[199] **viXra:1506.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 17:15:39*

**Authors:** D. Rabounski, P. Robitaille, F. Smarandache, L. Mao

**Comments:** 97 Pages.

Papers on physics and its applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[198] **viXra:1506.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 19:46:35*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Axiom,
Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, Neutrosophic Deducibility and Neutrosophic
Inference, Neutrosophic Proof, Neutrosophic Tautologies, Neutrosophic Quantifiers,
Neutrosophic Propositional Logic, Neutrosophic Axiomatic Space, Degree of
Contradiction (Dissimilarity) of Two Neutrosophic Axioms, and Neutrosophic
Model. A class of neutrosophic implications is also introduced. A comparison
between these innovatory neutrosophic notions and their corresponding classical
notions is made. Then, three concrete examples of neutrosophic axiomatic systems,
describing the same neutrosophic geometrical model, are presented at the end of
the paper.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[197] **viXra:1506.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 02:17:08*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages. presented to the 2015 Barcelona Conference on Applications of Geometric Algebra. http://www-ma2.upc.edu/agacse2015/3641572286-EP/150729%20AGACSE%202015%20Early%20Proceedings.pdf

The shared background independence of spacetime algebra and the impedance approach to quantization, coupled with the natural gauge invariance of phase shifts introduced by quantum impedances, opens the possibility that identifying the geometric objects of the impedance model with those of spacetime algebra will permit a more intuitive understanding of the equivalence of gauge theory gravity in flat space with general relativity in curved space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[196] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-18 07:44:11*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[195] **viXra:1506.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 08:34:55*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This article concerns the psychology of the paradoxical Two Envelope Problem. The goal is to find instructive variants of the envelope switching problem that are capable of clear-cut resolution, while still retaining paradoxical features. By relocating the original problem into different contexts involving commutes and playing cards the reader is presented with a succession of resolved paradoxes that reduce the confusion arising from the parent paradox. The goal is to reduce confusion by understanding how we sometimes misread mathematical statements; or, to completely avoid confusion, either by reforming language, or adopting an unambiguous notation for switching problems. This article also suggests that an illusion close in character to the figure/ground illusion hampers our understanding of switching problems in general and helps account for the intense confusion that switching problems sometimes generate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[194] **viXra:1506.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 23:55:23*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Added a simple model for gravons. Consequently the title had to be changed.

To complete the standard model I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) core object of size Planck length. The core replaces the general relativity singularity of the black hole. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. During very early inflation the overlapping wave functions of the cores caused rapid expansion of the universe. Gravitons condensated around the cores to form primordial black holes which evolve into dark matter in the big bang together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[193] **viXra:1506.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 10:06:38*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A growing number of conflicts within the Standard Model call into question the fundamental interpretation of the Doppler component of the putative Hubble Expansion Law and the nature of events in spacetime associated with conventional coordinates of the line element as attached to the physical basis of the observer. Also of paramount importance is that Einstein’s geometrodynamics is not a complete theory of gravity. We postulate that nonlinear effects associated with the propagation of light in an intense gravitational field produces shock waves creating ‘light-booms’ along boundary conditions at cosmological distances approaching the limit of observation that if correct would explain Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) luminosity. These gravitational shock waves are considered observationally manifest in the spectrum of QSOs and Supernova as a continuous front of ‘light booms’ produced by superluminal boosts associated with continuous coordinate transformations relative to a distant observer. This model aligns with the view suggesting that QSOs are most likely a form of Seifert spiral galaxy with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the vicinity of the putative observational limit of the Hubble radius, HR.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[192] **viXra:1506.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 07:28:53*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Includes Russian text

This essay presents the so called “delta-integrator” model of gravity which is a conceptual rethinking of gravity phenomena – stages of birth and life of the gravity field. This essay summarizes author’s previously presented information on this model. The model does not offer a comprehensive set of tools for use in theoretical and applied physics. The model offers philosophy, framework and terms for discussions about gravity’s nature, and also offers several hypotheses. The author has a hope that the required set of tools, formulas and constants can be further created by the interested parties considering specifics of their corresponding fields of expertise.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[191] **viXra:1506.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 08:52:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A team of researchers led by UCLA electrical engineers has demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are —a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[190] **viXra:1506.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 08:21:08*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that from the standpoint of the wave theory of the structure of matter to be aired
regarded as "prematter" acquiring new properties
during its "condensation". Its specificity is discussed as a process structuring ether and marked with the opportunity to overcome a number of
the difficulties of theoretical physics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[189] **viXra:1506.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 01:42:05*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 67 Pages. New Trends in Physics /book, elementes pictures, spheres in nuclei, forecasted nuclei, ZOO-3D editorfor interactive inspecting of nuclei spheres/, Academic Electronic Press, Bratislava, 2000, CD- ROM, ISBN 80-88880-38-6. http://www.trendsinphysics.info

Coming out from the motto we are going to revalue the experiments of Fizeau, Harres, Kaufmann, Michelson-Morley, which gave rise to Einstein's special and general theory of relativity. All these experiments are revalued from the point of view of the submitted new theory of relativity based on the new definition of medium, the new generalized law of inertia, the new law of propagation of light (waves, intensity), the new definition of equivalent coordinates system, the new principle of relativity. It has been derived the asymmetric form of intensity of the electric field of moving charge at the velocity of 0.001c-c. The theoretical values resulting from the new theory are compared with the experimental Kaufmann's values. It is affirmed the general validity of Maxwell's equations (not only in statics).
The results of Fizeau's and Harres' experiments prove the theory of non-linear form of interference field in moving medium without the drag coefficient. There are mentioned the correct relations for Doppler's effect. In the results of the theory there is outlined the possible generalization for the fields, in which the speed of propagation is finite. For the gravitational field there is outlined the way of getting off the Earth by means of rotation. It is explained the new determination of energies and velocities of particles for nuclear field. There are mentioned the relations for energy and the calculations of the radius of moving particles force reach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[188] **viXra:1506.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-08 04:49:38*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Paper dedicated to the 80th birthday of Mr. Ruggero M. Santilli, hoping that this will permit Mr. Santilli to understand how GTR and ΛCDM cosmology really work and, in turn, will permit him to withdraw his very wrong claims in gravitation and cosmology

In a series of papers, Santilli and collaborators released various strong statements against the general theory of relativity (GTR) and the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology. In this paper we show that such claims are due to fundamental misunderstandings of very basic concepts of gravitation and cosmology. In other words, we show that Santilli and collaborators demonstrated nothing. In particular, they demonstrated neither that the GTR is wrong, nor that the Universe is not expanding. We also show that the so-called iso-gravitation theory (IGT) of Santilli is in macroscopic contrast with geodesic motion and, in turn, with the Equivalence Principle (EP) and must therefore be ultimately rejected. Finally, we show that, although the so called iso-redshift could represent an interesting alternative (similar to the tired light theory historically proposed by Zwicky) to the Universe expansion from a qualitative point of view, it must be rejected from a quantitative point of view because the effect of iso-redshift is 10^{-6} smaller than the effect requested to achieve the cosmological redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1506.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 20:05:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Fu Yuhua, Adesina Agboola, Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Ameirys Betancourt-Vázquez, Maikel Leyva-Vázquez, Karina Perez-Teruel, Hojjatollah Farahani, Lihshing Leigh Wang, A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

Papers on neutrosophic theory and its applications.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[186] **viXra:1506.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 20:50:52*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Paradoxist folklore, poems, translations, prose, and illustrations by many authors.
Contributors by countries:
George ROCA (Australia);
Octavian BLAGA (Belgium);
Bernd HUTSCHENREUTHER (Germany);
Nicolae RUSU (Republic of Moldova);
Elena AGIU-NEACŞU, Vătuiu Roaua Ion ANDRUŞA, Virgil BORCAN, Adrian BOTEZ, Ana Maria BUZOIANU, Eugen EVU,
Constantin MANEA, Nicolae NICOARĂ, Gheorghe NICULESCU, Nicolae NISTOROIU, Ion PĂTRAȘCU, Gheorghe SĂVOIU,
Elena TRIFAN, Ioan Adrian TRIFAN (România);
Charles ASHBACHER, Nicholas NARCISS, Caytie RIBBLE,
Florentin SMARANDACHE (USA).

**Category:** Linguistics

[185] **viXra:1506.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 06:59:16*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The exact nature of non-locality and entanglement is still a matter of an ongoing controversy. Especially, the concept of non-locality as postulated by the orthodox Copenhagen quantum mechanics is claiming to reflect any non-locality in the quantum realm. Attention should be called to the obvious but very disconcerting fact that the concept of non-locality cannot contradict the theory of special relativity, as long as the same is not refuted theoretically or by experiments. Another way of expressing the peculiar situation is, under conditions of the special theory of relativity it remains rather discomforting to alter the properties of a distant system instantaneously (i. e. no light signal can travel) by acting on a local system. The purpose of this publication is to solve the problem of non-locality and entanglement from the standpoint of the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[184] **viXra:1506.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-06 04:30:07*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is shown that the rotation of the water flowing into the funnel, or arising out of the pipe under the effect of gravity, it can be explained by the fact that there are significant largest gravity-magnetic forces. \\ Показывается, что вращение воды, втекающей в воронку, или вытекающей из трубы под действием силы тяжести, может быть объяснено существованием значительных по величине гравитомагнитных сил.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[183] **viXra:1506.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-08 06:03:55*

**Authors:** Peng Wang

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual’s behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists (Helbing and Molnar, 1995; Helbing, Farkas and Vicsek, 2000; Helbing et al., 2002). This model has been widely accepted and mainly used in simulation of crowd evacuation in the past decade. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We reinterpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress, including time-related stress and interpersonal stress. Based on the conception of stress, we renew the model at both micro-and-macro level, referring to agent-based simulation in a microscopic sense and fluid-based analysis in a macroscopic sense. Existing simulation results such as faster-is-slower effect will be reinterpreted by Yerkes–Dodson law, and herding and grouping effect are further discussed by integrating attraction into the social force. In brief the social-force model exhibits a bridge between the physics laws and psychological principles regarding crowd motion, and this paper will renew and reinterpret the model on the foundations of psychological studies.

**Category:** Social Science

[182] **viXra:1506.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 02:55:01*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[181] **viXra:1506.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-28 03:39:41*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint, Michael Tint

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Original article is written in Russian.

In the history of mathematics attempts to find common solutions in integers of Diophantine equations were unsuccessful (except iterate through numbers).In this paper, we obtain an algorithm (identity) of recurrent finding countless coprime integer solutions to equations x^4+y^4=a^4+b^4 , x^4=y^4+a^4+b^4 and some arising from these extraordinary consequences.

**Category:** Number Theory

[180] **viXra:1506.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 14:12:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physicists in Japan have shown experimentally that a particle can be made to do work simply by receiving information, rather than energy. They say that their demonstration, which uses a feedback system to control the electric potential of tiny polystyrene beads, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics and could in future lead to new types of microscopic devices. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[179] **viXra:1506.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-05 18:11:02*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Symmetric Lorentz transformations. These new
transformation equations are the foundations of a new theory of relativity called: Symmetric
Special Relativity. In this paper several issues are analysed. Firstly, I derive the formula for time dilation. Secondly, I derive the formula for length contraction. Thirdly, I derive a new relativistic velocity composition formula which encompasses part of Einstein's counterpart. Fourthly, I prove that Newton's law of Universal Gravitation is invariant under the new transformation. Fifthly, I prove that the leptobaryonic formula for the fine-structure constant is invariant under the
transformation. Lastly, I mention that the de Broglie formula is not invariant under the
transformation (the proof is not included in this article). It seems both the Lorentz transformation and the Symmetric Lorentz transformation can indicate whether a given classical mathematical description of nature is relatively accurate in its respective domain (e.g. Maxwell's equations are invariant under a Lorentz transformation while Newton's Gravity Law is invariant under a Symmetric Lorentz transformation). Therefore, the two transformations complement each other. One marvellous advantage of having “complementary” transformations is that we can take
advantage of them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1506.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The number 12 is found not only as a factor but also as a power in different equations. Thus, the
purpose of this article is to highlight the role of the number 12 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[177] **viXra:1506.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 10:22:50*

**Authors:** Paul A. Titze

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In 2015 the answer is still no. However this paper will look at what current physics has to say on this topic and what further questions need to be put forward to advance our enquiries. This work is a modified compilation of several posts that were originally published in the author's blogsite [1] on Gravity Control Propulsion (GCP) looking at several papers that deal with related topics with some ideas and speculations for further research.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[176] **viXra:1506.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 11:12:51*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Development of electrodynamics during last one and half a century is
discussed and it is shown that every half a century its contents changes
drastically. In fact, during each of the three past stages three distinct
doctrines were reigning in the field, which can safely be visioned as three
different theories. Each of these three theories is critically analyzed and
it is shown that the third stage is over and electrodynamics has reached the
threshold of the fourth stage of its development.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[175] **viXra:1506.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-14 14:12:31*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version-2 removed a typing error, with no consequences for the results

A new universe is described, which comprehends the Big Bang-universe as a visible
hologram of gravity. This hologram eternally orbits within the time-torus-universe (rTTU).
Formulas prove this. The formulas are described in this paper. This causes dynamics, which
relate to a light-torus, and which emerges per up-scaled Planck-scale to larger scales, but it is
also accompanied by the rotation of quantum-gravity and dark matter-force. The result of the
formulas show that the light-torus has a constant rotation of half the light-speed. Moreover, it
contracts (+) or expands(-), which is dependent on the features (+) or (-) of the dark matterforce,
also involved in the rTTU. But also quantum-gravity-force is involved. So, due to these
dynamics the Big Bang-universe is not only a hologram of light, but actually a visible
hologram of gravity. Then the question arises: How do neutrinos act in this rotating timetorus-
universe? Neutrinos are not supposed to move faster-than-the-light-speed in a standalone
Big Bang-universe, but in the rTTU violation of the light-speed is dependent on whether
the dark matter-acceleration is stronger than the smallest quantum-gravity-acceleration in the
rTTU. If so, then neutrinos hurl away from the visible hologram of gravity. That seems a
violation of the GRT, but actually it isn’t, because ‘faster-than-light-neutrinos’ stay in the
rTTU. Due to this new physics and formulas three calculations are made: An orbit-time of a
light-torus, which explains why there exists a CMB-dipole. A calculation of an orbit-time of
the quantum-gravity-torus, which explains why there exist CMB hot- and cold areas. A
calculation of an orbit-time of the dark matter-torus, which explains why a series of shifted
‘concentric circles’ is showing-up in the CMB (up to 350). And at last I explain what the
‘cold spot’ in the CMB really is in perspective of the rotating time-torus-universe (rTTU).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[174] **viXra:1506.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 08:59:24*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

In general, the modification of our understanding of space and time undergone through Einstein's relativity theory is indeed a profound one. But even Einstein's relativity theory does not give satisfactory answers to a lot of questions. One of these questions is the problem of the ‘true’ tensor of the gravitational field. The purpose of this publication is to provide some new and basic fundamental insights by the proof that the gravitational field and time is equivalent even under conditions of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[173] **viXra:1506.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 19:21:21*

**Authors:** Mouhcine Amrar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This work is a study of divisibility and these criteria, in which we will give general relationships and divisibility criteria. We begin this work by answering the following question: what conditions should check the digits dialing the number to make it divisible by d? Among the most known and used criteria are the divisibility by 2, 3, 5, 11...

**Category:** Number Theory

[172] **viXra:1506.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 19:25:11*

**Authors:** Mouhcine AMRAR

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

WE GIVE ALL ABOUT PRIME NUMBERS

**Category:** Number Theory

[171] **viXra:1506.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 10:55:03*

**Authors:** Tobias Richter

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no comment

It's a new perspective of gravitation and how it works. The Author sees in this paper gravitation as an magnetic force. The paper is in german.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[170] **viXra:1506.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 08:39:20*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 78--89.

We discuss the fact that a single spin observable
$\sigma_x$ in a quantum state
does not have a counterpart in physical reality.
We consider whether a single spin-1/2 pure state
has a counterpart in physical reality.
It is an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$ or an
eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
We assume a state $|+_z\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$.
We assume also a state $|+_x\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
The value of transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2$ is 1/2.
We consider the following physical situation.
If we detect $|+_z\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|+_x\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The existence of a single classical probability space
for the transition probability
within the formalism of the measurement outcome
does not coexist with the value of
the transition probability
$|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2=1/2$.
We have to give up the existence of such a classical
probability space for the state $|+_z\rangle$ or
for the state $|+_x\rangle$, as they define the transition probability.
It turns out that
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_z\rangle$ or
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_x\rangle$ does not have
counterparts in physical reality, in general.
We investigate whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of the
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the
hidden-variables theory.
A single spin-1/2 pure state (e.g., $|\uparrow \rangle\langle \uparrow|$)
is a single
one-dimensional projector.
In other word,
a single one-dimensional projector does not have
a counterpart in such physical reality, in general.
The one-dimensional projectors $|\uparrow\rangle\langle\uparrow|$ and $|\downarrow\rangle\langle \downarrow|$ are commuting with each other.
Our discussion shows that we cannot assign the specific definite values
($+1$ and $-1$) to the two commuting operators, simultaneously.
We study whether quantum phase factor
accepts a hidden-variables theory.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|0\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and $|\theta\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ rules out
the existence of probability space of a
hidden-variables theory.
If we detect $|0\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\theta\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle 0|\theta\rangle|^2=\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory
for quantum phase factor.
We explore phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1506.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 04:19:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1506.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 19:16:39*

**Authors:** a. a. Salama

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics
found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental
concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache
in [30, 31, 32] and Salama et al. in [4-29]. In Geographical
information systems (GIS) there is a need to model spatial regions with indeterminate boundary and under indeterminacy. In this paper the structure of some classes of neutrosophic crisp nearly open sets are investigated and some applications are given.Finally we generalize the crisp topological and intuitioistic studies to the notion of neutrosophic crisp set. Possible applications
to GIS topological rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[167] **viXra:1506.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 15:58:43*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: People everywhere are awaiting with bated breath the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC. We already have made the discovery - the ttH process entity by the ATLAS collaboration. There is no compelling reason why a proof of supersymmetry requires finding a partner pair particle. It should suffice to show that a supersymmetric force exists bringing bosons and fermions together in violation of the teachings of quantum mechanics, and this has been accomplished.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[166] **viXra:1506.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 12:28:11*

**Authors:** Stan Bumble

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

BRAIN expenditures to map the dynamics of neural activities in the brain of small organisms are cited and the work necessary to do it for the human brain is discussed. The difficulty is stressed because of the very large number of neurons considered that could be involved, their combinatory nature, and the missing characteristics that need to be determined experimentally. The physical and functional properties of neurons and their connected species are considered. Successful programs that may contribute to this humongous goal are described and some of the software and hardware are suggested that can help bring about this significant achievement.

**Category:** Mind Science

[165] **viXra:1506.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 12:44:16*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article illustrates that the rising, but shot-gun-appearing, annual temperatures for the contiguous US since 1900 are not properly described by either a linear or a 2nd degree polynomial.

**Category:** Climate Research

[164] **viXra:1506.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 13:37:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[163] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 16:48:32*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[162] **viXra:1506.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theorists argue that warped spacetime prevents quantum superpositions of large-scale objects. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[161] **viXra:1506.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 04:41:03*

**Authors:** Jean-Luc Paillet, Andrew Meulenberg

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels in the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In a second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits as solutions of the relativistic Schrödinger and of the Dirac equations, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs). The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin ½ particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. Next we analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant. As a prerequisite to a deep comprehension of the resolution methods, we recall in the appendices some essential elements of the Dirac theory

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[160] **viXra:1506.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 18:22:24*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A stellar mass black hole is an invented mathematical construct and has no place in physical theory such as the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Reasoning is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[159] **viXra:1506.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-04 03:38:05*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 19 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. Published by: International Journal of Applied Physics and Mathematics vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 45-65, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.17706/ijapm.2016.6.2.45-65

The deterministic relationship between cause and effect is deeply connected with our understanding of the physical sciences and their explanatory ambitions. Though progress is being made, the lack of theoretical predictions and experiments in quantum gravity makes it difficult to use empirical evidence to justify a theory of causality at quantum level in normal circumstances, i. e. by predicting the value of a well-confirmed experimental result. For a variety of reasons, the problem of the deterministic relationship between cause and effect is related to basic problems of physics as such. Despite the common belief, it is a remarkable fact that a theory of causality should be consistent with a theory of everything and is because of this linked to problems of a theory of everything. Thus far, solving the problem of causality can help to solve the problems of the theory of everything (at quantum level) too.

**Category:** Statistics

[158] **viXra:1506.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 11:41:59*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

A tiny composite field – mass particle is identified which accounts for all mass in the universe and explains both inertia and also suggests the intimate relationship between what is traditionally thought of as gravity and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[157] **viXra:1506.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 03:54:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[156] **viXra:1506.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A University of Tokyo research group has successfully measured the spin Hall Effect in a superconductor for the first time. The spin Hall Effect is responsible for the conversion of magnetic flow to current flow and has not been thoroughly examined in superconductors. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[155] **viXra:1506.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 05:21:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[154] **viXra:1506.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 19:52:49*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

This paper was made with the realization that in the last 7-8 decades has raised a variety of cosmological theories that do not mention at all about God, where the role of man be lost in the cosmic drama of space and time, and this has been a particular challenge for many Christians both lay and theologians who are still leaning in God as the Creator of the universe. Indeed, some Christian thinkers assumed that modern cosmological theories such as the Big Bang are quite close to the biblical doctrine of creation, but not a few who think that the big bang actually replaces the role of God in creation with a random chance process triggered by fluctuations in vacuum. Others argue that the singular point where the universe began to expand need not be equated with the point of creation. Presumably these issues are more in depth than just maintaining the idea of six-day creation, like what most Creationists told us.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[153] **viXra:1506.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 06:29:27*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We discuss the principal results of the method of the *Causal dynamical triangulations*, when applied under the assumption of topology *S ^{3}* of our world,

[152] **viXra:1506.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 04:11:28*

**Authors:** Harris V. Georgiou

**Comments:** 106 Pages. game theory; pattern recognition; classifier combination

Game Theory is one of the most challenging and controversial fields of applied Mathematics. Based on a robust theoretical framework, its applications range from analyzing simple board games and conflict situations to modeling complex systems and evolutionary dynamics.
This book is a short collection of introductory papers in the field, aimed primarily as reading material for graduate- and postgraduate-level lectures in Game Theory and/or Machine Learning. The four papers included here are all original works already published as open-access or conference publications, spanning a timeframe of several years apart and a wide range of topics. Hence, each paper is self-contained and can be studied on its own, without any prerequisite knowledge from the previous ones. However, their presentation order is consistent with going from the most elementary issues to the more advanced and experiment-rigorous topics.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[151] **viXra:1506.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 10:54:52*

**Authors:** C. Coanda, Gh. Duta, Gh. Dragan, J. Ilie, I. Ivanescu, F. Smarandache, L. Tutescu, S. Draghici

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

Probleme de matematica rezolvate, din anii 1991-1997, pentru clasele V-VIII.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[150] **viXra:1506.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 01:20:36*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on materialist dialectics, both`time and space have the duality, namely absoluteness and relativity. If absolute time and absolute space cannot exist, then relative time and relative space cannot exist too; vice versa. However, they aren’t equal. Absolute time and absolute space are more important, because they are the reference systems of relative time and relative space respectively. In addition, the absolute space is flat, while the relative space may be flat also may be curving. As for the dimensions of time and space, it is an extremely complicated question, we need to discuss the complicated time and the complicated space. The absolute space is three-dimensional, the absolute time is one-dimensional that is formed by the three-dimensional absolute time. For the relative space, it may have the multi-dimensional space, fractal dimensional space, plural dimensional space, variable dimensional space. For the relative time, it may have the multi-dimensional time, fractal dimensional time, plural dimensional time, variable dimensional time too, they are corresponding to the relative spaces. In other words, the relationship between space and time is the one by one corresponding relations. It is different to the general viewpoint that space is three-dimensional and time is one-dimensional, according to the viewpoints of self-similarity and similarity of fractal theory, three-dimensional time is derived. With the Lorentz transformation of Relativity, this paper presents the special form of three-dimensional time for a special case, which is also written as the form of variable dimension fractal. The examples given in this paper show that to establish the frames of multi-dimensional time, multi-dimensional space and the like, not only are possible but also necessary in some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[149] **viXra:1506.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-06 03:10:28*

**Authors:** Takahiro Kato

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article, we present yet another characterization of Boolean algebras and, using this characterization, establish a connection between propositional logic and Boolean algebras; in particular, we derive a deductive system for propositional logic starting with Boolean algebras.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[148] **viXra:1506.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 22:22:11*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short note I present a brief summary of the philosophical bases, axioms, transformations, and main results and predictions, of a recently proposed relativity theory termed Information Relativity theory (or IR).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[147] **viXra:1506.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 15:13:41*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you

Coin-vote is a voting system for establishing opinion and resolving disputes amongst willing participants. Rather than using a traditional method of trying to tally one vote per person, it relies on a one vote per coin tally. This enables votes to be counted with provable security, as there are no longer the usual issues of identity fraud, counting fraud, or polling bias, which have plagued traditional polling systems. This document is meant to explain our platform and database for conducting coin-votes. We outline here security procedures and motivation for using the coin-vote system.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[146] **viXra:1506.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:11:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper presents a numeric formula for the fine-structure constant as a function of the number π and nine powers of 2.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[145] **viXra:1506.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 15:03:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I derive the classical formula for the kinetic energy of a particle from Einstein's
relativistic kinetic energy formula without the use of the binomial expansion. This method is
suitable to be taught in secondary schools' physics senior courses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[144] **viXra:1506.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:16:05*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We propose a model of microscopic black holes and dark matter to reinforce the standard model. We assume that at the center of a black hole there is a spin 1/2 neutral core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. During Starobinsky inflation gravitons condensate around the core to form a primordial quantum black holes which evolve naturally into abundant dark matter universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[143] **viXra:1506.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 03:14:43*

**Authors:** Elemer E. Rosinger

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Presently - and surprisingly - only {\it two} ways to compose systems are known : classical systems have their state spaces composed by Cartesian product, while in the case of quantum systems, by tensor product. Reasons, as well as hints are presented why and how more {\it rich} ways of composition of systems should be considered. Improving computational power is one such reason, why a hint may come from DNA computation. Mathematically, the issue comes down to choosing a proper way to compose certain classes of finite graphs which include as a particular case the juxtaposition of finite string of words in an alphabet.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[142] **viXra:1506.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-02 05:40:52*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Recently, there appeared a mathematical model of oceanic whirlpools [1], which is almost identical to the models built for space black holes. The similarity between the whirlpools and black holes is found in the fact that an object that happened to be near these objects becomes involved in them and never returns. Such a distant analogy stresses (in our opinion) the fact that this mathematical model is very far from completion. In the presented paper the author attempts to build such a model. This model, as well as above mentioned one, has the same base – the relativity theory. However, the proposed model is more downlanded (or, if you want, water-landed), because in it we use the equations of hydrodynamics and the consequences of the theory of relativity, which are relevant only in the case of low Earth's gravity. Another question is also of interest – about the source of energy which enables the whirlpool to be spinning for a long time when surrounded by still waters. This issue becomes even more important due to the fact that the whirlpools (and not the Moon) are energy sources for the tide [2]. In [1] a source of energy whirlpools not analyzed. Below we show that this source is the Earth's gravitational field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[141] **viXra:1506.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-25 10:42:43*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 35 Pages. added ways to falsify theory, assumption corrections

Since it is known in alternative scientific communities that planet formation is star evolution itself via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis, some basic concepts are needed to piece together the puzzle. Negligence of these concepts in application to any model concerning star evolution (planet formation) are more than likely incomplete or false.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[140] **viXra:1506.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 10:37:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine found that synchronized physiological interactions between remote brain regions have genetic underpinnings. [8]
Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[139] **viXra:1506.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 11:01:56*

**Authors:** Carl-Gustav Hedenby

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I show how inertial forces in a rotating system and under equable, linear acceleration can be derived from the classical kinetic energy, and also make a review of my energy derivation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[138] **viXra:1506.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 07:03:08*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.4 No.4, April 27, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46106

A proper discussion of the various philosophical views of the nature of time and gravitational field and the different issues related to time as such would take us far beyond the scope of this article. For our purposes, time and gravitational field are related somehow. In any case, especially due to Einstein’s relativity theory, there is a very close relationship between time the gravitational field and vice versa. The aim of this publication is to work out the interior logic between gravitational field and time. As we will see, the gravitational field is equivalent to time and vice versa, both are equivalent or identical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[137] **viXra:1506.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 07:10:49*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 9 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.4 No.4, April 27, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46106

The hottest and one of the major unresolved problems of today’s quantum mechanics is the physical meaning of the wave function. The debate about the physical meaning of the wave function raises broader issues as well. In brief, the difficulties stemmed from an apparent conflict about the existence of an objective reality existing independent of the human mind and consciousness. The purpose of this publication is to investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the relationship between the wave function and Einstein’s special theory of relativity and. As we will see, the wavefunction and “co-ordinate” time of Einstein’s special theory of relativity are identical.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[136] **viXra:1506.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 16:42:54*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 journal pages

The ‘relativistic” mass concept is rooted in the problematic longitudinal and transverse mass equations emerging from the Lorentz transformation, as presented by Einstein in his 1905 paper on Special Relativity. These equations, although actual outcomes of the Special Relativity, and verified in this paper through both simplified dimensional analyses and conservation of energy principle, had later been implicitly dropped and replaced by an ad-hoc relativistic mass equation, needed to maintain the consistency of the Special Relativity with the conservation of momentum law—although it results in its violation of the law of conservation of energy. Maintaining the latter law, results in the same transverse mass equation as obtained in Einstein’s said paper. The relativistic mass adopted in the literature is but an attempt to conceal contradictions in the Special Relativity, and a convenient means for arriving at the relativistic kinetic energy formula implying the desired mass-energy equivalence equation E = mc2. In this paper, the incoherence of the Special Relativity emerging from its established mass formulae is revealed through simplified physical demonstrations. Depending on the force definition and the “moving” mass equation used, four different formulae for the relativistic kinetic energy are obtained, all validated from the Special Relativity perspective, creating a detrimental incoherence in the theory. All these formulae are reduced to the classical kinetic energy equation for v << c (v = velocity, c = speed of light). It is revealed that the energy equation E = mc2 is not a valid consequence of the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[135] **viXra:1506.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 17:45:27*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is a very specullative paper to be published in Proc. JCF15, JCFRS

Very speculative modeling and discussions are made for considering a nuclear physics possibility of Iwamura-type (A, Z)-selective transmutation without hard gamma-rays. The BOLEP (burst-of-low-energy-photons) energy damping mechanism from very highly excited intermediate nucleus by the 4D/TSC-min capture to host metal nucleus is basic idea, after the analogy of 8Be* nucleon halo model for the BOLEP energy damping to 8Be ground state. The very highly excited intermediate nucleus 141Pr*(Ex = 50.49 MeV) by 4D + 133Cs capture reaction may have a two-alpha-halo rotation-vibration deformed state, which would make avalanche energy damping via BOLEP.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[134] **viXra:1506.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 09:51:03*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 49--53.

We review the no-cloning theorem that relies on
the properties of the quantum theory.
Usually, the no-cloning theorem implies that
two quantum states are identical or orthogonal if we allow a cloning
to be on the two quantum states.
Here, we rely on the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We may result in the fact that
the two quantum states under consideration could not be orthogonal
if we consider the maximum value of
the square of the expected value.
The no-cloning theorem may imply that the
two quantum states under consideration may be identical
if we consider the maximum value of
the square of the expected value.
The no-cloning theorem itself has this character.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[133] **viXra:1506.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 16:12:38*

**Authors:** Octavian Balaci

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Reassert the twin paradox in a new light, leading to the conclusion that the theory of relativity is inconsistent with the physical reality. Symmetric clocks paradox using two clocks in a special setup, in which both clocks are in inertial movement on the entire duration of experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[132] **viXra:1506.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 23:12:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Colignatus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Zermelo-Fraenkel-Axiom-of-Choice (ZFC) system of axioms for set theory appears to be inconsistent. A step in developing this proof is the observation that ZFC would be deductively incomplete if it were consistent. Both points are proven by means of the singleton. The axioms are still too lax on the notion of a well-defined set.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[131] **viXra:1506.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 16:23:59*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 179 Pages. Revision v2 corrects serious errors in v1, sections 2.38 and 2.39.

This book provides an introduction to quaternions and Clifford geometric algebras. Quaternion rotations are covered extensively. A reference manual on the entities and operations of conformal (CGA) and quadric geometric algebras (QGA) is given. The Space-Time Algebra (STA) is introduced and offers an example of its use for special relativity velocity addition. Advanced algebraic techniques for the symbolic expansion of the geometric product of blades is explained with numerous examples.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[130] **viXra:1506.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 03:38:49*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

In 1980 F. Wattenberg constructed the Dedekind completion∗d of the Robinson
non-archimedean field ∗ and established basic algebraic properties of ∗d [6]. In
1985 H. Gonshor established further fundamental properties of ∗d [7].In [4]
important construction of summation of countable sequence of Wattenberg numbers
was proposed and corresponding basic properties of such summation were
considered. In this paper the important applications of the Dedekind completion∗d in
transcendental number theory were considered. We dealing using set theory
ZFC ∃(-model of ZFC).Given an class of analytic functions of one complex
variable f ∈ z, we investigate the arithmetic nature of the values of fz at
transcendental points en,n ∈ ℕ. Main results are: (i) the both numbers e and e
are irrational, (ii) number ee is transcendental. Nontrivial generalization of the
Lindemann- Weierstrass theorem is obtained.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[129] **viXra:1506.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 14:02:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A group observed a beam of muon neutrinos from CERN and detected the tau neutrinos some of them transformed into. The results clearly show that muon neutrinos can transform into tau neutrinos. A similar group working with the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector observed electron neutrinos from a muon neutrino beam. So we now have directed evidence of neutrino oscillation. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[128] **viXra:1506.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 11:08:28*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper shows why the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function ζ will always be on the critical line Re(s) = 1/2 and not anywhere else on the critical strip bounded by Re(s) = 0 and Re(s) = 1, thus affirming the validity of the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1506.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-26 11:14:36*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic field transformation and the electro-magnetic field equation (Maxwell equation) in Rindler spacetime. We treat Lorentz gauge transformation, Lorentz gauge, Lorentz gauge fixing condition in Rindler spacetime. We prove the electro-magnetic wave function cannot exist in Rindler spacetime in Appendix A. Specially, this article say the uniqueness of the accelerated frame because the accelerated frame can treat electro-magnetic field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1506.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 11:17:20*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Futuring the legacy of Paul Erdös

**Category:** General Mathematics

[125] **viXra:1506.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-11 05:48:01*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

We expand the holographic principle to explain the nature of the universe and all its fractal 2-manifold organisms. The simplest explanation of the complex universe departs from the holographic principle: information, form is bidimensional. Because all what we perceive is the 'cover' of things, its membranes. Thus in a 2-manifold, in a bidimensional world there are only 2 topologies, which correspond to the main parts of any system, the lineal, energetic and spherical informative dimensions or motions (since energy is just space in motion and time information cyclical form in motion). And its 'wavelike combinations, exi. And we shall call energy, to th expansive motions, which form limbs, often with hyperbolic topology (bilateral). And we shall call information to the implosive vortices, which form particles and heads, often of spherical geometry. And the space between them the 3 membrane-topology of the universe, its body wave, the ExI part of the system. Thus all what exists are polar systems, with 'energy fields/limbs' and informative heads/particles, exchange energy and information creating a 3rd element, 'waves-bodies'.
We use the formalism to unify all disciplines of human knowledge, showing all its species display 5 isomorphisms, derived of the 3 topologic varieties:
- isomorphism of 3 finite, diffeomorphic dimensions of space
- isomorphism of 3 time-ages/states, past- young energy, liquid balanced present and solid, future, wrinkled age
- isomorphism of 3 space-time topologies, energy, iteration and information
- isomorphism of 3 hierarchies of organisation, the quantum/cellular, i-ndividual/human and social/cosmic scale
- isomorphism of 3 actions, energy feeding, reproductive iteration and informative gauging.
Whereas the 4 dimensional universe is the holographic intersection of 2-manifold membranes, and the Whole Universe a fractal sum of all of them

**Category:** Topology

[124] **viXra:1506.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 04:33:52*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Unification? The high energy formulation of the Maxwell's equations that permit the gravity quantization with gravitoelectromagnetism

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1506.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-03 16:51:02*

**Authors:** Peter CM Hahn

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This article describes a unique design for a device that will detect gravitational waves directly. The technique used in this design is based on the inflow that is predicted by Foamy Ether Theory (FET). Unlike current interferometer-based detectors that claim to measure distortions of space caused by gravitational waves, the proposed Time Variance - Gravitational Wave Detector (TV-GWD) measures changes in the rate-of-flow-of-time.
The TV-GWD has the capability of detecting much higher frequencies than interferometer-based detectors because it measures fluctuations in time instead of distortions in space. The TV-GWD can be mounted on a tabletop instead of kilometer-length antennas that are required by interferometers.
Details of the design and tests performed are presented. Photos of an actual working prototype are also provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[122] **viXra:1506.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-26 03:11:22*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Rauti

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Studies in Mathematics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[121] **viXra:1506.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-17 15:27:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[120] **viXra:1506.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 02:31:08*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Spanish

In 1919 Einstein published an article in which he stated that the charged particles were stable as a result of a force of gravitational origin. Einstein modified the equation of general relativity, changing the numerical coefficient 1/2 by 1/4. The new theory satisfies all the results of General Relativity, and introduced naturally the cosmological constant, explaining the tension of Poincare as a gravitational effect. We analyze this theory of Einstein and check that there are no spherical particles and static.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[119] **viXra:1506.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-17 09:20:17*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the spectral line near 313.8 µHz is frequency modulated with a remarkably large frequency deviation of 0.15 µHz. By proper choice of the integration length, the center frequency can be determined with high precision.

**Category:** Geophysics

[118] **viXra:1506.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 15:58:51*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is the French version of «RECYCLED RELATIVITY» on http://viXra.org/abs/1506.0125

Les vérifications expérimentales de certaines formules de la théorie de la relativité concernant les idées d’Einstein sur le temps et l'espace relatifs ne peuvent être remises en cause. Mais il en est autrement pour ce qui est d’affirmer la validité de l’interprétation d’Einstein. Bien que temps et longueur propres soient aussi essentiels dans la théorie de la relativité générale que la loi d’isotropie et la constance de la vitesse de la lumière dans les systèmes galiléens de la relativité restreinte, cela n’empêche pas de signaler trois antinomies qui apportent des contradictions, écorchent les invariances et projettent une lumière crue sur les insuffisances de la théorie einsteinienne : l’effet Allais qui semble faire varier le potentiel gravitationnel et donc le temps propre ; l’effet Pioneer qui indique que l’énergie diminue avec la distance ; le neutrino apparemment superluminique qui emprunte un chemin plus court que le photon, ce que nous dénommons « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Plusieurs physiciens nient l’existence de ces anomalies, d’autres les attribuent à des bris techniques ou à des erreurs d’expérience. Nous traitons ces trois cas avec les formules de la relativité avec des points de vue forcément différents d’Einstein, sans toutefois remettre en cause la constante de la vitesse de la lumière.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[117] **viXra:1506.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 13:06:33*

**Authors:** Harry Fitié

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The model of the universe is defined as an isolated system. It is represented by a coherent, directed, random network. The network consists of nodes, connections and a demiurge who randomly modifies these connections according to the urns model. We show that is possible to manipulate the entropy in this isolated system by changing the protocol by which the demiurge modifies connections. Two protocols result in expansion with increasing entropy. Four protocols result in contraction with decreasing entropy. A combination of these protocols results in a cyclic universe.
What is further demonstrated is that - in spite of the random behavior of the demiurge - there is a form of self-organization in the network. The structure of the expansion protocols triggers the so called Matthew Effect. Even at a level of maximum entropy the network is relatively more populated by complex structures (measured by the number of connections) than by simple ones.
Finally, it is shown that a state of "omniscience" is impossible. The information content of the model universe is much lower than the information that is needed to describe its state. Within this universe an entity that is omniscient cannot occur.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[116] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 06:42:42*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[115] **viXra:1506.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 09:27:06*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the spectral line near 304.6 µHz is frequency modulated with a remarkably large frequency deviation of 0.18 µHz. By proper choice of the integration length, the center frequency can be determined with high precision.

**Category:** Geophysics

[114] **viXra:1506.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 11:58:48*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

The holographic principle is extended to deal with a two dimensional universe. Applying it to a spherical shell, which radius is related to the cosmological constant, we find a characteristic time comparable to the age of the observable universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[113] **viXra:1506.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-15 00:14:39*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this paper the Kepler’s third law is derived for circular orbits using the two different metrics. The resulting formulas are compared with the formula for the Kepler’s third law derived from the Newtonian physics. The derivation is using the Lagrange formalism, but comments are made on error in derivation that has appeared in previous publication. It is found that the Kepler’s third law derived using the Schwarzschild metric results in an identical formula obtained from the Newtonian physics of a flat spacetime geometry. This clearly illustrates a problem for the Schwarzschild metric and consequently for the General Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1506.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 09:18:15*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The experimental verification of certain formulas of the theory of relativity concerning Einstein's ideas about relative time and space cannot be called into question. But it is otherwise with respect to assert the validity of the interpretation of Einstein. Although proper time and length are as essential in the theory of general relativity as the isotropic law and the constancy of the speed of light in the Galilean systems of special relativity, this does not preclude to stress three antinomies that bring contradictions, scratch the invariances and cast a harsh light on the shortcomings of Einstein's theory: the Allais effect that seems to make vary the gravitational potential and therefore the proper time; the Pioneer effect indicating that the energy decreases with distance; the apparent superluminal neutrino which takes a shorter path than the photon, what we term "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Several physicists deny the existence of these anomalies, others attribute them to technical failures or to experiment errors. We treat these three cases with the formulas of relativity with necessarily different points of views than Einstein, without, however, questioning the constant nature of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[111] **viXra:1506.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 04:56:35*

**Authors:** Vladimir I. Rogozhin

**Comments:** Pages. FQXi Essay Contest entry 2014

Universe silence... Why? TechnoSfera... Where does it move? BioSfera... Where is the non-return point? NooSfera... What to do? The deep mind looks for primordial senses of the LifeWorld. Сonsciousness, matter, memory... Self-Consciousness... Сonsciousness is attracting senses vector magnitude, intentional effect of absolute complexity. The Vector of Сonsciousness - the Triune Vector of absolute forms of existence of matter (limit states), the Vector of the Absolute Existential Field of the Universe, a polyvalent sense phenomenon of Ontological (structural, cosmic) Memory. Open Сonsciousness Vs. Closed Сonsciousness. Сonceptual and mathematical proto-Eidoses of the Absolute forms of existence of matter. On the basis of ontological and existential constracting method – method of a discretion and a reflection of existential repère-point, the Vector of Сonsciousness places milestones on ProtoGeometre's long way – the way of knowledge of good and evil, of rises and fallings, of births of absolutely another, from the point Alpha to the modern point of ultimate tension of the Absolute Existential Field of the Universe. Big waves of Consciousness. Existential risks of Humanity and Open Science. New Open Generation realizing all existential risks of Humanity passable way and risks of coming Information era creates the Self-Aware Universe, filling it with the most deep meanings of the LifeWorld, at the heart of which Axiom of an absolute freedom of choice is laid. The minimum Program to overcome existential risks. Great Integrative Paradigm. Creation of a common sense picture of the World for physicists and lyricist. The United Humanity raises up five Great Philosophers' Stones in memory of Protogeometre's rises and fallings on a long way of becoming of Humanity and frees the Horse. Humanity is on a threshold of an Era of Eonic thinking... I start the path...

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[110] **viXra:1506.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 05:13:50*

**Authors:** Vladimir I. Rogozhin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. FQXi Essay Contest entry 2015

Dialectica: Mathematica and Physica, Truth and Justice. Mathematica as the Constructive Metaphysica and Ontology. Mathematica as the constructive existential method. Сonsciousness and Mathematica: Dialectica of "eidos" and "logos". Mathematica - the Total Dialectica. The basic maternal Structure - "La Structure mère". Mathematica and Physica: Loss of existential certainty. Is effectiveness of Mathematica "unreasonable"? The ontological structure of space. Axiomatization of the ontological basis of knowledge: one axiom, one principle and one mathematical object. The main ideas and concepts of the ontological construction "Point with a vector germ" and "heavenly triangle". "Ordo geometricus" and "Ordo onto-topological". Architecture of the onto-topological basis of knowledge: general framework structure, carcass and foundation. The absolute space and the absolute field. The absolute (natural) system of coordinates of Universum. Eidos of "idea of ideas", the symbol and the "Formula of Justice".

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[109] **viXra:1506.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 02:19:04*

**Authors:** Kirana Kumara P

**Comments:** 59 Pages. Preprint (draft), list of references

This paper lists some references that could in some way be relevant in the context of the real-time computational simulation of biological organs, the research area being defined in a very broad sense. This paper contains 198 references.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[108] **viXra:1506.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-15 15:35:17*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Morvan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

My first proposal for a demonstration goes back to 1997, well before the editions Faber and Faber allot a bonus of 1 million dollars to that which would show the conjecture of Goldbach. Since this date, i proposed different versions on the form,but unchanged on the bottom.
In 1742, the conjecture of Goldbach was “All even number ; writing as the sum of prime numbers”. The number 1 was regarded as a prime number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[107] **viXra:1506.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-15 13:48:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13]
One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12]
A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[106] **viXra:1506.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-15 09:45:39*

**Authors:** L. Martino, J. Read, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Multi-dimensional classification (also known variously as multi-target, multi-objective, and multi-output classification) is the supervised learning problem where an instance is associated to qualitative discrete variables (a.k.a. labels), rather than with a single class, as in traditional classification problems. Since these classes are often strongly correlated, modeling the dependencies between them allows MDC methods to improve their performance -- at the expense of an increased computational cost.
A popular method for multi-label classification is the classifier chains (CC), in which the predictions of individual classifiers are cascaded along a chain, thus taking into account inter-label dependencies. Different variant of CC methods have been introduced, and many of them perform very competitively across a wide range of benchmark datasets. However, scalability limitations become apparent on larger datasets when modeling a fully-cascaded chain. In this work, we present an alternative model structure among the labels, such that the Bayesian optimal inference is then computationally feasible. The inference is efficiently performed using a Viterbi-type algorithm.
As an additional contribution to the literature we analyze the relative advantages and interaction of three aspects of classifier chain design with regard to predictive performance versus efficiency: finding a good chain structure vs.a random structure, carrying out complete inference vs. approximate or greedy inference, and a linear vs. non-linear base classifier. We show that our Viterbi CC can perform best on a range of real-world datasets.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[105] **viXra:1506.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-15 12:01:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Reanalyzed the validity condition of the theorem and corollary of Beale-Kato-Majda.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[104] **viXra:1506.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-31 12:57:24*

**Authors:** Fernando Sánchez-Escribano

**Comments:** 40 Pages. some detected errata or mistakes are corrected

Fernan's physical theory (vixra:1209.0102) is summarily exposed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[103] **viXra:1506.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-15 04:16:22*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matveev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article simulates Twin Paradox by means of floating boats. The boats are fitted with a pendulum clock and instruments activated by signals generated by this clock (in time with this clock). The function of the clock pendulum is performed by a high-speed shuttle continuously moving along a vertical (relative to the boat) line between the boat and the bottom. The article demonstrates, that even if two boats are sailing side by side at a speed v relative to the water, then one of them halts, waits for a while and then catches up with the boat sailing ahead, the instruments on the non-inertial boat grew less "old" than on the inertial one.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[102] **viXra:1506.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 16:49:09*

**Authors:** Harris V. Georgiou

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Copyright (c) Harris Georgiou, 2015 - Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution (BY) 3.0

In this paper, a gentle introduction to Game Theory is presented in the form of basic concepts and examples. Minimax and Nash's theorem are introduced as the formal definitions for optimal strategies and equilibria in zero-sum and nonzero-sum games. Several elements of cooperaive gaming, coalitions, voting ensembles, voting power and collective efficiency are described in brief. Analytical (matrix) and extended (tree-graph) forms of game representation is illustrated as the basic tools for identifying optimal strategies and “solutions” in games of any kind. Next, a typology of four standard nonzero-sum games is investigated, analyzing the Nash equilibria and the optimal strategies in each case. Signaling, stance and third-party intermediates are described as very important properties when analyzing strategic moves, while credibility and reputation is described as crucial factors when signaling promises or threats. Utility is introduced as a generalization of typical cost/gain functions and it is used to explain the incentives of irrational players under the scope of “rational irrationality”. Finally, a brief reference is presented for several other more advanced concepts of gaming, including emergence of cooperation, evolutionary stable strategies, two-level games, metagames, hypergames and the Harsanyi transformation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[101] **viXra:1506.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 10:28:41*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then we give a Physical Interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF). This new Interpretation of the CRF permits also a new interpretation of the Cosmological time. Moreover it is in agreement with the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM) on many points. For instance it assumes the validity of the Special and General Relativity. Then using these new interpretations of dark matter and of the CRF, we are led to propose a new model of Universe, flat and finite, that is not predicted by the SCM. Despite of this we will see that a first mathematical model of our Physical Interpretation of the CRF, that is based on the equations of the General Relativity as the SCM, leads to an observable Universe with the same theoretical astrophysical predictions as the SCM. We will see that a 2nd mathematical model, much simpler, has nonetheless theoretical astrophysical predictions that are in agreement with astronomical observations.
We will then study the theoretical consequences of those 2 models.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[100] **viXra:1506.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 08:04:16*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Two quite different forms of differential calculus exist that both have physical significance. The most simple version is quaternionic differential calculus. Maxwell based differential calculus is based on the equations that Maxwell and others have developed in order to describe electromagnetic phenomena. Both approaches can be represented by four-component “fields” and four-component differential operators. Both approaches result in a dedicated non-homogeneous second order partial differential equation. These equations differ and offer solutions that differ in details.
Maxwell based differential calculus uses coordinate time t, where quaternionic differential calculus uses proper time τ. The consequence is that also the interpretation of speed differs between the two approaches. A more intriguing fact is that these differences involve a different space-progression model and different charges and currents. The impacts of these differences are not treated in this paper.
By adding an extra Maxwell based differential equation the conformance between the two approaches increases significantly.
The formulation of physics in Maxwell based differential calculus differs significantly from the formulation of physics in quaternionic differential calculus. It results in a different space-progression model. The choice between the two approaches influences the description of physical reality. However, the selected formulation does not affect physical reality. The description does not affect the described field.
The conclusion of the paper is that depending on the type of investigated phenomena either the Maxwell based approach or the quaternionic approach fits better as a descriptor. The Maxwell based approach fits better for describing wave behavior. The quaternionic approach fits better for the description of the embedding process.
Quaternionic differential calculus also fits better with the application of Hilbert spaces in quantum physics than Maxwell based differential calculus does. However, Maxwell based differential calculus is the general trend in current physical theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[99] **viXra:1506.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 04:52:37*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

For the field of Consciousness Studies or Cognitive Science to advance pragmatically, rigorous quantifiable theoretical elements with experimentally testable protocols leading to a wide range of applicable results must occur. In this work we introduce a new unit of physical measure called the ‘Psychon’ named in honor of Nobelist Sir John Eccles to formally quantify ‘mental energy’. Additionally an experimental design is outlined to falsify the model. If the procedure for quantifying mind is successful it will have far reaching consequences for ‘mind science’ breaking down the 1st person - 3rd person barrier leading to a new class of ‘conscious technology’. The task introduces a new age of discovery in the progression Newtonian Mechanics to Quantum Mechanics to a 3rd regime of reality - Unified Field Mechanics (UFM); the long awaited paradigm shift justifiably fraught with detail and new nomenclature!

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[98] **viXra:1506.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-18 21:44:28*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** A fully formatted version of the abstract is the first page of this paper

There is an alternate cause for the decay rate proposed by Monsieur le Curé Georges Lemaître, and later defined by Edwin Hubble as a Constant – the Hubble Constant. It can be proposed because the motion observed in the local Galaxies||Star groups around the Milky Way is inward not outward. The recession velocity of Galaxies farther out is reasoned entirely from the increasing Red shift in the frequency. The smaller the image of observed Galaxy/Cluster objects, the greater the downward shift in frequency of all Electro-Magnetic signals. An alternate cause for that downward shift could be through the absorption and re-emission through matter, leading to of the absorption of some fraction of the energy quanta. There is nowhere in our Local Universe that is both absolutely devoid of matter and the continual formation of objects of all scales. If Red shift were because of space expansion, it would increase the distance that signal had to travel. So a signal from GN-z11 stellar structure at 13.4 Billion light years [LY] would take would take 13.4 Billion years to travel. Assuming 13.8 Billion years since the Big Bang would mean GN-z11 object travelled 13.4 Billion LY in 400 million years.
Support for this alternate supposition is reasoned from the fact that the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their Hubble recession velocity.
Key words: Big Bang Theory, Dark Matter, EM frequency decay, GNz-11 body, density||volume||Age Universe, Origin CMBR, Comic Egg, Infinite, Milky Way[MW], Andromeda Galaxy[M31

**Category:** Astrophysics

[97] **viXra:1506.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 01:16:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mysterious dark energy that's driving the universe's accelerated expansion may have its roots in the background "vacuum energy" that pervades all of the cosmos, a new study suggests. [6]
The leading theory to explain the accelerating expansion is the existence of a hypothetical repulsive force called dark energy. But in the new study, Massimo Villata, an astrophysicist at the Observatory of Turin in Italy, suggests the effects attributed to dark energy are actually due to a kind of "antigravity" created when normal matter and antimatter repel one another. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[96] **viXra:1506.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 22:07:45*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 42 Pages. This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of gener

This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of general relativity and the theory of gravity dynamics of tesla, and among others.
We are living in a giant time clock, with two different poles - one positive and one negative, that the turn gives us our time for life, that is our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[95] **viXra:1506.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 20:48:21*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 20 references

The holographic principle is extended to take in account a two-dimensional spherical universe. Applied to the frontier of the memory device, the working memory retention time is estimated. By considering the surface of the oxygen nucleus, the fusion temporal threshold is calculated. The long term memory duration is also evaluated, by combining the present results with previous ones worked out by this author. Water with its protons and oxygen constituents, plays a fundamental role in accomplishing these tasks.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[94] **viXra:1506.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 12:50:51*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Glutathione reductase (GR) utilizes NADPH produced by G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme activities, and enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) represents the erythrocyte glutathione-reducing system (GRS), of the GSH pathway to oxidation and inactivation in the activity of GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[93] **viXra:1506.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-22 14:10:07*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This article closes the famous page with a key importance for the 20th century physics – the “Theory of Relativity”. The bakground of the research is (1) analysis of all “unexpected” and “inexplicable” results of the most famous experiments related to the measurement of the speed of light; an analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”; and (3) the published articles “The Speed of Light and Uncertainty Principle of the Macro-world” and “Awareness of Special and General Relativity and Local and General Physical Reality”. The research results are “Model of Uncertainty of the Universe” and “Thesis about the Behavior of the Electromagnetic Radiation in Gravitational Field”, which actually replaces the postulate of invariance of the speed of light formulated by Albert Einstein. А separate section is devoted to reveal the essence of the Special Тheory of Relativity. The conclusion about the theory of relativity, is also based on Einstein’s citation - when “the relativity theory could not be maintained…”).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1506.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 11:08:31*

**Authors:** Guacho Perez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple study on the Goldbach Conjecture and its links to the Prime Number Theorem and Bertrand's Postulate.

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1506.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 11:36:28*

**Authors:** Clifford Chafin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Previous approaches of emergent thermalization for condensed matter based on typical wavefunctions are extended to generate an intrinsically quantum theory of gases. Gases are fundamentally quantum objects at all temperatures, by virtue of rapid delocalization of their constituents. When there is a sufficiently broad spread in the energy of eigenstates, a well- defined temperature is shown to arise by photon production when the samples are optically thick. This produces a highly accurate approximation to the Planck distribution so that thermalization arises from the initial data as a consequence of purely quantum and unitary dynamics. These results are used as a foil for some common hydrodynamic theory for ultracold gases. It is suggested here that strong history dependence typically remains in these gases and so limits the validity of thermodynamics in their description. These problems are even more profound in the extension of hydrodynamics to such gases when they are optically thin, even when their internal energy is not low. We investigate rotation of elliptically trapped gases and consistency problems with deriving a local hydrodynamic approach. The presence of vorticity that is “hidden” from order parameter approaches is discussed along with some buoyancy intrinsically associated with vorticity that gives essential quantum corrections to gases in the regimes where standard perturbation approaches to the Boltzmann equations are known to fail to converge. These results suggest that studying of trapped gases in the far from ultracold regions may yield interesting results not described by classical hydrodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[90] **viXra:1506.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 04:30:52*

**Authors:** Jung Lee

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A new paradigm is now needed to disprove the common perception of Heisenberg’s experimental observations. A theoretical framework which will replace uncertainty with knowledge. One in which both the velocity and location of any particle can be determined with exact certainty. That the mathematical and logical paradox of singularity do not exist, as well as explain the apparent behavior of photons as both particles and waves is an easily understood and calculable phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1506.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 06:19:06*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the middle spectral line near 309.3 µHz is frequency modulated. The strongest modulation frequencies are phase-locked and depend on the geographic location. By proper choice of the integration length the center frequency can be determined with high precision.

**Category:** Geophysics

[88] **viXra:1506.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 16:34:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: For supersymmetry, many new partner matter particles are expected. But because E8 x U(1) is the symmetry of our universe, however, we allow only 2 more particles (250 total). These would be ttH and ttZ type fermibosonic supersymmetric entities for use in transporting mass from an earlier old universe to a newer universe without violating flatness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1506.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 12:38:02*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper it is presented a simple reasoning as to why plasma is the electrolyte to facilitate reduction and oxidation reactions during stellar evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[86] **viXra:1506.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 14:03:39*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.4 No.4, April 27, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46106

In view of many possible approaches to quantize the gravitational field already developed, it is possible to describe the dynamics of the gravitational field by the principles of quantum mechanics while following strictly the rules of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Thus far, quantum mechanics strictly predicts that all matter is quantum while general relativity describes the gravitational effects of classical matter. Then again, one might argue that we cannot reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics at all. As we will see, it is possible to solve the problem of the quantization of the gravitational field in accordance with Einstein’s theory of realtivity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 13:34:35*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's
special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[84] **viXra:1506.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the lowest spectral line near 299.9 µHz is frequency modulated. The different modulation frequencies are phase-locked and depend on the geographic location. By proper choice of the integration length the center frequency can be determined with high precision.

**Category:** Geophysics

[83] **viXra:1506.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 08:13:54*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, this paper presents the New Newton Mechanics (NNM) taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. Examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in
principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity by using the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space), derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum) can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law
of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal gravitation can be derived, which can be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion and the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun. Again,
according to accurate experimental result, the synthesized gravitational formula (including the effects of other celestial bodies and sunlight
pressure) for the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun is presented. Unlike the original Newton Mechanics, in New Newton Mechanics, for different problems, may have different laws of motion, different formulas of gravity, as well as different expressions of energy.
For example, for the problem of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane,
and the problem of advance of planetary perihelion, the two formulas of
gravity are completely different.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[82] **viXra:1506.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 17:46:47*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here we show that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the realistic/unique String Theory realized by Nature. The SST starts from 7 parameters only (there do not appear free parameters) and a few very simple symmetries that follow from initial parameters. We present the realistic interpretation of the different string theories, the compactification of the higher degrees of freedom, new fermion-boson supersymmetry, new SS-duality concerning shapes (a self-similar duality), the S-duality (a strong-weak duality), T-duality (duality of different spacetime geometries; duality of large and small distance scales), U-duality (unified duality; a symmetry for combined S-duality and T-duality), the origin of radions and dilatons. There appear following fundamental spacetime objects: the luminal gravitating 26-degrees-of-freedom Einstein-spacetime components, the superluminal 10-degrees-of-freedom spin-1 entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement and the 6-degrees-of-freedom non-gravitating tachyons carrying infinitesimal imaginary spin (existence of such tachyons results from extended General Relativity; the gravitational fields consist of them). There as well appear the 58- and 122-degrees-of-freedom stable objects composed of the 26-degrees-of-freedom spacetime objects. The 11-dimensional supersymmetric M-theory and its 10-dimensional components cannot be realized by Nature (it follows from the thermodynamics of the tachyonic liquid at the beginning of the inflation). New symmetries of the initial liquid-like spacetime lead to the succeeding phase transitions of the non-gravitating Higgs field composed of tachyons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[81] **viXra:1506.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 05:54:27*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Recently, there appeared a mathematical model of oceanic whirlpools [1], which is almost identical to the models built for space black holes. The similarity between the whirlpools and black holes is found in the fact that an object that happened to be near these objects becomes involved in them and never returns. Such a distant analogy stresses (in our opinion) the fact that this mathematical model is very far from completion. In the presented paper the author attempts to build such a model. This model, as well as above mentioned one, has the same base – the relativity theory. However, the proposed model is more downlanded (or, if you want, water-landed), because in it we use the equations of hydrodynamics and the consequences of the theory of relativity, which are relevant only in the case of low Earth's gravity. Another question is also of interest – about the source of energy which enables the whirlpool to be spinning for a long time when surrounded by still waters. This issue becomes even more important due to the fact that the whirlpools (and not the Moon) are energy sources for the tide [2]. In [1] a source of energy whirlpools not analyzed. Below we show that this source is the Earth's gravitational field. \\ Недавно появилась математическая модель океанических водоворотов [1], которая практически полностью совпадает с моделями, построенными для космических черных дыр. Сходство между водоворотами и черными дырами обнаруживается в том, что нечто, оказавшееся вблизи этих объектов, вовлекается в них и никогда не возвращается. Столь далекая аналогия подчеркивает (на наш взгляд), как далека от завершения математическая модель водоворотов. Ниже автор тоже предпринимает попытку построения такой модели. Предлагаемая модель, как и вышеупомянутая, строится на базе одной теории – теории относительности. Но предлагаемая модель более приземлена (или, если хотите, приводнена), поскольку используются также и уравнения гидродинамики, и следствия из теории относительности, выполняющиеся только в условиях слабого земного притяжения.
Интересен еще вопрос об источнике энергии, позволяющей водовороту длительное время вращаться в окружении неподвижных вод. Этот вопрос становится еще более важным в связи с тем, что именно водовороты (а не Луна) являются источниками энергии для приливов и отливов [2]. В [1] источник энергии водоворотов не анализируется. Ниже показывается, что этим источником является гравитационное поле Земли.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[80] **viXra:1506.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 12:25:54*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 25 pages, 42 eqs, 37 refs; presented at the International Conference "Arithmetic Methods in Mathematical Physics and Biology" (3-8 August 2014, Bedlewo, Poland), http://ammpb.wmi.amu.edu.pl/; Journal-ref: Banach Center Publications 109 (2016) 57-81.

We show that the unreduced, mathematically rigorous solution of the many-body problem with arbitrary interaction, avoiding any perturbative approximations and "exact" models, reveals qualitatively new mathematical properties of thus emerging real-world structures (interaction products), including dynamic multivaluedness (universal non-uniqueness of ordinary solution) giving rise to intrinsic randomness and irreversible time flow, fractally structured dynamic entanglement of interaction components expressing physical quality, and dynamic discreteness providing the physically real space origin. This unreduced interaction problem solution leads to the universal definition of dynamic complexity describing structure and properties of all real objects. The united world structure of dynamically probabilistic fractal is governed by the universal law of the symmetry (conservation and transformation) of complexity giving rise to extended versions of all particular (correct) laws and principles. We describe then the unique efficiency of this universal concept and new mathematics of complexity in application to critical problems in life sciences and related development problems, showing the urgency of complexity revolution.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[79] **viXra:1506.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 12:54:41*

**Authors:** G. A. Papadaniel, N. I. Yannopoulou, P. E. Zimourtopoulos

**Comments:** 18 Pages. FunkTechnikPlus # Journal, Issue 7 - Year 2, 31 May 2015, v1, 19-36, otoiser ftp#j --- Removed from arXiv by an impotent "moderator"

A planar Delta—Cross shaped loop antenna is proposed. The presentation includes results from an analytic study of the radiation pattern, as well as, from a simulation study for both the electric and radiation characteristics: input impedance, standing wave ratio, radiation pattern and directivity. The loop was initially shaped as 4 non-overlapping equilateral triangles on a plane, symmetrically oriented around a common vertex, center fed at one triangle base. In order to improve the antenna characteristics, its shape was then modified by equally changing the triangle base angle—while keeping the loop length constant and equal to 2 wavelengths WL. In this way, the final antenna loop was shaped with 4 isosceles triangles. The analytical and simulated results for the radiation pattern were found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, a comparison with antenna's dipole counterpart characteristics showed a much better performance of the proposed antenna.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[78] **viXra:1506.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-13 12:01:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn’t make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of “infinity.” “This is the disease of quantized gravity,” Stelle said. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[77] **viXra:1506.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-11 18:17:46*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Author present the calculation of the absorption cross section by Lyman alpha line depending on the concentration of neutral hydrogen in intergalactic medium (IGM), different from the calculation, proposed by J. Gunn and B.Peterson. The method proposed by Y. B. Zel'dovich and Y. P. Rajzer serves as a basis for calculation. The calculation shows that the concentration of neutral hydrogen in the IGM can reach 10⁻³ cm³ and more, in this case the Gunn-Peterson effect will not be observed. The probable mechanism of "blueing" of the galaxies spectrum is examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1506.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 11:53:07*

**Authors:** Kamal Barghout

**Comments:** 10 Pages. stellar perpendicular osscilation from simple harmonic motion of stars

Galactocentric gravitational force is used to model disk stars’ kinematics in the vertical direction. Stellar oscillation perpendicular to the galactic plane is modeled as simple harmonic motion (SH) made by the centrifugal force (Mach principle) opposite to the gravitational pull by the enclosed mass within the star’s galactic orbit. It was found that the galactocentric force of rotationally supported disks produces the observed stellar velocity ellipsoid tilt at all disk vertical distances in the solar neighborhood. The observed galactic rotational velocity at the solar location is used to obtain the galactocentric gravitational field of . The velocity ellipsoid tilt angles for the sun as well as stellar mid-plane velocities vs. maximum heights computed from SH model were compared with those computed from mass models of the Milky Way. It was found that a galactocentric potential alone that produces the stellar rotational velocity, with no adjusting parameters, describes well the kinematics of the disk in the vertical direction.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1506.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 12:21:14*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the highest spectral line near 318.4 µHz is frequency modulated. The different modulation frequencies are phase-locked and depend on the geographic location. By proper choice of the integration length the center frequency can be determined with high precision.

**Category:** Geophysics

[74] **viXra:1506.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 04:28:11*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This essay presents a possible deficiency of the “Big Bang” theory from the position of quantity of information. The essay poses an ultimate question: how many bits of pre-set information the Universe requires to evolve from the “Big Bang” further?

**Category:** Astrophysics

[73] **viXra:1506.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-28 21:58:23*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we delete the zeros in the critical line.

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1506.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-19 08:14:55*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The paper investigates the possibility of continuous variation of a manifold starting from a given one. Theoretical investigation engenders the fact that such a continuous passage is not possible provided you start from a given manifold specified by its metric coefficients. You have to move in discrete steps starting from the given one, satisfying some equations discussed in the paper. A manifold surface can always be constructed using arbitrary continuous and differentiable functions as metric coefficients. The ensuing Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar will always satisfy the Bianchi Identity and hence the field equations. The functionals in the general Relativity use the Ricci scalar [ensuing from the metric coefficients] as arguments. Different surfaces[manifolds ] are generated by varying the metric coefficients [in order to vary the Ricci scalar or such functions as dependent on it]. In each case the manifold satisfies the Bianchi identity and hence the Field Equations prior to the application of the stationary action principle. This perhaps induces a motivation for discretization. Discretization will modify all the principles involved in General Relativity making them of a suitable nature in the present context. This may open up the gates for including the General Relativity Lagrangians in a more rigorous manner.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1506.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 09:35:08*

**Authors:** W. B. Belayev

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.

The existence of negative pressure of vacuum follows from the
cosmological models, based on the results of observations. But, is
it possible to detect the pressure of the vacuum as per the
geometry of the space around the local bodies? The gravitational
mass of bodies placed in confined volume, is less than the sum of
the gravitational masses of these bodies, dispersed over infinite
distance. It interprets into the transfer of energy to the vacuum,
which becomes apparent from its deformation. We determine the
gravitational impact of matter on the vacuum, equal in value and
opposite in the sign of pressure, in case of weakly gravitating
spherical bodies. We have evaluated a possibility to extend the
obtained result to arbitrary gravitational systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1506.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 09:58:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

“Sloppy copying” is all that is needed to preserve physics as we know it, Black holes aren’t exactly the monolithic cosmic nether regions that theoretical physicists once thought. Sci-fi visions of black hole ‘event horizons’ through which all incoming matter — and the information that goes with it — simply disappears are now a bit out of date. In fact, black holes even obey known laws of physics, says the lead author a new study that arguably solves a decades-old conundrum known as the ‘black hole information paradox.’ [10]
That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1506.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 06:28:56*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Wida yani, Siti Nurul Khotimah

**Comments:** 4 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, Indonesian language

Material komposit biner berbentuk batang, yang tersusun atas material A dan B, disederhanakan dengan serat-serat lurus sejajar, yang masing-masingnya dalam bentuk 1-d dan dimodelkan dengan menggunakan Ns titik massa. Dua titik massa berurutan dihubungkan dengan pegas berkonstanta tertentu kAA, kAB, atau kBB bergantung pada jenis titik massa yang mengapitnya. Tiga jenis ikatan komposit dibahas di sini, yaitu untuk ikatan komposit lebih lemah dari [kAB < min(kAA, kBB)], berada di antara [min(kAA, kBB) < kAB < max(kAA, kBB)], dan lebih kuat dari [kAB < max(kAA, kBB)] ikatan masing-masing material penyusunnya, yang masing-masing dinyatakan dengan jenis I, II, dan III, berturut-turut. Aturan elastisitas material komposit isostrain menyatakan EAB = (1 - c) EA + c EB, dengan c adalah konsentrasi material B. Jenis II memiliki kesesuaian dengan aturan tersebut, sedangkan kedua jenis lainnya menghasilkan sedikit deviasi darinya.
Kata kunci: material komposit, satu dimensi, pegas, kombinasi, urutan.
PACS: 46.25.-y, 62.20.D-. 81.40.Jj, 88.30.mj.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[68] **viXra:1506.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 23:44:48*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

FTEP dynamics is the underlying driver in Theory of Everything by Illusion (TOEBI). This paper includes new TOEBI force law for electron like particles. Presented law replaces the current Second Law of TOEBI and it will be merged to the existing TOEBI papers in future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] **viXra:1506.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-10 07:35:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The non-locality of quantum mechanics continues to be an unexplainable phenomenon. In a previous paper [1] I utilized a recently proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively for the entanglement in an EPR type experiment. IR rests on two well accepted propositions: The relativity axiom, plus an axiom specifying the information carrier and its velocity. The theory is deterministic and local. It is also complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. Contrary to special relativity which predicts that an object's length will always contract along the direction of its relative motion with respect to an observer, IR predicts length contraction for approaching bodies and length stretching for departing bodies. In the present paper I demonstrate that IR is also successful in explaining and predicting de Broglie's matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, and the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Quite strikingly, I found that the critical "stretch" associated with a particle's wave phase transition is equal to the critical value of de Broglie wave length ζ(3/2) ≈ 2.612, where ζ(x) is the Riemann zeta function. This result enables to calculate the Planck's constant, the corner stone of all quantum mechanics, based on a completely deterministic and local theory. The unavoidable conclusion of the present analysis is that Einstein's intuition that "God does not play dice" is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1506.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 13:33:11*

**Authors:** E.Gluskin, R.Rabinovici

**Comments:** 15 Pages. It is some basic electrical safety from the positions of elementary circuit theory; the argument should be useful for physics and EE students, engineers and teachers.

The concepts of "high power" and/or "heavy current" are defined from the positions of electrical safety in a power laboratory. According to this criterion, for the nominal full power of the device under test (generator, motor, or transformer), we obtain that , where Rgr is the resistance of the grounding, is the maximal voltage permitted for touching, and is the range of the output voltage of the power device, associated with its non-ideality as a voltage source. Limiting one of the values Rgr, or Snom, for the other given, this formula defines what is "high power" for a given laboratory, and the concept of "heavy current" thus appears as a relative one, adjusted to the safety needs. This approach can be helpful in making the very important topic of electrical safety interesting for students and teachers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[65] **viXra:1506.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 07:19:07*

**Authors:** Mubarak Dirar A. Allah, Zoalnoon A.Abeid Allah, Hassab Allah Mohamed

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Einstein generalized general relativity Lagrangian dependent on the second derivatives of the field, when use together with poison equation causes the mass term in the Lagrangian disappear. This means that Higgs field which was proposed to generate mass need to be revised. The work also aimed to see how Einstein generalized general relativity Lagrangian can affect Higgs field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[64] **viXra:1506.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 02:49:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

"A grin without a cat" is how Lewis Carroll describes the Cheshire Cat's mysterious way of disappearing while leaving its grin behind in his 1865 classic, Alice in Wonderland. The fanciful character raises a question that has captured physicists' attention over the past few years: can an object be separated from its properties? [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[63] **viXra:1506.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 14:02:57*

**Authors:** Wenliang Jin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss at length the dynamical behavior of Grover's search algorithm for which all the Walsh-Hadamard transformations contained in this algorithm are exposed to their respective random
perturbations inducing the augmentation of the dimension of the search space. We give the concise and general mathematical formulations for approximately characterizing the maximum success probabilities of finding a unique desired state in a large unsorted database and their corresponding numbers of Grover iterations, which are applicable to the search spaces of arbitrary dimension and are used to answer a salient open problem posed by Grover [L. K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{80}, 4329 (1998)].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[62] **viXra:1506.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-07 08:15:28*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** Slight correction to wording on the bottom of left column, page 3.

The No-communication Theorem has been seen as the bar to communication by quantum state collapse. The essence of this theory is the procedure of taking the partial trace on an entangled, hence inseparable multi-particle system. This mathematical procedure applied unthinkingly, strikes out the off-diagonal elements from the ensemble density matrix and renders the reduced trace matrix representative of a mixed state. Decoherence theory is able to justify this mathematical procedure and we review it to show: the partial trace results for both unitary and non-unitary processes (hence measurement) on one, several or all particles of the ensemble; and that a unitary process keeps interference terms in the trace reduced matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1506.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 14:58:47*

**Authors:** Christopher Goddard

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is a common problem in statistics to determine the appropriate heuristic to select from a set of hypotheses (or equivalently, models), prior to optimising that model to fit the data. In this short note I sketch a technique based on the construction of an information in order to compute the optimal model within a given model space and given data.

**Category:** Statistics

[60] **viXra:1506.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 07:01:07*

**Authors:** J. Yun

**Comments:** 1 page

This paper offers a concise proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem using the Euclidean algorithm.

**Category:** Number Theory

[59] **viXra:1506.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-11 01:42:04*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 8 pages, 3 figures, in Fig. 3 the radius of Cl ion is 1.22 A; paper submitted to Nature Chemistry

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.

**Category:** Chemistry

[58] **viXra:1506.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 07:51:26*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Publ.Date 23 may 2015 IJP Sciepub

The need of extending the theory of relativity has led M.Tailherer to the hypothesis of a new fundamental equation and constant, embodying in a unique wave equation for the graviton the link between gradient of curvature and deformation of metric. As direct continuation of a preceding work, here a new assessment of the constant S in the Vortex Theory of gravitation is given in a more direct approach than 1st approximation yielding S =(2.5±1.2)E-19 m-1. Issues are concerned fitting by Maple four binary systems data, also allowing to assign a meaningful inertial mass to the graviton (5.5±2.6)E-61 Kg confirming known heuristic bounding. In Appendix an easy way of getting the vortex’s gradient formula is shown along with the whole action of the model and the description of the tide effect on a test mass with respect to a x polarized gravitational wave in the case of an asymmetric source. Keywords: Alternative theories to General Relativity (TGR), Gravitational waves, Vorticity Tensor, Binary Star Systems, massive gravity. PACS. 04.30

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1506.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-22 00:40:52*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Scientific God Journal

This article discusses an outline of a new Cosmology model based on my interpretation of the Johannine Prologue. The objective of this article is to propose a new Cosmology model which is biblically sound and scientifically verifiable, inspired by Cosmic Christology of the Johannine Prologue. Because this is only an outline, it should be obvious that this is not a complete and working cosmology model. More research is needed to develop it further and also to test this idea. New experiments may be expected in the future to verify this proposal.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[56] **viXra:1506.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 13:29:38*

**Authors:** Suomy Nona

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This work replaces earlier viXra:1402.0070 and viXra:1404.0430

A nontrivial way of expressing the Universal Gravity constant with an error rate less than one part in a million. (Planck time)* (Ampere)/(Elementary Charge) equals the (Fine Structure constant)^(1/4 coth(7^(19/49)/pi^4)). The equation represents the fractional part of a charge carrier that passes through a boundary during a Planck time.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[55] **viXra:1506.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-28 05:43:18*

**Authors:** Mohamed Hassani

**Comments:** 11 Pages; 1Table; 36 References

In previous work [Comm. in Phys. 24, 313 (2014)], we have established the foundations of superluminal relativistic mechanics which is actually a basic step toward the superluminalization of special relativity theory (SRT). In the present paper that is partly based on the aforementioned work, the theoretical maximum value of Lorentz factor γmax is proposed in order to determine the validity limits of SRT in its proper domain of applicability, and situate the frontiers between relativistic physics and superluminal physics for the conceptual and practical purpose at microscopic and macroscopic levels. Among the consequences of the developed formalism, a helpful formula for luminal and superluminal velocities, and the concept of luxonic energy for massive particles, which may be used as a criterion to investigate the high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays, also another formula is derived to estimate the non-zero photon rest mass.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[54] **viXra:1506.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 09:50:01*

[53] **viXra:1506.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-28 21:32:22*

[52] **viXra:1506.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 10:15:32*

**Authors:** HuaZhi Dan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Electromagnetic induction

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1506.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 11:38:34*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we show a new process for producing artificial rain. A region of low pressure is produced in Earth’s troposphere, using gravity control. Then clouds are attracted to this region, and thus a bigger cloud can be formed. During the compression process of the cloud, water droplets become large drops through collision and coalescence, and consequently they acquire sufficient fall velocities to reach the ground as rainfall.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[50] **viXra:1506.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 12:08:25*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Losing entry in FQXi essay contest: "Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics"

This paper uses a small set of mathematical principles to describe a very wide swath of physics. These principles define a new theory of quantum gravity called the theory of infinite complexity. The main result is that Einstein's equation for general relativity can be derived from unrelated, mathematically novel quantum phenomena. That the theory takes no free parameters should be considered strong evidence in favor of a real connection between physics and mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:1506.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 03:35:22*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In article is presented the Creation Hypothesis without Big-Bang and without any other coherent energy-level . An extend elucidation has been previously done for some very important definitions as that of Quanta of Space and the Quanta of Energy .The expansion of the universe occurs by THE rolling, of the light velocity Moving Dark-Matter-Energy Heap mixture , on the Rest Gravity-Field-Energy Base , which consists a parallel motion and not parallel universes as said . It has been elucidated the Origin and the Nature of Particles Fermions and Bosons , what is Gravity - field , Gravity – force , Dark – matter and Dark-energy. It was analyzed that Gravity–field is a Rest of two opposite signed elements which consist the minimum energy quanta Spinning space and this because of dipole nature , and jointed by the Gravity-force which is the Maxwell`s-Gravity`s Displacement current , and which acts on any other moving or not particle. Because Dark-matter moves with the constant velocity ,c, and is composed of the two opposite signed elements also , and Dark-energy moves also with velocity of light , so is continually effecting on the two fragments separately and are slinging them further , formulating the Infinite and attracting Geometrical Universe , i.e. the mixture of the spherical and opposite signed elements which highlights, and the dipole from them which form the heavy and massive invisible Dark matter , the dipole energy blobby volumes are the massive Dark Fringes which repel .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1506.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 04:17:28*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This brief paper explores the physical theory of human history and the deep interplay of social systems evolution & human narratives, i.e. history as the psychophysical record of human development via free choice vs. all forms of 'slavery'.

**Category:** Social Science

[47] **viXra:1506.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 03:37:50*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The experimental determination that the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) is
a (perfect) liquid, rather than a gas, creates a crisis for theoretical models.
So is the QGP a liquid of a gas? Here we provide a resolution of this puzzle
through a consistent application of the symmetry structure of the full SU (3) c
group itself, rather than just its local Lie group algebra. Hence this paper
provides a novel resolution of the above puzzle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1506.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 11:36:07*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that a star never ends as an internal implosion/explosion event, but slowly cools and dies. Reasoning is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[45] **viXra:1506.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 08:17:23*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Measurements of Newton’s gravitational constant G have yielded inconsistencies suggesting that variations in measurements of G are correlated with Length Of Day (LOD). In 2007 Anderson et al. published an empirical formula that accurately described the flyby anomaly for 6 flybys of Earth. There might be one or more phenomena that explain the flyby anomaly and the inconsistencies in measurements of G. A better understanding of Milgrom’s MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) might be essential for improving measurements of ∆G/G from 2 * 10^-4 to 5 * 10^-5 — in other words, if metrologists ignore MOND they cannot improve estimates of ∆G/G by order-of-magnitude from the present measurements, because MOND implies Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is slightly wrong. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might explain problems with measurements of G.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1506.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 05:02:36*

**Authors:** J. Yun

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper offers a concise proof of Beal’s conjecture using the identity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[43] **viXra:1506.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 05:04:27*

**Authors:** J. Yun

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper offers a plain proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem using the cosine rule.

**Category:** Number Theory

[42] **viXra:1506.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 05:11:43*

**Authors:** J. Yun

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper offers a plain proof of Beal’s conjecture using the cosine rule.

**Category:** Number Theory

[41] **viXra:1506.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 23:03:54*

**Authors:** Zhiqiang Zhang

**Comments:** 29 Pages. in English

In this paper, at first seven primary questions about universal gravitation are put forward as follows:
Question No.1 Does universal gravitation pass on via gravitational energies? If it does, then what’s the formula to describe spreading of gravitational energies?
Question No.2 How do gravitational energies give rise to gravitation?
Question No.3 Given universal gravitation passes on through gravitational energies, then what is medium for spreading of gravitational energies?
Question No.4 Do gravitational energies possess quantized nature？If they have, then what is quanta of gravitational energies?
Question No.5 Given gravitational energies spread in form of waves, then do wave lengths of gravitational energies distribute themselves within an certain wave band? or just have an common wave length? If only having an common wave length, then how long is it?
Question No.6 Why is universal gravitation attractive instead of repulsive?
Question No.7 Why couldn’t all of matters shield off universal gravitation?
and then, answers to them are made respectively one by one based on TCST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:1506.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-16 05:14:59*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This new theory of astrophysics proves that unified matter of coupled superstrings created a supercavity previously thought to be a black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the macroscale density of space and not the microscale density of matter should be examined. What was previously conceived as a “black hole” is a self-gravitating tori disc – a cosmic supercollider of doubly elliptic strings manifold, and this explains the origin of relativistic jets from magnetized accretion disks, as elaborated in this article.
In re: the California Institute of Technology in the US came up with a physical model that could explain the existence of the asymmetry in terms of a very large-scale variation in the density of the universe that is observable on a particular distance scale – one which is slightly larger than the size of the observable universe. Accordingly, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin self-gravitating accretion discs by twin superstrings in gauge/gravity duality, where at D = 26 the string dynamics is that of harmonic oscillators, as was predicted earlier by dual theorists. Hence, our new cosmic model is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[39] **viXra:1506.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 03:24:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12]
A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[38] **viXra:1506.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-15 13:16:12*

**Authors:** Jan Pavo Barukčić, Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 11 Pages. (C) Jan Pavo Barukčić, Münster and Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015/2016. PUBLISHED April 2016 BY: Journal of Applied Physics and Mathematics vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 686-696. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.44085

Today, the division of zero by zero (0/0) is a concept in philosophy, mathematics and physics without a definite solution. On this view, we are left with an inadequate and unsatisfactory situation that we are not allowed to divide zero by zero while the need to divide zero by zero (i. e. divide a tensor component which is equal to zero by another tensor component which is equal to zero) is great. A solution of the philosophically, logically, mathematically and physically far reaching problem of the division of zero by zero (0/0) is still not in sight. The aim of this contribution is to solve the problem of the division of zero by zero (0/0) while relying on Einstein's theory of special relativity. In last consequence, Einstein's theory of special relativity demands the division of zero by zero. Due to Einstein's theory of special relativity it is (0/0) = 1. As we will see, either we must accept the division of zero by zero as possible and defined or we must abandon Einstein's theory of special relativity as refuted.

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1506.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 15:16:07*

**Authors:** Marek Kurpiewski

**Comments:** 5 pages, license: CC BY-SA

Rotation curves of spiral galaxies for baryonic masses, which are inconsistent with the law of gravity, constitute one of the pillars of the dark matter concept. This publication shows that the effects attributed to the influence of dark matter in spiral galaxies, are extremely similar to effects of a certain physical mechanism, which has been noticed during the analysis of this problem.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[36] **viXra:1506.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 06:54:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1506.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 03:56:39*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Field-theoretical arguments are advanced which question the validity of the theory of General Relativity. In particular, we expect that retardation effects will substantially modify it's result for the perihelion shift of Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1506.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 04:02:24*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is a suggestion for an experiment for fusion of heavy hydrogen, or deuterium, near absolute zero temperature. The idea is to create a sphere of free electrons with deuterium confined at the center. Disregarding for a moment conventional theories, the deuteron may be taken to be a simple configuration of p-e-p . Through physics yet unknown, a deuterium atom may collapse with its atomic electron forced to merge with its nucleus to form a neutral, but unstable, “ionized” nucleus of p-e-p-e. Being neutral, two such pepe are free to get very close to each other. When it happens, a stable configuration is preferred and this may favor leaving behind a helium nucleus by expelling two electrons. Thus fusion of heavy hydrogen to helium is achieved.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[33] **viXra:1506.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 21:36:38*

**Authors:** Md Mostafizur Rahman, Elias Khalil, Md Solaiman, Ahmad Mubarak, Joy Sarkar, Faisal Abedin, A H M Asif Kamal, Rajib Al Mamun

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper represents an approach to observe the physico-chemical effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) applied on 100% cotton woven fabric. Cotton fabric was treated with TiO 2 by exhaustion method and followed by necessary curing and washing processes. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, pH and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were examined. It was found that titanium dioxide impairs the hand feel and absorbency of 100% cotton woven fabrics, wetting time of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the tensile strength of 100% cotton woven fabrics. The treatment with titanium dioxide also kept the pH of the fabric in acidic medium.

**Category:** Chemistry

[32] **viXra:1506.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 21:39:46*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Garments washing is one of the most important finishing treatments applied on apparels which have vital use to create special outlooks and improving the fashion. Technologically washing is one of the most important fashion elements for clothing industry and production of washed garments depends on the machine quality. In order to achieve an optimum effect of washing process, on the woven fabric in different washing time, Enzyme Wash and then Silicone wash were carried out for cotton fabric. However, there are some of the comments that when the garments have longer washing time, use of the chemical on the washing procedure will affect the physical and mechanical performance. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of industrial enzyme silicone wash combined with silicone wash. For this study currently fashionable regular Non-denim (100% cotton with twill 3/1 weave construction) trouser was chosen. The selected Non-denim trouser has been processed by enzyme and then silicone wash. In order to evaluate the washing effects on Non-denim trouser, changes of fabric handle, fabric specification (ends/inch, picks/inch, surface density, warp & weft yarn linear density), fabric strength has been determined during and after washing.

**Category:** Chemistry

[31] **viXra:1506.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 22:13:29*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Incorrect comprehension of the Scientific Sanskrit term Duk:ha (stress) has led humanity to incorrectly grasp ancient Vedic Science. Even Gautama Buddha apparently failed to understand this term, and so based his religion on this misunderstanding, which is the philosophical foundation for the Four Noble Truths and the Middle Way. This paper corrects the error, based on Scientific Sanskrit and Vedic Nuclear Physics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[30] **viXra:1506.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:33:11*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil, Md. Solaiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The physical and mechanical properties of knitted fabric can be changed due to use of various count of yarn, type of yarn (ring, rotor, and compact), quality of yarn, stitch length / loop length, structural geometry, fiber composition of yarn etc. This study focused on the various stitch length effect of grey single jersey. With an increase in stitch length, the dimensional properties like CPI, WPI, GSM, thickness & tightness factor will be decreased for all the structures; while comfort properties like air permeability & water absorbency will be increased. Again shrinkage & spirality will be decreased with increased stitch length at grey stage. Other properties such as bursting strength, abrasion resistance & pilling resistance improved with increased stitch length. Though all the tests for fabric properties were carried out for grey stage, there properties can considerably vary after further finishing of the fabrics. As finishing is mandatory for fabric production, so now-a-days, these kinds of tests are carried out after finishing stage & proper controlling is done according to desired quality. Sometimes, controlling of some properties of finished fabrics are beyond our trial. In that case, analysis of fabric properties at grey stage can help us to take various control & corrective actions when necessary.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[29] **viXra:1506.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:35:40*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Phase change materials or PCMs are compounds which store and release latent heat by changing chemical bonds through a phase alteration. These materials absorb energy during the heating and release energy to the surroundings through a reverse cooling process. The integration of PCM in textiles by coating, encapsulation or any other means has grown concentration to the scientist. In this paper; characteristics, classification, working principle of PCMs and its versatile application in textiles are mainly discussed.

**Category:** Chemistry

[28] **viXra:1506.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:37:27*

**Authors:** Md. Solaiman, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The use of enzymes in the textile chemical processing is rapidly gaining globally recognition because of their non-toxic and eco-friendly characteristics with the increasingly important requirements for textile manufactures to reduce pollution in textile production. Furthermore, the use of enzymes results in reduced process times, energy and water savings, improved product quality and potential process integration. Variation of knit fabric and enzyme concentration is taken to do this project. The aim is to know the effect of enzyme concentration on the physical properties of knit garments of various constructions. In this project 0.4 g/l and 0.5g/l enzyme concentration is taken to wash Single Jersey and Rib fabric. Then to see the effect of enzyme concentration on the physical properties of Single Jersey and Rib fabric some tests like GSM, Bursting strength,Dimensional Stability and Pilling are done. The results of before and after enzyme wash is compared to know the effect of concentration of enzyme on the physical properties of Single Jersey and Rib fabric. After enzyme wash GSM of the fabric increases, Dimensional Stability and Bursting strength decreases and pilling formation on the fabric surface also decreases.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[27] **viXra:1506.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:39:11*

**Authors:** Faisal Abedin, K. M. Maniruzzaman, Ahmad Saquib Sina, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper deals with the results of an investigation of various gauges of circular knitting machines with a view to producing same single jersey fabric with different parameters. All parameters including machine diameter, stitch length, yarn count, yarn lot, yarn tension etc. but gauges are used for this work is different. Even dyeing has been done at the same time on the same machine by stitching one with other, finishing parameters and processes are also same and done at same time as well to minimize the effects of other variable which can be responsible for changing the physical and mechanical properties like finished width of the fabric, finished GSM (Grams per Square Meter), shrinkage, spirality, bursting strength etc. This is done for finding only the effects which actually affects the fabric properties. Finally the findings or results are as expected with some variations with the results that are thought theoretically.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[26] **viXra:1506.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:40:29*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Dye-house water quality is the most important parameter to be confirmed before dyeing; precisely the presence of metal content i.e. Hardness. This research will investigate & analyses the impact of separate hardness (i.e. Calcium, Magnesium & Iron) on particular "Turquoise" (C.I. Reactive Blue 21) & a "High Exhaustion" class (C.I. HE Red 120, C.I. HE Yellow 84) of Reactive dye on cotton knitted-fabric. From evaluation of dyed fabric the range of metal content is sorted out where the quality starts to fluctuate as distinctive visible & spectral change of shade & fixation rate of the dye molecules has been found. The result of the work will help for further projection about water quality degradation in upcoming years & its effect on dyeing behavior, also the sustainability of present dyeing process to cope with the ever degrading quality of water.

**Category:** Chemistry

[25] **viXra:1506.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:41:47*

**Authors:** Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Garments washing is a novel process to impart worn-out look, to modify the appearance and to improve the comfort ability of the garments. Bleach wash is used to fade the color of denim in a higher degree as well as bleach wash has effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the denim also. This paper presents the impact of bleach wash and subsequent softening treatment on 100% cotton denim dyed with indigo dye. Garments were washed using a bleach concentration of 10 g/l for 30 minutes in 50oC temperature and then softened using standard recipe. The physical, mechanical and color properties were analyzed in before wash, after desizing, after bleaching and after softening. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color fading. Bleach washed and softened garments exhibit a great difference in the physical, mechanical and color properties than the unwashed garments

**Category:** Chemistry

[24] **viXra:1506.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:43:09*

**Authors:** Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) is a white, water insoluble pigment. It is used in paints, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Its main application on textile materials as an ultraviolet ray protecting agents. Titanium dioxide can reflect, scatter or absorb ultraviolet ray. Besides Titanium dioxide also modify the properties of fabrics. In previous research, titanium dioxide was applied mainly by padding mangle method. This paper presents an approach to observe the effect of titanium dioxide treatment 100% cotton knitted (plain jersey) fabric applied by exhaustion method followed by curing and washing. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, p H value and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were checked. It is found that titanium dioxide impairs the better hand feel and absorbency (wetting time) of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the strength and keeps the p H of the fabric in acidic medium

**Category:** Chemistry

[23] **viXra:1506.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:44:43*

**Authors:** Md Solaiman, Elias Khalil, Mostafizur Rahman, Joy Sarkar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This thesis deals with a major problem of production loss of a knitting industry. The knitting machine has to stop when defects occurred and then faults are corrected, which results in time loss and efficiency loss. Not only that the knitted fabric may be rejected if quality requirements are not met. An effective monitoring is required to avoid defects and to avoid productivity and quality losses. The study identifies two main categories of defects (average time required for correcting defects and machine down time) are responsible for reducing productivity. The thesis reflects that due to yarn breakage machine stopped for seen minutes per days, for maintaining machine stopped for two hours per month, for needle breakage six minutes per day and for technical problem machine stopped for several times

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22] **viXra:1506.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:46:17*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil, Md Solaiman, Joy Sarkar, Md Mostafizur Rahman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Physico-Mechanical properties of knitted fabric can be changed due to use of various count of yarn, type of yarn (ring, rotor, and compact), quality of yarn, Loop length / Stitch length, structural geometry, fibre composition of yarn etc. This study focused on the various Loop length effect of grey interlock knit structure. With an increase in Loop length, the dimensional properties like CPI, WPI, GSM, thickness & tightness factor will be decreased; while comfort properties like air permeability & water absorbency will be increased. Again shrinkage & spirality will be decreased with increased Loop length at grey stage. Other properties such as bursting strength, abrasion resistance & pilling resistance improved with increased Loop length. Though all the tests for fabric properties were carried out for grey stage, there properties can considerably vary after further finishing of the fabrics. As finishing is mandatory for fabric production, so now-a-days, these kinds of tests are carried out after finishing stage & proper controlling is done according desired quality. Sometimes, controlling of some properties of finished fabrics are beyond our trial. In that case, analysis of fabric properties at grey stage can help us to take various control & corrective actions when necessary.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1506.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:47:55*

**Authors:** Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Md. Mazedul Islam, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol series reactive dyes adopting exhaust dyeing method was investigated. The effluents collected for investigating the ecological parameters include chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and alkalinity. The results show that the use of the low impact reactive dyes has greater ecological advantages as it reduces the COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, p H values and increases the DO values of effluents. Organic cotton itself being eco-friendly along with Remazol series sustainable dyes provides the better ecological results. Hence, the results indicated that wet processing of organic cotton knitted fabric with eco-friendly and low impact reactive dyes provide better ecological advantages.

**Category:** Chemistry

[20] **viXra:1506.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:49:33*

**Authors:** Md Mazedul Islam, Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Wet processing treatment plays an important role in the physico-mechanical properties of finished apparel products. This paper presents an investigated result of enzymatic scouring and eco-friendly remazol reactive dyes treatment on the physical properties of finished T-shirt product. 100 % organic cotton single jersey knitted grey fabric having 160 gsm was considered. To investigate the selected physical characteristics of the finished organic cotton T-shirt, the eco-friendly enzymatic scouring with Prima Green Eco scour, Prima Fast Gold RSL and remazol ultra RGBN series reactive dyed treatment were performed following standard recipe. Selected physical properties namely washing fastness, bursting strength, fabric drapability, color fastness to rubbing, perspiration and absorption have been investigated for the newly developed organic cotton T-shirt that showed better results in terms of quality. Hence, it can be concluded that by selecting eco-friendly materials like organic cotton and chemical processing treatment, it is possible to develop finished T-shirt products with improved physical properties.

**Category:** Chemistry

[19] **viXra:1506.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 11:50:58*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil, Md. Mazedul Islam

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nowadays, fashion in clothing is unimaginable without denim garment with a numerous effect. Various types of dry and wet process are used to make these effect. In this article, 3D/crinkle effect by creating wrinkles on the denim garments preceded by resin application is discussed. This effect gives vintage look as well as add value to the garments though having possibility of decreasing tearing strength.

**Category:** Chemistry

[18] **viXra:1506.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 08:03:32*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Protection against harmful chemical materials is compulsory in many aspects of everyday life. Proper and adequate protective clothing is desirable during household chores and in industrial, agricultural, and medical work, during military operations; and in response to incidents of terrorism. Different types of materials and garment designs are used in these clothing items, and protection levels vary considerably. Selections must be made as to which items of protective clothing to select for a given situation or environment. Variables to be considered include weight, comfort, level of protection, and the duration of protection required. In addition, the nature of the challenges to be encountered is also of signiﬁcant concern. Due to the huge number of variables involved, numerous levels and types of chemical protective clothing systems has been technologically developed.

**Category:** Chemistry

[17] **viXra:1506.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-04 08:13:21*

**Authors:** Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil, Md. Solaiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Garments washing is being used as a novel process to modify the appearance, to impart worn-out look and to improve the comfort ability of the garments, especially denim garments. Enzyme washing of denim garments helps in bio-polishing and to fade the color of the denim to a desired degree depending on the processing time and conditions. Adding pumice stone with the enzyme extends the degree of fading and adds special effect in the multi ply areas like different seams and hems. This paper presents the impact of enzyme-pumice stone combined treatment on 100% cotton denim. Garments were washed using an enzyme concentration of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l for 40 minutes in 55°C temperature with addition of 0.5 owg (On the weight of garments) pumice stone. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated denims were analyzed using standard test methods. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color shade. Enzyme-stone washed garments exhibit a great difference in the physical and mechanical properties than the unwashed garments.

**Category:** Chemistry

[16] **viXra:1506.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 01:44:51*

**Authors:** Carlos Oscar Rodriguez Leal

**Comments:** Pages: 25. Languaje. Spanish.

In this paper several existing numerical methods of solution of ordinary differential equations of first order with initial conditions are modified, so that they can be generalized as methods of solution of ordinary differential equations of order n, according to the theory.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[15] **viXra:1506.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 22:11:28*

**Authors:** Md. Mazharul Islam, Md. Tanjim Hossain, Mohammad Abdul Jalil, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this modern world, fashion & styles are changing frequently. The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to shorten production cycle time in the garment industry. To meet the dynamic customer demands of momentous quantities in shorten lead time, assembly line production systems are used, where the garment components are assembled into a finished garment through a sub-assembly process. So in the era of product customization, the optimal usage of resources especially the available facilities & operators who are adding the value of product is important. Therefore the assembly line has to be planned in much more flexible way. This paper deals with the maximum utilization of manpower in labor intensive assembly lines. The objective is to accurately delegate workers to the various operations required to complete the product based on their skill & experience so as to achieve the highest level of productivity and delivery as per planned target. The experimental result showed meaningful improvement in productivity as compared to the existing system.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14] **viXra:1506.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-22 03:23:05*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Spanish

The first serious attempt by Einstein to construct a unified field theory was developed during the year 1923 when he published several articles on the purely affine theory which was quickly forgotten. In the next two years, Einstein continued working in this field and the result was a metric-affine theory published in 1925 and which we present in this article. We continue the investigation of Einstein detailing all subsequent calculations and adding contributions from other authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1506.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-07 10:03:11*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Can General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics emerge from a model where the Universe is represented as a four dimensional elastic media comprised of energy density and particles are travelling wave and standing wave solutions to a second order hyperbolic partial differential equation that provides shear wave, compression wave, and surface wave solutions to the differential equation that evolve in time? Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are the two principle theories of modern physics and both work extremely well in its realm of use. However, the theories appear to be incompatible. String Theory and Quantum Loop Gravity have been proposed as means of unifying Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity, but neither has been successful at recreating the results of both theories or of providing new predictions. The model exactly reproduces the geodesic paths of General Relativity, explains how forces work, provides a framework for Quantum Mechanics, and makes useful predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1506.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 08:41:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1506.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 04:04:45*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper let us consider the general law of motion with regard to two particular fields of force with central symmetry: the static gravitational field for massive systems and the electrostatic field for charged systems. The general law of motion in both cases is defined by a linear differential equation of the first order with respect to the speed and by a linear differential equation of the second order with respect to position. The solution of the motion law is researched here whether when prospective external resistences to motion are neglected or when those resistant forces, due to the resistence of medium where motion happens, are actually present. Besides we will consider the variation of mass with the speed relative to those physical systems that present this characteristic during motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1506.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-02 10:51:16*

**Authors:** Irsen Virnoy

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A solution for the P versus NP problem.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9] **viXra:1506.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-02 08:19:52*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Will try to make it an entry into a conference

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto This is a gateway to bringing up information and computational steps ( as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be available initially due to a modified ZPE formalism. The ZPE formalism is modified as due to Matt Visser’s alternation of k (maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law. The settings of these parameters depend upon NLED.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1506.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-02 09:08:28*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Windra Yusman, Sudjati Rachmat

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 4 figures, 10 tables

Advancement of implementation of single fluid volume element (SFVE) method in geothermal well application is presented in this work. Static pressure-depth profile is changed to dynamic one by implementing Hagedorn-Brown correlation method, which takes into account effects of acceleration, elevation, and friction in pressure depth calculation. Two-phase flow influences in mass flow, velocity, enthalpy, and density of flow are also considered.

**Category:** Geophysics

[7] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-30 21:49:34*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Refuted on arXiv

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that the Callen-Welton derivation has conceptual errors such as neglecting phonon scattering, disregarding the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and using bosonic (linear oscillator) energies leading to the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers. Experiments that failed to see the zero-point noise term are also mentioned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1506.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 12:48:29*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

The Superorganisms of history, nations and civilizations, as all social, 'cellular systems', have an energetic, reproductive and informative network that organize its 'human cells'. The energetic network is Gaia, planet Earth, the re=productive network is the economic system, and the informative, 'nervous' network is the verbal language.
We thus can study verbal languages with the tools of Complex Sciences, and the formalism of 10 Dimensional systems, to understand its structure and purpose.
That purpose is obvious. As nervous messages coordinate the collective actions of the cells of the body, collective human actions are created with wor(l)ds, verbal languages of information that order a community of human beings into a social network of common values and actions that create the nation or civilization.
Thus, it follows that the highest expression of those words that create human worlds are the Law, in its religious or civil form.
Yet we can do more detailed analysis of words in other scalar levels and from other point of view.
For example we can study i->i+1 relationships, considering how the i-level of words as a language that reflects the Universe in its syntax and semantics influences the i+1 level of cultures. How for example the use of I, the subject, at the beginning of sentences in English creates and ego-centered, free, egoist psyche, proper of the Anglo-Saxon culture where social ethics are foreign to its syntax.
This article concentrates not so much on ethics but on linguistics, specifically on the influence of syntax on culture. We shall find that 'topology', the order between subject, verb and object, according to the Universal Grammar, is the main defining element of linguistics that organizes the psyche of cultures.
In this manner, we fusion thanks to the discoveries of complexity sciences the 2 main thesis of linguistics, genetic linguistics (chomsky) and the Humboldt Hypothesis.

**Category:** Linguistics

[5] **viXra:1506.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 13:34:31*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Shifting the frequency of a spectral line to a frequency bin of the FFT and omitting the window function improves significantly the frequency resolution. The algorithm works without zero padding and is applicable even with bad SNR.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[4] **viXra:1506.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 13:44:49*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the second part of the quantum gravitational formulation of
Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper presents another plausible solution to the problem
of length contraction introduced in Part I.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1506.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 13:13:34*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.

**Category:** Chemistry

[2] **viXra:1506.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 11:20:32*

**Authors:** Doug Marett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the introduction of fiber optic gyroscope in the late 1970’s 1, the need for accurate inertial navigational instruments has driven the evolution of the device into complex open or closed loop designs manufactured with expensive polarization maintaining fibers and fused fiber optic elements. Our goal herein is to describe a novel fiber optic Sagnac interferometer design made with readily available single mode (SM) components. The device utilizes a unique manual phase control method based on a single paddle fiber optic loop. This method allows the interferometer to be manually adjusted to the anti-phase condition prior to any measurements. Also described is the implementation of a wireless data logger whose output can be displayed in Excel. Since the output voltage verses rotation rate is not linear, we further develop an equation predicting the expected voltage output verses angular velocity which matches a physical model of the superimposition of the counter-propagating waves at the photo-detector. We demonstrate a lack of Doppler shift in the rotating frame consistent with a classical explanation of the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1506.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 07:04:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantizing gravity is an important goal of contemporary physics, but after decades of effort it’s proven to be an extremely tough nut to crack. So it’s worth considering a very slight shift of emphasis. What if the right strategy is not “finding the right theory of gravity and quantizing it,” but “finding a quantum theory out of which gravity emerges”? [8]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory