[61] **viXra:1010.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 71 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann
hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function
J_{2} (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (791)-(840) contain infinitely many prime
solutions and no prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution
π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1010.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 7 pages

A new surface energy-value for dark matter is calculated, derivated from a
perspective of a "higher order universe". A universe of dark energy, dark- and visible
matter, and a dark energy force. A fundamental connection between dark matter and
visible matter is related to dark energy (viXra-paper 1010.0014 in particular is the
reference for this novum [5]. The surface energy-density of dark matter seems to be a
factor 5 to 20 times higher than earlier predicted value-ranges by the CDMS-project and
the Fermi-satelite. Also the produced energies through particle-collissions by LHC CERN
will not be enough to achieve the dark matter surface energy-value. The "fact" some of
these projects have announced some vaque "bliebs" might be due to a new phenomenon in
the search of dark matter. It could be caused by "three dimensional time", which is
embedded as a "new duality" in the new model, the "Twin-Tori cosmological Model
(TTM)"[1,2,3,4]. The "three dimensional time" might cause dark matter taking unknown
paths before detection. This paper has calculated the surface energy-density value for
dark matter on 1 TeV in a surface of 6.4 x 10 ^{-48} [m2].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[59] **viXra:1010.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** R. Clive Woods, Robert M L Baker Jr., Fangyu Li, Gary V. Stephenson, Eric W. Davis, Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 pages, considerably refined document over the last version.

It is generally accepted that under most models of the early universe evolution, highfrequency
gravitational waves (HFGWs) were produced. They are referred to as "relic" highfrequency
gravitational waves or HFRGWs and their detection and measurement could provide
important information on the origin and development of our Universe - information that could not
otherwise be obtained. So far three instruments have been built to detect and measure HFRGWs,
but so far none of them has achieved the required sensitivity. This paper concerns another
detector, originally proposed by Baker in 2000 and patented, which is based upon a recently
discovered physical effect (the Li effect); this detector has accordingly been named the "Li-Baker
detector." The detector has been a joint development effort by the P. R. China and the United
States HFGW research teams. A rigorous examination of the detector's performance is important
in the ongoing debate over the value of attempting to construct a Li-Baker detector and, in
particular, an accurate prediction of its sensitivity will decide whether the Li-Baker detector will
be capable of detecting and measuring HFRGWs. Its sensitivity and noise sources as well as other
operational concerns are discussed here. The potential for useful HFRGW measurement is
theoretically confirmed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1010.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 7 pages, Research artical submitted to PMC Physics A

Gravitational collapse of diffuse material has been investigated using
a new solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity. This replaces the
theory of black-hole formation developed for the standard vacuum solution of
Schwarzschild. The bodies which now form have reasonable physical properties,
such as nuclear hard core density in collapsed stars, or 10^{4}kg/l in galactic centres,
and only 1kg/l in quasars. Accreting material converts to kinetic energy and
radiation, so that a singularity cannot be produced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1010.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 83 pages, in Chinese

Mathematical Combinatorics
& Smarandache Multi-Spaces

**Category:** Geometry

[56] **viXra:1010.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Henri Poincaré, Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:** 15 pages, translated to English

Rarely, if ever, was the human spirit under a closer critical scrutiny than in the following
masterpiece of the great scientist of the 19th and 20th centuries, Henri Poincaré. The work
itself is seldom cited. Yet, the reader can find in it all the objections that can be raised
against the main scientific inventions of the human spirit. They are still valid today, exactly
as they were more than a century ago, or three centuries ago, for that matter.
It is, first and foremost, advisable to pay close attention to the definition of central forces
as given by Poincaré. Like all of the classics of science, he understood them with a string attached:
their magnitude should depend only on the distance between points. Einstein himself used the
definition of central forces in that connotation when he judged the whole system of the classical
mechanics and introduced the general relativity. However, the very first definition of the central
forces, as it appears in Newton's Principia, doesn't ask anything of the kind. What can we say,
but repeat with Nietzsche: the first reaction is usually the right one!
It is also advisable to pay attention to the critique of the concept of energy: it stands even
today as it was then, in this work of Poincaré. Yet, in spite of the overwhelming cases against
energy, the theoretical physics doesn't seem to stop speculating upon the kinds of energy that
might exist in the world. Finally, it is worth paying attention to the criticism of the way in which
Hertz assigns matter through a hypothesis: it seems like the hypothesis of missing mass of today.
It is our conviction that this masterpiece is not quite known to the English speaking readers. This
is why we undertook here the burden of its translation. We hope to give it another chance, in order
to have, at least nowadays, more than a century from its first publication, the impact it deserves
on the human spirit.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[55] **viXra:1010.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this brief report we argue that Koide's formula arises from universal attributes of nonlinear
dynamics in field theory. Feigenbaum scaling not only provides a natural paradigm for generating
particle masses and coupling charges, but also a basis for understanding the family structure of
fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1010.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 14 pages

The tetron model is reinterpreted as an inner symmetry lattice model where quarks,
leptons and gauge fields arise as lattice excitations. On this basis a modification
of the standard Big Bang scenario is proposed, where the advent of a spacetime
manifold is connected to the appearance of a permutation lattice. The metric tensor
is constructed from lattice excitations and a possible reason for cosmic inflation is
elucidated. Furthermore, there are natural dark matter candidates in the tetron
model. The ratio of ordinary to dark matter in the universe is estimated to be 1:5.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[53] **viXra:1010.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

This generalization of the Theorem of Menelaus from a triangle to a polygon with n sides is
proven by a self-recurrent method which uses the induction procedure and the Theorem of
Menelaus itself.

**Category:** Geometry

[52] **viXra:1010.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Manoj K. Chaudhary, Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Rakesh K. Shukla, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 pages

The objective of the present paper is to propose a family of separate-type
estimators of population mean in stratified random sampling in presence of nonresponse
based on the family of estimators proposed by Khoshnevisan et al.
(2007). Under simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) the
expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) up to the first order of
approximation are derived. The comparative study of the family with respect to
usual estimator has been discussed. The expressions for optimum sample sizes
of the strata in respect to cost of the survey have also been derived. An
empirical study is carried out to shoe the properties of the estimators.

**Category:** Statistics

[51] **viXra:1010.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 12 pages

A combinatorial spacetime (CGj t) is a smoothly combinatorial manifold C underlying a
graph G evolving on a time vector t. As we known, Einstein's general relativity is suitable
for use only in one spacetime. What is its disguise in a combinatorial spacetime?
Applying combinatorial Riemannian geometry enables us to present a combinatorial
spacetime model for the Universe and suggest a generalized Einstein's gravitational
equation in such model. For finding its solutions, a generalized relativity principle,
called projective principle is proposed, i.e., a physics law in a combinatorial spacetime
is invariant under a projection on its a subspace and then a spherically symmetric multisolutions
of generalized Einstein's gravitational equations in vacuum or charged body
are found. We also consider the geometrical structure in such solutions with physical
formations, and conclude that an ultimate theory for the Universe maybe established
if all such spacetimes in R3. Otherwise, our theory is only an approximate theory and
endless forever.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1010.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

A paradox is called a statement <P> which is true and false in the same time.
Therefore, if we suppose that statement <P> is true, it results that <P> is false; and reciprocally,
if we suppose that <P> is false, it results that <P> is true.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[49] **viXra:1010.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Mihàly Bencze

**Comments:** 5 pages

Dr. Florentin Smarandache is a polymath: as author, co-author, translator, co-translator,
editor, or co-editor of 143 books and 183 scientific papers and notes.
On December 10th, 2009, he was 55 years old.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[48] **viXra:1010.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we present unsolved problems that involve infinite tunnels of recursive triangles or
recursive polygons, either in a decreasing or in an increasing way. The "nedians or order i in a
triangle" are generalized to "nedians of ratio r"
and "nedians of angle α" or "nedians at angle β",
and afterwards one considers their corresponding "nedian triangles" and "nedian polygons".
This tunneling idea came from physics.

**Category:** Geometry

[47] **viXra:1010.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

We define a metasequence as a sequence constructed with the terms of other given sequence(s).
In this short note we present some open questions on concatenated primes involved in
metasequences.

**Category:** Number Theory

[46] **viXra:1010.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

We extend Kaprekar's Routine for a large class of applications. We also give particular examples
of this generalization as alternatives to Kaprekar's Routine and Number. Some open questions
about the length of the iterations until reaching either zero or a constant or a cycle, and about the
length of the cycles are asked at the end.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1010.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 pages

Part I of this paper is in response to Scientific American's Special Issue: A Matter of Time" (Sept. 2002) and
the article therein by Paul Davies: "That Mysterious Flow" (page 40-47), in which he claims that the motion
of time is an illusion, that time itself does not actually move. In this, as in various other papers (see my
website), I advance the contrary premise that space and time both exhibit intrinsic dimensional motions as
gauged by the fundamental constants c, T, G (where c is the speed of light, T is the intrinsic motion of time
(also gauged by c as the duration (measured by a clock) light requires to travel a given distance in vacuum),
and G is the universal gravitational constant). Whereas "c" regulates the metric relationship between space,
time, and light (free electromagnetic energy), "G" regulates the entropic relationship between space, time,
and mass (bound electromagnetic energy). (See: "A Description of Gravitation".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1010.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 10 pages

The observed variation of the electromagnetic coupling constant α, seen in high
energy e^{+}e^{-} → e^{+}e^{-} collisions, has been explained in terms of work done compressing the
energetic electron. A simple monotonic law has been found, which describes how the
electron tries to resist compression, without transmutation. Variation of the strong coupling
constant α_{s} has also been analysed in terms of effective work done compressing the gluon
field within a proton's component parts.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[43] **viXra:1010.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka

**Comments:** 12 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt
equation may permit the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that the addition of the
wormhole could be equated to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency
gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. The virtual worm hole with a large fluctuation permits the
interior region to tunnel into a nascent cosmology with a large vacuum energy defined by that fluctuation in energy.
The universe or cosmology it tunnels from is unaffected from this, other than having a tiny bit of vacuum energy
"robbed." The worm hole is a high energy, but zero temperature, virtual fluctuation. Use of this construction may
permit us to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[1] constructions are relevant in the pre Planckian regime of
space time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1010.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Nathaniel S. K. Hellerstein

**Comments:** 13 pages

In this article I generalize on a word problem by Bhaskaracharya. The resulting quadratics
are trivial to solve; but composing them, so that they have whole number solutions, is not
trivial. In this article I discover a class of sequences, which I call "Spade Sequences" as
homage to a hero of detective fiction, which generate both Bhaskaracharya quadratics and
their solutions. The article ends with a list of such word problems, presented as a problem
set with answer key.

**Category:** Number Theory

[41] **viXra:1010.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Yongfeng Yang

**Comments:** 11 pages, 7 figures and 2 tables. Cites as: Yang, Y. Y., Proceeding of the 18th annual conference of the NPA,
College Park, Maryland University, USA, Vol.8: 712-721 (2011).

In the past, various scenarios have been presented to account for the formation of the solar system and
our galaxy, but ever-increasing observations prove these conceptions to be incomplete. Here we propose, all objects
in the universe are organized in an orderly series of hierarchical two-body systems with gravitation.
Within these systems, the two components of each two-body system are orbiting around the barycenter of this
system, and at the same time each two-body system is orbiting around the barycenter of a superior two-body
system. Based on this hierarchical two-body association, an approximate uniform velocity feature for all stars in
a galaxy, and galaxies in a cluster, is determined. Under the effect of gravitation, a successive hierarchical orbital
shrinkage results in high redshifts of distant galaxies and planar (disc) rotational profile of large-scale
structures like the solar system and galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1010.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-09 17:07:15*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Inertia is a property that causes macro bodies to respond sluggishly to external efforts. Since no other entity that can prevent instantaneous action by external efforts on a free macro body or maintain its constant state of motion is known, phenomenon of inertia is usually attributed to matter itself, in negative sense. 3D matter is inert; it has no ability to move, act or oppose external efforts. Property of inertia rightly belongs to universal medium, whose action moves 3D matter-bodies. Property of inertia is due to latticework-structures in universal medium. Only when mechanism of action of external effort and mechanism of motion of 3D matter-bodies, as envisaged in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, are understood, nature of inertia will be clear.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[39] **viXra:1010.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 29 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 20 pages

A short review of experiments and theory suggesting that the universe is a hologram image
projected retro-causally from our future event horizon.
"A series of quantum experiments shows
that measurements performed in the
future can influence the present. Does
that mean the universe has a destiny
and the laws of physics pull us
inexorably toward our prewritten fate?"
Discover Magazine "Back From The Future"
http://discovermagazine.com/2010/apr/01-back-from-the-future

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:1010.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Xin-De Li, Xian-Zhong Dai, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 340 pages

In this paper, we present a new 2-tuple linguistic
representation model, i.e. Distribution Function Model
(DFM), for combining imprecise qualitative information using
fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory
(DSmT) framework. Such new approach allows to preserve
the precision and efficiency of the combination of linguistic
information in the case of either equidistant or unbalanced
label model. Some basic operators on imprecise 2-tuple labels
are presented together with their extensions for imprecise
2-tuple labels. We also give simple examples to show
how precise and imprecise qualitative information can be
combined for reasoning under uncertainty. It is concluded
that DSmT can deal efficiently with both precise and imprecise
quantitative and qualitative beliefs, which extends the
scope of this theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[37] **viXra:1010.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Ion Pătraşcu

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this article we will use the Desargues' theorem and its reciprocal to solve two
problems.

**Category:** Geometry

[36] **viXra:1010.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

Arxiv:1010.0259, now withdrawn, presents analysis to show
that on approach to the absolute zero of temperature, the specific
heat of matter in the aggregate, such as ultrathin wires that do not
enter the state of superconductivity, increases. There is good reason
to expect that this is true, which we will show in the present paper,
which moves us to urge that Arxiv:1010.0259 be restored.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[35] **viXra:1010.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-21 08:01:40*

**Authors:** Stein Sivertsen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this theory I measure the "light speed" per duration of "X particle motions". This basic definition of C exclude the term time (the fourth dimension). Instead it include the term "motion inside a particle" ("a particle's spin" may be a better term). Then, in chapter B1 to B9, I first show the 9 consequenses of this new expression in a philosophical description. In chapter C, I show how these consequenses can be used to explain "The quantum theory of wave / particle duality and the phenomenon of wave collapse". In chapter D the consequenses is described in depth in the mathematical form. I will espesially draw your attention to chapter D 3 wich shows two clear-cut predictions. 1. The gravity-ratio between two particle-positions, relative to a reference object/particle (for instance a sun), will sharply drop for the particles farthest away from us, from 12 billion lightyears and farther away. 2. C, the speed limit, is slightly higher inside dense matter than the observed light speed in vacuum out in the universe. This theory shows that not only is mass and "time" relative, in reference to the "constant" C, but also gravity and electromagnetism is relative, here in reference to the constant edge of our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1010.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Jianfei Sun, Hongbo Zuo, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han

**Comments:** 17 pages

The interface shape function for the pure material directional solidification system with
temperature disturbances on the heater and cooler is derived. It is approximately a fraction function
including cosine terms in the denominator and the numerator. Calculation of the function shows the interface
shape can respond to the temperature disturbance. When both the solidification rate V and the interface
cooler distance α determined by the boundary temperatures are lower than critical value deteimined by a
formula, the interface shape changes from sinusoidal wave to figures pattern with the increase of the rate or
the distance. Once the rate or the distance reaches the critical value, the interface branches at the bottom of
the grooves between figures and then the branches expand along the sidewall of the figures with further
increase of the rate or the distance. According to that, we conclude that the sinusoidal interface shape
assumption always used by the interface instability analyses is not always valid and the interface shape in
Hele-Shaw solidification experiments in fact maybe is not planar but a cellular interface with quite small
amplitude, and the role of temperature disturbance should be considered in experiments studying
solidification interface stability.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[33] **viXra:1010.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka

**Comments:** 6 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent
Wheeler-De Witt equation[1] permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar
field [2]. As both Beckwith and Glinka[3] postulated the existence of at least a brief
period of causal discontinuity in the vicinity of Pre Planckian physics space time, the
question is does the construction as given by Crowell[1] for an Octonionic non associator
which leads to the commutation relations between position x and momentum p of quantum
mechanics still hold up? Crowell's derivation heavily depends upon a value of the path
integral of the [xi,pj] over spatial variation equal to - constant times T(ijk). Here,
T(ijk) is a structure constant, which we claim would go to zero if a discontinuity exists,
leading to x.p = p.x in the neighborhood of pre Planckian space time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1010.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka

**Comments:** 15 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt
equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of
the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational
waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. We examine Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuations[1] of a scalar field,
(see paper for equation), if we use the wave function for an average value of the Hubble parameter
(see paper for equation) , with VeV resulting from Ψ of a pseudo time dependent WdW wave
function [2],[3], and H from initial values of the Friedman equation. The benefit from defining the
Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuation this way is that there would be a way to obtain partial time evolution of the VeV
and also to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[2] constructions are relevant in the Planckian regime of
space time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1010.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages

We make explicit an idea by, T. Padmanabhan in DICE 2010 [1], as to finding "atoms of
space time" permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs treatment of
statistical physics. I.e. an ensemble of gravitons, is used to give an 'atom' of space time congruent with
relic GW . The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables to get a simple emergent space
time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the Cosmological Schwinger principle is linked
to relic heat flux, with entropy production tied in with candidates as to inflaton potentials. The effective
electric field links with the Schwinger result, 1951, of an E field leading to pairs of e+ e- charges
nucleated in space-time volume V.t . Note that in most inflationary models, the assumption is for a
magnetic field, not electric field. An electric field permits a kink anti kink construction of an emergent
structure. Also an E filed allows for an emergent relic particle frequency range between one to 100 Giga
Hertz. The novel contribution is a relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space time "atom$quot; formation
and vacuum nucleation of the same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1010.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Alvydas Jakeliunas

**Comments:** 3 pages

Here are discussed two hypotheses how gravitation may effect speed of light.
Both of them well explain known behavior of quantum in gravitation,
therefore they can be useful to generate new ideas for new experiments
to test current theories and to find new phenomenas.
Here is also proposed a new view to well known time dilation phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1010.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-20 17:21:53*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Some years ago, Bilson-Thompson [1] characterised the fundamental leptons and quarks
using simple three strand ribbon diagrams. These diagrams are interpreted in an abstract
categorical language, which underlies an information theoretic quantum gravity. More
recently, Graham Dungworth [2] has discussed the astrophysical consequences of this non local
quantum gravity, under a symmetry restoring extension of the braid set that doubles the
matter sector to include mirror matter. The resulting low energy particle set is reinterpreted
in the categorical framework for localization, which considers neutral particle oscillations
to be responsible for gravity. A few quantitative observational consequences, such as CPT
violation in the neutrino sector, are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1010.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Willard Mittelman

**Comments:** 18 pages

An approach to dark energy is presented that combines ideas of causal set theory with a
Machian perspective and a treatment of spacetime as a condensate, yielding a "quantum
potential of spacetime" Q whose density ρ

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1010.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 pages

Our first consideration is the bottom line of the Tetrahedron Model diagram (the line representing the
spacetime metric and gravity), connecting the Symmetry and Entropy poles. The spacetime metric has two
major expressions: 1) metric particles or "bosons" (derived from the Symmetry pole); and 2) the structural
and regulatory dimensional metric field of spacetime (derived from the Entropy pole). The metric field is a
conservation mechanism of spacetime, created by: 1) its embedded intrinsic motions, light, time, and
gravitation; 2) its regulators, the universal gauge constants "c" and "G"; 3) the energy and symmetry
conserving forces of inertia. The particle aspect of this line I refer to as "metric particles", the bosons or field
vectors (force carriers) of the forces, such as the photon, the graviton, the IVBs (Intermediate Vector
Bosons) of the weak force, and the gluons of the strong force "color" charges. Bosons (except for the
massive weak force IVBs) are massless and travel at velocity c; they appear to be produced or transmitted
by the metric as vibrations or similar disturbances of its structure (hence the several massless varieties all
have the same velocity "c"). Bosons are evidently not composed of quarks or leptons like the fermions of
ordinary matter, and most basically, they do not appear to be the product of the symmetry-breaking process
that produced ordinary fermions in the "Big Bang" - they do not appear to be the asymmetric halves of
particle-antiparticle pairs, but rather whole particle units, complete in themselves and unchanged since the
very beginning of the Cosmos - like the dimensions themselves. The "Intermediate Vector Bosons" (IVBs)
of the weak force are unusual in that they are very massive bosons, whereas all other bosons are massless.
For a discussion of these unusual weak force bosons (and the related "Higgs" boson), see: "The Higgs
Boson and the Weak Force IVBs".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1010.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 157 pages

The book is structured in two parts as follows: - in the first part, the theory of paradoxism
through its first six published worldwide manifestos (1983-2010); - in the second part, the
paradoxism collected from the international (English, French, Spanish/Arabic, and Romanian)
folklore in images and paradoxist situations. PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in
literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies,
contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech,
nonsense, paraphrases, oxymorons, inversions, digressions, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc.
in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's,
who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements.
But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[25] **viXra:1010.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 14 pages

We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with
augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization
doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization
leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow
easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot.
Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are
normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[24] **viXra:1010.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 23 pages

The fine structure constant and the quark and lepton mixing angles are shown to arise naturally in the
course of altering the symmetry of two algebraic identities. Specifically, the symmetry of the
identity x^{2} = *x*^{2} is "broken" by making the substitution
*x*^{n} → *x*^{n} - *y*^{p} on its left side, and the substitution
*x* → *x *- *z* on its right side,
where *p* equals the order of the identity; these substitutions convert the above identity into the
equation *x*^{2} - *y*^{2} = (*x* - *z*)^{2}. These same substitutions are also applied
to the only slightly more complicated identity (*x*/*a*)^{3} + *x*^{2} = (*x*/*a*)^{3} +
*x*^{2} to produce this second equation (*x*^{3} - *y*^{3}) / *a*^{3} + *x*^{2} - *y*^{3} =
(*x* - *z*)^{3} / *a*^{3} + (*x* - *z*)^{2}. These two equations are then shown to share
a mathematical property relating to *dz*/*dy*, where, on the second equation's left side, this
property helps define the special case (*x*^{3} - *y*^{3}) / *a*^{3} + *x*^{2} - *y*^{3} =
(10^{3} - 0.1^{3}) / 3^{3} + 10^{2} - 0.1^{3} = 137.036, an equation which incorporates a value close to the
experimental fine structure constant inverse. Moreover, on the second equation's right side, this same
special case simultaneously produces values for the sines squared of the mixing angles. Specifically, the
sines squared of the leptonic angles *φ*_{12}, *φ*_{23}, and
*φ*_{13} appear as 0.3, 0.5, and not larger than roughly 1/30 000, respectively; and the
sines squared of the quark mixing angles *θ*_{12} and *θ*_{13} appear
as 0.05, and close to 1/90 000, respectively. Despite closely mirroring so many experimental values, including
the precisely-known fine structure constant, the above mathematical model requires no free parameters adjusted
to fit experiment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[23] **viXra:1010.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt
equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of
the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational
waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. This is due to symmetries in space-time, which enable the creation of highfrequency
gravitational waves. The duration of a wormhole thermal bridge between prior and present universes is less
than Planck's time duration, but has consequences up to our present cosmological era. This also leads to phase
transition changes that form a template for graviton production. The initial conditions so created also suggest optimal
environmental conditions for advanced spacecraft propulsion systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1010.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 139 pages, In Romanian

Polemics regarding the paradoxism are presented in the first part of this
book through literary and social-political essays and interviews.
In the second part, you'll see the paradoxism's actuality in today's contemporary
society: by cliches, proverbs' deviations, and especially by the quotidian images
taken from Internet - with political parables and ironies and with this primitive...
modernization of the country (Romania).
Look how present is the paradoxism in our life!

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1010.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-14 03:07:18*

**Authors:** A K S Chandra Sekhar Rao

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we show that a commutative semisimple ring is always a Smarandache ring. We will also give a necessary and sufficient condition for group
algebra to be a Smarandache ring. Examples are provided for justification.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20] **viXra:1010.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure. Accepted for publication in February 2011, by the Journal of Modern
Physics: Material used in recent work as of this
month for companion piece to the Octonian gravity work submitted to Nova Book publishers

Based upon Alcubierre's formalism about energy flux of gravitational waves, as well as Saunder's
treatment of temperature dependence of the Hubble parameter in the early universe , we initiate a
particle count treatment of gravitons, and subsequent entropy generation which gives , via the
standard model treatment of the FRW metric a way to explain/ justify a value of entropy of the order
of S ~ 10^{6} - 10^{7} at the very onset of inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1010.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Z. Wenpeng

**Comments:** 151 pages

This Book is devoted to the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
on Number Theory and Smarandache Notions held in Tianshui during April 24-25,
2010. The organizers were myself and Professor Wangsheng He from Tianshui
Normal University. The conference was supported by Tianshui Normal University
and there were more than 100 participants. We had one foreign guest, Professor
K.Chakraborty from India. The conference was a great success and will give a
strong impact on the development of number theory in general and Smarandache
Notions in particular. We hope this will become a tradition in our country and will
continue to grow. And indeed we are planning to organize the seventh conference
in coming March which will be held in Weinan, a beautiful city of shaanxi.

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1010.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 pages

It is shown that a particle set possessing electric charges, masses, and weak couplings that coincide
with those of the quarks and leptons can be produced with the aid of the symmetry of the
cuboctahedron. Specifically, it is shown that small powers of 4.1, in combination with the constants
0.1 and 3, are useful in economically reproducing the quark and lepton masses, and that these small
powers-and thereby the masses they represent-can be joined automatically with their correct
values for charge and generation with the aid of cuboctahedral symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17] **viXra:1010.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Pankaj Mani

**Comments:** 5 pages

The Riemann hypothesis is proved to be true which states that all the non-trivial
zeros of Riemann zeta function lie along the line R(z)=1/2 for 0<R(z)<1.
The work done here clarifies that there is no need to find out the non-trivial zeros
of the Riemann zeta function to prove the Riemann hypothesis true as the
Riemann hypothesis must be true for the functional equation satisfied by the
zeta function to exist itself structurally in mathematics.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1010.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 3 pages

If the Higgs boson does mediate a vacuum coupling which gives all
particles mass, then it should not itself be massive.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1010.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, Lukasz Glinka

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1358-1375 (November 2010)

The following article begins an analysis of if by first principles there is a way to show time
unidrectionality at the start of creation. Recently J. Vaccarro appealed to Kaon physics to show how
time asymmetry could be violated after the big bang, as well as how and why time asymmetry
vanishes later. We examine the nature of the evolution Hamiltonian after stepping through Vacarro's
analysis and go to where we think it needs to be improved. This answers questions to if both the CPT
theorem and related physics are manifestly violated, or not violated at the beginning of emergent space
time, via judicious use of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, a base of quantum cosmology and quantum
gravity. We initially detail the limits of a derivation given the authors by Vaccaro which claims using
of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and suggest ways to suppress the CPT violation, as suggested by
Kaon physics after inflation at the onset of inflation, using refinements suggested by the authors. We
propose to support the Kauffmann treatment of CPT violation as the useful one, as well, and will be
part of long term solutions to this problem. Note that though, Vaccaro incorrectly identifies a
Euclidian representation of the Hamiltonian (energy) function as equal to the Hamiltonian constraint,
which leads to identifying the Schrodinger equation used for Kaon physics with the Wheeler-DeWitt
equation, as H|ψ> = 0 as written by Vaccaro is still usual non-relativistic time-dependent quantum
mechanics and not necessarily linkable to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which in the result of primary
quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint and has manifestly absent time, in the vicinity of a
'quantum bounce', or singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1010.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 5 pages

A new cosmological model, named the Twin-Tori Model (TTM)[1], postulates a
dark energy force F_{de} , which empowers the dynamic of a lower order universe, well
known as the big bang. In this paper I introduce the 1st derivative F'_{de} of this dark energy
force to reveal deeper properties of the TTM, such as: why quantummechanics exists in
the big bang, why dark matter and visible matter are equally responsible for gravity in
galaxies for 1/4 of the density of dark matter at a specific length, why the big bang universe
is recalculated by subquantumlevel-information below the Plancklength, and why the
impression of space-expansion is due to the higher order cosmological model TTM.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13] **viXra:1010.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-25 09:05:44*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Version-3 is only textual modified and not mathematically altered. It services a better understanding of the beginning of the Double Torus framework.

A (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’ was introduced on April 10 2004 by Dan Visser, Almere, the Netherlands on his website (reference 1a). The (new) formula was picked up by a PhD-mathematician and -Physics, Christopher Forbes (UK), in the summer of 2009, leading to email-contact among them, and resulting in a publication of a general mathematical expression, whereof Dan’s (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’ indeed resulted from the general expressing (reference 2). Additional an amount of (new) dark energy resulted too. Afterwards Dan published his derivation of the (new) force in the Vixra-archive on October 7 2010 (in retrospective). He called his mathematical exercises a ‘thought-experiment’. That had as result the (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’. In the versions following (version-2 and -3) only textual changes were made for servicing a better understanding of the thought-experiment, of course without altering the original mathematical content. Further development was focussed on working–out the (new) dynamics in the Double Torus hypothesis. This is a hypothesis that claims the Big Bang cosmology can no longer be maintained as the model for the universe. The main issue in ‘Dan’s-thought-experiment’ is a scaling-away-principle’,which is characterized by ‘scaling-away’ two black holes from each other (small and large), as well as ‘melting them together’ and making them ‘temperature connected’. Then an observer would receive the same evaporation-radiation from both black holes at the same time. These three exercises (scaling-away, melting-together and temperature-connection) had the aim to keep entropy conserved in the universe. However, ‘scaling-away’ causes a ‘change of dark information’ at the surface of one or the other black hole. Such a change had to correspond to a ‘new force’. That was further exercised, analyzed, synthesized, combined and translated as a mathematical thought-experiment. The result: Dan’s (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12] **viXra:1010.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 40 pages

The General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is essentially a theory of gravitation. It
is built on the Principle of Relativity. It is bonafide knowledge, known even to Einstein the
founder, that the GTR violates the very principle upon which it is founded i.e., it violates the
Principle of Relativity; because a central equation i.e., the geodesic law which emerges from
the GTR, is well known to be in conflict with the Principle of Relativity because the geodesic
law, must in complete violation of the Principle of Relativity, be formulated in special (or
privileged) coordinate systems i.e., Gaussian coordinate systems. The Principle of Relativity
clearly and strictly forbids the existence/use of special (or privileged) coordinate systems
in the same way the Special Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of privileged and or
special reference systems. In the pursuit of a more Generalized Theory of Relativity i.e.,
an all-encampusing unified field theory to include the Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong
force, Einstein and many other researchers, have successfully failed to resolve this problem.
In this reading, we propose a solution to this dilemma faced by Einstein and many other
researchers i.e., the dilemma of obtaining a more Generalized Theory of Relativity. Our solution
brings together the Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong force under a
single roof via an extension of Riemann geometry to a new hybrid geometry that we have
coined the Riemann-Hilbert Space (RHS). This geometry is a fusion of Riemann geometry
and the Hilbert space. Unlike Riemann geometry, the RHS preserves both the length and the
angle of a vector under parallel transport because the affine connection of this new geometry,
is a tensor. This tensorial affine leads us to a geodesic law that truly upholds the Principle
of Relativity. It is seen that the unified field equations derived herein are seen to reduce to
the well known Maxwell-Procca equation, the non-Abelian nuclear force field equations, the
Lorentz equation of motion for charged particles and the Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1010.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-18 01:49:51*

**Authors:** Faycal Ben Adda

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This is the last version accepted for publication in Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics

In this paper, we prove the existence of an inner connection between gravity and electromagnetism using a different procedure than the standard approaches. Under the assumption of the invariance of the ratio of the Gravitational force to the Electric force in an expanding space-time, we prove that gravity is naturally traceable to the surrounding expanding medium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1010.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

We established in a previous paper that an atom entering
the extreme cold regions of space has to come to thermal
equilibrium with its surroundings. It does this by ingesting
its extranuclear electrons into the nucleus. At that point the
nucleus evaporates. Since nuclei of atoms lower than iron
on the periodic table released heat in the process of their
formation, heat has to be absorbed when those nuclei disrupt.
Thus the extreme cold of space is maintained by nuclear
evaporation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1010.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 4 pages

The author of viXra:1009.0067 claims that radiation
experiences a contraction in energy in a gravitational field,
such as that of the Earth. Why, then, did Pound-Rebka measure
an increase in energy of radiation?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1010.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this article we'll emphasize on two triangles and provide a vectorial proof of
the fact that these triangles have the same orthocenter. This proof will, further allow us to
develop a vectorial proof of the Stevanovic's theorem relative to the orthocenter of the
Fuhrmann's triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[7] **viXra:1010.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Alvydas Jakeliunas

**Comments:** 1 page

Here is proposed a new equation for speed of light in gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1010.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Alessandro Dallari

**Comments:** 46 pages

Some tools are discussed, in order to build power structures of primitive
roots in finite fields for any order q^{k}; relations between distinct roots
are deduced from m- and shift-and-add- sequences. Some heuristic computational
techniques, where information in a m- sequence is built from
below, are proposed. Full settlement is finally viewed in a physical scenario,
where a path leading to the Riemann Hypothesis can be enlighted.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5] **viXra:1010.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 74 pages, Mathematical problems for student competitions, translated from
Romanian and French into English by the author.

The first book of "Problèmes avec et sans ... problèmes!" was published in Morocco in
1983. I collected these problems that I published in various Romanian or foreign magazines
(amongst which: "Gazeta Matematica", magazine which formed me as problem solver,
"American Mathematical Monthly", "Crux Mathematicorum" (Canada), "Elemente der
Mathematik" (Switzerland), "Gaceta Matematica" (Spain), "Nieuw voor Archief" (Holland), etc.
while others are new proposed problems in this second volume.
These have been created in various periods: when I was working as mathematics
professor in Romania (1984-1988), or co-operant professor in Morocco (1982-1984), or emigrant
in the USA (1990-1997). I thank to the Algebra Department of the State University of Moldova for the publication
of this book.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1010.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 71 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann
hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function
J_{2} (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (741)-(790) contain infinitely many prime
solutions and no prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution
π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3] **viXra:1010.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 2 pages

It is argued that the failure of dark matter experiments to verify its existence may be attributable to a
non-Planckian 'action,' which renders dark matter's behavior contradictory to the consequences of quantum
mechanics as it applies to luminous matter. It is pointed out that such a possibility cannot be convincingly
dismissed in the absence of a physical law that prohibits an elementary 'action' smaller than Planck's. It
is further noted that no purely dark matter measurement of Planck's constant exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1010.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-28 10:34:48*

**Authors:** Vatolin Dm

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Russian

In this article it’s proved that consistent derivation of the «Godel formula» is possible only in the theory where it’s forbidden to talk about proofs adequately. Godel’s assumptions have not been derivated from unconditional meta-mathematical axioms.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[1] **viXra:1010.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Raul A. Félix de Sousa

**Comments:** 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen,
palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep
redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of
electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the
lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the
central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical
potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon,
carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms.
Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and
the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of
the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules,
inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation
of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to
an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.

**Category:** Biochemistry