[85] **viXra:1112.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-31 15:35:48*

**Authors:** Wen-sau Yim, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Cancer growth and decay can be modeled as a system of chaotic nonlinear differential equations. The system is based on a reaction-diffusion cancer growth model, expressed by a mathematical model that is simplified by Ivancevicet. al. This allows useful parameters to be applied for simulation and then recreated in C and Java, to directly compare with its predecessor project. A variation in a set of the parameters is found to decrease tumor growth in the early stages of tumor development.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[84] **viXra:1112.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-07 10:45:39*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This should be the final. Accuracies calculated in parts per billion

Based on the developments in a previous paper [1], this paper presents straightforward explanation of particle mass ratios, yielding specific values for some well studied particles. The additional nuclear modes postulated, are similar to the Schrodinger modes in the atom, and the mass ratios calculated for these particles have been calculated within the experimental values, with accuracies up to 2.4 parts per billion. The examined particles are the Proton, Neutron, Muon, Tauon, and Pion+/-/0.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[83] **viXra:1112.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-31 06:37:28*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper you will find ten examples of numerical coincidences among the physical quantities of the universe.
Unfortunately, you will unlikely find them somewhere else, as most of them are here presented in an environment which is hostile to the prevailing cosmology, made of an unjustifiable (thick, dark, transparent, heavy and invisible!!!) dark matter, of unacceptable theoretical densities of the universe and unacceptable rotation speeds on galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1112.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-31 06:41:31*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper (for the moment in Italian language only-sorry) you can find a rare proof of the Gauss Distribution Law, as almost all available books (in the opinion of who is writing) just show it, without giving any demonstration.
Then, here you can also find a description of the 3-sigma rule, very used in the field of technologies.
At last, a peculiarity of the quantum mechanics is here highlighted, where the claim of the equality sign in the Heisenberg indetermination equations leads to a Gaussian wave function, indeed, which reduces to a minimum value the quantum uncertainty situation.

**Category:** Statistics

[81] **viXra:1112.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-20 16:50:56*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 19 Pages. more details on how to do steps one and three

Modern physics has become so vast and so complicated that a deep connection between empirical technologically-oriented physics and the realm of basic theory becomes more and more a rare exercise in crossdisciplinary cooperation. This paper will give an overview of many important developments both on the empirical side and the theoretical side, well known to both but not to each other, and give the specifics of a way to connect them more effectively. After the initial review, it provides a three-step program for reorganizing and simplifying our fundamental assumptions about the laws of physics, starting by linking recent progress in areas like backwards time physics, coherence phenomena in quantum optics and cavity QED to the retrieval of an updated form of Einstein’s vision of a universe of mathematically elegant and rigorous continuous fields, addressing empirical and theoretical questions which are still open in the study of nuclear interactions and in the mathematical study of solitons, including the Higgs boson.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[80] **viXra:1112.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-30 16:03:25*

**Authors:** Michael A. Bucko

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjecture on equivalence between Zeta Riemann and R-sequence.

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1112.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-30 16:05:03*

**Authors:** Michael A. Bucko

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On p2n blocker conjecture and R2 function, ie. the conjecture based on R-sequence theory.

**Category:** Number Theory

[78] **viXra:1112.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-10 05:04:37*

**Authors:** Colin Jack

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

There is a practical way to generate energy from fusion. The basic method is well known: a hollow fuel capsule implodes within a hohlraum. However the hohlraum is heated not by lasers, but by the impact of charged micropellets fired at ultravelocity. This technique has long been used to test spacecraft micrometeoroid shields, and has been suggested for fusion. The key novel step is that it is now possible to track and guide each pellet individually during flight, using COTS-available technology. This opens up options never before considered:

- The pellets catch up together during flight through a long vacuum pipe, so an accelerator of modest power can provide a very high peak input pulse. A train of pellets launched over a period of milliseconds arrives at the hohlraum within a span of nanoseconds: a ‘temporal compression’ factor of one million.

- Successively smaller course corrections fine-tune the pellet trajectories to ever-increasing precision. The pellets are progressively discharged as they travel, so mutual repulsion at convergence is eliminated. The pellets impact the hohlraum in a precisely specified pattern.

The method is ideally suited to standoff operation. Detonation can take place completely surrounded by flowing lithium, which extracts the energy while also breeding tritium to close the fuel cycle. There is no need for a large vacuum chamber, and no unwanted radioactives are produced.

The only net input is deuterium and lithium. Capital cost is modest. Equipment life is indefinite. It will be possible to retrofit existing coal-fired generating plant for fusion.

Overall length of the accelerator and standoff pipe is substantial, several kilometres. However even if the whole length has to be placed in a tunnel, its cost is small compared to that of a power station. The pellets travel at only a few hundred km/sec: the accelerator is driven at RF frequency, by inexpensive solid state switches.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[77] **viXra:1112.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-30 13:37:01*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

The Universe is quantized simply because its age is very long, so its cycle frequency is very small, but not zero! From this, the quantizations of all physical quantities can be derived.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[76] **viXra:1112.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-30 13:40:59*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper you can find not only a formal LASER Theory, but also useful appendixes which help you to understand the origins of all the equations used in the paper itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1112.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-29 23:32:06*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 86 Pages.

In this paper you can find a complete treatise on the General Theory of Relativity, starting from the basic geometry, through the Einstein's field equations, to the calculation of the deflection of light by the Sun and of the precession of the perihelion of planets.
Moreover, as appendixes, you will also find the Restricted Theory of Relativity and an explanation on how I see the Gravity (coming from) the Electromagnetism!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1112.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-05 15:45:38*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 195 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is a simple model of fundamental physics that is strictly based on the axioms of traditional quantum logic. It uses a sequence of instances of an extension of a quaternionic separable Hilbert space that each represent a static status quo of the whole universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1112.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-29 01:58:22*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The mysterious dark matter is a totally unknown and unjustifiable object which has been
introduced to make theoretical and measured data match. The fourth dimension in the Theory of Relativity
has no support from the real Universe.
The fourth axis introduced in relativity through the 4-vectorial formulation of the quantities is just the falling axis of the matter towards the center of mass of the Universe, with speed c! And this axis is, of course, located in the 3-dimensional context of the Universe itself.
Moreover, forget the tens of dimensions, rolled up over themselves, coming from the String Theory!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1112.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-20 21:20:37*

**Authors:** Stein Sivertsen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

September 2011: The OPERA neutrino anomaly was the detection by the OPERA experiment of subatomic particles, neutrinos, that appeared to travel faster than light. This result was publicly announced on September 2011. The apparent finding was a subject of inquiry and debate. It was considered anomalous since speeds higher than that of light in a vacuum are generally thought to violate special relativity. In this paper, published 28.12.2011, I offered an explanation of this anomaly based upon my article: http://www.vixra.org/abs/1010.0035 (A Philosophical And Mathematical Theory Of Everything).
Updated 21.04.2013: In february 2012 the OPERA collaboration confirmed that the measurement result was based on two errors: 1. A link from a GPS receiver to the OPERA master clock was loose. 2. A clock on an electronic board ticked faster than expected. Correcting for the two found sources of error, results for neutrino speed appear to be consistent with the speed of light.
After the initial report from OPERA many physicists tried to reconcile the OPERA result and make sense of it, while many were actively trying to disprove the result. I, my self, as an independent amature scientist, found the september report from OPERA very interesting because it made me wonder if the “maximum speed limit” in nature (c) in some frames of references could be faster relative to the light speed measured above earth in vacuum.
We now know that the OPERA result was erroneous. But in “The Scharnhorst effect”, which is a hypothetical phenomenon, light signals travel faster than c between two closely spaced conducting plates. “A prediction made by this assertion is that the speed of a photon will be increased if it travels between two Casimir plates. Because of the limited amount of space between the two plates, some virtual particles present in vacuum fluctuations will have wavelengths that are too large to fit between the plates. This causes the effective density of virtual particles between the plates to be lower than that outside the plates. Therefore, a photon that travels between these plates will spend less time interacting with virtual particles because there are fewer of them to slow it down. The ultimate effect would be to increase the apparent speed of that photon. The closer the plates are, the lower the virtual particle density, and the higher the speed of light. The effect, however, is predicted to be minuscule. A photon travelling between two plates that are 1 micrometer apart would increase the photon's speed by only about one part in 10 ^36. This change in light's speed is too small to be detected with current technology, which prevents the Scharnhorst effect from being tested at this time.” (Se reference 3). This effect could in theory lead to an increased “maximum speed limit” inside earth where the mass density is extremely high (where the amount of space between the particles is extremely limited relative to vacuum above earth). Because of this interesting hypothetical phenomenom I have arrived to the conclusion to let my speculative analysis in the article published 28.12.2011 stand untouched, since it still gives an explanation of why the maximum speed limit (c) in some frames might be faster than lightspeed measured in vacuum (based upon my article: http://www.vixra.org/abs/1010.0035 (A Philosophical And Mathematical Theory Of Everything). (My article “Neutrinos faster than light speed“, published 28.12.2011 in vixra.org, is also referred to in the database: “http://web.mit.edu/redingtn/www/netadv/ftlNuSwift.html” (at Massachusetts Institute of Technology) under the chapter “Neutrinos move faster in matter”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1112.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-28 19:13:34*

**Authors:** U.V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Role of Avogadro number in grand unification. Hadronic Journal. Vol-33, No 5, 2010 Oct. p513.

It is very clear that, to unify 2 interactions if 5 dimensions are required, for unifying 4 interactions 10 dimensions are required. For 3+1 dimensions if there exists 4 (observed) interactions, for 10 dimensions there may exist 10 (observable) interactions. To unify 10 interactions 20 dimensions are required. From this idea it can be suggested that- with `n' new dimensions `unification' problem can not be resolved. By implementing the gravitational constant in atomic and nuclear physics, independent of the CGS and SI units, Avogadro number can be obtained very easily and its order of magnitude is $\cong N \cong 6 \times 10^{23}$ but not $6 \times 10^{26}.$ If $M_P$ is the Planck mass and $m_e$ is the rest mass of electron, semi empirically it is observed that, $M_g \cong N^{\frac{2}{3}}\cdot \sqrt{M_Pm_e} \cong 1.0044118 \times 10^{-3} \; Kg.$ If $m_{p} $ is the rest mass of proton it is noticed that $\ln \sqrt{\frac{e^{2} }{4\pi \varepsilon _{0} Gm_{P}^{2} } } \cong \sqrt{\frac{m_{p} }{m_{e} } -\ln \left(N^{2} \right)}.$ Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G} $. Ratio of `classical force limit' and `weak force magnitude' is $N^{2} $. Assumed relation for strong force and weak force magnitudes is $\sqrt{\frac{F_{S} }{F_{W} } } \cong 2\pi \ln \left(N^{2} \right)$. From SUSY point of view, `integral charge quark fermion' and `integral charge quark boson' mass ratio is $\Psi=2.262218404$ but not unity. With these advanced concepts an ``alternative" to the `standard model' can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[70] **viXra:1112.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-31 15:33:22*

**Authors:** J. Bajnok

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

According to the theory of relativity as established before the 1900s, the mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena that occur in systems in inertial motion do not contain the information needed to detect absolute motion. Today we know two state variables, which depend on the motion state of a body that appear in measurements: one of them is mass, which changes with respect to velocity or kinetic energy; the other is radiation frequency, which characterizes the inner state of atoms, and also changes with respect to velocity. Going back to the equation m = E/c^2 deduced by Poincare, the body absolute motion and absolute velocity
can be deduced from the true mass change and true frequency change. As a first step, in the course of studying the changes of physical states in connection with kinetic energy, it was established that a limit exists for those parameters of the body which change with respect to velocity in case of the state of absolute rest, devoid of
translational motion. On these grounds, as a second step, the dynamic definition of absolute rest was formulated. As a third step, the relationship between the body absolute velocity and mass change was deduced knowing the limits. Conclusion: a body absolute velocity can be determined from its gravitational mass measured at various velocities or from the values of radiation frequency, which changes in inverse proportion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[69] **viXra:1112.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-26 15:45:48*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Vast amounts of data clearly demonstrate discrepancies between the observed dynamics, in large astronomical systems, and the predicted dynamics by Newtonian gravity and general relativity. The appearance of these discrepancies has two possible explanations: either these systems contain large quantities of a new kind of unseen matter −the Dark Matter (DM)− or the gravitational law has to be modified at this scale −as in MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)−. This dichotomy is not entirely new in the history of physics, with DM playing now the role of the old non-existent Vulcan planet.

We have shown how both (i) the MONDian form and (ii) Milgrom acceleration follow from an extended theory of gravity −characterized by a new kind of gravitational potentials *h _{μν}*(

[68] **viXra:1112.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-26 01:57:02*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The electron is interpreted as a small electric current carrying the elementary charge and the elementary mass. The equivalent circuit is a quarter-wave short circuited transmission line, the line having characteristic impedance 25812.807449 Ohm, the von Klitzing constant.
A similar line, closed on itself after a twist (as in a Moebius strip), not only justifies the charge and mass, but also the angular momentum of the electron.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[67] **viXra:1112.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-23 20:32:40*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

CERN's analysis of 5/fb of data collected by the LHC by Halloween 2011 will be discussed at the Moriond 2012 Theory Conference in March 2012. A Standard Model Higgs with 3 Mass States at 145, 180-200, and 240 GeV will stabilize the Standard Model up to the Planck Scale and is consistent with the gamma-gamma and ZZ-4l data from the LHC. This paper is a proposal that the 3-mass-state SM Higgs should be discussed at the Moriond 2012 Theory Conference. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1112.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-24 08:58:24*

**Authors:** Azzam AlMosallami

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The OPERA experiment [1] at the Gran Sasso laboratory south of Rome, said they recorded
neutrinos beamed to them from the CERN research center in Switzerland as arriving 60
nanoseconds before light would have done. But ICARUS [2], another experiment at Gran
Sasso - which is deep under mountains and run by Italy's National Institute of National Physics - now
argues that their measurements of the neutrinos energy on arrival contradict that reading. In their
paper, the ICARUS [2] team says their findings "refute a superluminal (faster than light)
interpretation of the OPERA [1] result." They argue, on the basis of the published studies by two
top U.S. physicists, that the neutrinos pumped down from CERN, near Geneva, should have lost
most of their energy if they had travelled at even a tiny fraction faster than light. But in fact, the
ICARUS scientists say, the neutrino beam as tested in their equipment registered an energy
spectrum fully corresponding with what it should be for particles traveling at the speed of light
and no more. Neutrinos scarcely interact with matter, which means they escape an exploding star
more quickly than photons, something the SN 1987A measurements confirmed. But SN 1987A
is 170,000 light years away. If neutrinos moved slightly faster than the speed of light, they would
have arrived at the Earth years - not hours - before the detected photons from the supernova.
According to my modified special relativity theory (MSRT) [3], I’ll give an interpretation for the
OPERA experiment, ICARUS and the SN 1987A, and how they are related with the same
theory. The previous experiments are considered as a confirmation for my proposed modified
special relativity theory, which is formulated in 1996 in order to unify between quantum theory
(Copenhagen school) and relativity theory in concepts, principles and laws.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[65] **viXra:1112.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-23 05:58:38*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

Using Jiang function we prove the new prime theorems(13910-(1440)

**Category:** Number Theory

[64] **viXra:1112.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-29 15:09:21*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach, viz., we provide a heuristical derivation of the so-called Navier-Stokes equation. We turn out to be concerned with the physical insight regarding the system under consideration, a system of continuum. Derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are, frequently, pedagogically cumbersome, loosing the main heuristics one should grasp under the transition to the continuum. This transition turns out to naturally encapsulate neglected degrees of freedom due to the intrinsically thermodynamic domain. This pedagogical derivation discusses the properties of the continuum fluids and the relation to the taken limit encapsulating the continuum hypothesis, which turns out to raise the question of lack of validity over extremely distorted subdomains, once a grown rarefied subdomain may not provide sufficient large statistics to a smooth description via its center of mass, which is the main hypothesis of the infinitesimal limit process for the local description under the continuum hypothesis. Such transient, albeit not presented here, once it would change the characteristic of this paper to the research one connected to the important question of unicity of the (3+1)-dimensional Navier-Stokes differential equation, is to be pointed out, once it provides ansatz for research on the unicity of description of fluids by the Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[63] **viXra:1112.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-20 15:31:50*

**Authors:** Donald Reed

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Evidence will be presented from a wide spectrum of theoretical and empirical research to advance the thesis that the laws of nature, particularly in the astrophysical and microphysical arenas, are in some sense contextual, possibly dependent on both location and to a certain extent, direction...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[62] **viXra:1112.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-31 16:38:53*

**Authors:** Oleg Kupervasser

**Comments:** 5 Pages. "Frontiers in Science",Vol.2, No.6, December 2012

Recently David Jennings and Terry Rudolph published two papers as reaction on Maccone’s paper "Quantum Solution to the Arrow-of-Time Dilemma". In these papers, the authors suppose that second law of thermodynamics is not relevant for quantum systems. Unfortunately, these papers did not get relevant reply from Maccone. The reason of this is following. Both Maccone and the above-mentioned authors use thermodynamic law and thermodynamic-like terminology for non-thermodynamic systems, for example, microscopic system of three qubits. However, big size of a system (quantum or classic) is also not an enough condition for a system to be macroscopic. The macroscopic system must also be chaotic and has small chaotic interaction with its environment/observer resulting in decoherence (decorrelation). We demonstrate that for relevant thermodynamic macroscopic quantum systems no objection appears.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1112.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 11:37:16*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 5 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[60] **viXra:1112.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-21 09:35:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 24

In Quantum Function Follows Form theory, (Q-FFF) the Higgs particle is interpreted as a massless transformer particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and able to merge with other shaped particles into composite geometrical knots called Quarks and some Leptons (Muons and Tauons).
Singular particles are; the two Leptons: the Electron and Positron, different shaped Photons, Gluons and neutrinos all originated out of one single transformed Higgs.
As a result, Q-FFF theory leads to a NON Standard Model of elementary particles, also described in this paper.
As a consequence the recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, showing special values between 121-130 GeV for the predicted signal of the massive Standard Model (SM) Higgs, should be interpreted as the result of one or more different composite particle decay- and collision processes and not as the result of Higgs decay.
In this paper I present some possible transformations after the collision of (Non- SM) Proton particles interpreted as Quark- Gluon cloud collisions, into the observed production and decay results such as, gg into Di-Photons, ZZ into 4 Lepton or WW into LvLv .

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:1112.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-28 03:18:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper examines the possibility to origin the spontaneously broken symmetries from the Planck distribution law. In this way we get for example a unification of the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] **viXra:1112.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-20 03:35:30*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the Nature exist countless facts, whereas only thing backing relativity is the hypothesis, that the speed of light is invariant universal constant. However this hypothesis is meaningless, because it is clear that there exist superluminal velocities and absolute quantities. In this case, the Theory of relativity is arbitrary and wrong. This has been mentioned by many true scientists, such as Rutherford, Soddy, Michelson, Sagnac, Lenard, Larmor, McMillan, Tesla, Tsiolkovsky and others, unlike the modern physics. As regards so-called relativistic proofs, they are mostly imaginary and hidden. For example, black holes are hidden under a layer of luminous atmosphere, gravitational lens is hidden in the atmospheric lens, gravitational redshift of a star is hidden in the Compton effect, mass of an electron is hidden in the mass of the beam, Lorentz contraction is hidden in stellar aberrational contraction etc. Also, the relativistic navigational system GPS, actually works in accordance with classical physics, because there is a privileged coordinate system, as well as disturbances in data, which are being corrected permanently by ground control stations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1112.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-19 20:22:00*

**Authors:** U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Avogadro number couples the gravitational and non-gravitational interactions

By implementing the gravitational constant in atomic and nuclear physics, independent of the CGS and SI units, Avogadro number can be obtained very easily. It is observed that, either in SI system of units or in CGS system of units, value of the order of magnitude of Avogadro number $\cong N \cong 6 \times 10^{23}$ but not $6 \times 10^{26}.$ Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G} $. Ratio of `classical force limit' and `weak force magnitude' is $N^{2} $. This may be the beginning of unification of `gravitational and non-gravitational interactions'.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[56] **viXra:1112.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-19 23:48:22*

**Authors:** Ranganath G Kulkarni

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Equivalence of mass and energy relation can be proved by Newtonian mechanics. The law of conservation of energy necessitates to assume that when the body moves increase in mass of the body is real so total energy of the body measured by all observers is same irrespective of their state of motion. Second postulate of theory of relativity can be proved. But theory of relativity is not correct. Mass and time are absolute quantities. This also indicates that nature has upper limit for velocity and absolute frame of reference exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1112.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-19 09:31:38*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 11 Pages. First draft; Goal is to stimulate discussion

Arguments are presented for the contention that a new fractal cosmological paradigm is on the verge of replacing the previous standard paradigm of physics. The old and new paradigms are compared and contrasted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1112.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-28 00:53:44*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In order to understand nonlocal phenomena, the corresponding processes must be treated as scattering experiments and investigated in the frame of quantum field theory. Quantum
mechanics is not sufficient for this task, because it is only concerned with the influence of a potential on a physical object. But in processes with nonlocal effects the role of interaction between physical objects must be sufficiently respected. – All this is shown first of all for the special case of the spin-1/2-experiment, and then generalized to arbitrary scattering
processes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1112.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-11 09:40:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[52] **viXra:1112.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-19 14:12:51*

**Authors:** Diego Lucio Rapoport

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We reintroduce the Klein Bottle (KB) logophysics at the foundations of the
unification of quantum geometry, cell biology, embryology and evolution, to extend
it to the genetic code and allosteric recognition. We find that the genetic code has
three possible fractal topologies: two different families of KBs embedded in
HyperKBs, or still a 2-torus, depending which pair of three subalphabets for the
genetic “letters” is chosen; this does not require the double helix. We complete the
genetic codification of embryological differentiation introduced in an accompanying
article. We discuss the Hadamard-KB representation of this codification and discuss
its robustness and that of embryological development with respect to environmental
noise. We discuss this KB codification of the 64 codons with its isomorphic
representation in terms of the Dirac Algebra (DA) of Quantum Mechanics, in the
Nilpotent Universal Computational Rewrite System (NUCRS), a self-referential syntax
that generates much of mathematics and the fundamental symmetries of physics.
We show that the double helix can be obtained from the duplication of the KB
associated with the bistable perception of the tetrahedron representation of the
four genetic letters. The DA and its double tetrahedron codification in NUCRS is
found to be associated with a pair of superposed KBs, yielding the double 3D (space
and momentum) space of physics, and the double helix of DNA, which thus appears
related to a pair of KBs, being the case that only one is necessary to construct the
genome. We show that the depth-time variable of visual perception materializes as
space Thus, the DA is derivable from two KBs, and the purported dualism of physics
as presented in NUCRS, is rendered to be based in the non-dualistic KBL. We discuss
the relations with a theory of evolutions, and between biological periodicities and
the KB of the Mendeleev table (Boeyens). We present relations between
metacognition and the HyperKlein Bottle, and evolution in terms of time waves
defining in toto the different structures. We present rudiments of the
ontoepistemology of the Hyper KB Logic, its relations with the anthropic principles
and the universal physical constants, which are found to be contextual.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[51] **viXra:1112.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-19 14:15:38*

**Authors:** Diego Lucio Rapoport

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We introduce a new paradigm for embryological differentiation with its relations to
the genome and evolution, in terms of the fusion of logic and physics: logophysics
(LGP), associated to the ontology and epistemology of the Klein Bottle (KB). We
introduce LGP through the subversion of the fixed dualistic categories of exterior and
interior, basis for much of science, in terms of the eversion: turning inside-out of the
two dimensional elastic sphere (ovum), which is the actual case. We propose
bauplans unfolding from a 6d space in which time waves manifest through torsion
fields in real space and in which the eversion is mediated by KBs. We present the
torsion geometry, quantum and elastodynamical, of self-referential biology. We
apply this to the problem of the physics of embryological differentiation in terms of
quantum torsion-elastodynamics waves and the light tensegrity of the cell. We
associate it with a topological transformation which extends the proposal by
Maxwell and Poynting, founders of electromagnetics, for the interaction of the
inanimate and animate worlds. We present a new conception of the world in terms
of time waves and the KB, that appears in the natural number system, in cosmology,
in vision recognition, in the topographic map of the sensorium, in the periodic table
of elements, the genome, etc. We surmount the ancient problem of what life is,
providing a LGP basis for both the inanimate and animate realms.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[50] **viXra:1112.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-18 14:01:31*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Avalable only for arXiv and informing me by email.

In this paper I give a formulation for why a new Higgs-mass is considered otherwise than is usually done. This leads to an additional explanation of my earlier posted papers about neutrinos-faster-than-light-in-vacuum; I also refer to my earlier calculated new Higgs-mass. The addition is a deeper analysis, which does not change the result in the former paper. It is extending the Higgs-energy. The first prediction is the Higgs-particle is a Limited Boson-Surface, or Higgs-LBS. This means: It is not a singular Higgs-mass boson. The second prediction is: The occurrence of an Higgs-LBS may be about 60 nanoseconds before a proton-proton collision in an accelerator, such as the LHC in CERN. This is possible because the Higgs-energy is related to a new dark energy force squared. These predictions are supposed to fit in a new cosmological hypothesis, called the Double Torus of dark energy and dark matter, wherein a new dark energy force is defined as a force smaller than the smallest gravity, which could act beyond General Relativity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[49] **viXra:1112.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-17 12:31:04*

**Authors:** U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 9 Pages. SUSY and strong nuclear gravity in (120-160) GeV mass range. Hadronic journal, Vol-34, No 3, 2011 June, p277-300

It is suggested that, in super symmetry, the fermion and boson mass ratio is equal to 2.62218404 but not unity. Based on strong nuclear gravity and super symmetry it is suggested that: there exists a charged Higgs fermion of rest energy 103125 MeV. Its charged susy boson rest energy is 45586 MeV. The charged Higgs fermion and nuclear charge radius play a crucial role in the emission of the electron in Beta decay. The recently discovered neutral boson of rest energy 123 to 127 MeV seems to be composed of a Higgs charged boson and a W boson. Its obtained rest energy is 126 GeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:1112.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-17 13:02:00*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents general definitions in classical mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1112.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-17 13:46:41*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show that E = MC squared and λ = h/p Are Not Identities and Time is an Illusion

**Category:** Classical Physics

[46] **viXra:1112.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 06:07:16*

**Authors:** William C. Treurniet

**Comments:** 30 Pages. This revision includes a second image obtained from the expanded Rendlesham Forest data set.

This article demonstrates that the 1980 Rendlesham Forest UFO event, the 2002 Crabwood crop formation, and the 2010 Wilton Windmill crop formation are all logically connected. Each event yielded a set of binary data which was decoded using a single image decoding algorithm discovered in part of the Wilton Windmill data set. Remarkably, four meaningful images were decoded from that data set by ordering the data bits in different ways. One image shows a bipedal figure with one arm raised. Another shows the same figure in a different pose with the other arm raised. A third image shows a face with large ears as in a drawing of a bunny in a child's book. A fourth image shows what appears to be a child riding a tricycle. The data set from the Crabwood formation was decoded as a bipedal figure extending a three-fingered hand in greeting. Finally, the data set from the UFO encounter in Rendlesham Forest was decoded as the profile of a small animal and of people performing some activity. Evidently, a plan was devised before 1980 to deliver the encoded images, and to allow them to be revealed only in 2010 when the decoding algorithm would be provided.
The anomalous flight technologies reported by witnesses at Rendlesham Forest, the extraordinary methods and technology required to construct the Crabwood formation, and the extremely complicated way that images were encoded in the Wilton Windmill formation, are evidence that an agency with exceptional capabilities orchestrated the events. The symbols of greeting in the images and other benign content convey the message that a meeting is anticipated and that we should not fear it. This further implies that the meeting will be with non-terrestrial entities, else the message would be trivial.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[45] **viXra:1112.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-17 07:34:27*

**Authors:** U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Strange relations can not be ignored.

Till today no atomic principle implemented the gravitational constant in nuclear physics. Considering the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of electron and proton a simple semi empirical relation is proposed for estimating the strong coupling constant. Obtained value is $\alpha_s \cong 0.117378409.$
It is also noticed that $\alpha_s\cong \ln\left(r_Ur_D\right)$ where $r_U$ and $r_D$ are the geometric ratios of Up and Down quark series respectively. It is noticed that proton rest mass is equal to $\left(\frac{1}{\alpha}+\frac{1}{\alpha_s}\right)\sqrt{UD}.$ With reference to the the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of electron, 137 can be fitted at $r_U $ and 128 can be fitted at $r_D.$ Finally semi empirical mass formula energy constants are fitted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1112.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-16 01:35:32*

**Authors:** Faycal Ben Adda

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 7 Figures

In this paper we build a counterexample that raises a fundamental distinction between recession movement of matter and space expansion.
We prove that observing matter recession at an accelerating rate is not an indication for the acceleration of the universe expansion. More precisely, we show that the observed acceleration in the recession movement of galaxies is naturally due to a universe deceleration. The counterexample provides us with a possible space with independent movement that might produce the observed behavior of galaxies registered for the redshift $z<0.5$ as well as for the redshift $z>0.5$. This counterexample calls into question the recent interpretation of the accelerating recession movement of galaxies as a sign of universe acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1112.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-16 07:59:35*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I examine a slight modification to the so-called Higgless models that allows for a real Higg’s particle and some cosmological constant that varies over time via vacuum decay. In this Model you find Dark Matter as a Higg's decay mode, and a variable cosmological constant resulting from dark matters uncoupling from the EW scale.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] **viXra:1112.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-16 08:17:13*

**Authors:** Adam Chmaj

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Any comments?

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[41] **viXra:1112.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-15 14:18:05*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper a 'hidden variables' interpretation of the quantum world is presented. A hidden variables explanation assumes current quantum mechanical theories are imperfect in that they do not incorporate a physical reality to the quantum world. At the Solvay conference of 1927, Louis De Broglie presented a hypothesis which was to be the forerunner to hidden variables theory: at the quantum level, a 'matter wave' steered particles. Under the powerful influence of Neils Bohr, Louis De Broglie's matter wave was disregarded in favor of the 'Copenhagen Interpretation' championed by Bohr himself, and the Copenhagen interpretation became the de facto accepted theory of quantum mechanics. In 1932, John Von Neumann presented a supposed "proof" that no hidden variables theory could properly describe the quantum world. He was first shown to be wrong by Grete Hermann, but she was largely ignored do to Neumann's immense stature as a mathematician. Later in 1966, John Bell further established that the proof was flawed, and the hidden variables interpretation has since seen a renewal of interest amongst researchers. The model presented in this paper incorporates d-branes and Type I strings into a hidden variables quantum structure; this physical structure can be interpreted as both 10-dimensional and 11- dimensional, and is designated: the D-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:1112.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-15 09:36:44*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Hu, Evgeniy Grechnikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper investigates the connectivity in one-dimensional ad hoc wireless networks with a forbidden zone. We derive the probability of the wireless networks which are composed of exactly m
clusters by means of the methods of combinatorics and probability. The probability of connectivity, i.e. $m = 1$, can be obtained as a special case. Further, we explain how the transmission range of node affects the connectivity of the wireless network.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[39] **viXra:1112.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-15 14:23:32*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Advances in the field of cold fusion and the recent success of the nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, in which the energy release cannot be explained by a chemical process, need a deeper understanding of the nuclear reactions and, more particularly, the possibility for modification of the Coulomb barrier. The current theoretical understanding based on high temperature fusion does not offer an explanation for the cold fusion or LENR. The treatise "Basic Structures of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory", based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum, provides an explanation from a new point of view by using derived three-dimensional structures of the atomic nuclei. For explanation of the nuclear energy, a hypothesis of a field micro-curvature around the superdense nucleus is suggested. Analysis of some successful cold fusion experiments resulted in practical considerations for modification of the Coulomb barrier. The analysis also predicts the possibility of another cold fusion reaction based on some similarity between the nuclear structures of Ni and Cr.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[38] **viXra:1112.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-14 16:12:39*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The dark energy accelerating our observable patch of the multiverse is Wheeler-Feynman Hawking-Unruh black body radiation back from our future de Sitter cosmological horizon. This horizon is also a hologram computer along the lines suggested by Seth Lloyd at MIT. The Stefan-Boltzmann-Planck blackbody radiation law is that the energy density ~ T^4, therefore, as expected, the advanced Wheeler-Feynman Hawking radiation density at the future horizon is the Planck value
hc/LP^4 and it is redshifted back from our future to us at hc/\/LP^2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1112.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-14 16:26:57*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantum entanglement cannot be used as a communication channel without an auxiliary light speed limited classical key to unlock the message at the receiver? Hermitian observables guarantee orthogonal sender base states that erase any nonlocal influence of the sender settings on the detection probabilities at the receiver. However, this is no longer true when the entangled whole has different macro-quantum coherent Glauber sender states. Glauber states are non-orthogonal eigenstates of the non-Hermitian photon destruction operator. The Born probability interpretation breaks down because of "phase rigidity" (P.W. Anderson's "More is different"). This is a new regime that is to orthodox quantum theory what general relativity is to special relativity. Antony Valentini has argued that the breakdown of the Born probability rule entails "signal non locality" (aka entanglement signals). The space-time interval between the sending and the receiving irreversible measurements is irrelevant depending only on the free will of the local observers. That is, this is a pre-metrical topological information effect. There is asymmetry between the sending and the receiving. Therefore, there is no ambiguity between active (retro) cause and passive effect. In particular a message can be decoded back from the future before it is sent, but only if it will be sent in a globally self-consistent Novikov time loop.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1112.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Dec 2011*

**Authors:** Valery P.Dmitriyev

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Electrodynamics can be presented in the course of physics as a chapter, or special case of continuum mechanics. At the macroscopic level of description it is the mechanics of an incompressible elastic-plastic medium with point defects. The key point is the properties of these defects. Currently, however, their derivation from the first principles does not seem to be feasible. So, in the present report I discuss the minimum requirements that must be imposed on the term of the "external" force in the Lame equation in order that the resulting system of equations appeared to be isomorphic to Maxwell's equations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[35] **viXra:1112.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-12 11:16:13*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the paper [1] we have presented simple model of the energy-momentum transport wave function (EMTWF). In this paper we will discuss the physical interpretation of the EMTWF for the elementary quanta of action connected with the gravitational and electrostatic interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1112.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-11 19:23:23*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 11 Pages. a bit dated, but still relevant

For more than a half century cosmologists have been guided by the assumption that matter is distributed homogeneously on sufficiently large scales. On the other hand, observations have consistently yielded evidence for inhomogeneity in the distribution of matter right up to the limits of most surveys. The apparent paradox can be understood in terms of the role that paradigms play in the evolution of science.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[33] **viXra:1112.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-11 05:22:24*

**Authors:** V.N. Matveev, O.V. Matveev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is believed that the uncertainty relation of momentum and coordinates, as well as the uncertainty relation of energy and time in practice are not observed in the macrocosm. The objective of the work at hand was to demonstrate the existence of general physical uncertainty relations that extend to macrobodies.
A macroscopic object consisting of a rod equipped with a pair of synchronized clocks and a macroscopic object in and of itself performing the function of an ideal physical clock are examined. General physical relations are directly derived from Lorentz transformations for the case of the object's one-dimensional motion (along the X axis) – the uncertainty relation of the object's x coordinate and the projection of its impulse along the X axis, px, and the uncertainty relation of the object's observation time, t, and its energy, E. The relations take the form: ΔpxΔx ≥ H and ΔEΔt ≥ H. The H value in the relation has action dimensions and is dependent upon the precision of the object's clocks and/or upon the properties of the physical clock. Despite the interpretation of the concept of uncertainty being different from that in quantum mechanics, the relations derived in the limiting case with ideal physical clock take the form of ΔpxΔx ≥ h and ΔEΔt ≥ h, where h is the Planck constant.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[32] **viXra:1112.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-16 00:37:00*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

CERN's analysis of 5/fb of data collected by the LHC by Halloween 2011 led to announcement on 13 Dec 2011 of CERN's Consensus View: Exclusion of Standard Model Higgs with 3 Mass States at 145, 180, and 240 GeV and Observation of Excesses compatible with 1 SuperString Higgs Mass State at 126 GeV.Despite a CERN Consensus View Against a SM Higgs with those 3 Mass States I remain in favor of a Standard Model Higgs with 3 Mass States including 145 GeV. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[31] **viXra:1112.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-10 11:08:30*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A closer look at tachyon decay engineered vacuum state changes via reheat and inflation and if they could lead to a micro warp bubble as proposed
by Fernando Loup and based upon the work of Glashow-Cohen and Gonzalez-Mestres.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1112.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-06 12:09:15*

**Authors:** Michael Peleg

**Comments:** 9 Pages. A peer reviewed and revised version was published on April 2012 in the International Journal of Biophysics, it is available in the following link: http://www.sapub.org/global/showpaperpdf.aspx?doi=10.5923.j.biophysics.20120201.01

The existence of biological effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation on living tissue is well established, including also effects which are not caused by plain warming. Still the exact mechanisms of interaction between the RF radiation and the living tissue are mostly unknown. In this work a thermodynamic perspective relevant to some aspects of those yet unknown mechanisms is presented. This perspective reveals that living tissue under RF radiation should not be assumed to be in thermal equilibrium since it is governed by two temperatures: The ambient temperature of its surroundings and a vastly higher temperature TR which is assigned by certain criteria to the RF radiation. The criteria presented here to determine the radiation temperature TR are not unique and other approaches may lead to different temperature values, however TR as presented here has an interesting physical significance. The possible relevance of this approach to the interaction mechanisms is presented.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[29] **viXra:1112.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-08 09:40:32*

**Authors:** U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 32 Pages. To be published in the Hadronic journal.

In the atomic or nuclear space, till today no one measured the value of the gravitational constant. To bring down the planck mass scale to the observed elementary particles mass scale a large scale factor is required. Ratio of planck mass and electron mass is close to $\textrm{Avogadro number}/8 \pi\cong N/8 \pi$. The idea of strong gravity originally referred specifically to mathematical approach of Abdus Salam of unification of gravity and quantum chromo-dynamics, but is now often used for any particle level gravity approach. In this connection it is suggested that, key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G} $. Ratio of `classical force limit' and `weak force magnitude' is $N^{2} $. This is another significance of Avogadro number. If $R_0\cong 1.21$ fermi is the nuclear charge radius, to a very good accuracy it is noticed that in Hydrogen atom, ratio of total energy of electron and nuclear potential is equal to the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of electron where the operating gravitational constant is $N^2G_C$ but not $G_C.$ Square root of ratio of strong and weak force magnitudes can be expressed as $2 \pi \ln\left(N^2\right).$ With the defined strong and weak force magnitudes observed elementary particles masses and their magnetic moments can be generated. Interesting application is that: characteristic building block of the cosmological ‘dark matter’ can be quantified in terms of fundamental physical constants. No extra dimensions are required in this new approach.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1112.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 18:45:14*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Poster presentation in the 3rd Galileo - Xu Guangqi meeting, Beijing, China, October, 2011.

It is noticed that, when the black hole mass density reaches the nuclear mass density, mass of the black hole approaches to $1.81\times 10^{31} \rm{\;Kg\;} \cong 9.1M_\odot.$ This characteristic mass can be called as the Fermi black hole mass. This proposed mass unit plays an interesting role in grand unification and primordial black holes. Mass ratio of Fermi black hole mass and Chandrasekhar's mass limit is $2\pi.$ Mass ratio of Fermi black hole mass and neutron star mass limit is $\sqrt{2\pi}.$ Considering strong nuclear gravity, Fermi black hole mass can be obtained in a grand unified approach.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] **viXra:1112.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 18:58:12*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article propose a new Booth multiplier design that the booth
expansion is rearranged in square term like:
\[
ab=((a+b)^2-a^2-b^2)/2
\]
If the code length of $a,b$ is $n$, the multiplier on the right is
with the size $2^{2n}$, but multiplier on the left is with the size
$2^n$.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] **viXra:1112.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 19:00:52*

**Authors:** Sheng-Ping Wu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article uses the hybrids between the evolutionary method and Monte Carlo method to solve the differential equation, for example in this article, the Schrodinger equation for atom

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[25] **viXra:1112.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 19:38:19*

**Authors:** Mohit Shridhar

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Particles on a plate form Chladni patterns when the plate is acoustically excited. To better understand these patterns and their possible real-world applications, I present a new analytical and numerical study of the transition between standard and inverse Chladni patterns on an adhesive surface at any magnitude of acceleration. By spatial autocorrelation analysis, I examine the effects of surface adhesion and friction on the rate of pattern formation. Next, I explore displacement models of particles translating on a frictional surface with both adhesive and internal particle-plate frictions. In addition, I find that both adhesion and damping forces serve as exquisite particle sorting mechanisms. Finally, I discuss the possible real-world applications of these sorting mechanisms, such as separating nanoparticles, organelles, or cells.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[24] **viXra:1112.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-08 00:58:34*

**Authors:** U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Full paper to be published in the Hadronic journal.

Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G} $. Ratio of `classical force limit' and `weak force magnitude' is $N^{2} $. This can be considered as the beginning of `strong nuclear gravity'. Assumed relation for strong force and weak force magnitudes is $\sqrt{\frac{F_{S} }{F_{W} } } \cong 2\pi \ln \left(N^{2} \right)$. If $m_{p} $ is the rest mass of proton it is noticed that $\ln \sqrt{\frac{e^{2} }{4\pi \varepsilon _{0} Gm_{P}^{2} } } \cong \sqrt{\frac{m_{p} }{m_{e} } -\ln \left(N^{2} \right)}.$ From SUSY point of view, `integral charge quark fermion' and `integral charge quark boson' mass ratio is $\Psi=2.262218404$ but not unity. With these advanced concepts starting from nuclear stability to charged leptons, quarks, electroweak bosons and charged Higgs boson's origin can be understood. Finally an ``alternative" to the `standard model' can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1112.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-08 01:12:56*

**Authors:** U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages. DAE Symposium on Nuclear Physics, December 26-30, 2011, India.

Based on strong nuclear gravity, $N$ being the Avogadro number and $\left(\frac{c^4}{N^2G}\right)$ being the weak force magnitude, electron`s gravitational mass generator $= X_{E} \cong m_{e} c^{2} \div \sqrt{\frac{e^{2} }{4\pi \varepsilon _{0} } \left(\frac{c^4}{N^2G}\right) } \cong 295.0606338$. Weak coupling angle is $\sin \theta _{W} \cong \frac{1}{\alpha X_{E} } \cong 0.464433353\cong \frac{{\rm Up}\; {\rm quark}\; {\rm mass}}{{\rm Down}\; {\rm quark}\; {\rm mass}} $. $X_{S} \cong \ln \left(X_{E}^{2} \sqrt{\alpha } \right)\cong 8.91424\cong \frac{1}{\alpha _{s} } $ can be considered as `inverse of the strong coupling constant'.The proton-nucleon stability relation is $A_{S} \cong 2Z+\frac{Z^{2} }{S_{f} }$ where $S_{f} \cong X_{E} -\frac{1}{\alpha } -1\cong 157.0246441$. With reference to proton rest energy, semi empirical mass formula coulombic energy constant is $E_{c} \cong \frac{\alpha }{X_{S} } \cdot m_{p} c^{2} \cong \alpha \cdot \alpha _{s} \cdot m_{p} c^{2} \cong {\rm 0}.7681\; MeV.$ Pairing energy constant is $E_{p} \cong \frac{m_{p} c^{2} +m_{n} c^{2} }{S_{f} } \cong 11.959\; {\rm M}eV$ and asymmetry energy constant is $E_{a} \cong 2E_{p} \cong 23.918\; {\rm M}eV$. It is also noticed that, $\frac{E_{a} }{E_{v} } \cong 1+\sin \theta _{W} $ and $\frac{E_{a} }{E_{s} } \cong 1+\mathop{\sin }\nolimits^{2} \theta _{W} $. Thus $E_{v} \cong 16.332$ MeV and $E_{s} \cong 19.674\; {\rm M}eV.$ Nuclear binding energy can be fitted with 2 terms. In scattering experiments minimum distance between electron and the nucleus is $R_0 \cong \left(\frac{\hbar c}{\left(N.G\right)m_e^2}\right)^2 \frac{2Gm_e}{c^2}.$

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1112.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-08 01:23:49*

**Authors:** U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Poster presentation in DAE Symposium on Nuclear Physics, December 26-30, 2011, India.

‘Quark flavor’ is a property of ‘strong interaction charge’ and nowhere connected with ‘fermions’ or ‘bosons’. There exists nature friendly ‘integral charge quark flavors’. If a ‘charged quark flavor’ rests in a ‘fermionic container’ it is a ‘quark fermion’. Similarly if a ‘charged quark flavor’ rests in a ‘bosonic container’ it is a ‘quark boson’. Strong interaction charge contains ‘multiple flavors’ and can be called as the ‘hybrid charge quark’. No 3 quark fermions couples together to form a baryon and no 2 quark fermions couples together to form a meson. In super symmetry, quark fermion and quark boson mass ratio is $\Psi \cong 2.262218404$ but not unity. Quark fermions convert into quark baryons and effective quark fermions convert into effective quark baryons. Similarly quark bosons convert into quark mesons. Effective quark baryons generates charged and unstable multi flavor baryons and light quark bosons couples with these charged baryons and generates doublets or triplets. Any two oppositely charged quark mesons generates neutral and unstable mesons.
<br>
Based on strong nuclear gravity and super symmetry it is suggested that: charged $W$ boson is the super symmetric boson of top quark fermion and charged Higgs boson pair generates the neutralized $Z$ boson. Rest energy of Higgs charged boson is 45586 MeV. It is noticed that charged SUSY Higgs fermion, and nuclear charge radius play a crucial role in the emission of electron in Beta decay. Recently discovered neutral boson of rest energy 120 to 160 MeV seems to be composed of Higgs charged boson and W boson. Its obtained mass is 126 GeV}.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1112.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 13:12:04*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. (Hans) van Leunen

**Comments:** 14 Pages. The paper concerns a tale that explains quantum mechanics

I wrote this for all people that hate a car load of formulas.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1112.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 10:24:55*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 16 Pages. comments welcome

The goal of the research presented below is to provide a basic and general first approximation explanation for the unique patterns of masses and stabilities found at the lower end of the subatomic particle mass spectrum, where the patterns are most restricted, unique and diagnostic. The Standard Model of particle physics has achieved limited success in this effort, but only by resorting to putting the hypothetical “quark” masses and numerous other parameters into the analysis “by hand”. This way of doing science is ad hoc “model-building”, at best, and possibly borders on Ptolemaic pseudo-science. Discrete Scale Relativity, on the other hand, may offer a more realistic potential for understanding how nature actually works in the Atomic Scale domain, and how the unique particle mass spectrum is the product of fundamental physics: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Discrete Cosmological Self-Similarity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1112.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 07:36:55*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam

**Comments:** 16 Pages. U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Unied model of universe and the atom. Book. ISBN: 9783843393966, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG, Germany, 2011 March.

It is noticed that $\frac{c^4}{G}$
is the classical limit of force and ($\frac{c^5}{G}$ is the classical limit
of power. With these two limits, mathematical complexity involved in GTR can be simplified. Planck mass can be derived very easily. Light speed rotating black hole’s formation can be understood. Force $\frac{c^4}{G}$ keeps the light speed rotating black hole stable. It is noticed that, any elementary particle can escape from the light speed rotating black hole’s equator. Origin of cosmic ray can be understood in this
view. GTR and quantum mechanics can be coupled in a unified manner. Rotating black hole temperature
formula can be derived very easily. Finally a rotating model of ’black hole cosmology’ can be developed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[18] **viXra:1112.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 08:08:44*

**Authors:** U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Journal of Vectorial Relativity, JVR 6 (2011) 3 . (To be published online)

It is noticed that ratio of coulombic energy coefficient and proton rest energy is close to the
product of fine structure ratio and the strong coupling constant. Strong coupling constant plays a crucial role in binding energy saturation. Based on strong nuclear gravity, semi empirical mass formula and with reference to the gravitational mass generator,$X_E \cong 295.0606338,$ an expression is proposed for
neutron and proton rest masses at quantum numbers n =1 and 2. Nuclear binding energy can be fitted
with 2 terms and one energy constant. For these 2 terms, coulombic energy constant $E_c \cong0.7681 $ MeV is applied. Another attempt is made to fit the nuclear binding energy with a product of 5 factors with 0.7681 MeV. At Z = 2 and A = 4 obtained binding energy is 28.8 MeV. For any Z error in binding energy is very small near the stable mass number and increasing above and below the stable mass number. In these two methods new nuclear stability factor $S_f \cong 157.025$ plays a crucial role in proton-neutron stability.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1112.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Dec 2011*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 19 Pages. draft for comment. This version adds a paragraph on the current situation.

This
paper
addresses
the
question
of
whether
humans
will
ever
be
able
to
settle
space
in
an
economically
sustainable
way
and,
if
there
is
still
hope
of
this,
where
the
greatest
hope
may
lie.
It
reviews
key
developments
of
the
last
40
years
relevant
to
this
issue,
such
the
space
shuttle,
the
National
Aerospace
Plane,
the
Russian
Ajax
effort,
nonlinear
control
challenges,
challenges
of
developing
a
"skin"
to
withstand
re-entry,
current
space
programs
around
the
world,
and
key
markets
for
using
such
vehicles,
such
as
energy
from
space
and
space
manufacturing.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[16] **viXra:1112.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-06 07:49:24*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 16 Pages. constructive comments welcome

A new cosmological paradigm based upon global discrete scale invariance proposes a radical revision in our understanding of atomic scale dynamics. The discrete self-similar scaling of this paradigm predicts a very large and discrete scale-dependence for gravitational coupling factors. This alternative gravitational scaling leads to revised values for the Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time, which appear to be more unified and physically comprehensible than is the case with the conventional Planck scale values. The fundamental interrelationship of the revised Planck mass, the corrected gravitational constant for atomic scale systems, the reduced Planck’s constant and the velocity of light suggests a hidden meaning for Planck’s constant. Within the context of the discrete fractal cosmological paradigm, Planck’s constant is revealed as the fundamental unit of gravitational action for atomic scale systems. Implications for atomic scale dynamics are briefly outlined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1112.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-06 07:56:18*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 11 Pages. constructive comments welcome

A possible explanation is offered for the longstanding mystery surrounding the meaning of the fine structure constant. The reasoning is based on a discrete self-similar cosmological paradigm that has shown promise in explaining the general scaling properties of nature’s global hierarchy. The discrete scale invariance of the paradigm implies that “strong gravity” dominates the dynamical interactions within atomic scale systems. A new atomic scale gravitational coupling constant G(-1) is derived with a value of roughly 10^38 G(0) , where G(0) is the conventional Newtonian gravitational constant. G(-1) is then used to calculate a revised Planck scale. Given G(-1) and the revised Planck mass, one can demonstrate that within the context of the discrete self-similar paradigm the fine structure constant is the ratio of the strengths of the unit electromagnetic interaction and the unit gravitational interaction within atomic scale systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1112.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-06 07:59:29*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 13 Pages. constructive comments welcome

The theoretical vacuum energy density estimated on the basis of the standard model of particle physics and very general quantum assumptions is 59 to 123 orders of magnitude larger than the measured vacuum energy density for the observable universe which is determined on the basis of the standard model of cosmology and empirical data. This enormous disparity between the expectations of two of our most widely accepted theoretical frameworks demands a credible and self-consistent explanation, and yet even after decades of sporadic effort a generally accepted resolution of this crisis has not surfaced. Very recently, however, a discrete self-similar cosmological paradigm based on the fundamental principle of discrete scale invariance has been found to offer a rationale for reducing the vacuum energy density disparity by at least 115 orders of magnitude, and possibly to eliminate the vacuum energy density crisis entirely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1112.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-07 14:14:43*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Presented at the APS April 2013 Meeting , Denver, CO, USA, published at Frontiers in Science, 3(2), 2013

It is proposed that the arms of spiral galaxies are formed by the continuous outflow of matter from their centers. It is then shown that the ratio between the radial and tangential velocities of the outflow is the parameter responsible for the logarithmic spiral structure of spiral galaxies. The fitting of some spiral galaxies to the model allows the calculation of the expansion velocities of matter in these galaxies and such values completely agree with the observational data. An approximate universal equation is proposed for the description of the arms of spiral galaxies with or without bars. Some important consequences are discussed with respect to dark matter, galactic evolution, cosmology, and the Milky Way. It is, particularly, concluded that dark matter does not exist in spiral galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1112.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-06 09:53:41*

**Authors:** Ir Wilhelmus P.C.M. de Wilde

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

After the wall of Planck reality as we perceive that “NOW” no longer exists, we are entering a “fifth” dimension the TOTAL SIMULTANAIETY , called TS , we pass the limits of causality at the quantum scale. This non causal side of TS can be “reached” on every point of our 4 dimensional universe, every quantum of the universe has the diameter of 1.616252 x 10^ -33cm, singularities only exist in our consciousness. The other limit of causality is the local speed of light c, where time stands still so there is no more before and after. In TS all information of all parallel universes and multiversity constitution is simultaneously present and available, our consciousness is able to align points out of this TS and so create the observable analogue universe that we are aware of. The totality of information from other universes (also partly observable by other consciousnesses) is influencing our linear causal deterministic universe, the origin of gravity , dark matter and the dark force possible emerge from here. The Big Bang is an imaginary non existing point in the TS area. Inflation is avoided by projecting inflation time into the area after the Wall of Planck, uniformity in the structure of space-time is so guaranteed. Our mind with its 100 billion neurones is able to cope with infinities because it has parallels with the qualities of TS. By entanglement we created our own baryonic universe.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11] **viXra:1112.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-05 08:44:01*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A relook at what is needed for the realization of breakthrough propulsion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1112.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-15 19:39:22*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Physics of Rotating and Expanding Black Hole Universe'', Progress in Physics, vol. 2, April, 2010, p. 7-14

The concept of `dark energy' is still facing and raising a number of fundamental unresolved problems. `Cosmic acceleration',`dark energy' and `inflation', are the results of Edwin Hubble's incomplete conclusions. If there is a misinterpretation in Hubble's law - flat model of
cosmology can not be considered as a correct model of cosmology. \textbf{If the \textit{primordial universe} is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities, it is also
possible to assume that throughout its journey, the whole universe is a \textit{primordial cosmic black hole.}} Planck particle can be considered as
the baby universe. Key assumption is that, ``at any time, cosmic black hole rotates with light speed''. Cosmic temperature is inversely proportional to the geometric mean of cosmic mass and planck mass. For this growing cosmic
sphere as a whole, while in light speed rotation, `rate of decrease' in temperature is a ``primary'' measure of cosmic `rate of expansion'. It can be suggested that, `rate of increase in galaxy red shift' from and about the cosmic center is a ``secondary'' measure of cosmic `rate of expansion'. Present `cosmic mass density' and `cosmic time' are fitted with the natural logarithm of ratio of cosmic volume and planck particle's volume. If present CMBR temperature is isotropic at 2.725 ${}^{0}$Kelvin, present angular velocity is 2.17 x 10${}^{-18}$ rad/sec = 67 Km/sec/Mpc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1112.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Dec 2011*

**Authors:** Subodh Vashist

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Contradiction of `Principle of relativity' with the conclusions of Special Theory of Relativity(STR) that which
represent the physical phenomenons like Time Dilation of Muons, is well known, and supposedly can be nullified
by considering the `Time Dilation' due to General Relativity. Moreover, the nuclear decay rates from the family of
Muons(involving weak nuclear force), are apparently found to depend on the Earth-Sun distance and Solar activities
like Solar
ares, undoubtedly questions the absoluteness of the Time Dilation of the Muons. Whereas, STR is based on
the principle of constancy of speed of light for every inertial observer, present paper argues the possibility of constancy
of speed of light as a consequence of absence of ether. Utilising the relativistic nature of light proves that, speed of
light is not relatively invariant and vice-versa. While all the relativistic results are produced and explained, with `rate
of time' constant, including the Time Dilation of Muons and the correlations with the Earth-Sun distance and Solar
ares.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1112.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-04 14:43:55*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I take a look at the rumored Higg’s at 125 GeV and abstract a bit with
a Non-Standard decay of a metastable vacuum state. In this model you end up
with a Cold Dark Matter state that while appearing as the Neutralino, is actually
more a decayed Higg’s resultant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1112.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-05 06:27:20*

**Authors:** Sourish kumar Maitra

**Comments:** 14 Pages. A new look about holographic priciple and quantum randomness

General relativity and various possibilities about its proper combination with Quantum mechanics is a central topic in theoretical physics. In this article we explain various links which bridge between different views about Quantum Gravity theories. It turns out that these have very close relation with different interpretations about what quantization mean.We try to justify basic questions like what a string tension mean. First, we start with qualitative analysis and then we confirm these with quantitative results. These are shown to have relation with Quantum Gravity noise, Dark Energy, Hogan's noise and the Holographic principle. We clarify a long standing confusion in entropic Gravity, whether increase in entropy ($\triangle s$) makes the particle to move ($\triangle x$) or vice-versa. We indicate the possibility about non-local entanglement operation carried out by space-time which will increase entropy and a particle in space will move causing $\triangle x$. We relate noise with dissipation, much like a statistical system. In this context, we discuss the hierarchy issue. We try to see string as a natural consequence of intrinsic computation in space-time in planck scale. We clarify that although we talk about dissipative sub-quantum models, as quantization track only equivalence class (according to T'Hooft), it does not contradict with information conservations in quantum mechanics; equivalence class informations are conserved. We try to describe why we can attach entropy to an arbitrary spatial surface ( like a black hole horizon) and can derive Einstein's equation as the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1112.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-03 12:20:22*

**Authors:** Alireza Malekzadeh

**Comments:** 16 Pages, 13 Figures

This paper presents a unified theory for the universe which encompasses the dominant theories of physics. Our work is strictly based on the philosophy that the work of the universe is extremely simple in the fundamental level. We provide a minimal set of elements as the fundamental constituents of the universe, and demonstrate that all natural phenomena can be explained by a minimum number of laws governing these fundamental elements and their minimal set of properties.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1112.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-02 14:52:42*

**Authors:** Chris O'Loughlin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The validity of Newton’s Laws of Motion depends on the type of reference frame they act in. They are valid in inertial reference frames and not valid in non-inertial reference frames. Reference frames thus play a pivotal role any understanding of the laws themselves. So, what must we know in general about reference frames? And if a reference frame can be inertial or non-inertial, what must we know about inertia? This paper addresses these concepts and clarifies some common misconceptions surrounding them. Additionally, a modified definition of inertia is proposed that allows for a different formulation of Newton’s laws making them valid in either type of reference frame.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1112.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-02 20:35:29*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The predominant approaches to understanding how quantum theory and General Relativity
are related to each other implicitly assume that both theories use the same concept of
mass. Given that despite great efforts such approaches have not yet produced a consistent
falsifiable quantum theory of gravity, this paper entertains the possibility that the concepts
of mass in the two theories are in fact distinct. It points out that if the concept of mass in
quantum mechanics is defined such that it always exists in a superposition and is not a
gravitational source, then this sharply segregates the domains of quantum theory and of
general relativity. This concept of mass violates the equivalence principle applied to
active gravitational mass, but may still produce effects consistent with the equivalence principle when applied to passive gravitational mass (in agreement with observations) by the correspondence principle applied to a weak field in the appropriate limit. An experiment that successfully measures the gravity field of quantum objects in a superposition, and in particular of photons, would not only falsify this distinction but also constitute the first direct empirical test that gravity must in fact be described fundamentally by a quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1112.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-02 21:58:25*

**Authors:** Chun-xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is
the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann hypothesis in
AIM, CLAYMA, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. Recently<Annals of Mathematics> publish the many
false papers of the prime numbers to see P52-53. In this paper using Jiang function J2 (w) we
prove that the new prime theorems (1341)-(1390) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no
prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution πk(N0 ,2) 1 k. This is the Book theorem

**Category:** Number Theory

[2] **viXra:1112.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-01 15:24:55*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Why is the neutron stable in the nucleus? Why is the free neutron unstable outside the atom? This paper applies the cordus conjecture to address these questions. The proposed explanation is that in the nucleus the discrete field structures (cordus HED) of the proton and neutron fulfil each other, thereby providing a joint stability. When the neutron is removed from the nucleus, its stability becomes compromised. By comparison the single proton on its own does not need the neutron, so it remains stable. The free neutron is able to maintain a dynamic stability by moving its field structures around. It can do this indefinitely. However it is in a compromised state, and vulnerable to perturbation by external fields. Two initiators are anticipated for decay. One is randomly occurring field fluctuations from the external fabric, and these are proposed for the conventional decay route. The second is impact by another particule. In both cases it is the external fields that cause the decay, by constraining the neutron so that it cannot dynamically adjust. Hence it is trapped in a state that leads to decay at its next frequency cycle. The second path could involve any particule with sufficient energy to disturb the neutron. Also, the impact of a neutrino is specifically identified as a potential initiator of decay. The implications if this is correct, are that the neutron has two separate decay paths, which are mixed together in what we perceive as the beta minus process. The first is determined by the local density of the (spacetime) fabric, and the second by the number of energetic particules and neutrinos encountered. The significance of the two decay paths is that neutron decay rates are predicted to be variable rather than constant. A general set of assumptions are extracted for stability and decay of particules in general.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] **viXra:1112.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-01 21:12:19*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Shmuel Neumann

**Comments:** 15 pages

At the present time the USA’s Federal Government spends enormous sums of taxpayer money for Scientific Research and Development (R&D). How to best organize this vast governmental activity, how to best estimate its ultimate utility and profitability (real and potential), how to best increase efficiency of innovation and production, how to best estimate the worth of new discoveries and innovations, how to properly fund R&D of new concepts and innovations, and how to correctly estimate their results are all complex and pressing questions that require answers for further industrial progress and scientific improvements. These are critical macro-problems which because of its scope have evolved into new macro-systems that require a new approach for successful planning of scientific research. The authors consider these major-system problems and offer many remarkable innovations in organization, estimation, suggestions for entirely new research efficiency criteria, development, new methods for assessments of new ideas, innovations in science and industry, and new methods in patenting technology. These suggestions are based largely on the personal experiences of one of the authors, A.A. Bolonkin who worked for many years within the USA’s Federal Government entities (scientific laboratories of NASA, Air Force), and USSR and USA universities and industry.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy