[54] **viXra:0912.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** R.W. Richardson

**Comments:** 505 Pages.

A Tractate on Transcendence: As revealed in that knowledge in the Mystical Reunion of Being, in the Mystic Death and Resurrection of Consciousness Event and its Fulfilment on Earth - Reality Beyond Beliefs.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[53] **viXra:0912.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Leon Neihouse

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A new model of objective reality consists of three separate and independent embedded environments. An outer one of Space contains our conventional world in which bounded shapes are of an atomic nature, SuperSpace is enfolded within Space and contains bounded shapes that are light in nature, and MetaSpace is enfolded within SuperSpace and contains bounded shapes that are beyond consensus powers of human description. All three environments are pervaded by consciousness with an immortal consciousness motivating our MetaSpace form, which is linked to our SuperSpace form, which is linked to our Space form. The activation of latent senses in our Space form will permit direct apprehension of these separate embodiments and allow an implicit understanding of the union and purpose of this trimorphic construction. The model further hypothesis that we are in the midst of a watershed event for the human race in which latent senses are becoming activated that will permit direct and immediate apprehension of these three separate but embedded environments with the result that a New Man will walk upon the face of the earth.

**Category:** Mind Science

[52] **viXra:0912.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Kant noted the importance of spatial and temporal intuitions (synthetics) in geometric
reasoning, but intuitions lend themselves to different interpretations and a more solid grounding
may be sought in formality. In mathematics David Hilbert defended formality, while L. E. J.
Brouwer cited intuitions that remain unencompassed by formality. In this paper, the conflict
between formality and intuition is again investigated, and it is found to impact on our
interpretations of space-time as translated into the language of geometry. It is argued that that
language as a formal system works because of an auxiliary innateness that carries sentience, or
feeling. Therefore, the formality is necessarily incomplete as sentience is beyond its reach.
Specifically, it is argued that sentience is covertly connected to space-time geometry when
axioms of congruency are stipulated, essentially hiding in the formality what is sense-certain.
Accordingly, geometry is constructed from primitive intuitions represented by one-pointedness
and route-invariance. Geometry is recognized as a two-sided language that permitted a Hegelian
passage from Euclidean geometry to Riemannian geometry. The concepts of general relativity,
quantum mechanics and entropy-irreversibility are found to be the consequences of linguistic
type reasoning, and perceived conflicts (e.g., the puzzle of quantum gravity) are conflicts only
within formal linguistic systems. Therefore, the conflicts do not survive beyond the synthetics
because what is felt relates to inexplicable feeling, and because the question of synthesis returns
only to Hegel's absolute Notion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:0912.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jesus Christ

**Comments:** 60 Pages. Dictated by V. Christianto

We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry, be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. This file is the second book of compilation of articles dictated by Jesus Christ. You should know that Me will come again very very soon, be hurry be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. Tweet this message and distribute this message quickly.
The content of the article: compilation of articles written and dictated by Jesus Christ

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[50] **viXra:0912.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jesus Christ

**Comments:** 60 Pages. Dictated by V. Christianto

We love you all nations, be hurry be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. This file is the first chapter of a book contain eleven chapters and one chapter. Each chapter include four to six translation of the guide to help you to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, and do your repentance properly. That is the message: be hurry, be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. Please tweet this message and distribute this message to all your friends quickly.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[49] **viXra:0912.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jesus Christ

**Comments:** 1 Pages. Dictated to V. Christianto

We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. This paper describe Wealth equation from the viewpoint of information economics. You should know that Evangelization is very critical for the wealth of a nation. That is the message: be hurry, be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. Please read Isaiah 45:22-25. You should know that Twelve Gates are already opened, that is twelve chapters of a book contain translation of a guide to help people to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, into more than 30 languages. Please tweet this message quickly: be hurry be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[48] **viXra:0912.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Yoël Lana-Renault

**Comments:** 31 pages with 7 figures

This paper describes a mechanical theory for the unification of the basic forces of Nature with a single wave-particle interaction. The theory is based on the hypothesis that the ultimate components of matter are just two kind of pulsating particles. The interaction between these particles immersed in a fluid-like medium (ether) reproduces all the forces in Nature: electric, nuclear, gravitational, magnetic, atomic, van der Waals, Casimir, etc. The theory also designes the internal structure of the atom and of the fundamental particles that are currently known. Thus, a new concept of physics, capable of tackling entirely new problems, is introduced.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[47] **viXra:0912.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 21 pages

First reading of article approved by IJMPB, which had half of my PhD dissertation results. For the record. Basis of quantum interpretation of Density wave dynamics included.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:0912.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 3 pages

In physics spatial distance d is a product of velocity v and time t : d = v*t .
Mathematical formalism x_{4} = i*c*t
confirms that in Special Theory of Relativity forth
coordinate x_{4} is spatial too. x_{4} is composed out of c light speed, imaginary number i
and time t that represents "thick" of a clock. Time t obtained with clocks describes
numerical order of material change t_{0} ,t_{1} ,t_{2} .......t_{n}. Clocks are reference systems for
measuring frequency, velocity, numerical order of material changes that run in space.
Time t x_{4} is running of clocks in space. Clock/time is a measuring reference system
for measuring physical events that are running exclusively in space and not in time.
Light speed c of light motion is a fundamental speed in the universe on which is
calculated basis unit of time "Planck time". This view explains some recent
experiments which confirm that time t of physical event can be zero.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:0912.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 9 pages

Comprehension of the structure of the universe requires a theory of quantum gravity.
Attempting to link quantum physics with general relativity is one current approach.
Many researchers, including the author, believes that the solution lies not just in
physics, but involves consciousness and cognitive neuroscience together with
understanding the nature and perception of information. This paper combines these
latter factors in a non-orthodox approach linked by geometry.
This is the third of a 5 part complementary series of papers examining several local and
non-local factors which affect dowsing measurements, (and hence perception and
consciousness), on a daily, monthly, annual, or ad hoc basis. Part 2 of this series of
papers identified gravity (via its influence on tides) to have a significant effect on
dowsed measurements. This avenue of research into gravity is now further developed,
by making a start in quantifying the involvement of
gravity:- 1. on consciousness,
2. with information,
3. with subtle energies that may be the same as dark energy,
4. in the structure of the universe, and
5. in triggering well known biological events in animals and plants.
Via the use of a standard yardstick, significant variations in length have been measured
during the course of a 28-day lunar cycle (caused by the Moon orbiting the Earth), and a
365-day annual cycle (caused by the Earth's orbit around the Sun). Gravity is shown to
be the main cause. Other perturbations may be present.
But are these repeatable periodic patterns of changing length caused by gravity's
biological effects on the dowser, or in the information obtained by the dowser? In
other words, is gravity acting directly on the dowser's brain and body, or is gravity
causing changes in consciousness via the Information Field? The latter is the "front
runner" in the theory of dowsing.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[44] **viXra:0912.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 May 2010*

**Authors:** Frederic Lassiaille

**Comments:** 36 pages.

The study of this article suggests an explanation for the "dark matter mystery". This explanation is
based on a modification of Newton's law. This modification is conducted from an Euclidean vision of
relativity.
Concerning the mystery of the velocity of the stars inside a galaxy, the study calculates a theoretical
curve which is different from the one coming from Newton's law. This theoretical curve is very close,
qualitatively speaking, to the measured one.
Concerning the mystery of the velocity of a galaxy inside its group, the explanation is more direct.
For this mystery, the study calculates a greater value for G, the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:0912.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 70 pages.

In the beginning there was prespacetime (GOD) by itself e^{0} = 1 materially empty and
spiritually restless. And it began to imagine through primordial self-referential spin
1=e^{0}=e^{iM-iM}=e^{iM}e^{-iM}=e^{-iM}/ e^{-iM} =
e^{iM}/e^{iM} ... such that it created the external object to be
observed and internal object as observed, separated them into external world and internal
world, cause them to interact through self-referential Matrix Law and thus gave birth to
the Universe which it has since passionately loved, sustained and made to evolve. In
short, this is our hypothesis of a scientific genesis (principle of existence). In this work,
we shall lay out its ontological and mathematical foundations which shall include
gravity and consciousness. We will then discuss its implications and applications and
make predictions etc.

**Category:** Mind Science

[42] **viXra:0912.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 61 pages.

Several recent essays are presented on the difficulties scientific
research and science researchers have by now been facing for a number
of decades due to what goes by the name of "science management".

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[41] **viXra:0912.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Zou Ha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One question is that we always get the integrated photographs in
good order when taking photograph though the phenomenon of particle-wave duality
exist in the microcosm. Feynman path is probability and we should not get the good
order photos. There is unknown mechanism in the microcosm. Another question is
quantum gravitation how to connect the line and the dot. If I am the particle how I
move. I think of doing some sewing and the unknown space was introduced. The two
questions will be thought together and I give an able mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:0912.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 86 Pages. Titles in the headers of the sections rewritten in a more conventional way.

If the Universe have more than 4 Dimensions then its Extra Dimensional Nature generates in our
4D Spacetime a projection of a 5D Bulk Weyl Tensor. We demonstrate that this happens not only in
the Randall-Sundrum BraneWorld Model where this idea appeared first (developed by Shiromizu, Maeda
and Sasaki)but also occurs in the Kaluza-Klein 5D Induced Matter Formalism.As a matter of fact this
5D Bulk Weyl Tensor appears in every Extra Dimensional Formalism (eg Basini-Capozziello-Wesson-Overduin
Dimensional Reduction From 5D to 4D) because this Bulk Weyl tensor is being generated
by the Extra Dimensional Nature of the Universe regardless and independently of the Mathematical
Formalism used and the Dimensional Reduction From 5D to 4D of the Einstein and Ricci Tensors
in both Kaluza-Klein and Randall-Sundrum Formalisms are similar.Also as in the Randall-Sundrum
Model this 5D Bulk Weyl Tensor generates in the Kaluza-Klein formalism a Tidal "Electric" Charge
"seen" in 4D as an Extra Term in the Schwarzschild Metric resembling the Reissner-Nordstrom Metric.
We analyze the Gravitational Bending Of Light in this BraneWorld Black Hole Metric(known as the
Dadhich,Maartens,Papadopolous and Rezania) affected by an Extra Term due to the presence of the
Tidal Charge compared to the Bending Of Light in the Reissner-Nordstrom Metric with the Electric
Charge also being generated by the Extra Dimension in agreement with the point of view of Ponce
De Leon (explaining in the generation process how and why antiparticles have the same rest mass m_{0}
but charges of equal modulus and opposite signs when compared to particles)and unlike the Reissner-Nordstrom
Metric the terms G/(c^{4}) do not appear in the Tidal Charge Extra Term.Thereby we conclude
that the Extra Term produced by the Tidal Charge in the Bending Of Light due to the presence of the
Extra Dimensions is more suitable to be detected than its Reissner-Nordstrom counterpart and this line
of reason is one of the best approaches to test the Higher Dimensional Nature of the Universe and we
describe a possible experiment using Artificial Satellites and the rotating BraneWorld Black Hole Metric
to do so

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:0912.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Imanol Pérez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Imanol's numbers are those that the sum of their digits is 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 or 9.

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:0912.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 13 pages.

Two vastly different historical stages in wealth creation are the traditional
one based on agriculture during past millennia, and the one
based on science research in our present globalizing knowledge society.
The differences happen to be so considerable, and the emergence
of the second stage relatively so recent, that the awareness of the full
range of consequences regarding the proper pursuit of science research,
which is the root of wealth in our knowledge society, is missing to an
extent that may, even in the medium term, seriously endanger the
sustainability of modern human society.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[37] **viXra:0912.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 May 2011*

**Authors:** Peter Jackson

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Lensing at cluster MACSJ1149.5+2223 extends previous anomalous lensing delays to over
three years, indicating gravitational mass concentrations significantly higher than expectation.
This continued problem has lead a leading astronomer to comment[1]; "This implies that
we're either missing some physics in our simulations, or we may need to modify our
cosmological model." A conceptual model of wave particle interaction at the Earth's
plasmaspheric bow shock, the heliosheath and the galactic halo is postulated and tested,
considering effects on Pioneer and Voyager, and within particle accelerators. A conceptual
quantum mechanical resolution for this via Doppler shifting of EM waves by scattering is
proposed, with implications for Dark Matter, consistent with Maxwell-Einstein's weak field
equivalence. This also derives a fuller explanation of apparent superluminal motion within
astrophysical jets using the postulates of Special Relativity. The historical background to this
'Discrete Field' model (DFM) is identified, further predictions are derived, and wider
implications considered.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[36] **viXra:0912.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Imanol Pérez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Spanish

Expansion of (1/x+2/x.......+a/x)^{n}

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:0912.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This article will appear in the special issue of the Invertis Journal of Science and Technology, New Dehli, 2010

A brief review of a Conformal Gravity and U(4) x U(4) Yang-Mills Unification
model in four dimensions from a Clifford Gauge Field Theory in C-spaces
(Clifford spaces) is presented. It based on the (complex) Clifford Cl(4,C) algebra
underlying a complexified four dimensional spacetime (8 real dimensions).
The 16 fermions of each generation can be arranged into the 16 entries of a
4 x 4 matrix associated with the A = 1, 2, 3, ....., 16 indices corresponding to
the dimensions of the Cl(4) gauge algebra. The Higgs sector is also part of
the Cl(4)-algebra polyvector valued gauge field in C-space. The Yukawa couplings
which furnish masses to the fermions (after symmetry breaking) admit a
C-space geometric interpretation as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:0912.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions
which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the
same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the
electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He
shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the
electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly
polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized
state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author
proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the
proposed helical structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[33] **viXra:0912.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jesus Christ

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Dictated by V. Christianto

We love you all nations, be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ. You should know that time is very very limited. Me will come again very very soon, that's why you should repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ. Don't worry, don't worry about anything, just repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ. That is the message: be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. Please tweet this message and distribute it to all your friends quickly.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[32] **viXra:0912.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jesus Christ

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Dictated by V. Christianto

We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ. Find a guide to help you repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, in this link http://www.esnips.com/web/Guidetorepent. Print this guide, copy as many as you can, and distribute the copies to as many countries as you can, including Asian countries such as China and Vietnam. Please tweet this message: the message is, be hurry be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, all corners of the world. Please read Isaiah 45:22-25. You should know that the Twelve Gates are already opened. The meaning of Twelve Gates is the twelve books of the guide to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ, translated into more than 30 languages. You should know that Me, Jesus Christ, will come again very very soon. That's why, be hurry be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ. Please tweet this message and distribute it to all your friends quickly. The message is: be hurry, be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[31] **viXra:0912.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We love you all nations, but time is very limited. Be hurry, be hurry to repent and receive Me, Jesus Christ. Me will come again very very soon, and you should know that it is good not for your health to do not repent and do not receive Me, Jesus Christ. This paper describes a simple experiment in order to redefine utility term from the viewpoint of experimenter. We discuss how individual achievement can be broken down into a number of factors. We consider a number of factors which can be verified experimentally, and that's why this paper is original and new in nature. A discussion of implications of these factors for economics study is given.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[30] **viXra:0912.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What physical object in the brain et-al is the hologram? It must be a ground state condensate of some collective mode that is biologically relevant, e.g. Freeman-Vitiello model [i]. My key point here is that signal nonlocality violation (Antony Valentini [ii]) of orthodox quantum physics is a necessary condition for inner qualia to emerge - for our consciousness to form. [iii]

**Category:** Mind Science

[29] **viXra:0912.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 9 pages, Spanish language

Demonstration that the 2 fundamental equations of Einstein's
general relativity, geodesics and gravitational equations of Einstein's gravitational
field, are incompatible with the phenomenon of gravitational redshift, according to
which the time stationary, measured by a clock lighting, takes more slowly the
greater the gravitational potential. Consequently, it is postulated the fundamental
equation of the theory connected.
This intertwined with subparagraphs that solve the problem of event horizons
and Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:0912.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Arkoprobho Chakraborty

**Comments:** 13 pages.

Erdos had conjectured that the equation of the title had no solutions
in natural numbers except the trivial 1^{1} + 2^{1} = 3^{1}. Moser (1953) had
shown that there are no solutions for M+1 < 10^{106}. Butske et al (1993)
had further shown that there are no solutions for M+1 < 9.3x10^{6}. In
this paper I show that a solution to this equation cannot exist for any
value of M > 2 hence proving Erdos' conjecture. This is achieved using
elementary number theoretic methods employing congruences and well-known identities.

**Category:** Number Theory

[27] **viXra:0912.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Z.Y. Wang

**Comments:** 6 pages.

de Broglie formula to photons in an unbounded space is E=hν and λ=h/p. According to
electrodynamics, nevertheless,we prove the ratio E/p in a waveguide is greater than the product νλ
which implies E=hν and p=h/λ cannot be tenable at the same time. Then the Casimir effect is applied
to confirm E=hν and p<h/λ. It is helpful to study quantum tunnelling and superluminality[1]~[2],
Cavity-QED, origin of mass, etc. The microwave experiment to test is also presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:0912.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-11 23:08:54*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The four principles of the "Tetrahedron Model" (conservation of energy, entropy, symmetry, causality) are as much "spiritual" principles of "divine law" as they are "scientific" principles of "natural law". This is another example of the convergence of physical scientific thought and metaphysical, spiritual, or religious thought, of the merging of rational and intuitive world views. The "Tetrahedron Model" represents a fundamental example and iteration of a 4x3 algorithmic hierarchy of fractal models, developed in the context and format of "General Systems". "General Systems" is a synthetic conceptual science which excels at bridging apparently disparate disciplines and world views. I will consider each of the 4 principles in turn.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[25] **viXra:0912.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 22 pages.

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory, as presented in these pages, can be briefly sketched as
follows:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or
the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one finds an associated conservation
law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in
spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces. All forms of energy, including the
conservation/entropy domain of spacetime, originate as light. During the "Big Bang", the
asymmetric interaction of primordial, high energy light with the metric structure of spacetime
produces matter; matter carries charges which are the symmetry (and entropy) debts of the light
which created it. Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original
symmetric state (light), paying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by
matter-antimatter annihilation reactions, particle and proton decay, the nucleosynthetic pathway
of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries
of light associated with each of the 4 forces (and charges) of physics is the first step toward a
conceptual unification of those forces. (Part 2)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:0912.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 21 pages. This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory, as presented in these pages, can be briefly sketched
as follows:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic
field (or the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one finds an
associated conservation law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved
by charge and spin; in spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces. All forms of energy,
including the conservation/entropy domain of spacetime, originate as light. During the
"Big Bang", the asymmetric interaction of primordial, high energy light with the metric
structure of spacetime produces matter; matter carries charges which are the symmetry
(and entropy) debts of the light which created it. Charges produce forces which act to
return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), paying matter's
symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by matter-antimatter annihilation
reactions, particle and proton decay, the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's
"quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated
with each of the 4 forces (and charges) of physics is the first step toward a conceptual
unification of those forces. (Part 1)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:0912.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-29 13:28:41*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The rationale for gravity begins with the creation of the Cosmos - the negative energy of gravity is necessary to balance the positive energy of the "Big Bang", so that the "Creation Event" requires zero net energy. This is the time when gravity is joined with the other forces in equal strength, and bound energy (mass) is created from free energy (light) and the structural metric of spacetime. Initially, bound energy is in the form of matter-antimatter pairs, so that creation is initiated from a state of zero net charge as well as zero net energy. Beginning in such a state of complete neutrality (perhaps as a giant quantum fluctuation of the vacuum, an "inflationary bubble", or Divine Fiat), the Universe can only evolve into a state of complete conservation. (All "Creation" scenarios are speculative, whether rational or intuitive.)
The gravitational rationale extends beyond the "Creation Event" to the production of matter's time dimension and the conservation of the entropy and symmetry of free electromagnetic energy (light). These secondary conservation roles (which manifest as the gravitational conversion of space to time, and the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy via the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, supernovas, quasars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes), are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and entropy via the contraction and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation, expansion, and cooling of space by the positive energy and entropy of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:0912.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 13 pages

This is the second of a 5 part series of papers examining several local and non-local
factors which affect dowsing measurements on a daily, monthly, annual, or ad hoc
basis. Via the use of a standard yardstick, this paper quantifies significant variations
in its length during the course of a day. In general, perceived measurements gradually
increase in length during daylight hours, and continually reduce during the night. The
major turning points are the local times of sunrise and sunset. To a lesser extent tides
have an influence, but other perturbations are present that require further research.
As well as tides and the Sun's photons, several additional contributory factors are
identified such as the Earth's spin on its tilted axis, gravity, solar wind, or a possible
subtle energy emitted by the Sun. But is the repeatable daily pattern of changing
length caused by biological effects in the dowser, or in the information obtained by
the dowser? In other words, is the above list of physical local and non local factors
acting directly on the dowser's brain and body, or are these factors causing changes in
consciousness via the Information Field? The latter is the "front runner" in the theory
of dowsing.

**Category:** Mind Science

[21] **viXra:0912.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-08 15:00:01*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The strong force (in two expressions) is responsible for the binding of compound atomic nuclei and the binding of quarks in the class of heavy composite particles, the hadrons. Hadrons consist of baryons (containing 3 quarks) and mesons (containing quark-antiquark pairs). Another short-range force, the weak force, is responsible for the creation, destruction, and transformation of single, unpaired elementary particles (quarks and leptons). Both forces are to be understood in terms of energy, charge, and especially symmetry conservation. The strong force conserves whole quantum units of charge (in baryons and mesons), and achieves "least bound energy" nuclear configurations (in compound atomic nuclei); the weak force ensures the invariance of all conserved parameters in elementary particles during the creation, destruction, or transformation of single, unpaired particles - irrespective of time or place. (See: "The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs".)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:0912.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 pages. This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Teilhard de Chardin's notions of the "Noosphere" and the "Omega Point" are explored in the context of
current knowledge and theory, especially J.E. Lovelock's conception of "Gaia" - planet Earth as a
superorganism. Space-faring humans are seen as the "seeds" or dispersal agents of Gaia's reproductive
phase, carrying Earth-life into the Galaxy. "Noah's Ark" is a vision of the future, not the past.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[19] **viXra:0912.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 pages. This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

A General Systems model of the Universe is presented, based on a fractal paradigm. A
4x3 "metric" or fractal algorithm is proposed as the organizing principle of the
Microphysical, Biophysical, Astrophysical, and Metaphysical realms. The algorithm is
expressed through the conservation laws and forces of physics, the families of elementary
particles, the dimensions of spacetime, the quantum rules of atomic order, the structure of
baryons, alpha particles, carbon atoms, carbon's molecular and crystal bonds, DNA, the
genetic code, gravitation, and the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars. The human mind has
discovered this order both intuitively and rationally, where it finds expression in the 4x3
(and 4x4) patterns of mythological, occult, religious, philosophical, and scientific "world
systems" and cosmologies.
A general model of the human "metaphysical realm", and a model of the unified field
theory are presented as examples of how the fractal algorithm may be used in system
modeling. In its most general form, the 4-part algorithm consists of an input of energy,
followed by two complementary conservation modes, concluding with a restorative force
which either returns the system to its original state, or elevates it to a "harmonic
complexion" or resonant analog of the original state (the various levels of the model

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[18] **viXra:0912.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 14 pages.

Two somewhat long overdue arguments presented here may help in
further clarifying the so called "Black Whole War" and beyond that,
may be useful in Physics at large.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:0912.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 pages. This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

"Local gauge symmetry currents" are forces that maintain the local invariance of universal
constants, charges, and other conserved parameters (such as causality and the "Interval") despite
the hostile environment of a variable gravitational (or inertial) metric, relative rather than
absolute motion, entropy, partial charges, etc. These compensatory forces are due to the activity
of the field vectors of the four forces, which not only act (in the long term) to return these
asymmetric material systems to their original symmetric state (light), but also act (in the short
term) to protect and maintain the invariant values of their symmetry debts (charges), while
awaiting a final repayment via antimatter annihilation, proton decay, the "quantum radiance" of
black holes, or a universal "Big Crunch". Gravity pays the entropy-interest on the symmetry
debt of matter by creating matter's time dimension via the annihilation of space, providing a
historical domain within which charge conservation can have significance. Gravitation
eventually also pays the energy-principle on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound energy
to free energy in stars and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:0912.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-06 17:04:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. part 1 of 3

The phenomenon of "local gauge symmetry" is a ubiquitous and fundamentally important process in nature, essentially describing the normal activity of the field vectors of all four forces of physics. Although formidable in name, it is simple in concept: it comprises the process/mechanism of changing or protecting any conserved parameter of a single elementary particle. "Local gauge symmetry" is a necessary part of our world for two basic and interrelated reasons: 1) our universe is asymmetric in that it is formed of matter only, lacking a balancing antimatter counterpart; 2) our universe consists of an interacting mixture of a) free electromagnetic energy (massless light) in absolute "intrinsic" spatial motion at "velocity c", but with intrinsic rest in time; and b) bound electromagnetic energy (massive particles) at intrinsic rest in space but with an intrinsic temporal motion which is the metric equivalent of "velocity c". "Local gauge symmetry" activities in the short-range nuclear forces (strong, weak) are consequent upon 1); in the long-range spacetime forces (electromagnetism, gravity), such phenomena are consequent upon 2).
The bound forms (massive particles) of electromagnetic energy carry various conserved attributes (charge, spin, etc.) which are the symmetry debts of the free energy from which such particles are made: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem). Conserving, protecting, and maintaining these charges in their original quantity and quality is a major function of the field vectors of the four forces and the "local gauge symmetry currents" they create, all to the end that the original symmetry and energy of the light or free electromagnetic radiation which initiated the universe will be completely conserved. Other issues of energy, entropy, and causality conservation are addressed by the metric properties of the long-range forces (such as the "Lorentz invariance" of Special Relativity) - including, in the case of gravity, the "non-local" distributional symmetry of light's energy, as well as light's spatial entropy drive, both produced by light's intrinsic motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:0912.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Feng Xu

**Comments:** 6 pages, first published in 2006 in Hadronic Journal, volume 29, page 227

The set of all the subsets of a set is its power set, and the cardinality of the power set is always larger than the set and its subsets. Based on the definition and the inequality in cardinality, a set cannot include its power set as element, and a power set cannot include itself as element. "Russell's set" is a putative set of all the sets that don't include themselves as element. It can be shown, however, that "Russell's set" can never take in all such sets. This is because its own power set, which (like any power set) is a set that doesn't include itself (thus qualifies as an element for "Russell's set"), cannot (although should) be taken in due to the cardinality inequality. Thus "Russell's set" can never be formed. Without it, Russell's paradox, which forced the modification of Cantor's intuitive set theory into a more restricted axiomatic theory, can never be formulated. The reported approach to resolve Russell's paradox is fundamentally different from the conventional approaches. It may restore the self-consistency of Cantor's original set theory, make the Axiom of Regularity unnecessary, and expand the coverage of set to assemblies that include themselves as element.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14] **viXra:0912.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Feng Xu

**Comments:** 7 pages, first published in 2004 in Hadronic Journal, volume 27, pages 741-748

An apparent time dependence of the Hubble constant was deduced from the linear correlation between the recession velocity of galaxies and the traveled distance of their photons under the assumption of the space expansion being homologous. The time dependence of the space expansion velocity at early era implied that the currently used relativistic Doppler equation, invalid for accelerating/deaccelerating reference frames, would lead to inaccurate measurement of the cosmological recession velocity for highly redshifted galaxies/quasars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0912.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 41 pages, 2 figures, companion piece to
http://vixra.org/abs/0912.0012

This 41 page PPT changed to PDF is material in common A.Beckwith gave in the ChristChurch,
New Zealand Meeting, December 16th, 2009, i.e. the ACGRG 5th conference in GR , and also to be
presented in the Beyond the Standard Model, 2010 meeting, in South
Africa

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0912.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Z.Y. Wang

**Comments:** 3 pages.

Although there has not any direct evidence to the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation
until now, the converse effect was maybe detected in superconductors. In a noteless experiment
performed by scientists of USSR in 1984, a heat flow across the Josephson junction induced the
a.c.component[1] and was interpreted to be a thermoelectric effect. Actually, the thermoelectric effect
means a temperature gradient will generate an extra current. It occurs in a normal material but does
not exist in superconductors. Here is a whole new effect that an extra phase difference rather than
current is induced. We regard it as the converse Unruh effect where the temperature is corresponding
to an acceleration. Then the temperature gradient will lead to an energy difference and consequential
phase change just like the a.c.Josephson effect. Based on the postulate, the frequency formula
dependent to the temperature difference T T dl is given which is in the region of
ω = 4πkΔ/(ℏ^{2} V_{F}) ∫(T_{1} - T_{2})dl
radiowaves and consistent with the mentioned experiment. We hope further experiments will be
carried out soon to make clear the phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0912.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 20 pages. Significant re dos of material on deceleration parameter q(z) on
pages 3, 4, and also Appendix A ( just added ). Figure 1 re sized and re parameterized.
Additional work done on rest of document to answer questions raised by participants
in Beyond the Standard Model, 2010, and also major re dos of what is now Appendix
D. Emphasis as as source document of information for some of the presentations for
several conference presentations, including Beyond the Standard Model 2010,
and SPESIF 2010, and Piers XIAN, 2010, as well as possibly either IDM 2010 in
July, or DICE 2010 in September 2010.

The following document is to answer if higher dimensions add value to answering fundamental
cosmology questions. The results are mixed, 1st with higher dimensions apparently helping in
reconstructing and preserving the value of Planck's constant, and the fine structure constant from a
prior to a present universe, while 2nd failing to add anything different from four dimensional
cosmological models to the question of what would cause an increase in the expansion rate of the
universe, as of a billion years ago. Finally 3rd, higher dimensions may allow creation of a joint
DM and DE model. A choice between LQG and brane world geometry is introduced by Snyder
geometry, where Snyder geometry's minimum uncertainty length calculations δx may help
determine to what extent gravity is an emergent field that is classical. Independent of the choice
of LQG and branes (four dimensions versus higher dimensional cosmology models) is the
following question: If gravity is largely classical, how much nonlinearity is involved? Gravitons
and their structure as information carriers may help answer these questions. The main point of this
document: DM and DE may be unified in terms of cosmological dynamics if the higher
dimensional models of DM, as seen by KK towers of gravitons are seen to be pertinent to
increasing acceleration of the universe a billion years ago via a 4th dimensional small graviton
mass term added to the KK tower DM representation of gravitons (a model of DM).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0912.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-15 21:37:07*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The application of the global-local gauge symmetry concept to the weak force is implemented in this paper as follows (each force requires a unique treatment of this issue):
"Local symmetry" refers to the transformation, creation, or destruction of a single elementary particle (such as a lepton or quark). Single-particle transformations are the special purview of the weak force: other forces create only particle-antiparticle pairs. "Global symmetry" refers to the universal standard of mass/charge/spin/etc. to which the transformed or newly created particle must conform: all elementary particles ever created must be exactly the same as others of their kind. The universal electron field (the set of all electrons) for example, represents a global standard to which any new electron must conform.
Accomplishing this feat in practice requires the mediation of the Higgs boson and the weak force IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) - and provides the rationale for their huge masses. The Higgs sets the mass scale for the IVBs, and the IVBs perform the transformations. The great mass of the IVBs recreates the original energy density at which the elementary particles in question were originally created during the "Big Bang". Thus every electron is forged from the same mould, and every weak force transformation is a mini- "Big Bang". In the case of the "W" family of IVBs, this energy density corresponds to the electroweak force-unification energy threshold. At this energy all leptons have merged their specific identities into a collective leptonic "genus", and likewise the quarks have merged their identities into a collective hadron "genus". Within each "genus", transformations of identity between one lepton and another lepton, or between one quark and another quark, are readily accomplished due to their merged identities.
The exchange of energy and charge between the local single particle being transformed, and the global "generic" state of the electroweak force-unification energy state represented by the IVBs, comprises a "local gauge symmetry current" composed of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs which are derived from the Dirac/Heisenberg "vacuum" of spacetime. The "vacuum of spacetime" is the ultimate reservoir of particle charge, mass and any other conserved parameters of elementary particles (which exist in the vacuum as virtual particle-antiparticle pairs), but the "vacuum" must be energized to a specific level by the weak force IVBs to achieve the globally invariant "standard of perfection" demanded by energy, charge, and symmetry conservation in an entropically driven universe of relative as well as absolute motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:0912.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-20 17:37:45*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

"Local gauge symmetry currents" are forces that maintain the local invariance of universal constants, charges, and other conserved parameters (such as causality, "velocity c", and the "Interval") despite the hostile environment of a variable gravitational (or inertial) metric, relative rather than absolute motion, entropy, partial (fractional) charges, etc. These compensatory forces are due to the activity of the field vectors of the four forces, which not only act (in the long term) to return asymmetric material systems to their original symmetric energy state (light), but also act (in the short term) to protect and maintain the invariant values of charge and other conserved symmetry debts. Conserved charges are conserved symmetry debts awaiting a final repayment via antimatter annihilation, proton decay, the "quantum radiance" of black holes, or a universal "Big Crunch". Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of matter by creating matter's time dimension via the annihilation of space, providing a historical domain within which charge conservation can have durable significance, and in which the repayment of symmetry debts can be indefinitely deferred. Gravity eventually also pays the energy-"principle" on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound energy to free energy in stars, supernovas, quasars, and finally via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes, in the latter case completely vanishing mass and its associated gravitational field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:0912.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 11 pages. This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Local gauge symmetry currents" are forces that maintain the local invariance of universal constants and other conserved parameters (such as charge, causality, and the "Interval") despite the hostile environment of a variable gravitational (or inertial) metric, relative rather than absolute motion, entropy, partial charges, etc. These compensatory forces are due to the activity of the field vectors of the four forces, which not only act (in the long term) to return these asymmetric material systems to their original symmetric state (light), but also act (in the short term) to protect and maintain the invariant values of their charges (= symmetry debts) while awaiting a final repayment via antimatter annihilation, proton decay, the "quantum radiance" of blackholes, or a universal "Big Crunch.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:0912.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-10 20:15:05*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory, as presented in these pages, can be briefly sketched as follows:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a continuous multi-component field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one finds an associated conservation law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces. Light's raw energy is conserved as mass and momentum; light's intrinsic motion or entropy "drive" is conserved as time and gravitation. All forms of energy, including the conservation/entropy domain of spacetime, originate as light. During the "Big Bang", the asymmetric interaction (as mediated by the weak force) of primordial, high energy light with the metric structure of spacetime and the four forces of physics (including gravity) produced matter; matter carries charges which are the symmetry (and entropy) debts of the light which created it.
Charge invariance is a crucial corollary of charge and symmetry conservation, maintained in our temporal (gravitational/spacetime) metric of relative motion by "local gauge symmetry currents" (compensating components of the field vectors of the four physical forces, such as magnetism and time). The invariance of "velocity c", the "Interval", and causality are likewise important dimensional corollaries of energy conservation (the "Lorentz Invariance" of Special and General Relativity). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), paying (partially or completely) matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment of matter's symmetry debt (partial or complete) is exampled by: 1) spontaneous, exothermic chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilations (electromagnetic force); 2) radioactivity, fission/fusion, and proton decay (weak/strong nuclear forces); 3) the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, the conversion of potential gravitational energy to light by quasars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (gravity). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification of those forces. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:0912.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 18 pages, Also archived as arXiv:0910.2490 [physics.gen-ph].

Feynman's Lagrangian path integral was an outgrowth of Dirac's vague surmise that Lagrangians have a
role in quantum mechanics. Lagrangians implicitly incorporate Hamilton's first equation of motion, so their
use contravenes the uncertainty principle, but they are relevant to semiclassical approximations and relatedly
to the ubiquitous case that the Hamiltonian is quadratic in the canonical momenta, which accounts
for the Lagrangian path integral's "success". Feynman also invented the Hamiltonian phase-space path
integral, which is fully compatible with the uncertainty principle. We recast this as an ordinary functional
integral by changing direct integration over subpaths constrained to all have the same two endpoints into
an equivalent integration over those subpaths' unconstrained second derivatives. Function expansion with
generalized Legendre polynomials of time then enables the functional integral to be unambiguously evaluated
through first order in the elapsed time, yielding the Schrödinger equation with a unique quantization
of the classical Hamiltonian. Widespread disbelief in that uniqueness stemmed from the mistaken notion
that no subpath can have its two endpoints arbitrarily far separated when its nonzero elapsed time is made
arbitrarily short. We also obtain the quantum amplitude for any specified configuration or momentum
path, which turns out to be an ordinary functional integral over, respectively, all momentum or all configuration
paths. The first of these results is directly compared with Feynman's mistaken Lagrangian-action
hypothesis for such a configuration path amplitude, with special heed to the case that the Hamiltonian is
quadratic in the canonical momenta.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:0912.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 11 pages, Final publication in Foundations of Physics; available online at
http://www.springerlink.com/content/k827666834140322/

Dirac's identification of the quantum analog of the Poisson bracket with the commutator is reviewed, as
is the threat of self-inconsistent overdetermination of the quantization of classical dynamical variables which
drove him to restrict the assumption of correspondence between quantum and classical Poisson brackets
to embrace only the Cartesian components of the phase space vector. Dirac's canonical commutation rule
fails to determine the order of noncommuting factors within quantized classical dynamical variables, but
does imply the quantum/classical correspondence of Poisson brackets between any linear function of phase
space and the sum of an arbitrary function of only configuration space with one of only momentum space.
Since every linear function of phase space is itself such a sum, it is worth checking whether the assumption
of quantum/classical correspondence of Poisson brackets for all such sums is still self-consistent. Not
only is that so, but this slightly stronger canonical commutation rule also unambiguously determines the
order of noncommuting factors within quantized dynamical variables in accord with the 1925 Born-Jordan
quantization surmise, thus replicating the results of the Hamiltonian path integral, a fact first realized by
E. H. Kerner. Born-Jordan quantization validates the generalized Ehrenfest theorem, but has no inverse,
which disallows the disturbing features of the poorly physically motivated invertible Weyl quantization,
i.e., its unique deterministic classical "shadow world" which can manifest negative densities in phase space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:0912.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 pages, Also archived as arXiv:0909.4025 [physics.gen-ph].

It is generally acknowledged that neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac Hamiltonian can
produce sound solitary-particle relativistic quantum mechanics due to the ill effects of their negative-energy
solutions; instead their field-quantized wavefunctions are reinterpreted as dealing with particle and
antiparticle simultaneously - despite the clear physical distinguishability of antiparticle from particle and the
empirically known slight breaking of the underlying CP invariance. The natural square-root Hamiltonian
of the free relativistic solitary particle is iterated to obtain the Klein-Gordon equation and linearized to
obtain the Dirac Hamiltonian, steps that have calculational but not physical motivation, and which
generate the above-mentioned problematic negative-energy solutions as extraneous artifacts. Since the natural
square-root Hamiltonian for the free relativistic solitary particle contrariwise produces physically
unexceptionable quantum mechanics, this article focuses on extending that Hamiltonian to describe a solitary
particle (of either spin 0 or spin ½ in relativistic interaction with an external electromagnetic field. That
is achieved by use of Lorentz-covariant solitary-particle four-momentum techniques together with the
assumption that well-known nonrelativistic dynamics applies in the particle's rest frame. Lorentz-invariant
solitary-particle actions, whose formal Hamiltonization is an equivalent alternative approach, are as well
explicitly displayed. It is proposed that two separate solitary-particle wavefunctions, one for a particle
and the other for its antiparticle, be independently quantized in lieu of "reinterpreting" negative-energy
solutions - which indeed don't even afflict proper solitary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:0912.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 pages, Also archived as arXiv:0908.3024 [physics.gen-ph]. Conclusion section added.

Many physical constants related to quantized gravity, e.g., the Planck length, mass, curvature,
stress-energy, etc., are nonanalytic in G at G = 0, and thus have expansions in powers of G whose terms are
progressively more divergent with increasing order. Since the gravity field's classical action is inversely
proportional to G, the path integral for gravity-field quantum transition amplitudes shows that these
depend on G only through the product ℏG, and are nonanalytic in G at G = 0 for the same reason
that all quantum transition amplitudes are nonanalytic in ℏ at ℏ = 0, namely their standard oscillatory
essential singularity at the classical 'limit'. Thus perturbation expansions in powers of G of gravity-field
transition amplitudes are also progressively more divergent with increasing order, and hence unrenormalizable. While their perturbative treatment is impossible, the exceedingly small value of ℏG makes
the semiclassical treatment of these amplitudes extraordinarily accurate, indeed to such an extent that
purely classical treatment of the gravity field ought to always be entirely adequate. It should therefore
be fruitful to couple classical gravity to other fields which actually need to be quantized: those fields'
ubiquitous, annoying ultraviolet divergences would thereupon undergo drastic self-gravitational red shift,
and thus be cut off.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:0912.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-06 07:16:30*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory, as presented in these pages, can be briefly sketched as follows:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a continuous multi-component field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one finds an associated conservation law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces. Light's raw energy is conserved as mass and momentum; light's intrinsic motion or spatial entropy drive is conserved as time and gravitation.
All forms of energy, including the conservation/entropy domain of spacetime, originate as light. During the "Big Bang", the asymmetric interaction of primordial, high energy light with the metric structure of spacetime (and the unified action of the four forces of physics) produces matter; matter carries charges which are the symmetry (and entropy) debts of the light which created it. Charge invariance is therefore an important corollary of charge and symmetry conservation, maintained in our temporal (gravitational) metric of relative motion by "local gauge symmetry currents" (compensating components of the field vectors, such as magnetism and time). The invariance of "velocity c", the "Interval", and causality are likewise important corollaries of energy conservation (the "Lorentz Invariance" of Special and General Relativity). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric energy state (light), paying (partially or completely) matter's symmetry/entropy debt. Repayment of matter's symmetry debt is exampled by: 1) spontaneous exothermic chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation; 2) radioactivity and proton decay; 3) the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with the charges and forces of physics (including gravity) is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:0912.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-05 07:58:07*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory, as presented in these pages, can be briefly sketched as follows:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a continuous multi-component field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one finds an associated conservation law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces. Light's raw energy is conserved as mass and momentum; light's intrinsic motion or entropy drive is conserved as time and gravitation.
All forms of energy, including the entropic conservation domain of spacetime, originate as light. During the "Big Bang", the asymmetric interaction of primordial, high energy light with the metric structure of spacetime (and combined with the unified action of the four forces of physics), produces matter; matter carries charges which are the symmetry (and entropy) debts of the light which created it. Charge invariance is therefore an important corollary of charge and symmetry conservation, maintained in our temporal (gravitational) metric of relative motion by "local gauge symmetry currents" (compensating components of the field vectors, such as magnetism and time). The invariance of "velocity c", the "Interval", and causality are likewise important metric corollaries of energy conservation (the "Lorentz Invariance" of Special and General Relativity). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric energy state (light), paying (partially or completely) matter's symmetry/entropy debt. Repayment of matter's symmetry debt is exampled by: 1) spontaneous, exothermic chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation; 2) radioactivity and proton decay; 3) the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with the charges and forces of physics (including gravity) is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory