as the
quantum of action. Space-time and its particle-like sequences are then constructed from
causal links. A 4-D time-lattice structure is defined and then used to model neutrinos and
electron clouds, which together constitute a 4-D manifold. A 6-D time-lattice is used to
model the nucleons. The integration of the nucleus with its electron cloud affords
calculation of the mass-ratio of the proton (or the neutron) with respect to the electron.
Arrow diagrams, along with several ball-and-stick models, are used to streamline the
presentation.

**Comments:** 16 pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 30 Jun 2010

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 1103 times

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