[76] **viXra:1202.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-12 15:30:18*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Made corrections and added paragraph about prediction-correction.

The goal of this paper is to describe how to implement a pseudo-random number generator by using deterministic n-body dynamics on the unit m-sphere. Throughout this paper we identify several types of patterns in dynamics, along with ways to
interrupt the formation of these patterns.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[75] **viXra:1202.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-04 06:11:53*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Removed a duplicated figure in version 2.

The symmetry group of the 18-j(H) Wigner symbol is restructured by splitting two symmetry
equations (Yutsis et al. 1962) into three generators. The symmetry groups of two 21-j Wigner
symbols (Ponzano 1965) are complemented to form groups of order 8. This summarizes systematic
evaluation of the automorphisms of the associated simple cubic graphs with McKay’s nauty program.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1202.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-29 08:49:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In 2006, a NASA team with Alan Kogut as principal investigator used a balloon-borne radiometer named ARCADE to measure the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at centimeter wavelengths. ARCADE searched the sky for faint traces of heat from first generation stars in the very early universe, but ARCADE found a pervasive electromagnetic noise about 6 times louder than predicted. The NASA team named this pervasive electromagnetic noise “the space roar.” Highly speculative hypotheses based upon the failure of Einstein’s equivalence principle for virtual mass-energy might yield a way of testing the hypothesis that nature is finite and digital. The finite nature hypothesis might yield a Space Roar Profile Prediction suitable for empirical tests.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[73] **viXra:1202.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-29 03:12:02*

**Authors:** Diego Meschini

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Published in Foundations of Science, 12, 277-294, 2007.

The relevance of the Planck scale to a theory of quantum gravity has become a worryingly little examined assumption that goes unchallenged in the majority of research in this area. However, in all scientific honesty, the significance of Planck's natural units in a future physical theory of spacetime is only a plausible, yet by no means certain, assumption. The purpose of this article is to clearly separate fact from belief in this connection.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] **viXra:1202.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-29 03:26:28*

**Authors:** Diego Meschini, Markku Lehto

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Published in Foundations of Physics, 36, 1193-1216, 2006.

This article deals with empty spacetime and the question of its physical reality. By "empty spacetime" we mean a collection of bare spacetime points, the remains of ridding spacetime of all matter and fields. We ask whether these geometric objects -- themselves intrinsic to the concept of field -- might be observable through some physical test. By taking quantum-mechanical notions into account, we challenge the negative conclusion drawn from the diffeomorphism invariance postulate of general relativity, and we propose new foundational ideas regarding the possible observation -- as well as conceptual overthrow -- of this geometric ether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1202.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-29 03:37:29*

**Authors:** Diego Meschini, Markku Lehto, Johanna Piilonen

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Published in Stud. in Hist. and Phil. of Mod. Phys., 36, 435-464, 2005.

This article explores the overall geometric manner in which human beings make sense of the world around them by means of their physical theories; in particular, in what are nowadays called pregeometric pictures of Nature. In these, the pseudo-Riemannian manifold of general relativity is considered a flawed description of spacetime and it is attempted to replace it by theoretical constructs of a different character, ontologically prior to it. However, despite its claims to the contrary, pregeometry is found to surreptitiously and unavoidably fall prey to the very mode of description it endeavours to evade, as evidenced in its all-pervading geometric understanding of the world. The question remains as to the deeper reasons for this human, geometric predilection--present, as a matter of fact, in all of physics--and as to whether it might need to be superseded in order to achieve the goals that frontier theoretical physics sets itself at the dawn of a new century: a sounder comprehension of the physical meaning of empty spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[70] **viXra:1202.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-29 04:00:51*

**Authors:** Nikiforos A. Sideris

**Comments:** 166 Pages.

In this Paper, the Newtonian Law of Gravitation is derived from first principles, something that was suggested by Richard Feinman.
Also some fallacies of general relativity are discussed and the four tests of this "celebrated" theory are derived more accurately by the present theory of the Author.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1202.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-03 23:45:52*

**Authors:** Song Wen Miao

**Comments:** 3 Pages. CHINESE

ALL EYES ARE ON FERMAT LAST THEOREM WHO PROVED FORST

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1202.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-28 04:04:30*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We explore some properties of generalized Fermat primes of the form : F_n(2q)=(2q)^(2^n)+1 , where n > 1 and q is an odd prime number .

**Category:** Number Theory

[67] **viXra:1202.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-28 05:06:39*

**Authors:** Diego Meschini

**Comments:** 285 Pages. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 2008.

An enquiry into the physical nature of time and space and into the ontology of quantum mechanics from a metageometric perspective, resulting from the belief that geometric thought and language are powerless to farther understanding of these issues, restricting instead physical progress.

The nature and assumptions of quantum gravity are analysed critically, including misgivings about the relevance of the Planck scale to it and its lack of observational referent in the natural world.

The anthropic foundations of geometry are investigated. The exclusive use of geometric thought from antiquity to present-day physics is found to permeate all new attempts towards better theories, including quantum gravity and, within it, even pregeometry.

The problem of the ether is found to have perpetuated itself up to the present by transmuting its form from mechanical, through metric, to geometric.

A clarification is made of the physical, mathematical, and psychological foundations of relativity and quantum theories. The former is founded geometrically on measurement-based clock-reading separations ds. The latter is founded metageometrically on the experiment-based concepts of premeasurement and transition things, inspired in the physically unexplored aspect of time as a consciousness-related product. A concept of metageometric time is developed and coordinate time t is recovered from it. Discovery of the connection between quantum-mechanical metageometric time elements and general-relativistic clock time elements ds is deemed necessary for a combined understanding of time.

Time is conjectured to be the missing link between general relativity and quantum mechanics.

[66] **viXra:1202.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 09:23:44*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In September 2011, OPERA researchers observed muon neutrinos that seemed to travel faster than the speed of light, but in February 2012, re-analysis suggested that a loose fiber optic cable might have caused the problem.
The explanation of the OPERA neutrino anomaly might have 3 alternatives:
(1) There are one or more serious experimental errors.
(2) Quantum field theory is slightly wrong.
(3) General relativity theory is slightly wrong.
Is alternative (3) known to be true? Overwhelming empirical evidence shows that Milgrom is the Kepler of modern cosmology. Combination of the ideas of Fernández-Rañada and Milgrom might explain the OPERA neutrino anomaly, because the GPS timing differs slightly from the predictions of general relativity theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1202.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 11:42:01*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Having defined the mass distribution in black hole interiors in an earlier paper, thought is now given to the contribution of photons to the structure, with a definite conclusion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1202.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 12:12:06*

**Authors:** Hu Chang-Wei

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

真空不空，奥妙无穷。称真空态物质为以太，它好比Smarandache教授所说的Unmatter 或Unparticles。说明和探讨了以太的宏观效应，微观表现和宇观作用。绝对时空是最基本的时空，在这里，以太是可压缩的超流体，如果以太均匀分布，就没有实物粒子，因为，实物的质心是以太密度的极大值点。以太密度的变化，会引起现实的时空标准的变化，从而导致了定量效应，这包括相对论性效应和量子效应等等。相对论是以光作为时空衡量标准的一种定量描述理论，在这里，以太的分布永远是处处均匀，各向一致的，这就是所谓的洛伦兹对称性，它只是一种可行的数学模型，对超光速是无效的。引力场是以太密度波包，它的作用不是无限的。在星系、星系团的世界里，以太的宇观作用，将超过并达到引力作用的10倍左右。因此，不能只用引力场方程来描述宇宙。书中运用了Smarandache教授提出的方法论和有关概念，描绘了相对论、宏观物理学、区间场论和无穷阶等级式宇宙学的Smarandache几何模型。
The vacuum is not void, there is infinite mysteries in it. The matter in vacuum state is called the ether, which is like the unmatter or unparticles called by Prof. Smarandache. Its macroscopic effects, microscopic representation and mucroscopic interaction are explained and researched. The absolute space-time theory is a most basic space-time theory, where the ether is a compressible superfluid, it is without a real particle if the distribution of ether is homogeneous because a mass center is the point of maximal value of the ether density. A change in the ether density causes a change in the actual space-time standard, and thus leads up to quantitative effects, which include the effects of relativity and quantum etc.. The relativity is a theory of quantitative description, where the distribution of ether is always homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, which is just so-called Lorentz symmetry, and it is only a practicable mathematical model, it is not applicable to faster than light velocity. The gravitational field is a ether density wave-packet, whose interaction is not infinite. The mucroscopic interaction of ether will surpass gravitational interaction and is about ten time of it, so that describing cosmos can not use only the gravitational field equation. The methodology and related concepts proposed by Prof. Smarandache are applied, and Smarandache geometry models of relativity, macro-physics, interval field theory and infinite order and hierarchical cosmology are described in this book.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1202.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-26 15:12:46*

**Authors:** Ion Maldarescu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

În anul 1972, profesorul Florentin Smarandache de la Universitatea din New Mexico prezentase o ipoteză prin care susţinea că nu există barieră a vitezei în univers şi că se pot construi viteze arbitrare.
Autorul îl contrazice din nou pe Einstein construind prin calcule matematice simple o
Teorie Absolută a Relativităţii (T.A.R.), fara anomalii precum dilatare de timp, contractare de spatiu, sau paradoxuri relativiste.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1202.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 01:17:08*

**Authors:** Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 12 Pages. http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.4862

We build unbounded classes of plane and projective plane multiwheels that are 4-critical that are received summing odd
wheels as edge sums modulo two. These classes can be considered as ascending from single common graph that can be received
as edge sum modulo two of the octahedron graph O and the minimal wheel W3. All graphs of these classes belong to
2n - 2-edges-class of graphs, among which are those that quadrangulate projective plane, i.e., graphs from Groetzsch
class, received applying Mycielski's Construction to odd cycle.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[61] **viXra:1202.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 01:23:06*

**Authors:** Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Full version of paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.4862

We build unbounded classes of plane and projective plane multiwheels that are 4-critical that are received summing odd wheels as edge sums modulo two. These classes can be considered as ascending from single common graph that can be received as edge sum modulo two of the octahedron graph O and the minimal wheel W_3.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[60] **viXra:1202.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-24 14:46:48*

**Authors:** Gregory Chaitin

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper we present an information-theoretic analysis of Darwin's theory of evolution, modeled as a hill-climbing algorithm on a fitness landscape. Our space of possible organisms consists of computer programs, which are subjected to random mutations. We study the random walk of increasing fitness made by a single mutating organism. In two different models we are able to show that evolution will occur and to characterize the rate of evolutionary progress, i.e., the rate of biological creativity.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[59] **viXra:1202.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-25 01:52:59*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Information being a relatively new concept in science, the likelihood is pointed out that we do not yet have a good enough grasp of its nature and relevance. This likelihood is further enhanced by the ubiquitous use of information which creates the perception of a manifest, yet in fact, rather superficial familiarity. The paper suggests several aspects which may be essential features of information, or on the contrary, may not be so. In this regard, further studies are obviously needed, studies which may have to avoid with care various temptations to reductionism, like for instance the one claiming that ``information is physical".

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[58] **viXra:1202.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-23 16:31:23*

**Authors:** W. Newtspeare

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The wisest of the Ancient Greek philosophers realised that ultimately the universe could only be composed of identical indivisible spheres; and Squish Theory extends this idea with the concept of compressible spacebubbles. In a universe composed only of spacebubbles, all mass/energy must be a compression of the spacebubbles, so particles can only be made of squashed spacebubbles which are spinning either clockwise or anticlockwise. It therefore follows that in physics terms, particles can only be composed of collections of positive and negative charges, as in positrons and electrons.
The reasoning behind this conclusion is largely philosophical and cosmological, but is not discussed in this paper. Rather what the paper does is examine the difference in mass between particles of similar size, in order to show that the theory is consistent with existing data; and to determine the binding energies of charges inside particles, and on the surface of particles. It then shows that the values deduced are consistent with the idea that a neutron is a proton with 3 extra charges on its surface; and also that the binding energies of simple atomic nuclei can be predicted on the basis of the interactions between charges on the surface of nucleons. Of course there is not sufficient accurate data on particle masses, to show conclusively that they must be collections of charges; if there had have been, then clearly somebody would have already noticed the pattern; however the pattern is certainly strong enough to warrant further testing.
The major problem for this theory, is that the standard model has taken root, and in these highly religiosised times, physicists have a religious duty to condemn all new ideas as crackpot. However we do not even need to scratch the surface of the standard model to see that it is untenable, as a universe composed of so many ‘elementary’ particles would not merely have required a separate creator, but one of severely impaired intellect, a hypothesis nobody has ever suggested. On top of this, of the major actors in the drama, the dozens of quarks and anti-quarks, none have actually been directly measured for either mass or charge; and even those ‘elementary’ particles which do actually exist, such as muons, are clearly composed of something else otherwise they would not spontaneous disintegrate. In Squish Theory there is no such problem, as all particles are merely composed of pairs of charges, which can unravel in the same way as electron/positron pairs; so the only unbreakable particles must be electrons and positrons, which can only unravel if they meet their Nemesis.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[57] **viXra:1202.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-04 04:05:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently it was experimentally shown that the DNA genetic information can be transmitted into water when the DNA and the water are subjected jointly to an electromagnetic field with 7Hz frequency. As announced, the reported phenomenon could allow developing highly sensitive detection systems for chronic bacterial and viral infections. Here, it is shown a possible explanation for the phenomenon based on the recent framework of Quantum Gravity. It is shown that, if volume of water with a DNA molecule is placed near another volume of pure water, and the gravitational masses of the two water volumes are simultaneously reduced to values in the range + 0.159mi0 to 0.159mi0, by means of electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequency (ELF), then the DNA genetic information are transmitted to pure water, imprinting onto it the structure of the DNA molecule. After several hours, as final result, a replication of the DNA can arise in the pure water.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[56] **viXra:1202.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-19 03:39:21*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Since the emergence of quantum theory just over a century ago every model for the hydrogen atom that has been developed incorporates the same basic assumption. From Niels Bohr through de Broglie and Schrödinger up to and including the Standard Model all such theories are based on an assumption put forward by John Nicholson. Nicholson was the first to recognise that the units of Planck’s constant were the same as those of angular momentum and so he reasoned that perhaps Planck’s constant was a measure of the angular momentum of the orbiting electron. But Nicholson went one step further and argued that the angular momentum of the orbiting electron could take on values which were an integer multiple of Planck’s constant. This allowed Bohr to develop a model in which the differences between the energy levels matched those of the empirically developed Rydberg formula. When the Bohr model was superseded Nicholson’s assumption was simply carried forward unchallenged into these later models.
The main problem with Nicholson’s assumption is that it lacks any mathematical rigour. It simply takes one variable, angular momentum, and asserts that if we allow it to have this characteristic quantisation then we get energy levels which appear to be correct. In so doing it fails to provide any sort of explanation as to why such a quantisation should take place.
In the 1940s a branch of mathematics appeared which straddles the boundary between continuous functions and discrete solutions. It was developed by engineers at Bell Labs to address problems with capacity in the telephone network. While at first site there appears to be little to connect problems of network capacity with electrons orbiting atomic nuclei it is the application of these mathematical ideas which holds the key to explaining quantisation inside the atom.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:1202.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-21 22:27:58*

**Authors:** Choe Ryong Gil

**Comments:** 23 pages

In this paper we have introduced a new topology and a convergence in Banach space, which would be called a L-topology and a L-convergence. It is similar to the weak topology and weak convergence, but there are some essential differences. For example, the L-topology is stronger than weak topology, but weaker than the strong one. On the basis of the notion, we have considered the problem on the separability and reflexibility of Lipschitz (Lip-) dual space. Furthermore, we have introduced a new topology of Lip-dual space, which is similar to the weak* (W*-) topology of linear dual of Banach space and would be called an L*-topology, and we have considered the problems on the metrizability of L*-topology and on the L*-separability of Lip-dual space, too.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[54] **viXra:1202.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-21 04:37:25*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

This document, written in French, contains 2 parts:
In the 1st part, Théorie mathématique Platoniste (Platonic mathematical theory) we expose a complete Platonic theory, covering all the fiels of logic and foundation of mathematics, including a complete set theory.
In the 2nd part, Théorie aléatoire des nombres (random theory of number)we expose a theory of random in mathematics, that can be considered as as a branch of logic as well as a branch of number theory. In particular we show that it gives a theoretical justification of the Goldbach conjecture (weak and strong) as well of the twin prime Conjecture.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[53] **viXra:1202.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-23 03:28:33*

**Authors:** Choe Ryong Gil, Kim Myong Il

**Comments:** 17 pages

In this paper we have introduced a new concept on the convergence of a sequence of the nonlinear Lipschitz (Lip-) functionals, which would be called an L*-convergence, and we have considered its applications in Banach spaces. This convergence is very similar to the weak* (W*-) convergence of the sequence of the bounded linear functionals, but there are some differences. By the L*-convergence, we have considered the problem on the relations of the compactness between the Lip-operator and its Lip-dual operator, and we have obtained the mean ergodic theorems for the Lip-operator.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[52] **viXra:1202.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-26 04:50:12*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 18 Pages, 15 Figures, 1 Table

The necessary integration between quantum mechanics and cosmology requires an understanding of such phenomenon as entanglement and why the act of observation affects scientific measurements. With this in mind, the study of psi-lines provides some important clues as to how consciousness in its widest sense, together with the communication of information, fits into the structure of the universe and the laws of physics. This paper is a summary of the author’s own ground-breaking research into psi-lines over the last 20 years.
Psi-lines are a well established phenomenon. They are easily created, and/or destroyed by the mind. (Psi is associated with the Greek word for mind). Not only can they be detected by their creator, but more importantly they can be readily detected by others. This property enables their use for tracking. Evidence exists for this use over 1,000 years’ ago, and there is a strong probability that they were used by Neolithic man. In ancient times they were presumably created as part of daily life, to assist in navigation.
Detailed research shows that psi-lines are not 1-dimensional lines, but complex 3-dimensional cosmic and subtle energy fields comprising coaxial cylindrical lines. A conical helix terminates these lines, which are also associated with nodes, electric and magnetic fields, and audio frequencies. They can also have beneficial or detrimental affects on health, and are perceived slightly differently by males and females. The properties and structure of psi-lines are affected by local and astronomical forces including gravity and the earth’s spin. Experimental data has produced formulae such as W = φ/3 * Ln(L) + √3/2 which is the relationship between the length and width of psi-lines, where φ is the golden ratio 1.61803. As this and similar formulae involve no arbitrary constants and only universal constants, this is good evidence that the mind can interact with the cosmos.
Key Words
Mind; Consciousness; Psi-lines; Golden Ratio; Structure of the Universe; Cosmic and Subtle Energy; Dowsing; Navigation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1202.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-18 11:39:50*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Much that has been written about black holes relies implicitly on a simple assumption that any singularity must have zero volume. We show that for a distant external observer, the singular surface at the event horizon does have defined non-zero volume.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1202.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-26 13:41:38*

**Authors:** A. Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 91 Pages. Improving the translation from Spanish to English. Added a new subsection. Fixed minor errors

In this paper we demonstrate how the universe has to be caused or created by an intelligent being: God. And as the multiverse theory, mainly based on the random generation of states infinite universe is very poorly posed from the mathematical point of view, and how this failure leads to the demonstration of its impossibility. The anthropic principle called not taken into account, it is a mere philosophical statement without any physical-mathematical foundation, and therefore lacking the minimum necessary scientific validity. The main parameters are obtained: density of baryons, vacuum energy density, mass of the lightest Higgs boson, neutrino mass, mass of the graviton, among others. Deducting finally naturally within the theory, the inflation factor of the universe. Similarly, the theory implies necessarily the "creation" of matter

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:1202.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-18 19:13:46*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Withdrawn.

*This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to a flaw in the proof. / Este
documento ha sido retirado por el autor debido a un error en la demostración.*

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1202.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-18 21:49:14*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Withdrawn.

*This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to a flaw in the proof. / Este
documento ha sido retirado por el autor debido a un error en la demostración.*

**Category:** Number Theory

[47] **viXra:1202.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-19 02:03:52*

**Authors:** Choe Ryong Gil

**Comments:** 17 pages

In this paper we have obtained a new theorem that a nonlinear Lipschitz (Lip-) functional defined on the closed subset of Banach spaces can be extended to the whole space with Lip-continuity and maintenance of Lip-constant, which would be called an extension theorem (ET). This theorem is a generalization to the Lip-functional of the famous Hahn-Banach theorem on the bounded linear functional. By the ET, we have completely solved the open problem on the relation of the invertibility between the Lip-operator and its Lip-dual operator.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[46] **viXra:1202.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-06 13:28:05*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Published in PSTJ March 2012, Vol. 3, Issue 5, pp. 435 - 458

During the last decade, a number of important developments have surfaced concerning fractional calculus and its applications in various branches of fundamental and applied science. In particular, fractional field theory (FFT) represents an active area of research in mathematical physics whose motivation stems, in part, from its ability to shed light on many of open questions surrounding Quantum Field Theory (QFT), Standard Model for particle physics (SM) and Quantum Gravity Theories (QG). We review here some recent developments of FFT that promise to recover the physics of SM in the low-energy limit and solve some of its seemingly intractable puzzles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[45] **viXra:1202.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-18 08:09:07*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper you will find a personal, practical and direct demonstration of the Stokes’ Theorem.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1202.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-21 01:19:00*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

On the one hand the author of the „further comment‟ accepts that he is sceptical about theories of relativity and on the other hand he justifies the validity of „Equation of Trickery‟ on irrational, incorrect and self-contradictory basis. Mr. Jeremy Dunning-Davies does not know as to what he is writing and this I leave to the judgment of readers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1202.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-17 10:43:30*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using cmplex hyperbolic functions and complex trionometric functions ,we reapear the Fermat marvelus proofs for Fermat last theorem

**Category:** Number Theory

[42] **viXra:1202.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-16 04:01:45*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The full derivation of another crucial equation in Einstein’s 1905 article, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, is presented to aid clarification and to further correct a misapprehension that some trickery is employed by Einstein at this particular point in his paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1202.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-15 05:16:33*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

After having established a meaning relation between electric charge and spin, in this paper we prove, using concepts of the Theory of Reference Frames, a few important transformations concerning fundamental elementary particles. In particular we examine electron annihilation, photon materialization and transformation of electrodynamic mass of electron to antimass which is characterized by the physical property of having a negative value of mass. Moreover we prove photon spin is null and not unitary as it is assumed in the standard theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[40] **viXra:1202.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-14 09:17:10*

**Authors:** Kabir Adinoyi Umar

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Based on a paper presentation titled: "vacuum relativitiy: the origin of the content of our universe" at the 34th annual conference of the Nigerian Institute of Physics on the 14th of October 2011 at Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife.

Using an interpretation of special relativity in the context of a rotating brane universe, it is shown
that an asymptotically vanishing particle antiparticle asymmetry described by a cosmological factor Г
can result such that 0 < Г < 1. We discus a cancellation scenario in which an asymptotically vanishing
effective cosmological constant Λ arise from this asymmetry where virtual particles and antiparticles
contribute attractive and repulsive terms respectively to the quantum vacuum. The asymmetry is fundamentally
in the form of difference in speed limit c and for particles and antiparticles which in this scenario,
exists as excitations of the opposite surfaces of a brane universe rotating along its time dimension. Using
estimates from quantum field theory and the observed value of dark energy density, the cosmological factor is
constrained to be ≈ 10-120 in the present universe. Observational constraint may also come from precision
measurement of spatial curvature. Г ≈ 1 obtainable in the early universe would produce large
effective cosmological constant (Λ ~ 1068 m-2) capable of driving inflation and possibly the baryon
asymmetry of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1202.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-14 11:41:50*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Abstract. Here we present a very original and indeed radical theory which
departs greatly from the physics of the last half century. The standard model
has failed to answer some of the most simplest questions of our state in the
universe. Like other theories before it, it is time for a radical re-think of the
entire direction of our current physical theories. If we keep going along the
same old path it will lead no-where , one can only drive a square peg into a
round hole for so long.
What causes particles to have charge? The force that can cause them to
attract each other or repel. It seems a simple question but you can look up all
the text books in existence and you will not find the answer. I know as I have
tried. The fact is that no-one on this planet has an answer for, what you would
think is a simple question that any physicist could answer, but you would be
wrong. That is one of the fundamental reasons for this paper. I began to
realize that in physics we could not answer the simplest of question regarding
our existence yet at the same time physicists claim to be near a theory, the
Standard Model that will describe the whole of reality and that they were
most of the way there. Of course it cannot be true and until we can answer
the question ”‘what causes charge”’ and a host of other simple questions we
really cannot back grandiose claims for our level of understanding of our reality.
That and other factors inspired me to attempt to write this paper and I hope
I can answer the question ”‘what causes charge”’.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[38] **viXra:1202.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-02 07:52:00*

**Authors:** Sener Ozsahin

**Comments:** 65 Pages.

ABSTRACT
CMT postulates that space is the 3D surface of a 4D spherical universe in constant expansion embedded in a euclidian space of n dimensions (n≥4). All 3D material entities survive only in this space, and all bodies of mass are 3 dimensional. Surface of the 4D spherical universe (space) for us is extrinsically curved in the 4th dimension. The extrinsic curvature of the universe and space is caused by a constant and evenly distributed 4D spherical flow of pure energy (non-condensed) away from a cosmic point of origin. It is not shaped by the condensed matter content of space. In consideration of the immense size of the inflating universe, a local region in space for instance of the size of our solar system may be assumed in close proximity to have a zero curvature. The intrinsic curvature of space on the other hand is not needed to be any different(±) than zero.
Bending of space by a body of mass in space is also extrinsic and it causes a tiny 4D indentation or dimple (a sag in cosmic surface ) form in space around the body.
Time measured in a reference frame in 3D space is relativistic and in dichotomy with the implicit cosmic time defined by the constant motion of cosmic expansion in the 4th dimension. Pace of time-flow in a spatial reference frame is identical to the speed of the cosmic expansion of that reference frame in the 4th dimension. Time-flow is continuous and one-way.
The velocity of motion of the cosmic expansion which is always in the direction of the 4th dimension away from the center of the universe is at its maximum speed and coincidental with the direction of the cosmic radius (vR) where space is not bent extrinsically any further by gravitation or any other reason in the form of a 4D indentation. But if and where space is bent extrinsically further by a body of mass, the direction of expansion diverges from the cosmic radial direction by some q and the speed of the velocity is posited to decrease by an amount dependent on q. The continuum of potential velocities postulated to be emergent in space around the mass as vector components of vR in compensation of the loss of vR, manifests an integral function of gravitational force which always points and gets stronger toward the center of gravity of the mass.
Mass bends space, but motion of a body of mass bends space even further. Any velocity in the range from zero (rest position) up to c of a body of mass in space is always a vector component of vR, and a net force is required to alter the state or the velocity of the body. The state or velocity of the body is altered by starting or removing or changing the degree of space bending. If a body of mass is at rest in space, then vR of the body has no vector component in space. On the other hand vR which is the speed of the cosmic radial growth is found to be equal to c.
The hypothesis of CMT on gravity and inertia is congruent with the principle of conservation of energy posing however significant differences with the relativistic mass and energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1202.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-17 15:35:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

Starting from the action function, we have derived a theoretical background that leads to the quantization of gravity and the deduction of a correlation between the gravitational and the inertial masses, which depends on the kinetic momentum of the particle. We show that the strong equivalence principle is reaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein's equations are preserved. In fact, such equations are deduced here directly from this new approach to Gravitation. Moreover, we have obtained a generalized equation for the inertial forces, which incorporates the Mach's principle into Gravitation. Also, we have deduced the equation of Entropy; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field and the reciprocal fine structure constant directly from this new approach. It was also possible to deduce the expression of the Casimir force and to explain the Inflation Period and the Missing Matter, without assuming existence of vacuum fluctuations. This new approach to Gravitation will allow us to understand some crucial matters in Cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[36] **viXra:1202.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 11:48:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The existence of imaginary mass associated to the neutrino is already well-known. Although its imaginary mass is not physically observable, its square is. This amount is found experimentally to be negative. Recently, it was shown that quanta of imaginary mass exist associated to the electron and the photon too. These imaginary masses have unusual properties that violate the Parity Conservation Principle. The non-conservation of the parity is also found in the weak interactions, and possibly can be explained by means of the existence of the imaginary masses. Also protons and neutrons would have imaginary masses associated to them and, in this way, atoms and molecules would also have imaginary masses directly proportional to their atomic and molecular masses. The Parity Conservation Principle holds that the material particles are not able to distinguish their right from their left. The non-conservation of the parity would necessarily imply capability of "choice". Thus, as the particles with imaginary mass don't conserve the parity, they would have the elementary capability of “choosing between their right or left”. Where there is “choice” isn’t there also psychism, by definition? This fundamental discovery shows that, in some way, the consciousnesses are related to the imaginary masses. This fact, make it possible to redefine Psychology on a Quantum Physics basis.

**Category:** Mind Science

[35] **viXra:1202.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 11:51:08*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Science and Religion have always observed the events from their exclusive viewpoint. It was necessary the arising of a bond that would make possible the unification of them. This bond was revealed in the last decades by Quantum Physics, which has shown us that some physical laws extend beyond the material world, pointing to the existence of the spiritual world. Thus, the spiritual world exists now no longer as supernatural one, but as world as real as our material world. This discovery marked the beginning of the understanding of the spiritual world nature and its relationship with the material world. Starting from this knowledge, here widely detailed, it is now possible to understand the eternal puzzles: where have we come from, because here we are, and where do we go.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[34] **viXra:1202.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 11:56:03*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.

**Category:** Geophysics

[33] **viXra:1202.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 11:59:12*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently, evidence indicating cosmological variations of the fine structure constant, alpha, has been reported. This result led to the conclusion that possibly the physical constants and the laws of physics vary throughout the universe. However, it will be shown here that variations in the value of the elementary electric charge, e, can occur under specific conditions, consequently producing variations in the value of alpha.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1202.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 12:17:21*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It has been recently proposed that the photon has imaginary mass and null real mass. Proca equations are the unique simplest relativistic generalization of Maxwell equations. They are the theoretical expressions of possible nonzero photon rest mass. The fact that the photon has imaginary mass introduces relevant modifications in Proca equations which point to a deviation from the Coulomb’s inverse square law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[31] **viXra:1202.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-29 11:46:28*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The quantization of gravity showed that the matter is also quantized, and that there is an elementary quantum of matter, indivisible, whose mass is 3.9 X 10-73kg. This means that any body is formed by a whole number of these particles (quantization). It is shown here that these elementary quanta of matter should fill all the space in the Universe forming a Quantum Fluid continuous and stationary. In addition, it is also explained why the Michelson-Morley experiment was not able to detect this Universal Quantum Fluid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1202.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 12:24:54*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Recently, the OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos from the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km. The experiment shows that neutrinos can have superluminal velocities. This result could, in principle, be taken as a clear violation of the Special Relativity. However, it will be show here that neutrinos can actually travel at velocities faster than light speed, without violating Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1202.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-10 12:47:13*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here a new way for gravity control is proposed that uses electromagnetic radiation modified to have a smaller wavelength. It is known that when the velocity of a radiation is reduced its wavelength is also reduced. There are several ways to strongly reduce the velocity of an electromagnetic radiation. Here, it is shown that such a reduction can be done simply by making the radiation cross a conductive foil.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[28] **viXra:1202.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 12:30:40*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), also known as supercapacitors, electrochemical double layer capacitors, or ultracapacitors, are electrochemical capacitors that have an unusually high energy density when compared to common capacitors, typically on the order of thousands of times greater than a high capacity electrolytic capacitor. It is shown here that when an EDLC is fully charged its gravitational mass is considerably greater than when it is discharged.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[27] **viXra:1202.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 12:33:23*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

There is an electromagnetic factor of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass, which in specific electromagnetic conditions, can be reduced, made negative and increased in numerical value. This means that gravitational forces can be reduced, inverted and intensified by means of electromagnetic fields. Such control of the gravitational interaction can have a lot of practical applications. For example, a new concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight arises from the possibility of the electromagnetic control of the gravitational mass. The novel spacecraft called Gravitational Spacecraft possibly will change the paradigm of space flight and transportation in general. Here, its operation principles and flight possibilities, it will be described. Also it will be shown that other devices based on gravity control, such as the Gravitational Motor and the Quantum Transceivers, can be used in the spacecraft, respectively, for Energy Generation and Telecommunications.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[26] **viXra:1202.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 09:49:02*

**Authors:** Baldha Prashantkumar Mansukhbhai

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The new algorithm for multiplication. The multiplication algorithm is best for multiplication algorithm in some cases.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] **viXra:1202.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 03:14:25*

**Authors:** B.D.O. Adams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the presence of a strong electric or magnetic field, quantum
field theory modifies the speed of light. We see that the same
effect can explain the recent observation of neutrinos travelling faster
than the speed of light in the vacuum from
the CERN collider to the OPERA neutrino detector in Gran Sasso.
We investigate the causality of the situation, and show that a form
of electrical induction between very fast moving bodies will prevent
closed timelike loops from occuring.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1202.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-14 11:44:03*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 4 Pages. fixes a conceptual error and also adds some mathematical content

There should be a small classical gravity frequency shift between two transceivers one on the axis of rotation and the other clamped to a fixed point on the rim of a rotating rigid disc. Light arriving at the axis of rotation from the edge of the disk will be redshifted. Light moving the opposite way will be blue shifted. However, there will not be any shift for a light signal connecting two points on the rim. In addition the quantum gravity Unruh effect implies a small radial temperature gradient from the increasing radial centripetal acceleration. Furthermore, in general there should be a gravimagnetic inertial force doublet splitting of the vacuum speed of light locally measured at the rim of the rotating disk for a ray of light in the plane of the rotating disk as in the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1202.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-21 08:19:54*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 119 Pages.

This is a slide presentation that treats the main subjects of the Hilbert Book Model, which is a simple Higgless model of fundamental physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1202.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-11 17:14:46*

**Authors:** Mircea Selariu, Florentin Smarandache, Marian Nitu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper presents the correspondences of the eccentric
mathematics of cardinal and integral functions and centric mathematics,
or ordinary mathematics. Centric functions will also be presented in the
introductory section, because they are, although widely used in undulatory
physics, little known.

**Category:** Geometry

[21] **viXra:1202.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-16 04:47:45*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 4 pages. English. Accepted for publication in the Journal Progress in Physics.

In this brief paper, we show the neutrino velocity discrepancy obtained in the OPERA experiment may be due to the local Doppler effect between a local clock attached to a given detector at Gran Sasso, say $\mathcal{C}_{G}$, and the respective instantaneous clock crossing $\mathcal{C}_{G}$, say $\mathcal{C}_{C}$, being this latter at rest in the instantaneous inertial frame having got the velocity of rotation of CERN about Earth's axis in relation to the fixed stars. With this effect, the index of refraction of the Earth crust may accomplish a refractive effect by which the neutrino velocity through the Earth crust turns out to be small in relation to the speed of light in the empty space, leading to an encrusted discrepancy that may have contamined the data obtained from the block of detectors at Gran Sasso, leading to a time interval excess $\epsilon$ that did not provide an exact match between the shift of the protons PDF (probability distribution function) by $\text{TOF}_{c}$ and the detection data at Gran Sasso via the maximum likelihood matching.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:1202.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 05:42:42*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We present deterministic primality test for Fermat numbers . Essentially this test is similar to the Lucas-Lehmer primality test for Mersenne numbers

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1202.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-14 05:47:21*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Completion of union of all tensor products of the real Clifford algebra Cl(16) is proposed as the Third Grothendieck Universe (the first two being the empty set and hereditarily finite sets) thus giving a Category Theoretical description of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory that has a clear relationship with Path Integral Quantization of Standard Model + Gravity Lagrangian Physics. At present, this paper is an outline of a proposed program of research that is not yet complete. V2 is more explicit about relationships among first, second, and third universes. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[18] **viXra:1202.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-10 11:30:12*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is a known fact that, often, the perfect idiot who watches the game from the outside is the one who discerns the best move! I'm an assumed crank As an engineer I can perhaps be acquitted, however there are numerous examples of renowned physicists that, occasionally, slide to a striking eccentricity. It's not uncommon for them to seek a complex explanation where a simple one is at hand.
The daring intention behind this paper is to throw a fiercer light into three discreetly shadowed
points which, in my opinion, appear hazy or misconceived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1202.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-10 06:54:39*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present a theorem concerning the form of Mersenne
numbers . We also discuss a closed form expression which links prime numbers and natural logarithms .

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1202.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-14 18:43:02*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 3 pages. English.

In this brief paper, we show if the neutrino velocity discrepancy obtained in \cite{arxiv} may be due to the local Doppler effect between a local clock attached to a given detector at Gran Sasso, say $\mathcal{C}_{G}$, and the respective instantaneous clock crossing $\mathcal{C}_{G}$, say $\mathcal{C}_{C}$, being this latter at rest in the instantaneous inertial frame having got the velocity of rotation of CERN about Earth's axis in relation to the fixed stars.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1202.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-09 05:51:01*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 180 Pages.

This document, wrtiiten in French contains 2 parts.
Thefirst part is a modern Theory of ether, cncerning all the fields connected to special Relativity, general Relativity and Cosmology. The end of this first part is an interpretation of the Opera's experiment and of thye baryonic Tully-Fisher's law. It contains improved versions of articles published in english in the review Physics Essays and in the conference PIRT 2004.
The second part is a quantum theory avoiding classical paradoxes connected to the classical quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1202.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-10 21:38:44*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This replaces an earlier version that had a serious flaw.

A perfectly symmetrical twin paradox real scenario could be identified and this repudiates Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1202.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-07 20:30:57*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 342 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce a new type of product on matrices called the natural product Xn. This is an extension of product carried out in the case or row matrices of the same order.
Further, when two column matrices of same order can be added, nothing prevents one from multiplying them.
This sort of multiplication which is natural is defined as natural product Xn on matrices.
We suggest 100 problems and some of them are at the research level.

**Category:** Algebra

[12] **viXra:1202.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-07 04:30:44*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The full derivation of a crucial equation in Einstein’s 1905 article 'On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies' is presented to aid clarification and to correct a misapprehension that some trickery is employed by Einstein at this particular point in his paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1202.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-07 13:51:08*

**Authors:** Michael Peleg

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is the full paper version of the presentation at the International Conference on Enviromental Indicators (ISEI 2011), 11 to 14 Sept. 2011 in Haifa , Israel

This paper addresses the argument stating that since the energy of a single Radio Frequency (RF) photon is extremely small it cannot influence matter significantly and therefore RF radiation cannot cause cancer. The argument is shown to be wrong since most known phenomena and uses of RF radiation involve many photons acting in unison. For example, in a particle accelerator, a multitude of RF photons act simultaneously on a single elementary charged particle. We show that his holds for particle physics, capacitors, fluorescent tubes, radio communications, RADAR and living tissues. These phenomena are best treated in most cases by considering RF radiation as a wave phenomenon. On the other hand the possibility of a single RF photon per molecule producing a biological effect also cannot be ruled out.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[10] **viXra:1202.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-06 18:34:57*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. postscript to an existing paper

While "Information" is a good and very general characterization of the fundamental significance of matter, both for the "Tetrahedron Model" and the Universe, it is not quite "active" enough in its meaning to successfully complement and connect to the other three conservation principles of the Tetrahedron Model. "Information" is an energy state or configuration, whereas the Conservation of Energy, Entropy, and the Conservation of Symmetry are aggressively protected conservation principles. Causality is also an actively protected conservation principle, and it connects with the other three in a very profound and illuminating way, as we shall hopefully see below. Meanwhile, although "Information" is to be demoted to a secondary position in terms of activity or action among the "Tetragrammaton" of conservation laws, it obviously remains of first importance as regards the description of the significance of the system in its entirety. It is in fact the potent combination of Causality and Information that makes up matter's "causal matrix" within the conservation domain of historic spacetime, the "Karma" and "Akashic Record" of metaphysical systems of thought. Causality and Information depend upon each other for much of their meaning, but the linkage to the remaining conservation laws is clearer and stronger in the case of Casualty. Finally, Causality necessarily implies Information, but not the reverse. Information therefore remains as a corollary of Causality. Information is a conserved parameter in quantum mechanics and in historical spacetime.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9] **viXra:1202.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-06 15:20:56*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Includes complete C++ source listing.

The volume inside intersecting spheres may be computed by a standard method which computes
a surface integral over all visible sections of the spheres. If the visible sections are divided in simple
zonal sections, the individual contribution by each zone follows from basic analysis. We implement
this within a semi-numerical program which marks the zones individually as visible or invisible.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[8] **viXra:1202.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-05 00:39:35*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This paper attempts to stimulate thought on an apparently seldom talked about but nevertheless important subject and points out the potential danger from outer space.

A number of points are brought up below for pondering and possible discussion. We should not regard our physics as the one and only reality. What is described below may seem like science fiction, but should not be brushed off as inconsequential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1202.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-07 17:52:50*

**Authors:** U.V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In the cosmic Euclidean volume, inverse of the fine structure ratio is equal to the natural logarithm of ratio of number of (electrons or positrons) and the Avogadro number. Bohr radius of hydrogen atom, quanta of the angular momentum and the strong interaction range - are connected with the large scale structure of the massive universe. In the accelerating universe, as the space expands, in hydrogen atom, distance between proton and electron increases and is directly proportional to the size of the universe. Obtained value of the present Hubble constant is 70.75 Km/sec/Mpc. `Rate of decrease in fine structure ratio' is a measure of cosmic rate of expansion. Considering the integral nature of number of protons (of any nucleus), integral nature of `hbar' can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1202.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-07 10:25:41*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 2 pages. English.

In my papers \cite{Assis1} and \cite{Assis2}, I obtain a Cold Big Bang Cosmology, fitting the cosmological data, with an absolute zero primordial temperature, a natural cutoff for the cosmological data to a vanishingly small entropy at a singular microstate of a comoving domain of the cosmological fluid. Now, in this brief paper, we show the energy density of the $t$-sliced universe must actually be the critical one, following as consequence of the solution in \cite{Assis1} and \cite{Assis2}. It must be pointed out that the result obtained here in this paper on the flatness problem does not contradict the solution in \cite{Assis1}, viz., does not contradict the open universe, with $k=-1$, obtained in \cite{Assis1}, since the solution in \cite{Assis1} had negative pressure and negative total cosmological energy density, hence lesser that the critical positive density. The critical density we obtain here is due to the positive fluctuations I previously discussed regarding the Heisenberg mechanism in \cite{Assis2}. Hence, the energy density due to fluctuation turns out to be positive, the critical one, this being calculated in \cite{Assis2} from the fluctuations within the $t$-sliced spherical shell at its $t$-sliced hypersurface, being the total energy density that generates the fluctuations, actually, negative in \cite{Assis1} and \cite{Assis2}, hence, again, lesser than the critical one and supporting $k=-1$. These results are complementary and support my previous results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1202.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-02 08:46:28*

**Authors:** J. Lellep, E. Tungel, J. M. Consuelo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Limit analysis and minimum weight design of stepped spherical shells is studied. The caps have
piece wise constant thickness and are subjected to the uniform external pressure. The shells are made of an inelastic material obeying an approximation of the Tresca yield surface. The aim of the paper is to develop a procedure for minimum weight design for given limit load. Necessary optimality conditions are derived with
the aid of variational methods of the theory of optimal control. Numerical results are presented for a simply supported spherical cap.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1202.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-02 08:59:43*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This paper is in four parts due to length

The author views certain religious, mythological, astrological, and occult "World Systems"
or cosmologies as examples of ancient, intuitive General Systems which display relevant features of the
universal 4x3 fractal algorithm, a pattern also seen in today's "scientific" or "rational" cosmologies. These
intuitive systems are examined in the context of their General Systems properties only, without endorsement
in any other sense.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[3] **viXra:1202.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-02 04:24:00*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article ‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’ by Albert Einstein (1905) is based on trickeries. The Voigt transformation was simply a mathematical possibility which was changed by Lorentz by introducing the Lorentz factor but the Lorentz factor is not real; has been shown in the article Mohammad Shafiq Khan (2012). Thus nature and forces in nature were trivialized and made subservient to mathematics in the theories of relativity, Big Bang Theory, Space-time concept and in all physical sciences which are directly or indirectly based on the ‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’. It is unfortunate for humanity that exposing these trickeries took more than one hundred years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1202.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-02 19:54:26*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 3 Pages. fixes typo error in eq. 1.4 wrong Lp^2 replaced by correct Lp

The cosmic microwave background black body radiation consists of retarded photons from the surface of last scattering remnant of the hot Big Bang. In contrast, the dark energy accelerating our observable universe is back-from-the-future advanced Wheeler-Feynman Hawking-Unruh black body radiation from our observer-dependent future event horizon that may also be the hologram screen.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1202.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-01 02:19:14*

**Authors:** Victor Katyushchik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The three-dimensional space formatting allows to operate on infinitely large and infinitely small quantities confidently, without any contradictions, paradoxes and uncertainties.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics