[109] **viXra:0908.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 pages, This article appeared in Progress in Physics vol. 2 April (2006) 86-92.

We explore Yang's Noncommutative space-time algebra (involving two length scales) within the context
of QM defined in Noncommutative spacetimes; the Holographic principle and the area-coordinates algebra
in Clifford spaces. Casimir invariant wave equations corresponding to Noncommutative coordinates and
momenta in d-dimensions can be recast in terms of ordinary QM wave equations in d+2-dimensions.
It is conjectured that QM over Noncommutative spacetimes (Noncommutative QM) may be described by
ordinary QM in higher dimensions. Novel Moyal-Yang-Fedosov-Kontsevich star products deformations of
the Noncommutative Poisson Brackets (NCPB) are employed to construct star product deformations of
scalar field theories. Finally, generalizations of the Dirac-Konstant and Klein-Gordon-like equations relevant
to the physics of D-branes and Matrix Models are presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[108] **viXra:0908.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 pages, This article appeared in the Journal of Physics A : Math. Gen 39 (2006) 14205-14229.

A novel Weyl-Heisenberg algebra in Clifford-spaces is constructed that is based on a matrix-valued H^{AB}
extension of Planck's constant. As a result of this modifiedWeyl-Heisenberg algebra one will no longer be able
to measure, simultaneously, the pairs of variables (x, p_{x}); (x, p_{y}); (x, p_{z}); (y, p_{x}), ... with absolute precision.
New Klein-Gordon and Dirac wave equations and dispersion relations in Clifford-spaces are presented. The
latter Dirac equation is a generalization of the Dirac-Lanczos-Barut-Hestenes equation. We display the
explicit isomorphism between Yang's Noncommutative space-time algebra and the area-coordinates algebra
associated with Clifford spaces. The former Yang's algebra involves noncommuting coordinates and momenta
with a minimum Planck scale λ (ultraviolet cutoff) and a minimum momentum p = ℏ/R (maximal length
R, infrared cutoff ). The double-scaling limit of Yang's algebra λ → 0, R → ∞, in conjunction with the
large n → ∞ limit, leads naturally to the area quantization condition λR = L^{2} = nλ^{2} ( in Planck area
units ) given in terms of the discrete angular-momentum eigenvalues n. It is shown how Modified Newtonian
dynamics is also a consequence of Yang's algebra resulting from the modified Poisson brackets. Finally,
another noncommutative algebra ( which differs from the Yang's algebra ) and related to the minimal length
uncertainty relations is presented . We conclude with a discussion of the implications of Noncommutative
QM and QFT's in Clifford-spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[107] **viXra:0908.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro, J. A. Nieto, L. Ruiz, J. Silvas

**Comments:** 34 pages, This article appeared in the International Journal of Modern Physics A 24, no. 7 (2009) 1383 - 1415.

Novel static, time-dependent and spatial-temporal solutions of Einstein field
equations, displaying singularities, with and without horizons, and in several dimensions
are found based on a dimensional reduction procedure widely used in
Kaluza-Klein type theories. The Kerr-Newman black-hole entropy as well as the
Reissner-Nordstrom, Kerr and Schwarzschild black-hole entropy are derived from
the corresponding Euclideanized actions. A very special cosmological model based
on the dynamical interior geometry of a Black Hole is found that has no singularities
at t = 0 due to the smoothing of the mass distribution. We conclude with
another cosmological model equipped also with a dynamical horizon and which is
related to Vaidya's metric (associated with the Hawking-radiation of black holes)
by interchanging t ↔ r which might render our universe as a dynamical black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[106] **viXra:0908.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 31 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 pages, submission to the Blois 2009 conference proceedings

Initial relic entropy growth is presented as a natural outgrowth of relic graviton production, as a
generalization of Dr. J.Y Ng's infinite quantum statistics. The adaptation and modification of
Ng's (2008) argument, is an outgrowth of string theory cosmology arguments, and is essentially
a counting algorithm for relic graviton production. This article is a very abbreviated version of a
presentation given in Chongquing, PRC, in April, 2009, at the Chongquing University Physic's
department as a guest of Dr. Fangyu Li, and his gravitational research group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[105] **viXra:0908.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 7 pages

Einstein's equivalence principle implies that Newton's gravity force has no local objective meaning.
It is an inertial force, i.e. a contingent artifact of the covariantly tensor accelerating
(non-zero g's) Local Non-Inertial Frame (LNIF) detector. Indeed, Newton's gravity force disappears
in a locally coincident non-accelerating (zero g) Local Inertial Frame (LIF). The presence or
absence of tensor spacetime curvature is completely irrelevant to this fact. In the case of an
extended test body, these remarks apply only to the Center of Mass (COM). Stresses across
separated parts of the test body caused by the local objective tensor curvature are a logically
independent separate issue. Garbling this distinction has generated not-even-wrong critiques of
the equivalence principle among "philosophers of physics" and even among some venerable confused
theoretical physicists. Non-standard terms coupling the spin-connection to the commutator of the
Dirac matrices and to the Lorentz group Lie algebra generators are conjectured.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[104] **viXra:0908.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 11 pages, This article appeared in Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, 2, no. 17, (2008) 825 - 835.

A novel invariant gauge field theory realization of Kac-Moody extensions
of w_{∞}(w_{1+∞}) algebras and based on a Lie group G is constructed.
The most relevant physical feature of this theory is that it describes
an effective field theory of "colored" internal w_{∞}(w_{1+∞}) strings
when G = SU(3). We conclude with a discussion of how these theories
might provide infinite higher conformal-spins extensions of Grand
Unified Models and the Standard Model in four dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[103] **viXra:0908.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 61 pages, This article appeared in Foundations of Physics vol 35, no.6 (2005) 971.

We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase spaces with an
upper R and lower length λ scales (infrared/ultraviolet cutoff ). The invariance symmetry
leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl(2, 6,R) and complexified Clifford
Cl_{C}(4) algebra related to Twistors. A unified theory of all Noncommutative branes in
Clifford-spaces is developed based on the Moyal-Yang star product deformation quantization
whose deformation parameter involves the lower/upper scale (ℏλ/R). Previous
work led us to show from first principles why the observed value of the vacuum
energy density (cosmological constant ) is given by a geometric mean relationship
ρ ~ L^{-2}_{Planck}R^{-2} = L^{-4}_{P}(L_{Planck}/R)^{2} ~ 10^{-122}M^{4}_{Planck},
and can be obtained when the infrared
scale R is set to be of the order of the present value of the Hubble radius. We
proceed with an extensive review of Smith's 8D model based on the Clifford algebra
Cl(1,7) that reproduces at low energies the physics of the Standard Model and Gravity,
including the derivation of all the coupling constants, particle masses, mixing angles,
....with high precision. Geometric actions are presented like the Clifford-Space extension
of Maxwell's Electrodynamics, and Brandt's action related to the 8D spacetime tangentbundle
involving coordinates and velocities ( Finsler geometries ). Finally we outline
the reasons why a Clifford-Space Geometric Unification of all forces is a very reasonable
avenue to consider and propose an Einstein-Hilbert type action in Clifford-Phase spaces
(associated with the 8D Phase space) as a Unified Field theory action candidate that
should reproduce the physics of the Standard Model plus Gravity in the low energy limit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] **viXra:0908.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 pages, This article appeared in Physics Letters B 665, no. 5 (2008) 384-387.

We show the existence of timelike naked singularities which are not
hidden by a horizon and which are associated to spherically symmetric
(noncompact) matter sources extending from r = 0 to r = ∞. Our
asymptotically flat solutions do represent observable timelike naked singularities
where the scalar curvature R and volume mass density ρ(r) are
both singular at r = 0. To finalize we explain the Finsler geometric
origins behind the matter field configuration obeying the weak energy
conditions and that leads to a timelike naked singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:0908.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 49 pages, This article appeared in the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 23, no. 24 (2008) 3891

It is shown how w_{∞},w_{1+∞} Gauge Field Theory actions in 2D emerge
directly from 4D Gravity. Strings and Membranes actions in 2D and 3D
originate as well from 4D Einstein Gravity after recurring to the nonlinear
connection formalism of Lagrange-Finsler and Hamilton-Cartan spaces.
Quantum Gravity in 3D can be described by aW1 Matrix Model in D = 1
that can be solved exactly via the Collective Field Theory method. We describe
why a quantization of 4D Gravity could be attained via a 2D Quantum
W_{∞} gauge theory coupled to an infinite-component scalar-multiplet.
A proof that non-critical W_{∞} (super) strings are devoid of BRST anomalies
in dimensions D = 27 (D = 11), respectively, follows and which coincide
with the critical (super) membrane dimensions D = 27 (D = 11). We
establish the correspondence between the states associated with the quasi
finite highest weights irreducible representations of W_{∞},W_{∞} algebras and
the quantum states of the continuous Toda molecule. Schroedinger-like
QM wave functional equations are derived and solutions are found in the
zeroth order approximation. Since higher-conformal spin W_{∞} symmetries
are very relevant in the study of 2D W_{∞} Gravity, the Quantum Hall effect,
large N QCD, strings, membranes, ...... it is warranted to explore
further the interplay among all these theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[100] **viXra:0908.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 8 pages, This article appeared in Adv. Studies in Theor. Phys. 1, no. 12 (2007) 603-610.

It is shown how one can attain the desired locally causal property of
QM in Clifford-spaces despite the spacelike separation of two massive
spin-½ particles involved in the Einstein-Podolksy-Rosen (EPR) experiment.
This is achieved by proving why the addition laws of the particles
poly-vector-valued momentum in Clifford-space is null-like. This is the
key reason why it is possible to implement a locally causal QM theory
in Clifford-spaces despite that QM has a non-local character in ordinary
spacetime. The two particles can exchange signals in Clifford-space encoding
their respective spin measurement values. Consequently, there
is no EPR paradox in the Clifford space associated with the Clifford
algebra Cl(3,1) of the underlying 4D spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[99] **viXra:0908.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 31 pages, This article appeared in Annals of Physics vol. 321, no.4 (2006) 813-839.

We construct the Clifford-space tensorial-gauge fields generalizations of Yang-Mills
theories and the Standard Model that allows to predict the existence of new particles
(bosons, fermions) and tensor-gauge fields of higher-spins in the 10 Tev regime. We
proceed with a detailed discussion of the unique D_{4} - D_{5} - E_{6} - E_{7} - E_{8} model of Smith
based on the underlying Clifford algebraic structures in D = 8, and which furnishes all
the properties of the Standard Model and Gravity in four-dimensions, at low energies.
A generalization and extension of Smith's model to the full Clifford-space is presented
when we write explictly all the terms of the extended Clifford-space Lagrangian. We
conclude by explaining the relevance of multiple-foldings of D = 8 dimensions related
to the modulo 8 periodicity of the real Cliford algebras and display the interplay among
Clifford, Division, Jordan and Exceptional algebras, within the context of D = 26, 27, 28
dimensions, corresponding to bosonic string, M and F theory, respectively, advanced
earlier by Smith. To finalize we describe explicitly how the E_{8} X E_{8} Yang-Mills theory
can be obtained from a Gauge Theory based on the Clifford ( 16 ) group.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[98] **viXra:0908.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 5 pages

In the article the theory of helium-like atoms is given

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[97] **viXra:0908.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 8 pages, This article appeared in Phys. Letts B 626 (2005) 209.

Noncommutative p-brane actions, for even p+1 = 2n-dimensional world-volumes, are written explicitly
in terms of the novel Moyal-Yang ( Fedosov-Kontsevich ) star product deformations of the Noncommutative
Nambu Poisson Brackets (NCNPB) that are associated with the noncommuting world-volume coordinates
q^{A}, p^{A} for A = 1, 2, 3, ...n. The latter noncommuting coordinates obey the noncommutative Yang algebra
with an ultraviolet L_{P} (Planck) scale and infrared (R ) scale cutoff. It is shown why our p-brane actions in
the "classical" limit ℏ_{eff} = ℏL_{P}/R → 0 still acquire nontrivial noncommutative corrections that differ from
ordinary p-brane actions. Super p-branes actions in the light-cone gauge are also amenable to Moyal-Yang
star product deformations as well due to the fact that p-branes moving in flat spacetime backgrounds, in the
light-cone gauge, can be recast as gauge theories of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. The most general
construction of noncommutative super p-branes actions based on non ( anti ) commuting superspaces and
quantum group methods remains an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] **viXra:0908.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 41 pages, This article appeared in the Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol 49 (2008) 042501.

We argue why the static spherically symmetric (SSS) vacuum solutions of Einstein's
equations described by the textbook Hilbert metric g_{μν}(r) is not diffeomorphic
to the metric g_{μν}(|r|) corresponding to the gravitational field of a point
mass delta function source at r = 0. By choosing a judicious radial function
R(r) = r + 2G|M|Θ(r) involving the Heaviside step function, one has the correct
boundary condition R(r = 0) = 0 , while displacing the horizon from r = 2G|M| to
a location arbitrarily close to r = 0 as one desires, r_{h} → 0, where stringy geometry
and quantum gravitational effects begin to take place. We solve the field equations
due to a delta function point mass source at r = 0, and show that the Euclidean gravitational
action (in ℏ units) is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck
area units). This result holds in any dimensions D ≥ 3 . In the Reissner-Nordsrom
(massive-charged) and Kerr-Newman black hole case (massive-rotating-charged) we
show that the Euclidean action in a bulk domain bounded by the inner and outer
horizons is the same as the black hole entropy. When one smears out the point-mass
and point-charge delta function distributions by a Gaussian distribution, the areaentropy
relation is modified. We postulate why these modifications should furnish
the logarithmic corrections (and higher inverse powers of the area) to the entropy
of these smeared Black Holes. To finalize, we analyse the Bars-Witten stringy black
hole in 1 + 1 dim and its relation to the maximal acceleration principle in phase
spaces and Finsler geometries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:0908.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 pages, This article appeared in the Int. Jour. of Geom. Methods of Modern Physics vol 5, no. 1, February 2008

The Riemann's hypothesis (RH) states that the nontrivial zeros of the
Riemann zeta-function are of the form s_{n} = 1/2 + iλ_{n}. By constructing
a continuous family of scaling-like operators involving the Gauss-Jacobi
theta series and by invoking a novel CT-invariant Quantum Mechanics,
involving a judicious charge conjugation C and time reversal T operation,
we show why the Riemann Hypothesis is true. An infinite family of theta
series and their Mellin transform leads to the same conclusions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:0908.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John L. Haller Jr.

**Comments:** 24 pages

Advances in science are brought fourth by hypothesizing that the action of a system is a direct measure of the amount of information in that system. We begin to interpret this governing hypothesis by examining its implications to current research. From this investigation, we find four primary conclusions.

- To properly and completely quantify the amount of information contained within a particle (or system), one must add the self-information of both the wavefunction and its Fourier transform pair.
- Information in nature is found in packets quantized to an integer number of the natural units.
- Over a period of time, the energy of a system acts like an information rate and thus the information needed to describe that system for that period of time is equal to the product of the energy and the time divided by the minimum uncertainty.
- At a given instant in time, the angular momentum, J, of a system is in direct proportion to the amount of information that is contained within or can be transmitted by that system.

[93] **viXra:0908.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 11 pages

In the article a critic of the main notions of a modern physics is given

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[92] **viXra:0908.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 pages, This article will appear in the Int J. Geom. Meth in Mod Phys vol 6 , no. 6 (Sept 2009)

A candidate action for an Exceptional E_{8} gauge theory of gravity in 8D
is constructed. It is obtained by recasting the E_{8} group as the semi-direct
product of GL(8,R) with a deformed Weyl-Heisenberg group associated
with canonical-conjugate pairs of vectorial and antisymmetric tensorial
generators of rank two and three. Other actions are proposed, like the
quartic E_{8} group-invariant action in 8D associated with the Chern-Simons
E_{8} gauge theory defined on the 7-dim boundary of a 8D bulk. To finalize,
it is shown how the E_{8} gauge theory of gravity can be embedded into a
more general extended gravitational theory in Clifford spaces associated
with the Cl(16) algebra and providing a solid geometrical program of a
grand-unification of gravity with Yang-Mills theories. The key question
remains if this novel gravitational model based on gauging the E8 group
may still be renormalizable without spoiling unitarity at the quantum
level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[91] **viXra:0908.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 11 pages, This article appeared in Phys Letts B 675, (2009) 226-230

Born's reciprocal relativity in flat spacetimes is based on the principle
of a maximal speed limit (speed of light) and a maximal proper force
(which is also compatible with a maximal and minimal length duality)
and where coordinates and momenta are unified on a single footing. We
extend Born's theory to the case of curved spacetimes and construct a
deformed Born reciprocal general relativity theory in curved spacetimes
(without the need to introduce star products) as a local gauge theory of
the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product
of U(1,3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group
corresponding to noncommutative generators [Z_{a},Z_{b}] ≠ 0. The Hermitian
metric is complex-valued with symmetric and nonsymmetric components
and there are two different complex-valued Hermitian Ricci tensors
R_{μν}, S_{μν}. The deformed Born's reciprocal gravitational action linear in
the Ricci scalars R, S with Torsion-squared terms and BF terms is presented.
The plausible interpretation of Z_{μ} = E_{μ}^{a} Z_{a} as noncommuting
p-brane background complex spacetime coordinates is discussed in the
conclusion, where E_{μ}^{a} is the complex vielbein associated with the Hermitian
metric G_{μν} = g_{(μν)} + ig_{[μν]} = E_{μ}^{a} Ē_{ν}^{b}
This could be one of the underlying reasons why string-theory involves gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[90] **viXra:0908.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 pages, This article appeared in Phys Letts B 675, (2009) 226-230

It is shown how Weyl's geometry and Mach's Holographic principle
furnishes both the magnitude and sign (towards the sun) of the Pioneer
anomalous acceleration a_{P} ~ -c^{2}/R_{Hubble} firstly observed by Anderson
et al. Weyl's Geometry can account for both the origins and the value
of the observed vacuum energy density (dark energy). The source of
dark energy is just the dilaton-like Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field that is
required to implement Weyl invariance of the most simple of all possible
actions. A nonvanishing value of the vacuum energy density of the order
of 10^{-123}M^{4}_{Planck} is found consistent with observations. Weyl's geometry
accounts also for the phantom scalar field in modern Cosmology in a very
natural fashion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:0908.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages

Energy creates particles, the particles creates fields, and the fields
creates interplay

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[88] **viXra:0908.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 6 pages

The problem of finding two polynomials P(x) and Q(x) of a given degree n in a single variable
x that have all rational roots and differ by a non-zero constant is investigated. It is shown
that the problem reduces to considering only polynomials with integer roots. The cases n < 4
are solved generically. For n = 4 the case of polynomials whose roots come in pairs (a,-a) is
solved. For n = 5 an infinite number of inequivalent solutions are found with the ansatz
P(x) = -Q(-x). For n = 6 an infinite number of solutions are also found. Finally for n = 8
we find solitary examples. This also solves the problem of finding two polynomials of degree
n that fully factorise into linear factors with integer coefficients such that the difference
is one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:0908.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 pages, This article appeared in the J. Math. Phys, 48, no. 7 (2007) 073517.

The Octonionic Geometry (Gravity) developed long ago by Oliveira and Marques
is extended to Noncommutative and Nonassociative Spacetime coordinates
associated with octonionic-valued coordinates and momenta. The octonionic
metric G_{μν} already encompasses the ordinary spacetime metric g_{μν}, in addition
to the Maxwell U(1) and SU(2) Yang-Mills fields such that implements
the Kaluza-Klein Grand Unification program without introducing extra spacetime
dimensions. The color group SU(3) is a subgroup of the exceptional G_{2}
group which is the automorphism group of the octonion algebra. It is shown
that the flux of the SU(2) Yang-Mills field strength F_{μν} through the area momentum
Σ^{μν} in the internal isospin space yields corrections O(1/M^{2}_{Planck})
to the energy-momentum dispersion relations without violating Lorentz invariance
as it occurs with Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra. The
known Octonionic realizations of the Clifford Cl(8),Cl(4) algebras should permit
the construction of octonionic string actions that should have a correspondence
with ordinary string actions for strings moving in a curved Clifford-space
target background associated with a Cl(3, 1) algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[86] **viXra:0908.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 pages, This article appeared in the Journal of Geometry and Physics, 57 (2007) 1941-1949

The large N → ∞ limit of the Exceptional F_{4},E_{6} Jordan Matrix
Models of Smolin-Ohwashi leads to novel Chern-Simons Membrane Lagrangians
which are suitable candidates for a nonperturbative bosonic
formulation of M Theory in D = 27 real, complex dimensions, respectively.
Freudenthal algebras and triple Freudenthal products permits the
construction of a novel E_{7} X SU(N) invariant Matrix model whose large
N limit yields generalized nonlinear sigma models actions on 28 complex dimensional
backgrounds associated with a 56 real-dim phase space realization
of the Freudenthal algebra. We argue why the latter Matrix
Model, in the large N limit, might be the proper arena for a bosonic
formulation of F theory. To finalize we display generalized Dirac-Nambu-Goto
membrane actions in terms of 3 X 3 X 3 cubic matrix entries that
match the number of degrees of freedom of the 27-dim exceptional Jordan
algebra J_{3}[0].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] **viXra:0908.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 pages, This article appeared in the International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics (IJGMMP) vol 3, no. 2 (2006) 187-199.

It is the purpose of this work to pursue a novel physical interpretation of the nontrivial
Riemann zeta zeros and prove why the location of these zeros z_{n} = 1/2+iλ_{n} corresponds
physically to tachyonic-resonances/tachyonic-condensates, originating from the scattering
of two on-shell tachyons in bosonic string theory. Namely, we prove that if there were
nontrivial zeta zeros (violating the Riemann hypothesis) outside the critical line Real
z = 1/2 (but inside the critical strip), these putative zeros do not correspond to any
poles of the bosonic open string scattering (Veneziano) amplitude A(s, t, u). The physical
relevance of tachyonic-resonances/tachyonic-condensates in bosonic string theory, establishes
an important connection between string theory and the Riemann Hypothesis. In
addition, one has also a geometrical interpretation of the zeta zeros in the critical line
in terms of very special (degenerate) triangular configurations in the upper-part of the
complex plane.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[84] **viXra:0908.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 4 pages

In the article one more physical sense of a constant of the Planck is detected and the
inaccuracy of notions endured in heading of the article is shown.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[83] **viXra:0908.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 5 pages

The different versions of the Universe structure are reviewed and it mean density is
calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:0908.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 pages, This article will appear in the IJMPA (2009).

It is rigorously shown how the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford
spaces (C-spaces) can explain the variable radial dependence a_{p}(r) of the
Pioneer anomaly; its sign (pointing towards the sun); why planets don't
experience the anomalous acceleration and why the present day value
of the Hubble scale R_{H} appears. It is the curvature-spin coupling of
the planetary motions that hold the key. The difference in the rate at
which clocks tick in C-space translates into the C-space analog of Doppler
shifts which may explain the anomalous redshifts in Cosmology, where
objects which are not that far apart from each other exhibit very different
redshifts. We conclude by showing how the empirical formula for the
Flybys anomalies obtained by Anderson et al. can be derived within
the framework of Clifford geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:0908.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro, M. Pavšič

**Comments:** 65 pages, This article appeared in Progress in Physics vol 1 (April 2005) 31-64

An introduction to some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity
theory in Clifford-spaces (C-spaces) is presented whose "point" coordinates
are non-commuting Clifford-valued quantities which incorporate lines, areas, volumes,
hyper-volumes.... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle,
string, membrane, p-brane,... dynamics of p-loops (closed p-branes) in target Ddimensional
spacetime backgrounds. C-space Relativity naturally incorporates the
ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, non-commuting
coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and
variable dimensions/signatures. It permits to study the dynamics of all (closed)
p-branes, for all values of p, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities
in QFT, the problem of time in Cosmology and admits superluminal propagation
( tachyons ) without violations of causality. A discussion of the maximalacceleration
Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows and the study of the invariance
group of symmetry transformations in phase-space allows to show why
Planck areas are invariant under acceleration-boosts transformations . This invariance
feature suggests that a maximal-string tension principle may be operating in
Nature. We continue by pointing out how the relativity of signatures of the underlying
n-dimensional spacetime results from taking different n-dimensional slices
through C-space. The conformal group in spacetime emerges as a natural subgroup
of the Clifford group and Relativity in C-spaces involves natural scale changes in
the sizes of physical objects without the introduction of forces nor Weyl's gauge
field of dilations. We finalize by constructing the generalization of Maxwell theory
of Electrodynamics of point charges to a theory in C-spaces that involves extended
charges coupled to antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank. In the concluding
remarks we outline briefly the current promising research programs and their
plausible connections with C-space Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[80] **viXra:0908.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 33 pages, This article appeared in the IJGMMP vol 6, no. 3 (2009) 385.

We continue to study the Chern-Simons E_{8} Gauge theory of Gravity developed by the
author which is a unified field theory (at the Planck scale) of a Lanczos-Lovelock Gravitational
theory with a E_{8} Generalized Yang-Mills (GYM) field theory, and is defined
in the 15D boundary of a 16D bulk space. The Exceptional E_{8} Geometry of the 256-dim
slice of the 256 X 256-dimensional flat Clifford (16) space is explicitly constructed
based on a spin connection Ω_{M}^{AB}, that gauges the generalized Lorentz transformations
in the tangent space of the 256-dim curved slice, and the 256 X 256 components of the
vielbein field E_{M}^{A}, that gauge the nonabelian translations. Thus, in one-scoop, the vielbein
E_{M}^{A}
encodes all of the 248 (nonabelian) E_{8} generators and 8 additional (abelian)
translations associated with the vectorial parts of the generators of the diagonal subalgebra
[Cl(8) ⊗ Cl(8)]_{diag} ⊂ Cl(16). The generalized curvature, Ricci tensor, Ricci
scalar, torsion, torsion vector and the Einstein-Hilbert-Cartan action is constructed. A
preliminary analysis of how to construct a Clifford Superspace (that is far *richer* than
ordinary superspace) based on orthogonal and symplectic Clifford algebras is presented.
Finally, it is shown how an E_{8} ordinary Yang-Mills in 8D, after a sequence of symmetry
breaking processes E_{8} → E_{7} → E_{6} → SO(8, 2), and performing a Kaluza-Klein-Batakis
compactification on CP^{2}, involving a nontrivial *torsion*, leads to a (Conformal) Gravity
and Yang-Mills theory based on the Standard Model in 4D. The conclusion is devoted
to explaining how Conformal (super) Gravity and (super) Yang-Mills theory in any
dimension can be embedded into a (super) Clifford-algebra-valued gauge field theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:0908.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 3 pages

In the article the capture bar of an electron into atomic orbit and mechanism for analysis
of screw motion of an electron is described.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[78] **viXra:0908.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 pages, This article will appear in the Int J. of Mod. Phys A.

It is shown how a Conformal Gravity and U(4) X U(4) Yang-Mills Grand Unification
model in four dimensions can be attained from a Clifford Gauge Field
Theory in C-spaces (Clifford spaces) based on the (complex) Clifford Cl(4,C) algebra
underlying a complexified four dimensional spacetime (8 real dimensions).
Upon taking a real slice, and after symmetry breaking, it leads to ordinary Gravity
and the Standard Model in four real dimensions. A brief conclusion about
the Noncommutative star product deformations of this Grand Unified Theory
of Gravity with the other forces of Nature is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[77] **viXra:0908.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 44 pages, This article has been submitted to the Journal of Mathematical Physics, Aug 2009

Long ago, Bergshoeff, Sezgin, Tanni and Townsend have shown that the
light-cone gauge-fixed action of a super p-brane belongs to a new kind of supersymmetric
gauge theory of p-volume preserving diffeomorphisms (diffs) associated
with the p-spatial dimensions of the extended object. These authors
conjectured that this new kind of supersymmetric gauge theory must be related
to an infinite-dim nonabelian antisymmetric gauge theory. It is shown in
this work how this new theory should be part of an underlying antisymmetric
nonabelian tensorial gauge field theory of p+1-dimensional diffs (upon supersymmetrization)
associated with the world volume evolution of the p-brane. We
conclude by embedding the latter theory into a more fundamental one based on
the Clifford-space geometry of the p-brane configuration space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[76] **viXra:0908.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 33 pages, This article will appear in the Int. J. of Geom. Methods in Mod Phys vol 7, no. 1 (2010)

Two methods to prove the Riemann Hypothesis are presented. One is
based on the modular properties of Θ (theta) functions and the other on
the Hilbert-Polya proposal to find an operator whose spectrum reproduces
the ordinates ρ_{n} (imaginary parts) of the zeta zeros in the critical line :
s_{n} = 1/2 + iρ_{n}
A detailed analysis of a one-dimensional Dirac-like operator
with a potential V(x) is given that reproduces the spectrum of energy levels
E_{n} = ρ_{n}, when the boundary conditions
Ψ_{E} (x = -∞) = ± Ψ_{E} (x = +∞) are imposed.
Such potential V(x) is derived implicitly from the
relation x = x(V) = π/2(dN(V)/dV), where the functional form of N(V)
is given by the full-fledged Riemann-von Mangoldt counting function of
the zeta zeros, including the *fluctuating* as well as the O(E^{-n}) terms.
The construction is also extended to self-adjoint Schroedinger operators.
Crucial is the introduction of an energy-dependent cut-off function Λ(E).
Finally, the natural quantization of the phase space areas (associated to
*nonperiodic* crystal-like structures) in *integer* multiples of π follows from
the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions of Quantum Mechanics. It
allows to find a physical reasoning why the average density of the primes
distribution for very large x (O(1/logx)) has a one-to-one correspondence
with the asymptotic limit of the *inverse* average density of the zeta zeros
in the critical line suggesting intriguing connections to the Renormalization
Group program.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:0908.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 19 pages

In the article the equations of a kinetics of coagulation of disperse systems and
theory of a solvate layer of colloidal particles are given.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[74] **viXra:0908.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 4 pages

The argument that virtual photons can be globally gauged away I think is spurious. Indeed, the
inconsistency with the boson commutation rules in Heisenberg and Pauli's historic 1929 attempt to
quantize the electromagnetic field disappears once one uses the recently discovered dark energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[73] **viXra:0908.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Arkady L. Kholodenko

**Comments:** 61 pages.

Let ω(i) be period of rotation of the i-th planet around the Sun
(or ω_{j}(i) be period of rotation of j-th satellite around the i-th planet). From
empirical observations it is known that within margins of experimental errors
Σ_{i} n_{i}ω(i) = 0 (or
Σ_{j} n_{j}ω_{j}(i) = 0) for some
integers n_{i} (or n_{j} ), different for
different satellite systems. These conditions, known as resonance conditions,
make uses of theories such as KAM difficult to implement. The resonances in
Solar System are similar to those encountered in old quantum mechanics where
applications of methods of celestial mechanics to atomic and molecular physics
were highly successful. With such a successes, the birth of new quantum
mechanics is difficult to understand. In short, the rationale for its birth lies in
simplicity with which the same type of calculations can be done using
methods of quantum mechanics capable of taking care of resonances. The solution
of quantization puzzle was found by Heisenberg. In this paper new uses of
Heisenberg?s ideas are found. When superimposed with the equivalence
principle of general relativity, they lead to quantum mechanical treatment of observed
resonances in the Solar System. To test correctness of theoretical predictions
the number of allowed stable orbits for planets and for equatorial stable orbits
of satellites of heavy planets is calculated resulting in good agreement with
observational data. In addition, the paper briefl?y discusses quantum mechanical
nature of rings of heavy planets and potential usefulness of the obtained results
for cosmology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[72] **viXra:0908.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Dieter Gernert

**Comments:** 6 pages. Journal reference: Frontier Perspectives, vol. 14, no. 2, 8-13 (2005)

Whereas entanglement and nonlocality belong to the fundamental findings of quantum theory,
possible extensions to macroscopic systems outside the quantum laboratory are scarcely
studied. This paper analyses conditions for entanglement to occur on a macrophysical level.
An empirical basis is given by historic episodes and modern quantitative data. Theoretical
understanding can start from the concept of perspective notions; the crucial new term is
"*common prearranged context*", which characterizes the preparation to be made in advance
(or naturally given conditions) in order to enable entanglement. A mathematical formalization
is possible and gives some insight about how to handle perspective notions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[71] **viXra:0908.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Dieter Gernert

**Comments:** 6 pages. Journal reference: Cognitive Systems, vol.7, nr. 2, 133-138 (2009)

"Ockham's razor" is a methodical principle, due to the medieval philosopher
William of Ockham, who mainly opposed an unjustified creation of new terms in
philosophy. Since this principle and its later versions are frequently quoted in
discussions about anomalies, it will be studied here in some detail. After a short
look on the historical roots, the principal modern formulations are summarized.
It will be shown that a demand for "simplicity" cannot be generally maintained.
Rather, striving for simplicity can conflict with other essentials of scientific
method. Ockham's principle - no matter whether in its original or in a modified
version - cannot be helpful in a rational decision between competing
explanations for the same empirical facts. An incorrect use of Ockham's razor
only leads to a perpetuation and corroboration of existing prejudice, and this
principle should not be used to easily get rid of unwelcome data or concepts.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[70] **viXra:0908.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 8 pages

In the article the in-depth arguing is given, that takes place at magnetic processing
of water.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[69] **viXra:0908.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 9 pages

In the article some features of formation of galaxies and stars are considered

**Category:** Astrophysics

[68] **viXra:0908.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 3 pages

The molecules of the reflecting surface are sources of Huygens' wavelets
which make the reflected wavefront. These molecules can be nonplanar to
the extent of a fraction of the wavelength while yet there exists practically
reflected plane wavefront.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[67] **viXra:0908.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 6 pages

The real causes of force existent between two current-carrying wires are searched.
Some electromagnetic experiments are proposed to verify these causes and other similar material.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[66] **viXra:0908.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 3 pages

In a primary manner it is shown that if a body is stationary the torque
exerted on it is zero, while at present avoiding the analytical proof of this
theorem, this theorem is presented to the student unprovenly and almost
as an axiom.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[65] **viXra:0908.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 11 pages

In surface evaporation the liquid increases the potential energy of
its molecules by taking heat while their kinetic energies remain unchanged.
In such state the molecules are in the form of a gas (vapor).
We know that in an isothermal system of a liquid and a gas adjacent to
it, the temperature of the gas decreases due to the surface evaporation
while some net heat is transferred from the gas to the liquid. So, if the
temperature of the gas is lower than the temperature of the liquid only
in a sufficiently small extent, some net heat will be still transferred
from the gas to the liquid due to the surface evaporation and finally
the gas and liquid (and vapor) will be isothermal (in a temperature
lower than the initial temperature). This matter violates the Clausius
(or refrigerator) statement of the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[64] **viXra:0908.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 16 pages

It is shown that surface tension is not the reason causing minimization
of the surface of a liquid pile. It is shown that there exists a pressure inside
the liquid arising from the inward intermolecular resultant force on the
surface molecules exerted by the liquid molecules adjacent to the surface.
We call it as cohesion pressure. A method is presented for measuring
the intermolecular attraction which will be also a means for testing the
theory in comparison with the current theory of surface tension. It is
proven that the surface tension is not what causes the horizontal wire
sliding on the two limbs of a U-shaped wire to be in equilibrium in any
position when a liquid film forms the area of the U-shaped wire. In a
sure manner, incorrectness of the current relation Δp = 4
γ/R, for the
pressure difference between inside and outside of a bubble having radius
R, and Δp = 4
γ/R, for the one related to a solid drop having radius
R, is proven. It is shown that the adhesion reduces the pressure inside
the liquid, because a part of the liquid weight is sustained by the walls
of the container. The mechanism of capillarity is discussed in detail in
terms of intermolecular attraction and cohesion pressure. Dependence of
rise altitude on depth of dipping and dependence of fall depth on depth
of dipping are properties in capillarity; this is predicted by the theory
presented in this paper and not by the theory of surface tension, and then
can be a practical test for the theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:0908.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 18 pages

It is not necessary to distinguish between inertial and gravitational
masses believing that the nature has chosen them quite proportional to
each other by chance, and not necessary to believe that the nature by
chance has chosen the power of distance in inverse-square forces exactly
equal to two, and not necessary that in trying to define mass (and force)
to become involved in a vicious circle using presupposition of existence
of inertial reference frame which itself requires pre-definition of mass.
Newton's laws of motion are rewritten in a logical manner. Some primary
models are presented as guides for discovering the essence of known
forces. A model for justifying the force between two electric and magnetic
charges, moving relative to each other, is presented. In fact energy has
only one form: kinetic energy. The law of action-reaction holds completely
and undoubtedly only during the direct collisions of particles.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:0908.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

As we know the Michelson-Morley experiment proves that there is no
ethereal wind on the ground. It is thought at present that the existence of
the stellar aberration necessitates existence of ethereal wind on the ground
if the ether is to exist. Comparison of these two experiments results in
believing that the ether does not exist. We prove that if the ether exists
the stellar aberration can occur with the ether drag and then does not
necessitate existence of the ethereal wind.

A new model in the form of undiscovered tiny particles is presented
for the ether. With accepting this model and by using the results of
the Michelson-Morley and Michelson-Gale experiments a model consisting
of an ethereal stack stuck with the earth in its motion in the space is
presented such that the earth can rotate axially inside this stack freely.
We shall also see why atomic clocks are slow when are in (fast) motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:0908.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 9 pages

We consider the sun and its atmosphere as a spherical lens causing
deviation of stars light and also decrease of its speed in the lens. Such
a lens can probably make a multiple image of a star. It is also shown
that the sun, because of its atmosphere, is in fact smaller than what an
observer measures. We show that the above-mentioned spherical lens is
non-dispersive practically.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[60] **viXra:0908.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

As we know probability of finding a system in one of its accessible
states is proportial to the Boltzmann factor. It is shown that contrary to
what is thought at present in this proportion the energy appearing in the
Boltzmann factor is not a variable but it is a constant and the variable is
the state accessible for the system having this constant energy. So, what
at present is accepted as Boltzmann factor is not real. Deduction of the
Maxwell velocity distribution as an instance of the consequences of the
real Boltzmann factor, and the first deduction of the relation E = hν
as an instance of the consequences of the wrong Boltzmann factor are
presented. A logical review of some of the fundamental elements of the
statistical mechanics, that also contains some new viewpoints, has been
necessary. A factor is introduced in a general expression for molar specific
heat which plays the role of partition (not equipartition) of energy and
giving suitable amounts to it all the practical cases including ones related
to ideal gases and crystalline solids are coveredν

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[59] **viXra:0908.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

It is shown that contrary to what is thought the classical physics does
not predict a uniform distribution for the magnetic dipoles (silver atoms)
in a nonuniform magnetic field in the Stern-Gerlach experiment. Its prediction
for a concentrated beam is obtained in the form of a circular surface
such that the density of the dipoles is much more near the edge than near
the center. Some experiments are proposed for testing the contents of the
article.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[58] **viXra:0908.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-04 10:43:36*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

An electromagnetic wave with the wavelength lambda, which has some
energy, descends on an electron and makes it move in the same direction
of propagation of the wave. The wave makes the moving electron
oscillate with a lower frequency. A simple analysis shows that this
moving oscillating electron radiates, in the direction making angle theta
with the direction of the incident wave, an electromagnetic wave which
its wavelength is bigger by a factor proportional to lambda(1 − cos theta).
The mechanism presented for pushing the electron, necessitates that Camton scattering to cease if the experiment is performed in vacuum. (I'm ready to prepare for doing such a critical test experiment in any university as a guest researcher.)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:0908.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-17 05:48:21*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Radiation energy causes fluctuation of the molecules in vanes of
the Crooks radiometer. Through this fluctuation, molecules of the
vanes strike the adjacent air molecules and as reaction cause recoil
of the vanes. It seems that this is also the mechanism of Nichols
radiometer. But, in the vacuum of the space, there are not practically
such molecules to be leaned by the striking molecules of the vanes of
solar sails. So, the vanes will not recoiled to be propelled. It is shown
that a comet’s tail and antitail are common tides produced by Sun
rather than by radiation pressure.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[56] **viXra:0908.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-17 02:00:13*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Conductive core of Earth is as hot as causing freedom of the valence electrons after which these released electrons distribute themselves toward the core surface and move along with the rotation of Earth causing that magnetic field which forms the big magnet inside Earth. This is a simple account for the geomagnetic field. By accepting this theory we also be leaded to a conclusion justifying the magnetic inversions of Earth based on the existence of several changes in axial rotation of Earth which most probably has had direct influence on expansion of polar ice on one hemisphere and a permanent day on the other hemisphere both causing extinction of species (including dinosaurs). Based on the presented discussions a practical way for direct determination of ionization energies of different elements is proposed.

**Category:** Geophysics

[55] **viXra:0908.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 8 pages

Action mechanism of a conductor is presented in a simple manner. It
is proven that this is not the charges themselves that are distributed in
the conductor but their substitutes do this act. Also we conclude that
probably the electron doesn't have a size so small compared with the
dimensions of a molecule. In a discussion relating directly to the subject
of surface tension we see why a net negative charge in a conductor cannot
leave it.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:0908.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 20 pages

A perfect comparison between a closed circuit of water current and a
closed circuit of electric current is made and Ohm's law is obtained in this
manner and it is shown that, contrary to the current belief, existence of
conduction current is not because of the existence of any electric field in
the conductor, and the linear relation J = gE cannot be valid. The relaxation
time (necessary for the current to reach its final speed) and the final
speed (drift velocity) of the current are obtained in the above-mentioned
manner, and it is shown that, contrary to what is believed at present, both
of them are independent of the chosen standard unit charge (eg electron
charge or coulomb) and its mass. It is also shown that, contrary to the
current belief, alternating current is steady. We also prove the existence
of a kind of resistance arising from the configuration of the circuit. Action
mechanism of transistor is explained and a hydrodynamical analogue for
it is introduced: both confirming the material presented earlier.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[53] **viXra:0908.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 7 pages

It is shown that as Newton's third law holds in static discussions of
Electromagnetism it holds also in dynamic discussions of it, ie where
the motion of electric charge in the magnetic field arising from the
magnetic static (or magnetostatic) poles is under consideration. In
addition, it is shown that in this recent case the forces of action and
reaction are not collinear. In other words as we know there is some
force exerted on a current-carrying wire in the magnetic field of a
magnet. It is shown that this magnet is in fact the same enlarged
magnetic needle in Oersted's experiment, and then there exists also
some force exerted on the magnet due to the electric current in the
wire. These two action and reaction forces are in opposite directions
but are not collinear.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[52] **viXra:0908.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 9 pages

Density of lines of the magnetodynamic field arising from two parallel
currents is more in the regions out of the distance between the
two wires and then the molecular magnetic dipoles of air are pulled toward
these regions and create a bigger pressure there which causes the
two wires to be pushed (or to be attracted) toward each other. A similar
reasoning applied conversely to two antiparallel currents justifies
their repulsion arising from the created air pressure difference. Thus,
most probably, railgun will not work very well in the absence of the air.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:0908.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

We consider point magnetic charges as the sources of the magnetostatic fields, like the
point electric charges for the electrostatic fields. Forms of the mutual effects of
electric and magnetic charges on themselves and on each other are presented in the
forms of vectorial relations. Using these relations incorrectness of a usual manner
which eventually leads to the deviation from the classical physics and to the rejection
of the Galilean transformations and to the resort to the special relativity is proven.
Static potential energy of a distribution of electric and magnetic charges is presented
with a careful view on the actual essence of each involved term; this itself shows a
sample of the usual carelessness existing in the present current electromagnetic theory
even in its static discussions. Almost all the fundamental relations in the present
current electromagnetic theory are rewritten in new forms by using the fundamental
vectorial relations presented at the beginning of the paper. In a more detailed argument
the proportion of the curl of the dynamic field of one kind (ie magnetodynamic or
electrodynamic) to the time derivative of the static field of the other kind (ie
electrostatic or magnetostatic) is established; meanwhile the proportion of the current
density of one kind to the time derivative of the field of the same kind is also shown.
Lenz's law is obtained in its new form. Static and dynamic inductances are presented.
By presenting an aspect which views the space full of much tiny electrostatic and
magnetostatic dipoles, the possibility of the proportion of the static fields to the
dynamic fields is shown.
The way in which the electromagnetic wave propagates through these dipoles is easily
explained by using the mentioned fundamental relations, and by obtaining the new form
of Maxwell's equations and deducing the wave equations from them, this simple explanation
is endorsed. By deducing the dynamic potential energy and explaining its difference with
the static potential energy of a set of charges, the Poynting vector is obtained in its
new form. It is shown that the fields of an electromagnetic wave are continuous across
the boundary interfaces. Fresnel coefficients are obtained in their quite new forms,
and it is explained that the coefficient appearing in the fundamental relations showing
the relations between two electric and magnetic charges moving relative to each other,
μ, must be construed as a world constant. The reflectance and transmittance are
introduced in this new approach, and it is shown that sum of them is identical with one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:0908.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 3 pages

It is shown that we can take all numbers to odd bases such that we
require only about half of the digits required in the current method provided
that we introduce negative mark for each digit. Most probably this
method will have various applications in the computer technology.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[49] **viXra:0908.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 15 pages

To color a given map we first find its related map with the most mutual
adjacencies and color it by only four colors, then we trace back.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[48] **viXra:0908.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 5 pages

For a large even number there are a large number of pairs of odd
numbers sum of the members of each being the even number. We eliminate
those pairs that none of the members of each of them is prime and show
that the number of the remaining pairs is still large. The process of proof
shows that there can be no drop to zero in the function of the number of
the mentioned prime pairs.

**Category:** Number Theory

[47] **viXra:0908.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 2 pages

It seems that for some applications we require to decrease the drifting velocity
of atomic or molecular beams, and seemingly various methods have been
designed to achieve this purpose. I propose to select a relatively big coreless
solenoid through which we can give an intense direct (probably impulsive) electric
current. Set the whole instrument which is to create the beam in the space
interior to the solenoid, and create the beam parallel to the solenoid. There
is no magnetic field gradient inside a current-carrying solenoid. So, the drift
velocity of the beam is not changed inside the solenoid, but when it is leaving
the solenoid its drift velocity decreases. (If we use this method conversely we
can increase the drift velocity of the beam.)

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[46] **viXra:0908.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is said that empirical results of the photoelectric effect have no classical
justification and then are used for deduction of the famous relation
E = hν as an alternative way to Planck's deduction. We show that these
results are in fact justifiable by the classical theory of electromagnetism
and then this way can not be a valid manner for obtaining this relation.
Using the presented discussions simple justification of the Rayleigh scattering
and of the action mechanism of laser are presented in support of
the validity of the discussion.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[45] **viXra:0908.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 6 pages

By increasing the voltage in the Franck-Hertz experiment we reach a
breakdown voltage in which the current existent between the grid and
anode is canceled. This breakdown voltage will be repeated at equal
intervals by increasing the voltage.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[44] **viXra:0908.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 17 pages

Relying on this fact that not only role of the medium (intermediate
gas) cannot be ignored in the electric discharge between cathode and
anode, but also it is very important, the diffraction and interference phenomena
which an electron beam can reveal are justified. This act is done
after analyzing the manner in which stroke propagates via the gas valence
electrons. In this respect an experiment is proposed as a test. We
conclude that the cathodic ray does not carry charge, ie is not a ray of
electrons being shot but is a longitudinal wave arising from the vibration
of the valence electrons of the molecules of the carrying-wave medium. In
this way the mechanism of production of and the difference between the
longitudinal and transverse waves and that our longitudinal wave is only
due to compression (not expansion) impacts are explained.

Our ability for complete deflecting and making away the electron beam
(behind the anode), existence of sharp shadow of anode in the electric discharge
tube, existence of dark-bright striated columns in this tube (similar
to Kundt tube in acoustics), and the action mechanism of image intensifying
in the image intensifier tubes are all described as witnesses to confirm
the wave-like motion for electron beam proposed in this paper and reject
the shooting motion for it.

Deflection of the trajectory of electron beams in electric and magnetic
fields is justified in wave-like motion of "going" and "backing" for evaluation
of which an experiment has been proposed. It is shown that how
for transferring of momentum there is no necessity to suppose shooting
motion for electron in the cathodic ray.

Two separate parallel cathodic rays repel each other. This will be
contrary to what the electromagnetism predicts if a cathodic ray is to
carry charge. This phenomenon is justified by the model presented here.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[43] **viXra:0908.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 7 pages

It is shown that the wave equation cannot be solved for the general
spreading of the cylindrical wave using the method of separation of variables.
But an equation is presented in case of its solving the above act
will have occurred. Also using this equation the above-mentioned general
spreading of the cylindrical wave for large distances is obtained which
contrary to what is believed consists of arbitrary functions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[42] **viXra:0908.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 7 pages

By exerting a magnetic field normal to a current-carrying strip we
cause a deviation in the path of moving electrons as if our conducting path
is a wire along an edge of the strip which at a point is deflected normal
to the edge and reaches the other edge and afterwards is continued along
this other edge in the same direction as before. It is clear that connecting
the two end points of the transverse part of such a wire by a minor wire
we expect a part of the main current to pass through this minor wire. The
direction of such a current flowing in the minor wire is such that as if the
current-carrying charges in the main current-carrying strip are positive
charges. This is the basis of this article. A quite practical experiment is
proposed for testing the presented theory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[41] **viXra:0908.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-04 10:20:00*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In a gradient of magnetic field, magnetic dipoles of air are attracted
toward the region of intense field. So, the air pressure is more in the
regions of more intense field. The formed pressure gradient exerts a
net force on a body placed in the air in this gradient of magnetic field
toward the region of low pressure or the region having weaker field.
This is like what takes place in the process of sink-float separation.
To establish the presented theory we need only to perform diamagnetism experiment in vacuum (according to the presented guidelines)to see if it will cease.(I'm ready to prepare for such an experiment in any university as a guest researcher).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[40] **viXra:0908.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 30 pages

It is shown that there exists a uniqueness theorem, stating that the
charges given to a constant configuration of conductors take a unique distribution,
which contrary to what is believed does not have any relation to
the uniqueness theorem of electrostatic potential. Using this theorem we
obtain coefficients of potential analytically. We show that a simple carelessness
has caused the famous formula for the electrostatic potential to be
written as U = 1/2 ∫D.Edv while its correct form is U = 1/2 ∫D.E_{ρ}dv
in which E_{ρ} is the electrostatic field arising only from the external charges
not also from the polarization charges.

Considering the above-mentioned material it is shown that, contrary
to the current belief, capacitance of a capacitor does not at all depend
on the dielectric used in it and depends only on the configuration of its
conductors. We proceed to correct some current mistakes resulted from
the above-mentioned mistakes, eg electrostatic potential energy of and the
inward force exerted on a dielectric block entering into a parallel-plate
capacitor are obtained and compared with the wrong current ones.

It is shown that existence of dielectric in the capacitor of a circuit
causes attraction of more charges onto the capacitor because of the polarization
of the dielectric. Then, in electric circuits we should consider the
capacitor's dielectric as a source of potential not think wrongly that existence
of dielectric changes the capacitor's capacitance. Difference between
these two understandings are verified completely during some examples,
and some experiments are proposed for testing the theory. For example
it is shown that contrary to what the current theory predicts, resonance
frequency of a circuit of RLC will increase by inserting dielectric into the
capacitor (without any change of the geometry of its conductors). It is
also shown that what is calculated as K (dielectric constant) is in fact
2 - (1/K).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[39] **viXra:0908.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 2 pages

A conjecture is discussed whereby the gravitational mass of an object depends on its
mass/radius ratio. If the conjecture is true then solar oscillations of the sun would cause large
signals for LISA. These signals would be greater than those produced by gravitational waves
from distant sources, and potentially spoil the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:0908.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 11 pages

In a universe expanding as per the Big Bang or Steady State theory the cosmic redshifts
should increase exponentially with time, which is not actually observed. So the universe is
NOT expanding. In Unified Theory's non-expanding universe the total energy-mass content
is eternally conserved with NO 'initial creation of matter from nothing' in a single big
explosive event of the Big Bang theory or continuously as in the Steady State theory. The
cosmic redshift is caused not by Doppler effects of receding velocities of stellar light sources
but by depletion of photon energy during long passage through the sharmon medium due to
non-Doppler effects of gravitational, electromagnetic & viscous losses. Cosmic microwave
background follows naturally and plausible explanation given to the observation on Ia type
supernovae, which has amazed & horrified the astronomers. Halton Arp's observation of
high-redshift quasars in the vicinity of low-redshift parent star systems is also
explained. There is no antigravity force permeating space and no likelihood for the universe
to become empty ever in future. Age of the non-expanding universe is about 45 billion years.
Dark energy and dark matter are related to the Sharmon medium. Realistic theory of Nonexpanding
universe replaces Big Bang & Steady State theories of expanding universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:0908.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 6 pages

Quantum Theory's Uncertainty Principle violates conservation of energy & momentum
and invokes matter's unrealistic creation from, and dissolution into, nothing. In Unified
Theory action is an evolute of sharmon with Planck constant h as its quantum. The
inviolable conservations of energy and momentum ordain conservation of action,
invalidation of the Uncertainty Principle and introduction of the new Principle of Null
Action. It has universal applications and is conceptually superior to the old Hamilton's
Principle of Least Action as the latter unrealistically associates turnover of action NOT with
variations in but with constant energy & momentum. In Nature, the path chosen by an
isolated closed system during a real physical change through a succession of intermediate
states from the initial equilibrium state 'a' to the final equilibrium state 'b' is such that the
summation or integration of action covering all variations of energy or momentum is zero
or null. Hence the name: "Principle of Null Action". The new principle has successfully
derived the generally accepted equations for the following: Schwinger's Quantum
Dynamical Principle, Klein-Gorden Field Equations, Schrodinger Wave Equation, Special
and General Relativity, Euler's Equations, Lagrange's Equations, Maxwell Equations for
Electromagnetic Radiation, Newton's laws of motion, Thermodynamic Equation of State,
Discharge of Capacitance through Inductance & Resistance.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[36] **viXra:0908.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 8 pages

An element composes other particles but it itself is non-composite. The basic substance
composes all and it itself is composed by the basic element(s). The Modern Standard Model
with Supersymmetry has over 200 basic particles but none of them satisfies the definition of
'element'. Inter-conversions of various forms of energies and/or with mass and the equation
E=mc^{2} compellingly needs a 'basic substance' composing all forms of E & m, otherwise E &
m could not interconvert. Real Sharmon Medium propagating light as wave-quantum
UNITY at constant velocity invariant to source-observer motion is the 'absolute reference
frame' and all-composing and all-pervading 'basic substance' composed by the new particle
'sharmon', which comprises a positive positrino & a negative negatrino, the two basic
elements named cosminos. They compose all forms of energy & mass, material particles and
energy-quanta in the Cosmos. Their electric charge is ± 1.37x 10^{-30} esu; mass 2.596x10^{-48} gm
& spin ½. Sharmon's mass is 5.192x10-48 gm, spin 0 & 1. As a kinetic gas, the sharmon
medium is irremovable by any means since the ~10^{-33} cm Sharmon can pass thru interatomic
spaces and between orbital electrons. Its number density is ~10^{15} sharmons per cm^{3},
mass density 0.519x10^{-33} gm.cm^{-3}. Its inter-sharmon distance of ~ 10,sup>-5 cm compares with
Mean Free Path for real gasses e.g. 1.12x 10^{-5} cm for Hydrogen. An element is singly
charged since multiple charges imply that many constituents. Cosmino's single unified
charge manifests as mass & electric charge via the mediation of gravitational and
electromagnetic fields/forces, which also unify into a single gravitoelectromagnetic
field/force. No particle is massless or sizeless point; neutrinos have mass, size & electric
charge. Cosmino compositions of quarks, leptons, neutrinos and photon are worked out.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[35] **viXra:0908.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 4 pages

In the article is shown, than the largest planet can threaten to mankind.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:0908.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages

In the article the concept of a gravitational equivalent electrostatic and gravidynamic of
interplay is entered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[33] **viXra:0908.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 15 pages

In the article the different aspects of interplay of fields with field carriers are reviewed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:0908.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 5 pages

Many characteristics of fluids and solids it is possible to calculate, using notion
about existence of "surface gas".

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[31] **viXra:0908.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Fanson

**Comments:** 2 pages

A novel window function, also known as an
apodization or tapering function is proposed. The window is
similar in shape, spectral response and interpretation to the
Hanning window.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[30] **viXra:0908.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 10 pages

As the galaxies are formed and the Universe as a whole is reviewed in this article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:0908.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** J W Cahill

**Comments:** 2 pages

Original insights for the most part emanate from the minds of single individuals.
Consequently, institutions, no matter how well funded, cannot expect to enjoy
a monopoly on creativity. Hwever, the individual without institutional affiliation
is most likely to be ignored. The situation is counterproductive to scientific
progress and the world economy. This article recounts one person's experience and
offers a potential solution.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[28] **viXra:0908.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 8 pages

In the article the problems, bound with the law Habble are reviewed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:0908.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 05:06:01*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 510 Pages. Updating

The TGD based general view about EEG developed in this book relies on the following general picture.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> Magnetic body is the key actor in TGD inspired model of EEG and nerve pulse. Magnetic body acts as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor. There would be entire hierarchy of magnetic bodies associated with various body parts and characterized by the p-adic length scale and the level of dark matter hierarchy labeled by the value of Planck constant. The hierarchy of counterparts of EEGs associated with photons, Z<sup>0</sup> and W bosons, and gluons at various frequency scales involving dark bosons with energies above thermal threshold by the large value of hbar would make possible communication and control. In particular, cyclotron radiation from Bose-Einstein condensates at magnetic body and Josephson radiation from Josephson junctions associated with cell membrane and other bio-electrets would be involved and cyclotron and Josephson frequencies would correspond to EEG frequencies.
<LI> DNA as topological quantum computer vision suggests a rather detailed view about how genome and cell membrane interact. Nucleotides and lipids would be connected by magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter with varying values of Planck constant and define braiding affected by the 2-D flow of the lipids in liquid crystal state and giving rise to a topological quantum computation with program modules defined by liquid flow patterns resulting via self organization process in presence of metabolic energy feed.
<LI> Sensory qualia could be associated with the generalized di-electric breakdowns between sensory organ and its magnetic body. The cyclotron phase transitions of Bose-Einstein condensates of biologically important ions generated by the dark EEG photons at the magnetic body could generate the analogs of somatosensory qualia identifiable as our cognitive and emotional qualia. Long ranged charge entanglement made possible by W MEs (topological light rays) could be essential element of motor control and generate exotic ionization of nuclei (new nuclear physics predicted by TGD) in turn inducing classical electric fields at space-time sheets carrying ordinary matter. These fields generate various responses such as ionic waves and nerve pulses yielding the desired physiological responses. The recent view about cell membrane as almost vacuum extremal of Kähler action explains large parity breaking effects in living matter and also the peak frequencies of photoreceptors in retina. Also a model for the cell membrane as a kind of sensory homunculus with lipids identified as pixels of a sensory map representing basic qualia follows naturally. Furthermore, EEG photons and biophotons can be identified as decay products of same dark photons.
</OL>
</p><p>
The plan of the book is roughly following. The chapter describing the magnetic sensory canvas hypothesis is followed by a model for nerve pulse and by three chapters devoted to EEG.

**Category:** Mind Science

[26] **viXra:0908.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 05:04:40*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 754 Pages. Updating

This book tries to give an overall view about TGD inspired theory of consciousness as it stands now.
</p><p>
The basic notions TGD inspired theory of consciousness are quantum jump identified as a moment of consciousness, self identified as sequence of quantum jumps analogous to bound state of particles, self hierarchy with sub-selves experienced by self as mental images, and sharing and fusion of mental images by quantum entanglement.
The topics of the book are organized in the following manner.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> In the first part of the book TGD inspired theory of consciousness is discussed. There are three summarizing chapters giving a view about how ideas have evolved. There are also chapter about Negentropy Maximization Principle, about the notion of self, and about sensory representations.
<LI> The second part of the book contains two chapters about the relationship between experienced and geometric time. The first one is more than decade old. The second one - inspired by zero energy ontology and written quite recently - provides a rather detailed vision about how the arrow of geometric time correlating with the arrow of experienced time and the localization of the contents of sensory experience to a narrow time interval emerge. The chapter explaining TGD based view about long term memory is also included.
<LI> The third part of the book summarizes roughly decade old view about
intelligence and cognition. p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality and many-fermion states as representations of Boolean statements are the key notions. In zero energy ontology also quantal versions of logical rules A→ B realized as quantum variants of Boolean functions emerge at the fundamental level. A chapter about the role of dark matter hierarchy, in particular about topological quantum computation as a universal information processing tool, would be needed to make the picture more complete.
<LI> The fourth chapter is devoted to remote mental interactions. The theoretical motivation for taking remote mental interactions seriously is that exactly the same mechanisms which are involved with the interaction between magnetic body and biological body apply also to remote mental interactions in TGD Universe. One could also understand why these phenomena are rare: a kind of immune system making it impossible for foreign magnetic bodies to control and communicate with the biological body possessed by a particular magnetic body would be a highly probable (but perhaps not unavoidable) outcome of evolutionary process.
</OL>

**Category:** Mind Science

[25] **viXra:0908.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 05:00:28*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 458 Pages. Updating

This book discusses general mathematical ideas behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness.
</p><p>
<I> PART I: New Physics And Mathematics Involved With TGD</I>
</p><p>
The Clifford algebra associated with point of configuration space ("world of classical worlds") decomposes to a direct integral of von Neumann algebras known as hyper-finite factors of type II<sub>1</sub>. This implies strong physical predictions and deep connections with conformal field theories, knot-, braid- and quantum groups, and topological quantum computation.
<br>
In TGD framework dark matter forms a hierarchy with levels characterized partially by the value of Planck constant labeling the pages of the book like structure formed by singular covering spaces of the imbedding space M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> glued together along four-dimensional back. Particles at different pages are dark relative to each other since purely local interactions (vertices of Feynman diagram) involve only particles at the same page. The phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant having interpretation as tunneling between different pages of the book would induce phase transitions of gel phases abundant in living matter.
</p><p>
<I> Part II: TGD Universe as topological quantum computer</I>
</p><p>
The braids formed by magnetic flux tubes are ideal for the realization of topological quantum computations (tqc). Bio-systems are basic candidates for topological quantum computers. In DNA as tqc vision nucleotides and lipids are connected by flux tubes and the flow of lipids induces tqc programs.
</p><p>
<I> Part III: Categories, Number Theory And Consciousness</I>
</p><p>
Category theory could reflect the basic structures of conscious thought. The comparison of the inherent generalized logics associated with categories to the Boolean logic naturally associated with the configuration space spinor fields is also of interest.
<br>
The notion of infinite prime was the first mathematical invention inspired by TGD inspired theory of consciousness. The construction of infinite primes is very much analogous to a repeated second quantization of a super-symmetric
arithmetic quantum field theory (with analogs of bound states included). Infinite primes form an infinite hierarchy and the physical realization of this hierarchy imply infinite hierarchy of conscious entities and that we represent only a single level in this hierarchy looking infinitesimal from the point of view of higher levels. The notion of infinite rational predicts an infinite number of real units with infinitely rich number theoretical anatomy and single space-time point becomes a Platonia able to represent every quantum state of the entire Universe in its structure: kind of algebraic Brahman=Atman identity.

**Category:** Mind Science

[24] **viXra:0908.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:59:32*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 450 Pages. Updating

This book is about the notion of magnetic body, which is one of the key notions in TGD inspired model of living matter and predicts a hierarchy of generalized EEGs associated with the
magnetic bodies responsible for communication and control. Not only personal magnetic bodies of living systems need to be relevant and the idea about entire magnetosphere as a conscious system controlling the behavior of biosphere emerges naturally.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> Part I discusses the idea about magnetosphere as a fractally scaled up version of biological body and brain. p-Adic fractality and dark matter hierarchy give some plausibility to this idea. Also a vision about evolution in many-sheeted space-time is discussed.
<LI> Part II introduces the notion of semitrance involving quantum entanglement of subself of self, say subsystem of brain, with remote system. The entanglement of sub-systems of two unentangled systems possible in many-sheeted space-time means sharing and fusion of mental images (say stereo vision). The notion of finite measurement resolution justifies this concept.<br>
Semitrance could have been basic control and communication tool of collective levels of consciousness during the period of human consciousness which Jaynes calls bicamerality. The idea that human consciousness might have had totally different character for only few millenia ago, finds additional support from the notions of super- and hyper genome implicated naturally by the dark matter hierarchy and the notion of magnetic body. The identification of memes as hyper-genes looks attractive. The evolution of hyper-genome could have driven the explosive evolution of human civilizations during last two millenia.
<LI> Part III entitled "Crazy Stuff" discusses the idea that crop circles are due to intentional action of magnetospheric higher level self or a higher level self using magnetosphere as a tool to build them. Two special crop circles, Chilbolton and Crabwood crop circles, are discussed. The proposal is that they provide
information about the genomes of life forms responsible for them. The most science fictive identification for these life-forms would be ourselves in distant geometric future using time mirror mechanism to affect geometric past.
</OL>
</p><p>
Most of the material of this book has been written much before the dark matter revolution and formulation of the zero energy ontology and that I have only later added comments to the existing text. I hope that I can later add new material in which the implications of the dark matter hierarchy are discussed in more detail.

**Category:** Mind Science

[23] **viXra:0908.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:57:33*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 658 Pages. Updating

Brain as a hologram is an old idea and it emerges naturally also in TGD framework both at quantum and classical level, which by quantum classical correspondence is expected to reflect what happens at the deeper quantum level. The book is organized as follows.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> The new view about the relationship between experienced and geometric time underlies the notion of 4-D dynamical hologram. Therefore the first part of the book contains three chapters about this topic reflecting the development of ideas. The first one is more than decade old. The third one written quite recently is inspired by zero energy ontology and provides a rather detailed vision about how the arrow of geometric time correlating with the arrow of experienced time and the localization of the contents of sensory experience to a narrow time interval emerge. It must be emphasized that the details of the model for the relationship between experienced and geometric time are still uncertain.
<LI> Second part of the book is devoted to the development of hologram idea. Also a general model of sensory qualia and a model for sensory receptor as electret, which are very abundant in living matter, are discussed.
The recent view about cell membrane as almost vacuum extremal of Kähler action explains large parity breaking effects in living matter and also the peak frequencies of photoreceptors in retina. Also a model for the cell membrane as a kind of sensory homunculus with lipids identified as pixels of a sensory map representing basic qualia follows naturally. Furthermore, EEG photons and biophotons can be identified as decay products of same dark photons.
<LI> The third part of the book is devoted to water memory and metabolism. The title suggests a connection between these two and this kind of connection has indeed emerged. A discovery - certainly one of the greatest surprises of my professional life - popped up as an outcome of an attempt to understand the mechanism behind water memory for which rather strong support exists now. The idea was that dark nuclei which sizes zoomed up to atomic size scale could provide a representation of genes with dark nucleons consisting of three quarks representing DNA codons. It turned out that the model for dark nucleon consisting of three quarks predicts counterparts of 64 DNAs, 64 RNAs, and 20 aminoacids and allows to identify vertebrate genetic code as a natural mapping of DNA type states to amino-acid type states. The population of dark nuclei would be new life-form possibly responsible for the water memory. The chapter about metabolism represents a model of metabolism based on the identification of universal metabolic energy quanta as increments of zero point kinetic energies emitted or absorbed as particles are transferred between space-time time sheets characterized by different p-adic primes.
</OL>

**Category:** Mind Science

[22] **viXra:0908.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-28 01:48:24*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 658 Pages.

The first part of book discusses the new physics relevant to biology and the vision about Universe as topological quantum computer (tqc).
</p><p
Second part describes concrete physical models.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> The notion of many-sheeted DNA and a model of genetic code inspired by the notion of Combinatorial Hierarchy predicting what I call memetic code are introduced. The almost exact symmetries of the code table with respect to the third letter inspire the proposal that genetic code could have evolved as fusion of two-letter code and single-letter code.
<LI> A model for how genome and cell membrane could act as tqc is developed. Magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter characterized by large value of Planck constant would make living matter a macroscopic quantum system. DNA nucleotides and lipids of the cell membrane would be connected by magnetic flux tubes and the flow of the 2-D liquid formed by lipids would induce dynamical braiding defining the computation.
<LI> The net of magnetic flux tubes could explain the properties of gel phase. Phase transitions reducing Planck constant would induce a contraction of the flux tubes explaining why bio-molecules manage to find each other in a dense soup of bio-molecules. The topology of the net would be dynamical and ADP ↔ ATP transformation could affect it. The anomalies related to ionic currents, nerve pulse activity, and interaction of ELF radiation with vertebrate brain find an explanation in this framework. The number theoretic entanglement entropy
able to have negative values could be seen as the real quintenssence associated with the metabolic energy transfer, and the poorly understood high energy phosphate bond could be interpreted in terms of negentropic entanglement rather than ordinary bound state entanglement.
<LI> The discoveries of Peter Gariaev about interaction of ordinary and laser light with genome combined with ideas about dark matter and water memory lead to a model for the interaction of photons with DNA. Dark ↔ ordinary transformation for photons could allow to "see" dark matter by allowing ordinary light to interact with DNA.
<LI> A physical model for genetic code emerged from an attempt to understand the mechanism behind water memory. Dark nuclei which sizes zoomed up to atomic size scale could represent genes. The model for dark nucleon consisting of three quarks predicts counterparts of 64 DNAs, 64 RNAs, and 20 aminoacids and allows to identify genetic code as a natural mapping of DNA type states to amino-acid type states and consistent with vertebrate genetic code.
</OL>
</p><p>
The third part of the book discusses number theoretical models of the genetic code based on p-adic thermodynamics and maximization of entropy or negentropy. These models reproduce the genetic code but fail to make killer predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:0908.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:54:44*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 490 Pages. Updating

This book represents a view about quantum hardware of living systems in TGD framework. Since the vision is bound to look highly speculative, it is good to emphasize that the most important predictions follow almost without any reference to the classical field equations using only quantum classical correspondence.
</p><p>
The new conceptual elements are the notion of many-sheeted space-time having fractal hierarchical structure, 4-D spin glass degeneracy of the preferred extremals of Kähler action providing huge information storage capacity, topological field quantization, the notion of magnetic/field body serving as intentional agent using biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument, zero energy ontology leading to a new view about energy and about the relationship between experienced and geometric time, dark matter hierarchy realized in terms of book like structure of 8-D imbedding space with pages labeled by values of Planck constant, the assumption that the phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant provide a key control tool in living matter, and p-adic length scale hypothesis allowing quantitative grasp to the situation.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> Three chapters of this book are devoted to the model of high $T<sub>c</sub>$ super-conductivity relying strongly on the notions of quantum criticality and dark matter.
<LI> Two chapters discuss quantum antenna hypothesis inspired by topological light rays (M(assless) E(xtremals)) and the notion of wormhole magnetic fields. Notice that the notion of wormhole magnetic field was introduced much before the hypothesis that bosons and also interaction fermions have a natural identification as wormhole contacts emerged. The recent view about quantum TGD suggests the interpretation wormhole magnetic fields as dark scaled up versions of elementary particles identified as Kähler magnetic flux tubes identified as pairs of magnetically charged wormhole contacts carrying at the second wormhole throat neutrino pair neutralizing the weak isospin of the fermion at the second wormhole throat. For ordinary value of Planck constant the length of is flux would be given by weak length scale. Therefore weak interactions in biological length scales are involved giving rise to large parity breaking effects. Also scaled up QCD is involved and implying hadron like states in biological length scales.
<LI> Two chapters are devoted to the possible biological implications of the hypothesis that dark matter corresponds to macroscopic quantum phases characterized by a large value of Planck constant and is the key actor in living matter.
<LI> A possible identification of quantum correlates of sensory qualia is discussed assuming that qualia are in one-one correspondence with the increments of quantum numbers in quantum jump. Also a simple model for sensory receptor is introduced. The recent view about cell membrane as almost vacuum extremal of Kähler action explains large parity breaking effects in living matter and also the peak frequencies of photoreceptors in retina. Also a model for the cell membrane as a kind of sensory homunculus with lipids identified as pixels of a sensory map representing basic qualia follows naturally. Furthermore, EEG photons and biophotons can be identified as decay products of same dark photons.
</OL>

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[20] **viXra:0908.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:49:02*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 869 Pages. Updating

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book describes basic quantum TGD in its recent form.

- The properties of the preferred extremals of Kähler action are crucial for the construction and the discussion of known extremals is therefore included.
- General coordinate invariance and generalized super-conformal symmetries - the latter present only for 4-dimensional space-time surfaces and for 4-D Minkowski space - define the basic symmetries of quantum TGD.
- In zero energy ontology S-matrix is replaced with M-matrix and identified as time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states assignable to the past and future boundaries of 4-surfaces inside causal diamond defined as intersection of future and past directed light-cones. M-matrix is a product of diagonal density matrix and unitary S-matrix and there are reasons to believe that S-matrix is universal. Generalized Feynman rules based on the generalization of Feynman diagrams obtained by replacing lines with light-like 3-surfaces and vertices with 2-D surfaces at which the lines meet.
- A category theoretical formulation of quantum TGD is considered. Finite n measurement resolution realized in terms of a fractal hierarchy of causal diamonds inside causal diamonds leads to a stringy formulation of quantum TGD involving effective replacement of the 3-D light-like surface with a collection of braid strands representing the ends of strings. A formulation in terms of category theoretic concepts is proposed and leads to a hierarchy of algebras forming what is known as operads.
- Twistors emerge naturally in TGD framework and could allow the formulation of low energy limit of the theory in the approximation that particles are massless. The replacement of massless plane waves with states for which amplitudes are localized are light-rays is suggestive in twistor theoretic framework. Twistors could allow also a dual
representation of space-time surfaces in terms of surfaces of X×CP
_{2}, where X is 8-D twistor space or its 6-D projective variant. These surfaces would have dimension higher than four in non-perturbative phases meaning an analogy with branes. In full theory a massive particles must be included but represent a problem in approach based on standard twistors. The interpretation of massive particles in 4-D sense as massless particles in 8-D sense would resolve the problem and requires a generalization of twistor concept involving in essential manner the triality of vector and spinor representations of SO(7,1). - In TGD Universe bosons are in well-defined sense bound states of fermion and anti-fermion. This leads to the notion of bosonic emergence meaning that the fundamental action is just Dirac action coupled to gauge potentials and bosonic action emerges as part of effective action as one functionally integrates over the spinor fields. This kind of approach predicts the evolution of all coupling constants if one is able to fix the necessary UV cutoffs of mass and hyperbolic angle in loop integrations. The guess for the hyperbolic cutoff motivated by the geometric view about finite measurement resolution predicts coupling constant evolution which is consistent with that predicted by standard model. The condition that all N-vertices defined by fermiomic loops vanish for N>3 when incoming particles are massless gives hopes of fixing completely the hyperbolic cutoff from fundamental principles.

**Comments:** 869 pages

[19] **viXra:0908.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-09 07:03:20*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 1024 Pages.

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2<sup>k</sup>, k integer, in particular prime,
define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. A deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of
the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2<sup>k</sup>- and 2-fractality.
<LI> In TGD framework the levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.
<LI> The weak form of electric-magnetic duality is the newest building brick of the vision and leads to a detailed view about electro-weak screening and color confinement and predicts new physics below weak scales. The weak form of electric-magnetic duality allows to identify Higgs bosons and to understand how they provide the longitudinal polarizations of gauge bosons. The most natural option is that photon eats the remaining Higgs scalar and receives a small mass. This true for all bosons regarded as massless and allows to have exact Yangian symmetry requiring the vanishing of IR divergences. Higgs potential and vacuum expectation of Higgs are not needed in the model.
<LI> Twistors emerge naturally in TGD framework and several proposal for twistorialization of TGD is discussed in two chapters devoted to the topic. Twistorial approach combined with zero energy ontology, bosonic emergence, and the properties of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator leads to the conjecture that all particles -also string like objects- can be regarded as bound states of massless particles identifiable as wormhole throats. Also virtual particles would consist of massles wormhole throats but bound state property is not assumed anymore and the energies of wormhole throats can have opposite signs so that space-like momentum exchanges become possible. This implies extremely strong constraints on loop momenta and manifest finiteness of loop integrals.
</OL>
</p><p>
The first part of the book is about the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics and Higgsy contribution affecting the vacuum conformal weight. In the first chapter the view about quantum TGD from particle physics perspective is discussed and the remaining chapters are devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.
</p><p>
Second part of the book is devoted to the application of p-adic length scale hypothesis above elementary particle length scales. The so called leptohadron physics, originally developed on basis of experimental anomalies, is discussed as a particular instance of an infinite fractal hierarchy of copies of standard model physics, predicted by TGD and consistent with what is known about ordinary elementary particle physics. TGD based view about nuclear physics involves light exotic quarks as a essential element, and dark nuclear physics could have implications also at the level of condensed matter physics and biology. TGD based view about high T<sub>c</sub> superconductors involves also in an essential manner dark matter and is summarized in the closing chapter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[18] **viXra:0908.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-09 07:09:54*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 1119 Pages.

This book is devoted to a detailed representation of the recent state of quantum TGD.
</p><p>
The first part of the book summarizes quantum TGD in its recent form.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> General coordinate invariance and generalized super-conformal symmetries are the basic symmetries of TGD and Equivalence Principle can be generalized using generalized coset construction.
<LI> In zero energy ontology the basis of classical WCW spinors fields forms unitary U-matrix having M-matrices as its orthogonal rows. M-matrix defines time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of the zero energy states. M-matrix is a product of a hermitian density matrix and unitary S-matrix commuting with it. The hermitian density matrices define infinite-dimensional Lie-algebra extending to a generalization of Kac-Moody type algebra with generators defined as products of hermitian density matrices and powers of S-matrix. Yangian type algebra is obtained if only non-negative powers of S are allowed. The interpretation is in terms of the hierarchy of causal diamonds with size scales coming as integer multiples of CP<sub>2</sub> size scale. Zero energy states define their own symmetry algebra. For generalized Feynman diagrams lines correspond to light-like 3-surfaces and vertices to 2-D surfaces.
<LI> Finite measurement resolution realized using fractal hierarchy of causal diamonds (CDs) inside CDs implies a stringy formulation of quantum TGD involving replacement of 3-D light-like surfaces with braids representing the ends of strings. Category theoretical formulation leads to a hierarchy of algebras forming an operad.
<LI> Twistors emerge naturally in TGD framework and several proposal for twistorialization of TGD is discussed in two chapters devoted to the topic. Twistorial approach combined with zero energy ontology, bosonic emergence, and the properties of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator leads to the conjecture that all particles -also string like objects- can be regarded as bound states of massless particles identifiable as wormhole throats. Also virtual particles would consist of massles wormhole throats but bound state property is not assumed anymore and the energies of wormhole throats can have opposite signs so that space-like momentum exchanges become possible. This implies extremely strong constraints on loop momenta and manifest finiteness of loop integrals.
</p><p>
An essential element of the formulation is exact Yangian symmetry obtained by replacing the loci of multilocal symmetry generators of Yangian algebra with partonic 2-surfaces so that conformal
algebra of Minkowski space is extened to infinite-dimensional algebra bringing in also the conformal algebra assigned to the partonic 2-surfaces. Yangian symmetry requires the vanishing of both UV and IR divergences achieved if the physical particles are bound states of massless wormhole throats.
</p><p>
Rather general arguments suggest the formulation of TGD in terms of holomorphic 6-surfaces in the product CP<sub>3</sub>× CP<sub>3</sub> of twistor spaces leading to a unique partial differential equations determining these surfaces in terms of homogenous polynomials of the projective complex coordinates
of the two twistor spaces.
</OL>
</p><p>
Second part of the book is devoted to hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> The Clifford algebra of WCW is hyper-finite factor of type II<sub>1</sub>. The inclusions provide a mathematical description of finite measurement resolution. The included factor is analogous to gauge symmetry group since the action of the included factor creates states not distinguishable from the original one. TGD Universe would be analogous to Turing machine able to emulate any internally consistent gauge theory (or more general theory) so that finite measurement resolution would provide TGD Universe with huge simulational powers.
<LI> In TGD framework dark matter corresponds to ordinary particles with non-standard value of Planck constant. The simplest view about the hierarchy of Planck constants is as an effective hierarchy describable in terms of local, singular coverings of the imbedding space. The basic observation is that for Kähler action the time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates are many-valued functions of canonical momentum densities. If all branches for given values of canonical momentum densities are allowed, one obtains the analogs of many-sheeted Riemann surfaces with each sheet giving same contribution to the Kähler action so that Planck constant is effectively a multiple of the ordinary Planck constant. Dark matter could be in quantum Hall like phase localized at light-like 3-surfaces with macroscopic size and analogous to black-hole horizons.
</OL>

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:0908.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:44:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 856 Pages. Updating

The focus of this book is the number theoretical vision about physics. This vision involves three loosely related parts.
</p><p>
<OL><LI> The fusion of real physic and various p-adic physics to a single coherent whole by generalizing the number concept by fusing real numbers and various p-adic number fields along common rationals. Extensions of p-adic number fields can be introduced by gluing them along common algebraic numbers to reals. Algebraic continuation of the physics from rationals and their their extensions to various number fields (generalization of completion process for rationals) is the key idea, and the challenge is to understand whether how one could achieve this dream. A profound implication is that purely local p-adic physics would code for the p-adic fractality of long length length scale real physics and vice versa, and one could understand the origins of p-adic length scale hypothesis.
<LI> Second part of the vision involves hyper counterparts of the classical number fields defined as subspaces of their complexificationsnwith Minkowskian signature of metric. Allowed space-time surfaces would correspond to what might be callednhyper-quaternionic sub-manifolds of a hyper-octonionic space and mappable to M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> in natural manner. One could assign to each point of space-time surface a hyper-quaternionic 4-plane which is the plane defined by the induced or modified gamma matrices defined by the canonical momentum currents of Kähler action. Induced gamma matrices seem to be preferred mathematically: they correspond to modified gamma matrices assignable to 4-volume action, and one can develop arguments for why Kähler action defines the dynamics.
</p><p>
Also a general vision about preferred extremals of Kähler action emerges. The basic idea is that imbedding space allows octonionic structure and that field equations in a given space-time region reduce to the associativity of the tangent space or normal space: space-time regions should be quaternionic or co-quaternionic. The first formulation is in terms of the octonionic representation of the imbedding space Clifford algebra and states that the octonionic gamma "matrices" span a complexified quaternionic sub-algebra. Another formulation is in terms of octonion real-analyticity. Octonion real-analytic function f is expressible as f=q<sub>1</sub>+Iq<sub>2</sub>, where q<sub>i</sub> are quaternions and I is an octonionic imaginary unit analogous to the ordinary imaginary unit. q<sub>2</sub> (q<sub>1</sub>) would vanish for quaternionic (co-quaternionic) space-time regions. The local number field structure of the octonion real-analytic functions with composition of functions as additional operation would be realized as geometric operations for space-time surfaces. The conjecture is that these two formulations are equivalent.
<LI> The third part of the vision involves infinite primes identifiable in terms of an infinite hierarchy of second quantized arithmetic quantum fields theories on one hand, and as having representations as space-time surfaces analogous to
zero loci of polynomials on the other hand. Single space-time point would have an infinitely complex structure since real unity can be represented as a ratio of infinite numbers in infinitely many manners each having its own number theoretic anatomy. Single space-time point would be in principle able to represent in its structure the quantum state of the entire universe. This
number theoretic variant of Brahman=Atman identity would make Universe an algebraic hologram.
</p><p>
Number theoretical vision suggests that infinite hyper-octonionic
or -quaternionic primes could could correspond directly to the
quantum numbers of elementary particles and a detailed proposal for this correspondence is made. Furthermore, the generalized eigenvalue spectrum of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator could be expressed in terms of hyper-complex primes in turn defining basic building bricks of infinite hyper-complex primes from which hyper-octonionic primes are obtained
by dicrete SU(3) rotations performed for finite hyper-complex primes.
</OL>
</p><p>
Besides this holy trinity I will discuss in the first part of the book loosely related topics such as the relationship between infinite primes and non-standard numbers.
</p><p>
Second part of the book is devoted to the mathematical formulation of the p-adic TGD. The p-adic counterpart of integration is certainly the basic mathematical challenge. Number theoretical universality and the notion of algebraic continuation from rationals to various continuous number fields is the basic idea behind the attempts to solve the problems. p-Adic integration is also a central problem of modern mathematics and the relationship of TGD approach to motivic integration and cohomology theories in p-adic numberfields is discussed.
</p><p>
The correspondence between real and p-adic numbers is second fundamental problem. The key problem is to understand whether and how this correspondence could be at the same time continuous and respect symmetries at least in discrete sense. The proposed explanation of Shnoll effect suggests that the notion of quantum rational number could tie together p-adic physics and quantum groups and could allow to define real-p-adic correspondence satisfying the basic conditions.
</p><p>
The third part is develoted to possible applications. Included are category theory in TGD framework; TGD inspired considerations related to Riemann hypothesis; topological quantum computation in TGD Universe; and TGD inspired approach to Langlands program.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:0908.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:40:40*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 877 Pages. Updating

This book is devoted to what might be called classical TGD.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> Classical TGD identifies space-time surfaces as kind of generalized Bohr orbits. It is an exact part of quantum TGD.
<LI> The notions of many-sheeted space-time, topological field quantization and the notion of field/magnetic
body, follow from simple topological considerations. Space-time sheets can have arbitrarily large sizes and their
interpretation as quantum coherence regions implies that in TGD Universe macroscopic quantum coherence is possible in arbitrarily long scales. Also long ranged classical color and electro-weak fields are predicted.
<LI> TGD Universe is fractal containing fractal copies of standard model physics at various space-time sheets and labeled by p-adic primes assignable to elementary particles and by the level of dark matter hierarchy characterized
partially by the value of Planck constant labeling the pages of the book like structure formed by singular covering spaces of the imbedding space M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> glued together along four-dimensional back. Particles at different pages are dark relative to each other since local interactions defined in terms of
the vertices of Feynman diagram involve only particles at the same page.
</p><p>
The simplest view about the hierarchy of Planck constants is as an effective hierarchy describable in terms of local, singular coverings of the imbedding space. The basic observation is that for Kähler action the time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates are many-valued functions of canonical momentum densities. If all branches for given values of canonical momentum densities are allowed, one obtains the analogs of many-sheeted Riemann surfaces with each sheet giving same contribution to the Kähler action so that Planck constant is effectively a multiple of the ordinary Planck constant.
<LI> Zero energy ontology brings in additional powerful interpretational principle.
</OL>
</p><p>
The topics of the book are organized as follows.
<OL>
<LI> In Part I extremals of Kähler action are discussed and the notions of many-sheeted space-time, topological field quantization, and topological condensation and evaporation are introduced.
<LI> In Part II many-sheeted-cosmology and astrophysics are summarized. p-Adic and dark matter hierarchies imply that TGD inspired cosmology is fractal. Cosmic strings and their deformations giving rise to magnetic flux tubes are basic objects of TGD inspired cosmology. Magnetic flux tubes can in fact be interpreted as carriers of dark energy giving rise to accelerated expansion via negative magnetic "pressure". The study of imbeddings of Robertson-Walker cosmology shows that critical and over-critical cosmology are unique apart from their duration. The idea about dark matter hierarchy was originally motivated by the observation that planetary orbits could be interpreted as Bohr orbits with enormous value of Planck constant, and this picture leads to a rather detailed view about macroscopically quantum coherent dark matter in astrophysics and cosmology.
</p><p>
<LI> Part III includes old chapters about implications of TGD for condensed matter physics. The phases of CP<sub>2</sub> complex coordinates could define phases of order parameters of macroscopic quantum phases manifesting themselves in the properties of living matter and even in hydrodynamics. For instance, Z<sup>0</sup> magnetic gauge field could make itself visible in hydrodynamics and Z<sup>0</sup> magnetic vortices could be involved with super-fluidity.
</OL>

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:0908.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:42:43*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 480 Pages. Updating

The topics of this book is a vision about physics as infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry of the
"world of classical worlds" (WCW), with "classical world" identified either as light-like 3-D surface X<sup>3</sup> of a unique Bohr orbit like 4-surface X<sup>4</sup>(X<sup>3</sup>) or X<sup>4</sup>(X<sup>3</sup>) itself. The non-determinism of Kähler action defining Kähler function forces to generalize the notion of 3-surface. Zero energy ontology allows to formulate this generalization elegantly using a hierarchy of causal diamonds (CDs) defined as intersections of future and past directed light-cones, and a geometric realization of coupling constant evolution and finite measurement resolution emerges.
</p><p>
The general vision about quantum dynamics is that the basis for WCW spinor fields defines in zero energy ontology unitary U-matrix having as orthogonal rows M-matrices. Given M-matrix is expressible as a product of hermitian square root of density matrix and S-matrix. M-matrices define time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states represented by the modes of WCW spinor fields.
</p><p>
One encounters two challenges.
<OL><LI> Provide WCW with Kähler geometry consistent with 4-dimensional general coordinate invariance. Clearly, the definition of metric must assign to given light-like 3-surface X<sup>3</sup> a 4-surface X<sup>4</sup>(X<sup>3</sup>) as kind of Bohr orbit.
<LI> Provide WCW with spinor structure. The idea is to express configuration space gamma matrices using
super algebra generators expressible using second quantized fermionic oscillator operators for
induced free spinor fields at X<sup>4</sup>(X<sup>3</sup>). Isometry generators and contractions of Killing
vectors with gamma matrices would generalize Super Kac-Moody algebra.
</OL>
</p><p>
The condition of mathematical existence poses stringent conditions on the construction.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> The experience with loop spaces suggests that a well-defined Riemann connection exists only if this space
is union of infinite-dimensional symmetric spaces. Finiteness requires that vacuum Einstein equations are
satisfied. The coordinates labeling these symmetric spaces do not contribute to the line element and have interpretation as non-quantum fluctuating classical variables.
<LI> The construction of the Kähler structure requires the identification of complex
structure. Direct construction of Kähler function as action associated with a preferred extremal for Kähler
action leads to a unique result. The group theoretical approach relies on direct guess of
isometries of the symmetric spaces involved. Isometry group generalizes Kac-Moody group by replacing finite-dimensional Lie group with the group of symplectic transformations of δ M<sup>4</sup><sub>+</sub>× CP<sub>2</sub>, where δ M<sup>4</sup><sub>+</sub> is the
boundary of 4-dimensional future light-cone. The generalized conformal symmetries assignable to light-like 3-surfaces and boundaries of causal diamonds bring in stringy aspect and Equivalence Principle can be generalized in terms of generalized coset construction.
<LI> Configuration space spinor structure geometrizes fermionic statistics and quantization of spinor fields. Quantum criticality can be formulated in terms of the modified Dirac equation for induced spinor fields allowing a realization of super-conformal symmetries and quantum gravitational holography.
<LI> Zero energy ontology combined with the weak form of electric-magnetic duality led to a breakthrough in the understanding of the theory. The boundary conditions at light-like wormhole throats and at space-like 3-surfaces defined by the intersection of the space-time surface with the light-like boundaries of causal diamonds reduce the classical quantization of Kähler electric charge to that for Kähler magnetic charge. The integrability
of field equations for the preferred extremals reduces to the condition that the flow lines of various isometry currents
define Beltrami fields for which the flow parameter by definition defines a global coordinate. The assumption that isometry currents are proportional to the instanton current for Kähler action reduces Kähler function to a
boundary term which by the weak form of electric-magnetic duality reduces to Chern-Simons term. This realizes TGD as almost topological QFT.
<LI> There are also number theoretical conjectures about the character of the preferred extremals. The basic idea is that imbedding space allows octonionic structure and that field equations in a given space-time region should reduce to the associativity of the tangent space or normal space so that space-time regions should be quaternionic or co-quaternionic. The first formulation is in terms of the octonionic representation of the imbedding space Clifford algebra and states that the octonionic gamma "matrices" span a quaternionic sub-algebra. Another formulation is in terms of octonion real-analyticity. Octonion real-analytic function f is expressible as f=q<sub>1</sub>+Iq<sub>2</sub>, where q<sub>i</sub> are quaternions and I is an octonionic imaginary unit analogous to the ordinary imaginary unit. q<sub>2</sub> (q<sub>1</sub>) would vanish for quaternionic (co-quaternionic) space-time regions. The local number field structure of octonion real-analytic functions with composition of functions as additional operation would be realized as geometric operations
for space-time surfaces. The conjecture is that these two formulations are equivalent.
<LI> An important new interpretational element is the identification of the Kähler action from Minkowskian space-time regions as a purely imaginary contribution identified as Morse function making possible quantal
interference effects. The contribution from the Euclidian regions interpreted in terms of generalized Feynman graphs is real and identified as Kähler function. These contributions give apart from coefficient identical Chern-Simons terms at wormhole throats and at the space-like ends of space-time surface: it is not clear whether only the contributions these 3-surfaces are present.
<LI> Effective 2-dimensionality suggests a reduction of Chern-Simons terms to a sum of real and imaginary terms corresponding to the total areas of of string world sheets from Euclidian and Minkowskian string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces, which are an essential element of the proposal for what preferred extremals should be. The duality between partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets suggests that the total area of partonic 2-surfaces is same as that for string world sheets.
<LI> The approach leads also to a highly detailed understanding of the Chern-Simons Dirac equation at the wormhole throats and space-like 3-surfaces and Kähler Dirac equation in the interior of the space-time surface. The effective metric defined by the anticommutators of the modified gamma matrices has an attractive interpretation as a geometrization for parameters like sound velocity assigned with condensed matter systems in accordance with effective 2-dimensionality and strong form of holography.
</OL>

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:0908.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:33:55*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 458 Pages. Updating

The topics of this book could be called fringe physics involving claimed phenomena which do not
have explanation in terms of standard physics.
</p><p>
Many-sheeted space-time with p-adic length scale hierarchy, the predicted dark matter hierarchy
with levels partially characterized by quantized dynamical Planck constant, and the prediction of
long ranged color and weak forces alone predict a vast variety of new physics effects. Zero energy ontology
predicts that energy can have both signs and that classical signals can propagate in reversed time direction at negative energy space-time sheets and an attractive identification for negative energy signals would be
as generalizations of phase conjugate laser beams. This vision leads to a coherent view about metabolism, memory, and bio-control and it is natural to ask whether the reported anomalies might be explained in terms of the mechanisms giving hopes about understanding the behavior of living matter.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> The effects involving coin words like antigravity, strong gravity, and electro-gravity motivate the discussion of possible anomalous effects related to long range electro-weak fields and many-sheeted gravitation. For instance, TGD leads to a model for the strange effects reported in rotating magnetic systems.
<LI> Tesla did not believe that Maxwell's theory was an exhaustive description of electromagnetism. He claimed that experimental findings related to pulsed systems require the assumption of what he called scalar waves not
allowed by Maxwell's electrodynamics. TGD indeed allows scalar wave pulses propagating with light
velocity. The dropping of particles to larger space-time sheets liberating metabolic energy,
transformation of ordinary charged matter to dark matter and vice versa, dark photons, etc... might
be needed to explain Tesla's findings. Also phase conjugate, possibly dark, photons making possible communications with geometric past might be involved. <br>
These speculative ideas receive unexpected support from the TGD inspired view about particle physics. The recent TGD inspired view about Higgs mechanism suggests strongly that photon eats the remaining component of Higgs boson and in this manner gets longitudinal polarization and small mass allowing to avoid infrared divergences of
scattering amplitudes.
<LI> The reports about ufos represent a further application for TGD based view about Universe. Taking
seriously the predicted presence of infinite self hierarchy represented by dark matter hierarchy makes it almost obvious that higher civilizations are here, there, and everywhere, and that their relationship to us is like that of our brain to its neurons, so that Fermi paradox (Where are they all?) would disappear. Although the space travel might be quite too primitive idea for the civilizations at higher levels of hierarchy, ufos might be real objects representing more advanced technology rather than plasmoid like life forms serving as mediums in telepathic communications.
</OL>

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:0908.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 04:51:06*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 1157 Pages. Updating

This book tries to give an overall view about quantum TGD as it
stands now. The topics of this book are following.
<OL><LI> Part I: An overall view about
the evolution of TGD and about quantum TGD in its recent form.
Two visions about physics are discussed at general level. According to first vision physical
states of the Universe correspond to classical
spinor fields in the world of the classical worlds (WCW)
identified as 3-surfaces or equivalently as
corresponding 4-surfaces analogous to Bohr orbits
and identified as special extrema of Kähler
action. TGD as a generalized number theory vision
leading naturally also to the emergence of p-adic
physics as physics of cognitive representations is
the second vision.
<LI> Part II: The vision about physics as infinite-dimensional
configuration space geometry. The basic idea is
that classical spinor fields in WCW describe
the quantum states of the Universe. Quantum jump
remains the only purely quantal aspect of quantum
theory in this approach since there is no
quantization at the level of the configuration
space. Space-time surfaces correspond to special
extremals of the Kähler action analogous to Bohr
orbits and define what might be called classical
TGD discussed in the first chapter. The
construction of the configuration space geometry
and spinor structure are discussed in remaining
chapters.
<LI> Part III: Physics as generalized
number theory. Number theoretical vision
involves three loosely related approaches: fusion
of real and various p-adic physics to a larger
whole as algebraic continuations of what might be
called rational physics; space-time as a
hyper-quaternionic surface of hyper-octonion space,
and space-time surfaces as a representations of
infinite primes.
<LI> Part IV: The first chapter summarizes the basic ideas related to von Neumann algebras known as hyper-finite factors of type II<sub>1</sub> about which configuration space Clifford algebra represents canonical example. Second chapter is devoted to the basic ideas related to the hierarchy of Planck constants and related generalization of the notion of imbedding space to a book like structure.
<LI> Part V: Physical applications of TGD. Cosmological
and astrophysical applications are summarized and applications to
elementary particle physics are discussed at the
general level. TGD explains particle families in
terms of generation-genus correspondence (particle
families correspond to 2-dimensional topologies
labeled by genus). The general theory
for particle massivation based on p-adic
thermodynamics is discussed at the general level.
</OL>

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:0908.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** António Saraiva

**Comments:** 3 pages

Everything is made of speed and distance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:0908.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** António Saraiva

**Comments:** 3 pages

There's only one force, the electric one that can be expressed by only one
formula.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:0908.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 5 pages

In the article the constitution of multielectronic atoms is reviewed and the new form of
the Mendeleyev's table is offered.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9] **viXra:0908.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 7 pages

In the article the different types of a chemical bond are reviewed.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] **viXra:0908.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 14 pages

F
A wave exists only in its propagating medium but Einstein erred to discard the
physical medium for light wave and to introduce the non-existent 4-D spacetime continuum instead. It
denied him the chance to address the intrinsic wave-quantum Unity of light and predict the new entity
of 'basic substance' to compose all forms of E & m so compellingly demanded for the inter-conversions
of E & m by the eqn. E=mc^{2}, which is now re-derived. Unified Theory gives cogent arguments and
experimental support for the existence of a real physical medium in space, the all-composing & allpervading
'sharmon medium' as Basic Substance. It propagates light as a wave-quantum UNITY, the
particle aspect showing up at short wavelength e.g. from ~ 7000 A° downward in photochemical effects
and below ~ 3000 A° in photoelectric effects. The non-substantive abstract concepts of space & time
evolve from our perceptions of successive motions & changes in the surrounding objects and cannot
fuse into any concrete spacetime continuum. If existent it would retard motion of heavenly bodies,
which is not actually observed. Any non-composite static spacetime cannot undulate to transmit light.
Various multidimensional spacetime continua are mere mathematical constructs bereft of physical
existence and theories based on them unrealistic. Unified Theory explains from sharmon medium the
constancy & invariance to source-observer motion, the two pillar postulates of Special Relativity
without validating SR. It explains the Michelson-Morley and Sagnac experiments as also the observed
variability of light velocity and superluminality, which invalidate Relativity Theories. Lorentz
transformations do not describe any natural motion since no velocity can vary (like v) with, and be
invariant (like c) to, a source-observer motion at the same time. The actual length of an object, viewed
by say, 100 differently moving observers cannot undergo 100 different objective contractions at the
same time, making 'contraction of length' an unrealistic concept. So is 'dilatation of time'. Unified
Theory derives from sharmon medium the Maxwell equations and the time containing and time free
equations for the propagation of wave-quantum unity in gravitational and electromagnetic radiation.
The Schrodinger wave equation is also derived. It explains the photoelectric effect. Explanation of the
bending of light in a gravitational field shows that photon has mass and gravitation is not a curvature
in 4-D spacetime. All particles and energy-quanta have definite mass & size.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0908.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 12 pages

Heisenberg argued that wave and particle are too exclusively different in
properties, making the intrinsic wave-quantum unity of light impossible to visualize and
describe by the language. He invented mathematical Quantum Theory to circumvent
visualization and inadequacy of language. But mathematics too is a language to supplement
description. He used it to superimpose hidden concepts leading to the Uncertainty Principle.
In Unified Theory the wave & particle aspects of electromagnetic radiation and moving
material particle coexist blended together as wave-quantum UNITY. This is also supported
by experiments. The wave-or-quantum DUALITIES of Quantum Theory appear due to
experimental limitations to observe only one and not both of the two aspects simultaneously.
Conservation of mass & momentum are inviolable. Matter's creation from, or dissolution
into, 'nothing' is unrealistic. So the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is rejected as
unrealistic and new Principle of Null Action with universal applications is introduced. The
Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Theory is reappraised critically.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:0908.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 8 pages

An element is non-composite but composes other particles. The elementary
quarks & leptons of the Modern Standard Model are found to be compressible and
assembleable, hence having composition. These in Unified Theory are composed by two
elementary cosminos, positrino & negatrino. The cosmino-sharmon composition-structures
of electron, proton and neutron presented for the first time are defined by Form Factors
and concentric regions. It is shown that no ½-spin Fermion can be neutral. Electric Dipole
Moment of neutron calculated from Unified Theory agrees with observations. An almost
neutral neutron emits electron, never positron, because its outer region is negative.
Hofstadter's positive outer region in neutron is inconsistent with negatron decay. Effect of
superimposed magnetic field on neutron's negatron decay is explained without Electroweak
Theory's weak charge and W^{±} & Z^{0} particles. A new Hook's law mediated short-range
nuclear force is suggested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:0908.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 9 pages

A symmetry principle is discussed whereby the whole universe can change scale.
It is shown that a reinterpretation of 'expansion' of the universe, (due to changing scale factor),
as a 'rescaling', can lead to a redshift of light, due to a changing of Plancks constant
with time. Predictions for the magnitudes of supernovae against redshift are made and found
to be in good agreement with supernovae data, without recourse to dark energy. Matter density,
of one quarter critical density, occurs naturally from Einsteins equations, with an equation
of state parameter of -1 (in accordance with values inferred from WMAP data). It is concluded
that the reinterpretation of a solution of the equations of General Relativity, for the
universe, may be necessary. The question of inertia is considered, and the new interpretation
of General Relativity is found to support modern views on its cause.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0908.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 4 pages

It has proved problematic, within General Relativity, to form a general definition of mass.
The results of singularity theorems also seem to indicate an incompleteness of General
Relativity. A simple model of the effect of the gravitational self binding energy of masses,
on both gravitational and inertial mass, is considered. The result is a reduction in
gravitational mass for compact objects, consequently it is proposed that General Relativity, or
its successor, will ultimately show that singularities cannot form. As another consequence it
is found that dark matter can best account for the flat shape of galactic rotation curves, if it is
moving continuously towards the galactic centre. It is proposed that dark matter is ejected
periodically from galactic centres. These proposals may best be tested by computer
simulation, and if found to give a realistic match to observations, they may act as a guide to
those attempting a fully formulated theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0908.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** António Saraiva

**Comments:** 2 pages

Einstein's spacetime doesn't exist because the Lorentz's invariance equation
is equal to a constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0908.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** André Michaud

**Comments:** 20 pages

It can be shown that positron production and nucleosynthesis in the corona could
be much more extensive than assumed from current theories. It can be shown also
that there is a possibility that the extreme temperatures observed in the corona
may be due to nucleon genesis within the corona and that most heavy elements in
the planetary system could be indigenous to our system and could have been
produced in the corona by nucleosynthesis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:0908.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 12 pages

In the article the new calculuses are offered similar differential and integral, but differing,
that in them the analysis of the previous and subsequent values of a function is made. The
new calculuses allow to decide problems, the solution which one with usage customary
differential and integral calculus is impossible.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics