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1904 Submissions

[529] viXra:1904.0599 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 06:39:10

The Origin of Universal Structure: Herbig Haro -Electric Dark Matter Black Hole- Systems.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 42 Pages.

The new interpretation of Herbig Haro dual black hole systems by Quantum FFF Theory, is a firm reason to put the Herbig Haro systems at the forefront of the origin of Universal structure, together with the new rigid transformable string model based on quantum FORM.. Quantum FFF Theory ( FFF= Function Follows Form) is based on a new string particle model called “rigid transformable string”, which is able to generate topologies of all possible sub quantum particles, needed to fill a supersymmetric standard model and beyond. The mother particle is called “Axion Higgs” and has the form of a ring, able to rotate internally by three hinges into electron and positron propeller shapes, into 1x Graviton, 5x monopole Photons or Gluons and 6x Neutrinos.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[528] viXra:1904.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 06:55:57

Ways to Control Thermal Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A consortium of researchers using the unique Molecular Foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) set out to do just that with Planck's Law. [31] Researchers from Drexel University and Trinity College in Ireland, have created ink for an inkjet printer from a highly conductive type of two-dimensional material called MXene. [30] The nano research team led by professors Helge Weman and Bjørn-Ove Fimland at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of Electronic Systems has succeeded in creating light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, from a nanomaterial that emits ultraviolet light. [29]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[527] viXra:1904.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 07:09:49

Secure Symmetric Key Exchange

Authors: Michel SJ Kuipers
Comments: Pages.

Exchanging a secret password or key over an insecure communication line (symmetric key exchange) traditionally always causes the problem that a man-in-the-middle can eavesdrop the communication between the two parties and the intercepted data together with the known algorithm provides a way to deduce the password, making every attempt insecure. The solution is to use asymmetric key exchange using very complex mathematical formulas which are almost impossible to inverse, invented by Diffie and Hellman. This article proposes a new invention which is very simple and elegant, and fast to compute, which should make symmetric key exchange logically proven safe (unhackable) and easy to use, solving this old problem in perpetuity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[526] viXra:1904.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 07:37:47

Dark Matter Exist

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[525] viXra:1904.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 07:57:42

Atom Extracts Photons from Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A similar method developed by a team from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching works on light quanta – photons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[524] viXra:1904.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 08:36:42

A Trigonometric Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

In this note we give a trigonometric integral.
Category: General Mathematics

[523] viXra:1904.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 08:39:11

Pi Formula

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we recall a formula for Pi.
Category: Number Theory

[522] viXra:1904.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 08:42:19

Some Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some definite integrals.
Category: General Mathematics

[521] viXra:1904.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 08:44:57

Three Numbers

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

This note presents some formulas for Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[520] viXra:1904.0589 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 10:32:39

End of Mathematics

Authors: August Lau
Comments: Pages.

Data is abundant but has few answers. Massive data challenges mathematics when no equation exists. Data processing has no universal operator but uses a combination of operators. Physical science has done well with formal rules and equations, typically low order equation and low dimensional space. Data science lives in high/infinite dimensional space where an object has many attributes. Finally, “point set topology” liberated us from the rigidity of differential calculus and extended our mind to perceive infinite/infinitesimal objects. Our response should be to embrace more data and more operators. We should be inventors of new mathematical tools to process and interpret data.
Category: General Mathematics

[519] viXra:1904.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 11:22:35

The Fundamental Principle of Matter // Фундаментальный принцип материи

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article describes the basics of stable structures of matter. The fundamentals are the fundamental particles of matter and their properties. These foundations follow from the discoveries of Galileo.// В статье описаны основы стабильных структур материи. Основами являются фундаментальные частицы материи и их свойства. Эти основы следуют из открытий Галилея.
Category: Classical Physics

[518] viXra:1904.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 14:06:07

The Factor 1.0000055 Used to Accurately Calculate the Mass of the Neutron or Proton ls Needed for Hadronization

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Three times the factor 1.0000055 used to accurately calculate the mass of the proton or neutron in MHCE8S theory also yields 165 MeV partial energy needed for the 3-quark-gluon hadronization process
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[517] viXra:1904.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 14:00:20

Stoe Explaination for the ``ether Wind''

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley, the Miller, and other experiments have detected an ``ether wind'' and have stirred a long--standing controversy. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is applied to the measurements of the Miller experiment. The STOE's plenum is comparable to the ether. The result is the divergence of the plenum caused by the Sun and Moon and the measured direction of the ``ether wind'' are at an angle of $ 91^\circ \pm 8^\circ$ with a confidence of $1 \sigma$. This suggests that these experiments are measuring the degree of tilt relative to the plenum divergence. That is, the measurements are not detecting the changing light path that results in the real Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis, but rather the measurements are detecting the changing light speed and direction caused by the divergence of the plenum. The support for the Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis as a real contraction is removed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[516] viXra:1904.0585 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-06 00:35:15

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》 Philosophical and Analytical Overview

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 44 Pages.

This presentation provides overview of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》, commentary on and walk through their essential components and major results compliant to classical and modern physics in the following context:

  1. Methodologies in Search for Truth
  2. Natural Principles of Universal Topology and Framework
  3. Superphase Events and Horizon Generators 
  4. Natural Ontology in Mathematics
  5. Quantum Mechanics, QED, QCD and Standard Model
  6. General Symmetric Fields of Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism and Gravitation
  7. Asymmetry Fields of Ontology and Cosmology
  8. Field Equations of Ontological Evolutions 
  9. Our Challenges and Glorious Future

It inspires our mission not only to accomplish the second generation of physics, but also to give rise to a new era of the scientific future. 


Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[515] viXra:1904.0584 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 15:44:21

Fibonacci Motives

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 11 Pages.

Motives are well connected to graphical techniques in quantum field theory. In motivic quantum gravity we consider categorical axioms, starting with the ribbon category of the Fibonacci anyon. Quantum logic dictates that the cardinality of a classical set is replaced by the dimension of a space. In this note we look at the geometry underlying Fibonacci numbers and apply it to the algebra of multiple zeta values and cyclic particle braids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[514] viXra:1904.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 18:41:21

The Solar Group Geometry Analysis (Questions & Answers) (Part I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

This Paper claims the following: -The Solar group current Description and theory are incorrect and insufficient -The Solar group current Description and theory contradicts the solar planet data geometrical analysis. In this paper we discuss 6 questions with their answers which can show and prove the solar group current theory and description weakness and insufficiently… The Questions Are In Following: 1-How The Planet Diameter Is Created? 2-How The Planet Orbital Distance Is Defined? By Gravity Force …is it True? 3-What's The Most Near Distribution For The Solar Planets Order? 4-Why Earth moves Daily A Distance = The Moon Orbit Circumference? 5-Why The Light Velocity Is The Universe Highest Velocity? 6-Can The Planet Mass be created independently from the other planets masses?
Category: Astrophysics

[513] viXra:1904.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 21:46:24

“Spooky” Interaction and Non-Classical Interference Interpreted by a Product of Classical Electric Filed

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 8 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 6, No. 2 (2019)

Many experiments to verify nonlocal interaction and non-classical phenomena using entangled lights were conducted in the 1980s, and many physicists were interested in their unrecognizable correlation. These quantum mechanical effects were used in Aspect's experiments and Bell tests and had a great influence on the interpretation of quantum mechanics. However, their essence, including their “spooky” interaction, is unknown. In this study, we show that entangled light can be expressed by the product of electric fields and that the same result as quantum mechanics can be obtained using the product form.
Category: Quantum Physics

[512] viXra:1904.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 06:51:40

Hybrid Machine Learning Tool

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Researchers have developed a hybrid predictive model to improve the identification of metastatic lymph nodes in individuals with head-and-neck cancer. [33] "Collaborations such as this between pathologists and data scientists are essential to advancing the field of oncology. Our expertise is disparate, which perhaps is exactly why it can be so powerfully complementary," Tafe says. [32] As part of a team of scientists from IBM and New York University, my colleagues and I are looking at new ways AI could be used to help ophthalmologists and optometrists further utilize eye images, and potentially help to speed the process for detecting glaucoma in images. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[511] viXra:1904.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 07:34:22

Quantum Memory Efficiency Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The team created such a quantum memory by trapping billions of rubidium atoms into a tiny, hair-like space-those atoms are cooled down to nearly absolute zero (about 0.00001 K) using lasers and a magnetic field. [28] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[510] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 08:40:23

The Covariant Derivative Operator and Scalars

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 8 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[509] viXra:1904.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 09:19:38

Autoimmune Syndrome Muscle Pain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

A previously unknown autoimmune muscle disease involving sudden onset of debilitating muscle pain and weakness has been identified by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. [28] The discovery that protein therapeutics can hijack the HOPS complex to gain access to the cell interior should help scientists design therapeutic proteins to treat diseases that are not adequately treated using other approaches, Schepartz said. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important HYPERLINK "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0734-6" study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[508] viXra:1904.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 11:17:14

Never Before Seen Radioactive Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

The Colorado State University professor of physics studies the fundamental matter particles known as neutrinos, and an exceedingly rare instance of radioactive decay in which neutrinos-otherwise present in such decays-are nowhere to be found. [39] Determining features of the elusive particle known as a neutrino-through the observation of an extremely rare nuclear process called neutrinoless double-beta decay (The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[507] viXra:1904.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 12:01:35

Spinning Black Hole Sprays Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Astronomers have discovered rapidly swinging jets coming from a black hole almost 8000 light-years from Earth. [10] That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[506] viXra:1904.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 12:09:49

New Tool of Physics // Новое орудие физики

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents new opportunities for the development of the science of nature. These opportunities appear as a result of the overthrow of the law of conservation of energy. Here is a theoretical overthrow. About the experimental (practical) overthrow - about a working magnetic engine - you can read on the page https://poselenie.ucoz.ru/publ/dejstvujushhij_magnitnyj_dvigatel/6-1-0-343.// В статье представлены новые возможности развития науки о природе. Эти возможности появляются в результате свержения закона сохранения энергии. Здесь представлено теоретическое свержение. О экспериментальном (практическом) свержении - о действующем магнитном двигателе - можно прочитать на страницы https://poselenie.ucoz.ru/publ/dejstvujushhij_magnitnyj_dvigatel/6-1-0-343.
Category: Classical Physics

[505] viXra:1904.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 12:56:20

The Electron is a Photon Around Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 357 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The electron is a photon around Dark Matter “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The photon wavelength is 2πr, r the electron radius” Adrian Ferent “The high energy Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter keep the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity is important the energies of the Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter, not the Dark Matter mass” Adrian Ferent “Inside the electron, Dark Matter mass is much smaller than electron mass, but has much bigger energy” Adrian Ferent “Ferent electron and positron collision:” Adrian Ferent “Photon momentum after n interactions:“ Adrian Ferent “The way how the photon ‘oscillates’ inside the electron will give the electron spin” Adrian Ferent “The way how the photon ‘oscillates’ inside the electron will give the electron charge, negative charge – electron, positive charge – positron”” Adrian Ferent “Because electron–positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction and two gamma rays of 0.5 MeV each will be created in electron and positron collision, I considered only one photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Gamma ray is inside the electron because of electron’s electromagnetic properties and electrons interactions with photons” Adrian Ferent Einstein said; “You know, it would be sufficient to understand the electron” which is still true today. “Conclusion: No Conclusion. So, what is an electron? An electron is a particle, and a wave; it is ideally simple, and unimaginably complex; it is precisely understood, and utterly mysterious; it is rigid, and subject to creative disassembly. No single answer does justice to reality. ” – Frank Wilczek Our civilization is based on electrons, without knowing what electron is. Electrons cannot be described as solid particles. An electron is a quantum object. Because of Heisenberg uncertainty principle, particles cannot be restricted to a geometric point in space because this would require an infinite particle momentum. Atomic orbital is a function that describes the wave-like electron inside the atom and this function is used to calculate the probability of finding the electron around the nucleus. Electron and positron collision: at low energies the result of the collision is the annihilation of the electron and the positron and gamma ray are created. If the annihilating electron and positron are at rest, each of the resulting gamma rays has energy of 0.5 MeV and frequency of 123 EHz. “Ferent electron and positron collision:” Adrian Ferent Where: DMe is the Dark Matter inside the electron DMp is the Dark Matter inside the positron “Dark Matter interacts only gravitationally with matter” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles are created around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent That is why at CERN they do not know what they collide, that is why they do not detect Dark Matter. “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent Photon – photon interaction: both photons are gammas rays with just enough energy to produce an electron–positron pair. “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent One possible explanation for the electron: “Because the photon has Dark Matter, the interaction Dark Matter photon with Dark Matter electron, keep the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν “ Adrian Ferent Another possible explanation for the electron: If I take in consideration the gravitons pe emitted by the photon, the equation will be: “Photon momentum after n interactions:“ Adrian Ferent The momentum of gravitons pe emitted by the photon, it is smaller than the momentum pk of the gravitons received by photon from a galaxy. That is why the photon will move towards the galaxy and this is Gravitational lensing. In the same way, was created the electron: “The high energy Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter keep the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent A single-photon pulse is a pure quantum state. “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because the photon must be very close to Dark Matter, in classical view: “The photon wavelength is 2πr, r the electron radius” Adrian Ferent Scientists will say for that radius is required a huge mass for Dark Matter, this means the electron will have a huge mass. The Schwarzschild radius, the radius of the event horizon: In Ferent Quantum Gravity this is not relevant, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong. “In Ferent Quantum Gravity is important the energies of the Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter, not the Dark Matter mass” Adrian Ferent “Mass–energy equivalence for Dark Matter: E = md × vp^2” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Inside the electron, Dark Matter mass is much smaller than electron mass, but has much bigger energy” Adrian Ferent That is why particles like axions, neutrino, neutralinos…are not Dark Matter particles. “What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about Gravitation, Black Holes, Dark Matter… is wrong” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Unification between Matter and Dark Matter:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “The way how the photon ‘oscillates’ inside the electron will give the electron spin” Adrian Ferent “The way how the photon ‘oscillates’ inside the electron will give the electron charge, negative charge – electron, positive charge – positron”” Adrian Ferent “Because electron–positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction and two gamma rays of 0.5 MeV each will be created in electron and positron collision, I considered only one photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Gamma ray is inside the electron because of electron’s electromagnetic properties and electrons interactions with photons” Adrian Ferent 201. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity the electron is a photon around Dark Matter 202. I am the first who discovered that inside the electron the photon wavelength is 2πr, r the electron radius 203. I am the first who discovered that the high energy Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter keep the photon inside the electron 204. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity is important the energies of the Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter, not the Dark Matter mass 205. I am the first who discovered that inside the electron, Dark Matter mass is much smaller than electron mass, but has much bigger energy 206. I am the first who discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision: 207. I am the first who discovered photon momentum after n interactions with gravitons: 208. I am the first who discovered that the way how the photon ‘oscillates’ inside the electron will give the electron spin 209. I am the first who discovered that the way how the photon ‘oscillates’ inside the electron will give the electron charge, negative charge – electron, positive charge – positron 210. I am the first who discovered because electron–positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction and two gamma rays of 0.5 MeV each will be created in electron and positron collision, I considered only one photon inside the electron 211. I am the first who discovered that gamma ray is inside the electron because of electron’s electromagnetic properties and electrons interactions with photons
Category: Quantum Physics

[504] viXra:1904.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 13:45:45

Bond Lengths in Helium Hydrides as Sums of the Relevant Radii of He and H

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 3 pages, one Table 1.

The latest astrophysical discovery for the first time of HeH+ inspired the author to look into its bond length. Using the previously calculated values of the various radii of He and H, it is shown here that the reported inter-nuclear distance in HeH+ is the sum of the radii of He- and the section of the Bohr radius pertaining to the proton. Interpreted here also is the inter-nuclear distance of the He..H bond in He..H..He+, as the sum of the covalent radius of He and the Bohr radius of H. Both cases support the rule of additivity of radii of adjacent atoms and or ions in bond lengths established by the author over the years.
Category: Astrophysics

[503] viXra:1904.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 14:52:04

Evolution

Authors: Sumedha
Comments: 2 Pages. The article is copyright to the author, Ms. Sumedha

Let’s have two names - Brain and Mind. The brain is the physical presence of a body part that helps in the movement of your body but the mind is the thought process of the living being and it resides in the physical organ brain. From the stone age to today, humans evolved from living an animal life to the present scenario. Evolution never stops if you feel about your presence, aim, goal, sensations, thoughts, emotions, feelings, failures. The human has got this extreme power of the mind that makes him think and evolve, they know the value of their presence. Think once if we never got that spark of technology, we would have never evolved till space and beyond.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[502] viXra:1904.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 17:34:05

The Levels of the Universe, Multiverse, and Beyond

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 1 Page.

How many levels are there to the universe? “In Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”(1) The universe starts with a zero dimensional particle, builds up to 1, 2, and 3 dimensions and then levels of spheres. As it is stated, the Gravitational Constant is predicted, and predicted to be 6.6743792*10^-11 m^3/(kg*s^2). In each layer the quantity of spheres is divided by the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It is proposed, that when the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron is multiplied enough times, the value is less than one half or less than 0.5. At this the square of the angular momentum of one particle becomes 2. That is where we go from a zero dimensional particle to a one dimensional two sphere. It grows again to two dimensions, three dimensions, and then levels to the universe. To a multiverse and mega-multiverse becomes a zero-dimensional particle and the process starts all over again. The whole process goes on again and again to infinity. And yet, size matters not. Calculations to follow in another paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[501] viXra:1904.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-30 15:30:18

Reality

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

As conscious, intelligent beings, we may question reality - whether something is real, imaginary or just hypothetical. Reality is intangible, abstract and we may wonder what it really is. How do we know or prove that something is real and not imaginary, hypothetical or just a dream? This paper attempts to grapple with some of these issues.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[500] viXra:1904.0567 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-10 19:58:02

Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Kenneth Dalton
Comments: 14 Pages.

Despite its successes, general relativity has failed to define a stress-energy-momentum tensor for the gravitational field. In what follows, a new theory solves the problem of gravitational dynamics. It yields covariant expressions for the energy, momentum, stress, force and power. The theory predicts both longitudinal and transverse gravitational waves. It is time to launch a search for longitudinal waves, in the data at LIGO and Virgo.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[499] viXra:1904.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 04:26:45

MR Elastography Brain Scans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A global team of investigators believes it is on track to cut the time of an MRI brain scan to milliseconds with an MR elastography technique. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[498] viXra:1904.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 04:49:44

Color Tuning of LED Bulbs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Volkmar Dierolf and an international team demonstrate the possibility of tuning the color of a GaN LED by changing the time sequence at which the operation current is provided to the device. [29] Advancing a research technique such as ultra-fast electron diffraction will help future generations of materials scientists to investigate materials and chemical reactions with new precision. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26] An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[497] viXra:1904.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-15 03:40:56

Proof that there Are no Odd Perfect Numbers

Authors: Kouji Takaki
Comments: 14 Pages.

We have obtained the conclusion that there are no odd perfect numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[496] viXra:1904.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 06:46:06

Collection of Exercises and Problems of Topography, Astronomy, Geodesy and Least Squares Theory

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 70 Pages. In French.

I have often received students in geomatic requests asking me to provide them with exercises or problems of geodesy, topography, astronomy or the application of the theory of least squares. The paper is a collection of exercises and problems that comes to fill the need of the students in this matter.
Category: Geophysics

[495] viXra:1904.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 08:24:21

Do Superconducting Gravimeters React to Gravitational Waves?

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the spectrum of data from superconducting gravimeters, a spectral line at 240.1 μHz shows an unexpected frequency modulation, which may be an indication of an extraterrestial origin of the oscillation. Perhaps, the earth responds to GW of the galaxy nucleus of NGC 1530.
Category: Astrophysics

[494] viXra:1904.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 09:30:28

Hydrodynamic Behavior of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

By studying how electrons in two-dimensional graphene can literally act like a liquid, researchers have paved the way for further research into a material that has the potential to enable future electronic computing devices that outpace silicon transistors. [27] This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[493] viXra:1904.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 09:57:45

Nanosized Container Photoswitches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Tokyo Tech have developed a nanosized container bearing photoswitches that takes up hydrophobic compounds of various size and shape in water and subsequently releases them quantitatively by non-invasive light stimulus. [28] By studying how electrons in two-dimensional graphene can literally act like a liquid, researchers have paved the way for further research into a material that has the potential to enable future electronic computing devices that outpace silicon transistors. [27] This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[492] viXra:1904.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 10:21:46

Coal-Derived Effective Antioxidants

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Graphene quantum dots drawn from common coal may be the basis for an effective antioxidant for people who suffer traumatic brain injuries, strokes or heart attacks. [29] Researchers at Tokyo Tech have developed a nanosized container bearing photoswitches that takes up hydrophobic compounds of various size and shape in water and subsequently releases them quantitatively by non-invasive light stimulus. [28] By studying how electrons in two-dimensional graphene can literally act like a liquid, researchers have paved the way for further research into a material that has the potential to enable future electronic computing devices that outpace silicon transistors. [27] This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[491] viXra:1904.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 11:06:30

Nanomaterial Replace Mercury

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The nano research team led by professors Helge Weman and Bjørn-Ove Fimland at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of Electronic Systems has succeeded in creating light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, from a nanomaterial that emits ultraviolet light. [29] Researchers at Tokyo Tech have developed a nanosized container bearing photoswitches that takes up hydrophobic compounds of various size and shape in water and subsequently releases them quantitatively by non-invasive light stimulus. [28] By studying how electrons in two-dimensional graphene can literally act like a liquid, researchers have paved the way for further research into a material that has the potential to enable future electronic computing devices that outpace silicon transistors. [27] This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[490] viXra:1904.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 11:34:01

About Space and Matter//О пространстве и материи

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article describes simple relationships that exist between space and centrally symmetric fields, that is, between space and fundamental particles of matter.// В статье описаны простые зависимости, какие существуют между пространством и центрально-симметричными полями, то есть, между пространством и фундаментальными частицами материи.
Category: Classical Physics

[489] viXra:1904.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 11:28:27

Flexible Energy Storage Components

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers from Drexel University and Trinity College in Ireland, have created ink for an inkjet printer from a highly conductive type of two-dimensional material called MXene. [30] The nano research team led by professors Helge Weman and Bjørn-Ove Fimland at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of Electronic Systems has succeeded in creating light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, from a nanomaterial that emits ultraviolet light. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[488] viXra:1904.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 12:51:07

Black Holes in a Rotating Hologram Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 7 Pages.

Black holes are not what it looks like due to postmodern Big Bang interpretations. In my new cosmology black holes are part of a rotating hologram-universe. The black hole mass-density thereto is replaced by my new parameter Tdan, which makes mass-density of a black hole independent of the light speed in vacuum according to general relativity. General relativity has to be extended by refining the Planck-units in a domain below the Planck-boundary. Tdan is that refining-mechanism.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[487] viXra:1904.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 12:53:54

Modified General Relativity and the Klein-Gordon Equation in Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 10 Pages.

From the existence of a line element field $(A^{\beta},-A^{\beta}) $ on a four-dimensional time oriented Lorentzian manifold with metric, the Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime, $ \nabla_{\mu}\nabla^{\mu}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi $, can be constructed from one of the pair of regular vectors in the line element field, its covariant derivative and associated spinor-tensor; and scalar product for spins 1,1/2 and 0, respectively. The left side of the asymmetric wave equation can then be symmetrized. The symmetric part, $ \tilde{\varPsi}_{\alpha\beta}$, is the Lie derivative of the metric, which links the Klein-Gordon equation to modified general relativity for spins 1,1/2 and 0. Modified general relativity is intrinsically hidden in the Klein-Gordon equation for spins 2 and 3/2. Massless gravitons do not exist as force mediators of gravity in a four-dimensional time oriented Lorentzian spacetime. The diffeomorphism group Diff(M) is not restricted to the Lorentz group. $ \tilde{\varPsi}_{\alpha\beta}$ can instantaneously transmit information to, and quantum properties from, its antisymmetric partner $ K_{\alpha\beta} $ along $ A^{\beta} $. This establishes the concept of entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[486] viXra:1904.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 14:59:34

Stellar Metamorphosis: Oxygen

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

For this paper the term primordial oxygen is used to signify oxygen that has been present for almost the entirety of the star's evolution. The case stands, the oxygen found on the Earth is leftover oxygen from the Earth's much hotter, younger states of evolution. The vast majority of the oxygen on the Earth did not come from the Sun. It was always on the Earth as it evolved, long before the Sun even existed. All the elements are important for planetary evolution, and oxygen is a major one.
Category: Astrophysics

[485] viXra:1904.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 17:05:57

Refutation of Cabannas Theory of Objectivity

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate equations about adding or subtracting something from nothing. The duals as a disjunction are tautologous. However that disjunction is not itself equivalent to nothing. This refutes the Cabannas theory of objectivity at its atomic level, forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[484] viXra:1904.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 01:57:09

A Theory of Planetary Evolution

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau
Comments: 16 Pages.

Ever since the time of Darwin, evolution has remained a hot scientific topic. Darwin held a multiple-mechanism view of biological evolution. Some modern-day physicists have addressed physical phenomena in the universe, including stellar evolution, while the interests of some have even overlapped with biological evolution. In this tradition, we propose the discovery of a new law for planetary evolution. Here we show that the logic of achievement is a natural law for planetary evolution. We name this new law in this context the law of strata. Planetary evolution refers to the potential evolution into being on celestial bodies such as planets, asteroids, and satellites. After outlining planetary evolution by natural law, we address its implications for our world’s place in the universe, natural ethics, scientific progress in elementary particle physics, biological evolution, ecology, neuroscience, and finally, the global challenges of sustainability. However, we dismiss the theory of planetary evolution as unscientific, and it is a lengthy, untenable theory of the mesocosmos, with indefensible concepts, logic, implications, and conclusions. The theory of planetary evolution is a false theory of the mesocosmos developed earlier than the true one in the literature and in viXra, which we suggest examining before studying this paper, and serves only as one source for enabling a comparison between two theories of the mesocosmos and for facilitating the discovery of the mesocosmos.
Category: Physics of Biology

[483] viXra:1904.0547 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-03 09:09:15

Finally a Unified Quantum Gravity Theory! Collision Space-Time: the Missing Piece of Matter! Gravity is Lorentz and Heisenberg Break Down at the Planck Scale. Gravity Without G

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 37 Pages.

Based on a very simple model where mass, at the deepest level, is colliding indivisible particles and energy is indivisible particles not colliding, we get a new and simple model of matter that seems to be consistent with experiments. Gravity appears to be directly linked to collision time and also the space the collisions take up; we could call it collision space-time. This leads to a completely new quantum gravity theory that is able to explain and predict all major gravity phenomena without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the mass size in the traditional sense. In addition, the Planck constant is not needed. Our model, combined with experimental data, strongly indicates that matter is granular and consists of indivisible particles that are colliding. Further, from experiments it is clear that the diameter of the indivisible indivisible particle is the Planck length. Our theory even predicts that there can be no time dilation in quasars, something that is consistent with observations and yet is inconsistent with existing gravity theories. Several modern quantum gravity models indicate that Lorentz symmetry is broken at the Planck scale, but there have been no signs of this occurring, despite extensive efforts to look for Lorentz symmetry break downs. We show that Lorentz symmetry break downs indeed happen and, to our own surprise, this is actually very easy to detect. In our model, it is clear that Lorentz symmetry break down is gravity itself. This seems contradictory, as Planck energies are very high energy levels, but we show that this must be seen in a new perspective. We also introduce a new quantum wave equation that tells us that gravity is both Lorentz symmetry break down and Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our wave equation in this sense includes gravity. For masses smaller than a Planck mass, probability will also dominate gravity; it is then a probability for Heisenberg uncertainty break down. At the Planck mass size and up, determinism dominates. For the first time, we have a quantum theory that unifies gravity with the quantum, all derived from a very simple model about the quantum. Our theory is simple, and we show that an indivisible particle is the fundamental unit of all mass and energy – a quantity that has been missing in physics all this time. Newton was one of the last great physicists who thought that such particle was essential, but it was naturally impossible for one man to solve the entire problem. This paper stands on the shoulders of giants like Newton, Einstein, Planck, and Compton to explore these long-standing questions. The beauty of our theory is that it keeps almost all existing and well-tested equations completely intact (unchanged) all the way to the Planck scale. Anything else would be a surprise; after all, some areas of physics have been extremely successful in predictions and have also been well-tested. Still, in our work, the Planck scale and all equations are united into one simple and powerful theory. Unlike standard physics, there are no inconsistencies in our theory. QM is unified with gravity, and even a simplified version of the Minkowski space- time is consistent with QM and gravity. A long series of mysteries in QM vanish, under our new interpretation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[482] viXra:1904.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 04:35:19

Must a Quantum Mechanical Particle Sometimes be in Two Places at Once?

Authors: John Hemp
Comments: 8Pages. This paper was offered to the International Journal of Theoretical Physics in October 2018 but was rejected by the editors without technical review. It seems they do not publish new theories which they say are better published in book form.

In this short paper, we point out that the interference of probabilities in the double slit experiment, or in a particle interferometer, should not necessarily lead us to think that a quantum mechanical particle’s position is a meaningless concept or that continuous motion of a quantum mechanical particle is an impossibility. We do not need to conclude that a particle must sometimes be in two places at once, or that nature herself does not know exactly where a particle is etc. We show that the argument leading to that kind of conclusion, based on the interference of probabilities, is illogical when probability is viewed in a rational Bayesian fashion i.e. as accounting for rational degree of belief in an occurrence rather than the relative frequency of that occurrence in many trials. We lend support to the view that much progress may be made in the interpretation of the quantum formalism and in the formation of physical pictures of processes in quantum mechanics by viewing probability in a rational Bayesian manner. Keywords Quantum Mechanics, uncertainty principle, Bayesian probability, Realism, QBism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[481] viXra:1904.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 05:00:46

Drug-Delivery Nanoparticles Targets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[480] viXra:1904.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 05:20:41

Hydroxyapatite Nanospheres

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[479] viXra:1904.0542 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 15:20:59

Systems of Linear Dyson-Schwinger Equations

Authors: Henry Kißler
Comments: 26 Pages.

Systems of Dyson-Schwinger equation represent the equations of motion in quantum field theory. In this paper, we follow the combinatorial approach and consider Dyson-Schwinger equations as fixed point equations that determine the perturbation series by usage of graph insertion operators. We discuss their properties under the renormalization flow, prove that fixed points are scheme independent, and construct solutions for coupled systems with linearized arguments of the insertion operators.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[478] viXra:1904.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 07:50:52

What is the Conclusion of Newton's Equations of Motion by Using Differential Equations?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 2 Pages.

Conclusion of Newton's equations of motion by using differential equations
Category: Classical Physics

[477] viXra:1904.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 08:21:05

Gravitational Field and Proton Radius.

Authors: Zane Andrea Quintili
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this document we wish to show how the formula for the gravitational field expressed by the theory of general Relativity, can be valid also for measuring the atomic gravitational field through the substitution of the universal gravitational constant of Newton (G) with the quantum atomic constant of QHT (Gq) .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[476] viXra:1904.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 09:45:19

Bright Glow from Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Particles travelling through empty space can emit bright flashes of gamma rays by interacting with the quantum vacuum, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Strathclyde. [27] Researchers from the University of Bristol have shed new light on the process of quantum measurement, one of the defining, and most quantum features of quantum mechanics. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[475] viXra:1904.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 09:49:47

Two Systems of Thinking in Physics//Две системы мышления в физике

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article discusses two systems of thinking on the subject of physical phenomena. In the first system, the basis for the reasoning is mathematical dependencies and formulas. From here physical laws and dependencies between phenomena that are inaccessible to human imagination are derived. In the second system, physical phenomena and dependencies are built on an imaginary conceptual system. All laws and dependencies can be verbally described and based on the results of physical research, you can create a mathematical description of them.// В статье рассматриваются две системы мышления на тему физических явлений. В первой системе основой для рассуждений являются математические зависимости и формулы. Отсюда выводятся физические законы и зависимости между явлениями, которые недоступны человеческому воображению. Во второй системе физические явления и зависимости построены на воображаемой понятийной системе. Все законы и зависимости можно словесно описывать и опираясь на результаты физических исследований можно создавать их математическое описание.
Category: Classical Physics

[474] viXra:1904.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 11:05:40

Theory of Objectivity Third Theory of the Origin of the Universe, Alternative to the Big Bang Theory and Creationism

Authors: Vidamor Cabannas
Comments: 314 Pages. More information and comments on Theory of Objectivity and Author Vidamor Cabannas can be found at www.theoryofobjectivity.com

THE THEORY OF OBJECTIVITY is a third theory of the origin of the universe, serving as an alternative to the Big Bang Theory and Creationism. It describes how the universe was formed from Nothing. However, Nothing does not have the same meaning as zero and actually implies the existence of a logic prior to atomic existence. The fundamentals of this theory are seven absolute truths, based on logical premises of geometric, mathematical, and rational order. It explains the formation of the space, atomic units, and existential systems. Time and space in this theory have the same meaning. It also includes a description of quantum mechanics based on the essential logic of the theory. Prior to the existential Universal Era there was an antagonistic time, in which there were as yet no atomic elements, but only the logical expansion of Nothing, based on seven fundamental mathematical truths, called absolute truths. At the end of the Antagonistic Era, the universe was formed in a logical way and time became countable. The formation and transmission of knowledge are determining factors, and in fact they represent one of the fundamental pillars of the Theory of Objectivity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[473] viXra:1904.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 10:47:18

Supersolid Quantum Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences report in Physical Review X on the observation of supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases of erbium and dysprosium. [28] Particles travelling through empty space can emit bright flashes of gamma rays by interacting with the quantum vacuum, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Strathclyde. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[472] viXra:1904.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 11:16:36

Materials Improve Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A new study provides insight into multiferroic materials, which could have substantive implications in fields such as data storage. [30] Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been attracting a lot of attention recently. This is because of the increased demand for faster, longer-lasting and lower-energy IT systems, and the need for higher data storage capacity. [29] Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28] demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[471] viXra:1904.0533 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-28 11:29:31

On the Mathematical Formulation of 4D Fock Space

Authors: Paul Werbos
Comments: 6 Pages. word screwed up eq 2 in v1. Replaced word equation with image object.

Ordinary Fock space, defined as concatenated combination of three-dimensional spaces is the main workhorse of the canonical version of quantum field theory. It is also fundamental to the modern version of quantum field theory without observers, as in the theory of Everett, Wheeler and Deutsch, which led to the theory of the universal quantum computer. It also has many practical uses, from quantum optics to the closure of turbulence and the derivation of the emergent behavior of space-time dynamical systems. But many of us believe that time and space are interchangeable to some degree, and that methods based on 4D Fock space are needed. This letter describes two simple mathematical tools to help make that possible. It discusses how computing the emergent statistics of such systems is a proper generalization of value function estimation in machine learning, which may therefore carry the same complexities with it.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[470] viXra:1904.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 13:02:52

Liquid Crystals Negative Pressure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, a method has been presented that for the first time makes it possible to estimate the amount of negative pressure in spatially limited liquid crystal systems. [25] The term "superfluid quasicrystal" sounds like something a comic-book villain might use to carry out his dastardly plans. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[469] viXra:1904.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 13:29:20

Weak Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[468] viXra:1904.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 17:13:25

Time+mass

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

the material+masses effected+actions quantity(masses)+magnitude (constants)+time quantity(masses)+ material+magnitude(constants)+masses effected(constants)+actions and time is pace
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[467] viXra:1904.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 17:50:52

Expectation of Doing Experiments

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

the only way to understand particles so everything happen with a pace now we could ask questions about the nature of everything as its paced out lr try to make experiments to measure how much time these things happen we could go very small and most importantly very large its best to have measuring tools for the very great and the very small both in particle size exploration and the time its effects happen
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[466] viXra:1904.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 18:26:02

Expectation of Doing Experimentse0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1:15 AM so now that we have the formula for what happens in the universe and knowing that time is paced we could ask questions such as when the next time there will be an eclipse and collect as much info about everything that doesnt make it happen as calculated beforehand and then we could deduce the presence of more effects and try to calculate them the same way and then we could deduce theoritically what is happening
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[465] viXra:1904.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 19:26:11

Robot Consciousness: Physics and Metaphysics Here and Abroad

Authors: Stephen B. Ripley
Comments: 24 Pages.

Interest has been renewed in the study of consciousness, both theoretical and applied, following developments in 20th and early 21st-century logic, metamathematics, computer science, and the brain sciences. In this evolving narrative, I explore several theoretical questions about the types of artificial intelligence and offer several conjectures about how they affect possible future developments in this exceptionally transformative field of research. I also address the practical significance of the advances in artificial intelligence in view of the cautions issued by prominent scientists, politicians, and ethicists about the possible dangers of such sufficiently advanced general intelligence, including by implication the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Category: Mind Science

[464] viXra:1904.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 23:38:01

Refutation of Remainder Sets for Paraconsistent Revisions

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

Two definitions for expansion, remainder, and selection of K functions are not tautologous. Two definitions implication and paraconsistent/weak negation operators are not tautologous. These refute remainder sets and paraconsistent valuations of logic mbC, an extension of CPL+. Therefore these conjectures are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[463] viXra:1904.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 04:42:15

An Analysis of Noise Folding for Low-Rank Matrix Recovery

Authors: Jianwen Huang, Jianjun Wang, Feng Zhang, Et Al.
Comments: 19 Pages.

Previous work regarding low-rank matrix recovery has concentrated on the scenarios in which the matrix is noise-free and the measurements are corrupted by noise. However, in practical application, the matrix itself is usually perturbed by random noise preceding to measurement. This paper concisely investigates this scenario and evidences that, for most measurement schemes utilized in compressed sensing, the two models are equivalent with the central distinctness that the noise associated with (\ref{eq.3}) is larger by a factor to $mn/M$, where $m,~n$ are the dimension of the matrix and $M$ is the number of measurements. Additionally, this paper discusses the reconstruction of low-rank matrices in the setting, presents sufficient conditions based on the associating null space property to guarantee the robust recovery and obtains the number of measurements. Furthermore, for the non-Gaussian noise scenario, we further explore it and give the corresponding result. The simulation experiments conducted, on the one hand show effect of noise variance on recovery performance, on the other hand demonstrate the verifiability of the proposed model.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[462] viXra:1904.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 07:17:07

Spin Doctors Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists find surprising way to affect information storage properties in metal alloy. [30] A new method allows the quantum state of atomic "qubits"-the basic unit of information in quantum computers-to be measured with twenty times less error than was previously possible, without losing any atoms. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[461] viXra:1904.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 07:20:24

Electrostatic Effect on the Magnet//Электростатическое влияние на магнит

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 5 Pages.

We all know about the existence of differing effects - magnetic and electrostatic. In the article is presented interaction which connects the magnetism and electrostatics. Using the interaction of magnet and the charged object you may present a phenomenon in the form of stream of protoelectrons (electrons). The stream of protoelectrons around the electrified object has a direction "from" or "to" the object and when it encounters on its way a magnet, it moves it in the proper direction. The direction of displacement of the magnet is also dependent on the direction of spinning motion of protoelectrons around the magnet, or in other words, depends on the position of the poles of the magnet.// Все знают о существовании отличающихся друг от друга воздействий - магнитных и электростатических. В статье представлено взаимодействие, которое соединяет магнетизм и электростатику. Используя взаимодействие магнита и электрически заряженного объекта, можно представлять явление в виде потока протоэлектронов (электронов). Поток протоэлектронов вокруг наэлектризованного объекта имеет направление "от" или "на" объект и, когда он встречает на своем пути магнит, перемещает его в соответствующем направлении. Направление смещения магнита также зависит от направления кругового движения протоэлектронов вокруг магнита, или, иными словами, зависит от положения полюсов магнита.
Category: Classical Physics

[460] viXra:1904.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 07:43:30

Insight into Quantum Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Bristol have shed new light on the process of quantum measurement, one of the defining, and most quantum features of quantum mechanics. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[459] viXra:1904.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 08:31:13

Diamond Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[458] viXra:1904.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 08:53:08

Coffee Machine Ion Traps

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists from ITMO University have developed and applied a new method for analyzing the electromagnetic field inside ion traps. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[457] viXra:1904.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:09:39

Measuring the Complexity of Simpiicity

Authors: T H Ray
Comments: 11 Pages.

Yaneer Bar-Yam1 based his theory of multi-scale variety on the law of requisite variety 2 that underlies information science. Once we have accepted requisite variety as a theorem for complex systems science, we are compelled to ask: How deep is the structure of complexity? In complex systems science, it has to be deep enough to include gravity, because there can be no coherent system, simple or complex, without negative feedback—and gravity, even though we don’t understand it as a unitary theory, is demonstrably such a universal control (negative feedback) mechanism. We will introduce a mathematical framework by which irreducibly complex spacetime—as the only independent cosmological variable—has the potential to create and interact with matter, and mediate feedback. What is the “ ... Many which allows itself to be thought of by us as a One”, in the words of Georg Cantor, 3 such that gravity is contained in the Many that manifests in our rational judgments as a One? The question begs a set-theoretic construction, and thus we present our result in a set-theoretic context.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[456] viXra:1904.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:13:21

Do the Planck Length, Time and Mass Follow the Lorentz Contraction?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Planck length, time and mass follow the Lorentz contraction. The speed of light is different in higher dimensions. The Gravitational Constant not Really Constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[455] viXra:1904.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:22:45

A Simple Proof of the Legendre's Conjecture

Authors: Afmika, AF. Michael
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is a simple proof of the Legendre's conjecture. afmichael73@gmail.com afmichael.san@gmail.com
Category: Number Theory

[454] viXra:1904.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 10:24:51

Refutation of Collection Theory as the Set of Universal Closure of Sentences

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate collection theory as the set of universal closure of sentences in a schema equation. It is not tautologous. This refutes Collection as the conjectured schema. Therefore collection theory is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[453] viXra:1904.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 12:22:10

Time Reversal

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you reverse the constants time goes backwards
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[452] viXra:1904.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 12:55:40

One Dimensional Thickness

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

what if thickness in a sphere made out from some hypothetical one dimensional dimension would be like a volume or like an area increasing
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[451] viXra:1904.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 14:50:43

Time is Unrelated to Masses

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if earth was smaller and it spins in 24 hours it would take the same time for the sun to pass through the two earth halves
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[450] viXra:1904.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 17:10:47

Revised Ether Theory and Its Confirmatory Experiment—— Refractive Test of Relativity

Authors: Ji Xueshi, Ji Yuan
Comments: 6 Pages.

The planet drags the ether around it to move together, and the ether has mass. The density of the ether is distributed according to the size of gravity. The closer to a certain planet, the greater the density of the ether. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the speed of light, and the lower the density of the ether, the faster the speed of light. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the chemical reaction rate and the slower the nuclear physical reaction speed. The T-CUP camera developed by the California Institute of Technology has a shooting speed of 10 trillion frames per second. The camera is placed on an airplane and is flying at a supersonic speed. The camera is used on an airplane to measure the speed of light all directions. If the speed of light does not change, indicates that Einstein's hypothesis is correct, and the revised etheric theory is wrong. If there is an etheric wind, the speed of light that is moving forward is slow, and the speed of light that is backward is faster. Explain that the revised etheric theory is correct and the theory of relativity is wrong.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[449] viXra:1904.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 19:46:15

Refutation of Ishihara’s Tricks and (Seemingly) Impossible Theorems in Constructive Mathematics

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

The precise definition of LPO and Ishihara’s tricks as rendered in four equations are not tautologous. This refutes LPO and Ishihara’s tricks. What follows is that (seemingly) impossible theorems in constructive mathematics are denied as theorems. Therefore those conjectures are non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[448] viXra:1904.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 02:19:52

Detangling Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Einstein called entanglement "spooky action at a distance," a name that has stuck and become increasingly popular. Beyond just building better quantum computers, understanding and harnessing entanglement is also useful in other ways. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[447] viXra:1904.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 03:26:11

3-D Optical Biopsies Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[446] viXra:1904.0507 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-02 07:08:03

Remarks on Infinitesimal Amount of Riemann Zeta Zeros

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 2 Pages.

This remarks prove, that Riemann zeta function has infinitesimal amount of zeros.
Category: Number Theory

[445] viXra:1904.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 04:38:10

Quantum States of Gold Nanoclusters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University's Department of Chemistry have found a way to control the lifetime of the quantum states of gold nanoclusters by three orders of magnitude, which could lead to improvements in solar cell and photocatalysis technologies. [39] Einstein called entanglement "spooky action at a distance," a name that has stuck and become increasingly popular. Beyond just building better quantum computers, understanding and harnessing entanglement is also useful in other ways. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[444] viXra:1904.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 07:57:08

Riemann's Definition for the Integrals in Mathematical Physics

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is my other work about the riemann Sum as a définition to the integral and the result is really important for many fields.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[443] viXra:1904.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 07:55:20

Magnetic Behavior of Exotic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

After all, it promises the discovery of new magnetic phenomena that may even be used for quantum computers in the future. [15] But for fast things like biomagnetic fields produced by firing neurons, we need to do better than that, or we might miss out on some information." [14] U.S. Army-funded researchers at Brandeis University have discovered a process for engineering next-generation soft materials with embedded chemical networks that mimic the behavior of neural tissue. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[442] viXra:1904.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 08:26:20

An Annex and Application for :Mémoire en Physiques.

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages.

Mémoire en physiques is a work made since January 2016 by Louiz Akram (an independant researcher).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[441] viXra:1904.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 08:35:37

Machine Learning Ready to Shine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Machine learning and automation technologies are gearing up to transform the radiation-therapy workflow while freeing specialist clinical and technical staff to dedicate more time to patient care. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[440] viXra:1904.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 08:39:55

My Interferometer to Detect the Earth Orbital Linear Speed Around the Sun

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is my interferometer to detect the earth orbital linear speed around the sun
Category: Astrophysics

[439] viXra:1904.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 09:03:23

Vacuum in and around horizons

Authors: Igor Hrnčić
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper puts forward the idea that vacuum is a collection of un-localized quantum oscillators inside a horizon. The characteristics of such vacuum are studied inside the black hole and Hubble horizons. The results suggest that energy is quantized, with the minimal energy depending on the size of the horizon. This suggests that vacuum is more dense in black holes than in the surrounding universe, demanding by continuity the existence of a vacuum halo around every black hole. This vacuum halo could act exactly like dark matter if it exerted no pressure on matter, thus not interacting with matter in any way other than gravitationally. A suitable cosmological model presented here suggests that such vacuum could accelerate the universal expansion. This suggests that the vacuum studied in this paper could successfully stand instead of dark matter, cosmological vacuum and quantum vacuum of quantum theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[438] viXra:1904.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 09:10:25

Laser Beam Shaping Enhanced

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers from Osaka University have developed a technique for improving accuracy of laser beam shaping and wavefront obtained by conventional methods with no additional cost by optimizing virtual phase grating. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[437] viXra:1904.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 09:30:11

Laser-Plasma Interaction Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14] Researchers from Osaka University have developed a technique for improving accuracy of laser beam shaping and wavefront obtained by conventional methods with no additional cost by optimizing virtual phase grating. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[436] viXra:1904.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 10:39:43

Sharper Diffraction Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Sharper Diffraction Images Advancing a research technique such as ultra-fast electron diffraction will help future generations of materials scientists to investigate materials and chemical reactions with new precision. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26] An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[435] viXra:1904.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 10:56:42

On the Origin of 1/f Noise Due to Entropy Damage

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we provide two thermodynamic models to describe 1/f noise due to microscopic entropy damage fluctuations; that is, minor fluctuations of degradation occurring in system-environment interaction. As such, we find that flicker noise is a sensitive measure of entropy damage. The concepts provided are consistent with the literature on 1/f noise measurement observations in materials and helps provide a uniform understanding of 1/f phenomena.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[434] viXra:1904.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 10:57:42

The Change of Mass the Substance-Reasons for the Change//Изменение массы вещества-Причины изменений

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 8 Pages.

The article presents new phenomena that were recently discovered by prof. D. Kh. Baziev. Under the influence of some physical process, the weight of the object changes. After some time has elapsed, the previous weight value is returned.// В статье представлены новые явления, которые недавно были открыты проф. Д. Х. Базиевым. Вследствие некоторого физического процесса изменяется вес объекта. После истечения некоторого времени возвращается прежнее значение веса.
Category: Classical Physics

[433] viXra:1904.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 11:47:18

The Flow of Hermite-Ricci

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in french

We define a flow for hermitian manifolds. We call it the Hermite-Ricci flow.
Category: Geometry

[432] viXra:1904.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 13:17:26

Refutation of Ordinal Notation Via Simultaneous Definition

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate five definitions as not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture that inductive-recursive definitions can give rise to ordinal notation systems that uniquely represent ordinals. Hence the definitions and conjecture are non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[431] viXra:1904.0492 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-19 15:07:49

The Physical Nature of Potential Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 13 Pages.

‘Potential’ energy is defined as the energy that has to do with location relative to something else and therefore it is also called ‘energy of configuration'. The present handbooks don’t however tell us anything about the physical nature of this so-called ‘potential’ energy and how and where it is physically stored. The only thing that we know is that in the special case of conservative forces, the disappeared kinetic energy that is conserved as ‘potential’ energy, can be completely retransformed into kinetic energy. In his paper part 3, the author has demonstrated that the kinetic energy of a particle system is a mathematical expression of its total amount of reversibly transferable translational motion. In this paper, the author demonstrates that the present concepts of kinetic and potential energies are not different kinds of energy, but that it are just different mathematical equations for the work done by a force on a given mass over a given distance: the first expressed in function of the obtained speed, and the second in function of the covered distance. This allows him to demonstrate that the present concept of gravitational ‘potential’ energy is an excellent mathematical tool to calculate the speed of falling objects in function of the covered distance, but that it creates a physical problem with the law of conservation of energy, because it supposes that both ‘kinetic’ and ‘potential’ energies arise out of nothing while the total amount of energy remains invariably zero! This leads the author to demonstrate that the reversible transformation of ‘kinetic’ energy into ‘potential’ energy and vice versa, is in fact a mathematical expression for the reversible transformation of one kind of congruent motion into another, which allows him to demonstrate that the ‘potential’ energy of a perfectly elastic spring, is a mathematical expression of the amount of coherent, internal rotational-vibrational motion of its basic mass particles.
Category: Classical Physics

[430] viXra:1904.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 16:58:55

Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 4 Pages, in Russian and English of Google.

Controlled thermonuclear fusion. There is a phenomenology of the nature of electrino and positrino. It is described as a postulate on the structure of an electron and a positron from electrino and positrino. Postulated as absolute symmetry, the tetrahedron-cubic basis of the world - ASTC. It is necessary to carry out research in the implementation of the creation and maintenance of the environment of free electrino and positrino with a certain energy density per unit volume for the implementation of controlled thermonuclear fusion.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[429] viXra:1904.0490 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-26 20:22:37

The American-Zealot

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

Sacrificing the lower spectrum of American class-ridden consciousness.
Category: Social Science

[428] viXra:1904.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 01:20:05

Sums of Powers of the Terms of Lucas Sequences with Indices in Arithmetic Progression

Authors: Kunle Adegoke
Comments: 5 Pages.

We evaluate the sums $\sum_{j=0}^k{u_{rj+s}^{2n}\,z^j}$, $\sum_{j=0}^k{u_{rj+s}^{2n-1}\,z^j}$ and $\sum_{j=0}^k{v_{rj+s}^{n}\,z^j}$, where $r$, $s$ and $k$ are any integers, $n$ is any nonnegative integer, $z$ is arbitrary and $(u_n)$ and $(v_n)$ are the Lucas sequences of the first kind and of the second kind, respectively. As natural consequences we obtain explicit forms of the generating functions for the powers of the terms of Lucas sequences with indices in arithmetic progression. This paper therefore extends the results of P.~Sta\u nic\u a who evaluated $\sum_{j=0}^k{u_{j}^{2n}\,z^j}$ and $\sum_{j=0}^k{u_{j}^{2n-1}\,z^j}$; and those of B. S. Popov who obtained generating functions for the powers of these sequences.
Category: Number Theory

[427] viXra:1904.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 02:43:56

The Transferable Complex Belief Model

Authors: Fuyuan Xiao
Comments: 2 Pages.

We describe the transferable complex belief model, a model for representing quantified beliefs based on a newly defined complex belief function. The relation between the complex belief function and the probability function is derived when decisions must be made.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[426] viXra:1904.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 03:56:19

Ai/ml/dl Based Python Software + Orlik Solomon[os] Algebra Python Program to Probe Electron Microscopy[em] Images Towards a Better Image Processing & Informatics Framework – a Novel Suggestion & Design Approach for Testing em Image Processing Frameworks I

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication

AI/ML/DL Based Python Software + Orlik Solomon[OS] Algebra Python Program to probe Electron Microscopy[EM] Images towards a better Image Processing & Informatics Framework – A Novel Suggestion & Design Approach for Testing EM Image Processing Frameworks in the context of Hyper-plane Arrangement/s.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[425] viXra:1904.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 04:59:43

Deep Learning Lung Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

“Collaborations such as this between pathologists and data scientists are essential to advancing the field of oncology. Our expertise is disparate, which perhaps is exactly why it can be so powerfully complementary,” Tafe says. [32] As part of a team of scientists from IBM and New York University, my colleagues and I are looking at new ways AI could be used to help ophthalmologists and optometrists further utilize eye images, and potentially help to speed the process for detecting glaucoma in images. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[424] viXra:1904.0485 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-30 03:47:16

Golden Ratio Entropic Gravity: Gravitational Singularity "Field" Testing

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 22 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for the idea of the relativity of time, the key focus of this paper is the process of gravity emerging from electrodynamics and how that can be demonstrated per experiment. First, the nature of gravity as an emergent feature as per the golden ratio time-algorithm is discussed, highlighting mathematically its nature in space as a “singularity” that allows for the idea of kinetic energy, a feature known to co-exist with the idea of gravity. Two key experiments for gravity emerging from electrodynamics are then proposed, tested, the results of which then discussed, shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[423] viXra:1904.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 06:38:20

Riemann's Hypothesis (The Millenium's Problem)

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a better scan of my work about riemann's hypothesis , I proved that there are no zeros when Re(s)<1 . I didn't suppose that zeta is convergent , but I supposed that the zero is among the images with the relation zeta of a known s=a+ib since zeta is a relation when it doesn't converge. There is an issue when we try to find an extension for Riemann's zêta : The complex form multiplied to zêta should never be null , because that form should also devide zêta to deduce the extension. The mistake is to multiply by a complex form then devide by only an image by it. There is also the logical problem when zêta which is divergent equals a convergent extension. I think that suppositions should be made before trying to find an extension to Zeta.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[422] viXra:1904.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 06:51:32

Refutation of Domain Theory and the Scott Model of Language PCF in Univalent Type Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

The definitions of directed, complete posets for antisymmetry and transitivity are not tautologous, thereby refuting basic domain theory. By extension, the Scott model of language PCF in univalent type theory is also refuted and another non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[421] viXra:1904.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 07:14:43

Self-Organization of the Structure of Matter//Самоорганизация структуры материи

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents the ability of fundamental particles to independently create stable structures of matter. This is possible due to their mutual acceleration. Each fundamental particle accelerates neighboring particles in accordance with a suitable mathematical function.// В статье представлена способность фундаментальных частиц самостоятельно создавать стабильные структуры материи. Это возможно благодаря их взаимным ускорениям. Каждая фундаментальная частица ускоряет соседние частицы в соответствии с подходящей математической функцией.
Category: Classical Physics

[420] viXra:1904.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 07:22:45

Imaging Remove Ovarian Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[419] viXra:1904.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 07:49:26

Stretchy, Protective Artificial Tissue

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Now MIT engineers have come up with a tissueengineering design that may enable flexible range of motion in injured tendons and muscles during healing. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[418] viXra:1904.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 08:05:25

Nanomedicine Slips Through the Cracks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

In a recent study in mice, researchers found a way to deliver specific drugs to parts of the body that are exceptionally difficult to access. [30] Now MIT engineers have come up with a tissueengineering design that may enable flexible range of motion in injured tendons and muscles during healing. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[417] viXra:1904.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 08:26:34

DNA Bonds Dogs and Humans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Domestic dogs come in all shapes and sizes, but the animals we now regard as man's best friend may have originated from just two populations of wolves, research suggests. [31] In a recent study in mice, researchers found a way to deliver specific drugs to parts of the body that are exceptionally difficult to access. [30] Now MIT engineers have come up with a tissueengineering design that may enable flexible range of motion in injured tendons and muscles during healing. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[416] viXra:1904.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 08:37:09

Mémoire en Physiques

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 30 Pages.

The derivation in the galilean was made in my work differently than the famous steps when dealing with relative rotations. My work gives the results with an accurate uncertainty and it is the only correct derivation for physics' use, hence, It is the solution to avoid the mistakes made when dealing with the Newtonian Mechanics and thus to avoid the relativity of Time.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[415] viXra:1904.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 08:45:11

Inverse Reinforcement Training Conditioned on Brain Scan

Authors: Tofara Moyo
Comments: 3 Pages.

I outline a way for an agent to learn the dispositions of a particular individual through inverse reinforcement learning where the state space at time t includes an fMRI scan of the individual, to represent his brain state at that time. The fundamental assumption being that the information shown on an fMRI scan of an individual is conditioned on his thoughts and thought processes. The system models both long and short term memory as well any internal dynamics we may not be aware of that are in the human brain. The human expert will put on a suit for a set duration with sensors whose information will be used to train a policy network, while a generative model will be trained to produce the next fMRI scan image conditioned on the present one and the state of the environment. During operation the humanoid robots actions will be conditioned on this evolving fMRI and the environment it is in.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[414] viXra:1904.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 08:48:25

Imprinting Memory and Experiences on Noise

Authors: Tofara Moyo
Comments: 2 Pages.

We outline a method where we imprint the memory and collective experience of an agent, or the previous words said and in what order and by whom in a chatbot. We are given a training corpus of conversations. Then a feed forward neural network is used to input a noise vector with the current word. At the start of the conversation we will input the zero vector with the dimensions of the noise vector that we will use. Together with the first word found in the conversation. This will output another noise vector and the 1 hot encoded next word. We will then feed the duo output once more into the network to predict the next word. During the learning process we will not alter the noise vectors predicted, but the error function will be parameterized by the word vector. This will marry the two progressions together. That of the noise and the structure of the conversation and which word ought to follow which in a sensible sentence. During operation we input the zero vector and the first word, then input the duo output from that back into the network to predict the next word to be said. When a live response is given to a chatbot the next word will not be predicted, but we shall still get another noise vector with which to feed back in with the next word, until an EOU (end of utterance) token vector is input alongside a noise vector. Then the system begins to predict the words to say as before
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[413] viXra:1904.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 08:50:57

Dynamic Cascade Neural Network

Authors: Tofara Moyo
Comments: 2 Pages.

We introduce a type of cascade correlation network to predict the next word in a sentence, where the hidden layer is connected in such a way as to represent the topology of the conversation up to that point. There will be one input neuron that is fed the current word, and one output neuron that will output the predicted next word in the sentence. During training, we will be given a set of conversations to train on. That means that we shall know the input output pairs to train with, and the topology of the previous parts of the conversation correlating with each pair. We shall build the hidden layer in such a way that it is isomorphic to the previous parts of the conversation at the point here that input output pair coincide. During operation we will build the hidden layer of the network at each input word and in such a way as to be isomorphic to the previous parts of the conversation up to that point. Training will make the probability of the output n+1 word to be conditionally dependent on the previous words in that order and not just the nth word, conditional on the training conversations giving the chat-bot the ability to talk consistently on topics and themes found within the training conversations.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[412] viXra:1904.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 09:25:57

People Makes AI More Powerful

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

But as the desire to use AI for more scenarios has grown, Microsoft scientists and product developers have pioneered a complementary approach called machine teaching. [26] A commercial artificial intelligence (AI) system matched the accuracy of over 28,000 interpretations of breast cancer screening mammograms by 101 radiologists. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[411] viXra:1904.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 10:45:49

On the In-Band Full-Duplex Gain Scalability in On-demand Spectrum Wireless Local Area Networks

Authors: Saulo Queiroz
Comments: 126 Pages. PhD Thesis

The advent Self-Interference Cancellation (SIC) techniques has turned in-band Full-Duplex (FD) radios into a reality. FD radios doubles the theoretical capacity of a half-duplex wireless link by enabling simultaneous transmission and reception in the same channel. A challenging question raised by that advent is whether it is possible scale the FD gain in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Precisely, the question concerns on how a random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol can sustain the FD gain over an increasing number of stations. Also, to ensure bandwidth resources match traffic demands, the MAC protocol design is also expected to enable On-Demand Spectrum Allocation (ODSA) policies in the presence of the FD feature. In this sense, we survey the related literature and find out a coupled FD-ODSA MAC solution lacks. Also, we identify a prevailing practice for the design of FD MAC protocols we refer to as the 1:1 FD MAC guideline. Under this guideline, an FD MAC protocol ‘sees’ the whole FD bandwidth through a single FD PHYsical (PHY) layer. The protocol attempts to occupy the entire available bandwidth with up to two arbitrary simultaneous transmissions. With this, the resulting communication range impair the spatial reuse offer which penalizes network throughput. Also, modulating each data frame across the entire wireless bandwidth demands stronger Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) (in comparison to narrower bandwidths). These drawbacks can prevent 1:1 FD MAC protocols to scale the FD gain. To face these drawbacks, we propose the 1:N FD MAC design guideline. Under the 1:N guideline, FD MAC protocols ‘see’ the FD bandwidth through N >1 orthogonal narrow-channel PHY layers. Channel orthogonality increases spatial reuse offer and narrow channels relaxes RSSI requisites. Also, the multi-channel arrangement we adopt facilitates the development of ODSA policies at the MAC layer. To demonstrate how an FD MAC protocol can operate under the 1:N design guideline, we propose two case studies. A case study consists of a novel random access protocol under the 1:N design guideline called the Piece by Piece Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (PbP-EDCA). The other case study consists in adapting an existing FD Wi-Fi MAC protocol [Jain et al., 2011]) – we name as the 1:1 FD Busy Tone MAC protocol (FDBT) – to the 1:N design guideline. Through analytical performance evaluation studies, we verify the 1:N MAC protocols can outperform the 1:1 FDBT MAC protocol’s saturation throughput even in scenarios where 1:1 FDBT is expected to maximize the FD gain. Our results indicate that the capacity upper-bound of an arbitrary 1:1 FD MAC protocol improves if the protocol functioning can be adapted to work under the 1:N MAC design guideline. To check whether that assertion is valid, we propose an analytical study and a proof-of-concept software-defined radio experiment. Our results show the capacity upper-bound gains of both 1:1 and 1:N design guidelines corresponds to 2× and 2.2× the capacity upper-bound achieved by a standard half-duplex WLAN at the MAC layer, respectively. With these results, we believe our proposal can inspire a new generation of MAC protocols that can scale the FD gain in WLANs.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[410] viXra:1904.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 11:22:29

Light-Based Computer Hardware

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team of researchers at NTT Corporation has developed a way to use light-based computer hardware that allows it to to compete with silicon. [36] Called the Quantum Material Press, or QPress, this system will accelerate the discovery of next-generation materials for the emerging field of quantum information science (QIS). [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[409] viXra:1904.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 12:08:16

Conductive Plate Like a Limit of a Uniform RLC Circuit

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 2 Pages.

I try to write the differential equation for the currents in a conductive plate, using the Kirchhoff's laws for the continuous
Category: Classical Physics

[408] viXra:1904.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 12:05:50

Atom Quantum Interaction Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[407] viXra:1904.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 12:30:41

Exotic Nuclear Decay in Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[406] viXra:1904.0466 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-25 08:14:09

Refutation of Strong Jump Inversion and Decidable Copy of a Saturated Model of DCF0

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page.

From the paper’s abstract, the definition of strong jump inversion is not tautologous, hence strong jump inversion is refuted. A computable enumeration of the types realized in models of DCF0 is also refuted. The alleged fact that the saturated model of DCF0 has a decidable copy is denied. Therefore these conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[405] viXra:1904.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 13:46:18

Translate Brain Activity into Speech

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Patients with such speech loss often rely on alternative communication devices that use brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) or nonverbal head or eye movements to control a cursor to spell out words. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Mind Science

[404] viXra:1904.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 15:42:36

A Disproof to the Time Dilation .

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages.

This a disproof to Einstein's special relativity and to Lorentz' Transformation .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[403] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-20 07:50:51

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 12 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[402] viXra:1904.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 20:14:45

Michelson-Morley and Pound-Rebka Experiments

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 3 Pages.

I made the formulae using classical mechanics ,This deserves to be verified experimentally.
Category: Classical Physics

[401] viXra:1904.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 01:33:05

Liberating Preons from Four Dimensions

Authors: Fabrizio Vassallo
Comments: 3 Pages.

A possible internal structure of the recently discovered X (Hungarian) boson is proposed as an application of a preon model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[400] viXra:1904.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 03:10:40

Nanocomponent is a Quantum Leap

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

The research is carried out in the Quantum Photonics Group at the Niels Bohr Institute, which is a part of the newly established Center for Hybrid Quantum Networks (Hy-Q) [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[399] viXra:1904.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 03:38:49

Device Scale Up Quantum Tech

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

The device is potentially scalable because of its flat "planar" surface – a platform that industry already uses in the form of silicon wafers for building classical microprocessors. [40] The research is carried out in the Quantum Photonics Group at the Niels Bohr Institute, which is a part of the newly established Center for Hybrid Quantum Networks (Hy-Q) [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[398] viXra:1904.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 07:46:54

Perfectly Imperfect Nanowire Growth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[397] viXra:1904.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 07:59:29

Facts from of Physics of the Sky and Fundamental Impact//Факты физики неба и фундаментальных воздействий

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 19 Pages.

The facts listed here expose the inaccuracy of academic knowledge in the field of physics of the sky. This inaccuracy is the cause of erroneous interpretations of newly discovered physical phenomena.// Перечисленные здесь факты разоблачаают неточность академического знания в области физики неба. Эта неточность является причиной ошибочных интерпретаций новооткрытых физических явлений.
Category: Classical Physics

[396] viXra:1904.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 08:22:45

Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

In the core of operating nuclear reactors Engineers must manage a maelstrom. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[395] viXra:1904.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 08:24:27

From Maxwell’s Equations to the String Theory and Particle Physics: New Mathematical Connections with Some Sectors of Number Theory

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 179 Pages.

In this research thesis we have described some new mathematical connections between Maxwell’s Equations, some sectors of the String Theory and Particle Physics, and some sectors of Number Theory, precisely various Ramanujan’s expressions and equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[394] viXra:1904.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 08:38:55

The Number Alpha=0.5*arccos(0.5*arccos(0.5*...))

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related with the number: alpha=0.5*arccos(0.5*arccos(0.5*arccos(0.5*...))).
Category: Number Theory

[393] viXra:1904.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 08:42:05

Roots of the Equation X=1+cos(3-3x)

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note we give, the three real roots of the equation: x=1+cos(3-3x) ,x real.
Category: General Mathematics

[392] viXra:1904.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 09:15:12

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory3

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

why dont masses cover space instantly?because for every new volume of space discovered the masses need to cover the whole space again but why the limit of the speed of light and the slowing of time?because if you want to push forward you need to wait till other masses cover the forward space and there is the need to wait for other masses to cover backwards space
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[391] viXra:1904.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 09:24:54

Gold Nanoparticles with Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[390] viXra:1904.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 09:51:08

Stem Cells for Surgical Glues

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[389] viXra:1904.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 11:31:41

Complex-Dynamic Origin of Quantised Relativity and Its Manifestations at Higher Complexity Levels

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 11 Pages. Published as section 8.3 of the book: A. P. Kirilyuk, Theory of Everything, Ultimate Reality and the End of Humanity: Extended Sustainability by the Universal Science of Complexity (LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Beau Bassin, 2017), viXra:1802.0168

Unified and causal complex-dynamic origin of standard (special and general) relativistic and quantum effects revealed previously at the lowest levels of world interaction dynamics is explicitly generalised to all higher levels of unreduced interaction processes, thus additionally confirming the causally complete character of complex-dynamical, naturally quantised relativity, which does not contain any artificially added, abstract postulates. We demonstrate some elementary applications of this generalised quantum relativity at higher levels of complex brain and social interaction dynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[388] viXra:1904.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 13:43:14

On the Initial Chaos of the Universe: Using Null Deflection of Perturbation Element Over flat Geometry

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani
Comments: 2 Pages.

While the flatness problem, Ω = 1, has been one weighty stand in the modern cosmology to showcase incompetency of BBT, the theory of inflation - first pioneered by Alan Guth, CTP, MIT (current) - serves to accommodate it in the observed universe. Here, (a) FP is used as a skeleton to attempt for an altogether novel approach involving rudimentary perturbation theory to define what one may call as ‘initial chaos’, and (b) the corresponding approach is postulated to be lightly rigorous than the other frameworks which propose in the same domain.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[387] viXra:1904.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 17:11:48

Real-Time Evolution of the Electron Clouds of Transition Metal Ions: Electron-Pairing Medium of Unconventional High Temperature Superconductors

Authors: Tiege Zhou
Comments: 11 Pages.

The electron-pairing mechanism in unconventional high temperature superconductors (HTS) has not been resolved. The author proposed that the electron-pairing medium of unconventional HTS is the change of the electron clouds of transition metal ions, which is analogous to the lattice vibration in conventional superconductors. Real-time evolution of the electron clouds of transition metal ions under excitations in La2Fe2As2O2, FeSe sheet, Fe2KSe2, CaCuO2, and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8 was calculated by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The characteristic frequency is about 90-250 meV, which is equivalent to the lattice vibration frequencies, showing that the change of the electron clouds of the transition metal ions can be the electron-pairing medium in unconventional HTS.
Category: Condensed Matter

[386] viXra:1904.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 18:28:40

New Square Potentiation Algorithm

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 7 Pages.

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new square potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the square of a binomial.
Category: Number Theory

[385] viXra:1904.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 21:02:45

The Relationship of the Mole and Charge

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 4 pages

In this paper, the mole and charge are related by deriving Avogadro’s number from three constants: the Bohr radius, the Planck length and Euler’s number.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[384] viXra:1904.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 22:26:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory4

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

could we push a photon? no we cant because ots at the speed of light or c constant for speed that is why we end up time dilating when we go at the speed of light
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[383] viXra:1904.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 02:09:56

Conservation of Wavelength In Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Parity symmetry maps one object to another object as inverse image. It shows that a displacement and its inverse image are of the same length. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames. The wavelength of a wave is the length of the displacement between two adjacent crests. Therefore, the wavelength is conserved in all reference frames. However, Doppler effect shows that the frequency of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames. As a result, the speed of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[382] viXra:1904.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 03:17:26

Explaining Fleming's Hand Rules By Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 8 Pages. This is continuation of my previous paper " Explaining Magnetism by Relativity"

Fleming's Right Hand Rule and Left Hand Rule for Motors can be explained in very simple way as just 'Relativistic Interaction of Moving Charged particles' which cannot explained by classical electrodynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[381] viXra:1904.0441 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-30 10:48:50

$ads_{3}$-Kerr, Moving Brane, Cardy-Verlinde Formula

Authors: Anindya Kumar Biswas
Comments: 8 Pages.

A relation like Hubble equation is derived on a $(1+1)$-dimensional brane moving in the $AdS_{1+2}$-kerr space-time. The relation is used to obtain a Cardy-Verlinde formula on the brane.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[380] viXra:1904.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 07:21:20

Niobium Topological Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have seen intrinsic superconductivity up to a temperature of 0.72 K in the transition metal dichalcogenide niobium telluride (NbTe2). [33] Researchers in France and Japan have demonstrated a theoretical type of unconventional superconductivity in a uranium-based material, according to a study published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
Category: Condensed Matter

[379] viXra:1904.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 08:44:10

AI Versus 101 Radiologists

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A commercial artificial intelligence (AI) system matched the accuracy of over 28,000 interpretations of breast cancer screening mammograms by 101 radiologists. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23] In early 2018, with support from IBM Corporate Citizenship and the Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, IBM and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) embarked on a partnership aimed squarely at the need to better understand migration drivers and evidence-based policy guidance for a range of stakeholders. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[378] viXra:1904.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 09:14:41

Printing Press for Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Called the Quantum Material Press, or QPress, this system will accelerate the discovery of next-generation materials for the emerging field of quantum information science (QIS). [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[377] viXra:1904.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 09:49:50

Toshiba Breakthrough Algorithm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Toshiba Corporation has realized a major breakthrough in combinatorial optimization—the selection of the best solutions from among an enormous number of combinatorial patterns—with the development of an algorithm that delivers the world's fastest and largest-scale performance, and an approximately 10-fold improvement over current methods. [37] A team of researchers at NTT Corporation has developed a way to use light-based computer hardware that allows it to to compete with silicon. [36] Called the Quantum Material Press, or QPress, this system will accelerate the discovery of next-generation materials for the emerging field of quantum information science (QIS). [35]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[376] viXra:1904.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 10:00:17

Timely Information

Authors: David Colasante
Comments: 6 Pages.

Physics isn’t physics, unless it’s about the physical. Thus, Wheeler’s ‘It from Bit’ suggests the observed universe arises from a physically-real first principle. Interval-time coordinates reveal a fundamental bit, leading to the more recent ‘It from Qubit’ by way of the implied ‘Qubit from Bit’.
Category: Quantum Physics

[375] viXra:1904.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 11:04:00

The Nature of Time//Природа времени

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 13 Pages.

The article presents the nature of time. It can be said that this is the physical nature of time. But if you delve into the essence of the topic, it turns out that this is the psychic nature of time.// В статье представлена природа времени. Можно сказать, что это физическая природа времени. Но если вникнуть в суть темы, то окажется, что это психическая природа премени.
Category: Classical Physics

[374] viXra:1904.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-07 04:21:08

The Detected Direction of the Force Onto a Permanent Magnet, Caused by the Displacement Current in a Wire Gap, Supports Weber Electrodynamics

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 10 Pages. Vector arrows were partially no longer recognizable as vectors after the switching to bold font.

This article compares Maxwell's electrodynamics with the almost forgotten Weber electrodynamics as test theory by means of an easily reproducible and simple experiment. For this purpose, it is first theoretically inferred in two different ways that when charging a specially designed capacitor with a current source because of the displacement current a force should occur onto a permanent magnet between the plates, which is diametrically different in its direction in both theories. Subsequently, the experimental setup is described and, based on the results, it is determined that nature seems to follow Weber's law of force in this case. The result shows furthermore that Maxwell's magnetostatics can lead to false predictions under specific everyday conditions.
Category: Classical Physics

[373] viXra:1904.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 12:09:56

Short-Term Prognosis of Strong Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions According to Daily Indexis of Solar Activity

Authors: A.M.Eigenson, I.B.Bazylevych, M.S.Shevchenko
Comments: 1 Page.

Recently one of the authors [1-6] has shown that when solar activity curve begins to go down, then in the vicinity of it's minimum earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. Analysis of data during the period 2010-2018 shows that the probability of false prognosis is no more 2 %. This feature could be used for forecasting these terrestrial events several days in advance. The "opposite" Forbush effect is proposed as possible reason for explanation of this phenomena. In our days, we see from Fig. 1 that the dangerous area lies between April 22 and May 2, 2019. (Addition: earthquakes 6+ are noted as circle’s, earthquakes 7+ as ellipsis and volcanic eruptions as crosses).
Category: Geophysics

[372] viXra:1904.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 20:38:36

MidcurveNN: Encoder-Decoder Neural Network for Computing Midcurve of a Thin Polygon

Authors: Yogesh H. Kulkarni
Comments: 3 Pages.

Various applications need lower dimensional representation of shapes. Midcurve is one-dimensional(1D) representation of a two-dimensional(2D) planar shape. It is used in applications such as animation, shape matching, retrieval, finite element analysis, etc. Methods available to compute midcurves vary based on the type of the input shape (images, sketches, etc.) and processing (thinning, Medial Axis Transform (MAT), Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), Straight Skeletons, etc.). This paper talks about a novel method called MidcurveNN which uses Encoder-Decoder neural network for computing midcurve from images of 2D thin polygons in supervised learning manner. This dimension reduction transformation from input 2D thin polygon image to output 1D midcurve image is learnt by the neural network, which can then be used to compute midcurve of an unseen 2D thin polygonal shape.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[371] viXra:1904.0428 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-03 18:29:29

The Inconsistency of Arithmetic

Authors: Ralf Wüsthofen
Comments: 2 Pages. Proof of the Goldbach conjecture on http://vixra.org/abs/1702.0300

Based on a strengthened form of the strong Goldbach conjecture, this paper presents an antinomy within the Peano arithmetic (PA). We derive two contradictory statements by using the same main instrument as in the proof of the conjecture, i.e. a set that is a structuring of the natural numbers starting from 3.
Category: Number Theory

[370] viXra:1904.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 03:24:31

An Invitation to Experience Einstein’s Scientific Thoughts: Principle Theory, the Success/failure System, and the Cosmos

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is well-known that Einstein was most satisfied with his scientific discovery of general relativity. For this famous discovery, when he visited the Grand Canyon of the United States in 1931, the Hopi Indians praised him with the name of the “Great Relative.” However, do we really understand all of Einstein’s scientific thoughts? Herein, we introduce Einstein from the unfamiliar perspectives of principle theory, the success/failure system, and the cosmos, and we summarise our related series of work. The aim of this paper is to direct the general public and the scientific community to personally experience the scientific discovery of the mesocosmos as a solution to the problem of the cosmos, and to recognise this proposed new twenty-first century science. In an academic market where scientists and humanity sell and buy a great volume of bewildering scientific data, language, and mathematics without feeling amazement and awe at new fundamental and significant scientific discoveries, we suggest personally experiencing Einstein’s scientific thoughts, spreading this experiential gospel, and researching the cosmos in the era of the experience economy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[369] viXra:1904.0426 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-19 05:16:31

An Experiment to Show that there is Gravitational Interaction Among Photons, Because They Have Non-Null Imaginary Gravitational Masses

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

An experimental arrangement, using two petawatts laser beams, is proposed here in order to show that the two laser beams interact gravitationally between them, due to the photons have non-null imaginary gravitational mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[368] viXra:1904.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 05:19:45

Energies of Atomic Electrons from Krypton to Fermium

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 33 Pages.

The electronic configuration of xenon regarding more external sub-levels (2+6),2 gives stability and inertia to xenon atom and it allows to understand the behaviour of subsequent chemical elements represented by transition elements including rare earths and actinides. The same thing happens for radon atom that has in external sub-levels the configuration (8+2),6. The prime difficulty in calculating energies of atomic electrons is no doubt the appraisal of effective shielding of internal electrons with regard to external electrons and it is important because that shielding reduces the size of nuclear charge that has to be considered in calculation.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[367] viXra:1904.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 05:21:20

Superfluid Helium in 3-D Counter-Flow

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, the University of Rome, CNRS and the University of Helsinki have recently carried out a study investigating the difference between 3-D anisotropic turbulence in classical fluids and that in superfluids, such as helium. [25] The term "superfluid quasicrystal" sounds like something a comic-book villain might use to carry out his dastardly plans. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[366] viXra:1904.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-02 04:00:00

About the Congruent Number

Authors: Hajime Mashima
Comments: 2 Pages.

The three sides of the right triangle are rational numbers, and those with natural numbers are congruent numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[365] viXra:1904.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 07:18:01

Contact Potential-Electricity//Контактный потенциал-Электричество

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 4 Pages.

The article presents a stable material structure that ensures the emergence of contact potential. A computer program is presented with which you can simulate this phenomenon and the flow of electric current.// В статье представлена стабильная материальная структура, которая обеспечивает возникновение контактного потенциала. Представлена компьютерная программа, с помощью которой можно смоделировать это явление и течение электрического тока.
Category: Classical Physics

[364] viXra:1904.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 07:30:19

Combining Genome Annotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

As genome sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, resulting in an exponential increase in data, the need for efficiency in predicting gene function is growing, as is the need to train the next generation of scientists in bioinformatics. [22] A biological switch that reliably turns protein expression on at will has been invented by University of Bath and Cardiff University scientists. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[363] viXra:1904.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 07:51:07

Off-Target Effects of CRISPR

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Since the CRISPR genome editing technology was invented in 2012, it has shown great promise to treat a number of intractable diseases. [23] As genome sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, resulting in an exponential increase in data, the need for efficiency in predicting gene function is growing, as is the need to train the next generation of scientists in bioinformatics. [22] A biological switch that reliably turns protein expression on at will has been invented by University of Bath and Cardiff University scientists. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[362] viXra:1904.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 08:23:26

Expanding Polynomials with Regular Polygons

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 7 Pages.

Expanding the root form of a polynomial for large numbers of roots can be complicated. Such polynomials can be used to prove the irrationality of powers of pi, so a technique for arriving at expanded forms is needed. We show here how roots of polynomials can generate regular polygons whose vertices considered as roots form known expanded polynomials. The product of these polynomials can be simple enough to yield the desired expanded form.
Category: Geometry

[361] viXra:1904.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 08:24:02

Genome's Jumping Sequences

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

These jumping units are called "transposable elements" and their number is estimated at over 4.5 million in a single genome. [24] Since the CRISPR genome editing technology was invented in 2012, it has shown great promise to treat a number of intractable diseases. [23] As genome sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, resulting in an exponential increase in data, the need for efficiency in predicting gene function is growing, as is the need to train the next generation of scientists in bioinformatics. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[360] viXra:1904.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 08:56:31

Future of RNA Sequencing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[359] viXra:1904.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 09:31:14

Bioengineers Signal Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[358] viXra:1904.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 10:18:41

Unitary Quantum Groups vs Quantum Reflection Groups

Authors: Teo Banica
Comments: 26 Pages.

We study the intermediate liberation problem for the real and complex unitary and reflection groups, namely $O_N,U_N,H_N,K_N$. For any of these groups $G_N$, the problem is that of understanding the structure of the intermediate quantum groups $G_N\subset G_N^\times\subset G_N^+$, in terms of the recently introduced notions of ``soft'' and ``hard'' liberation. We solve here some of these questions, our key ingredient being the generation formula $H_N^{[\infty]}=$, coming via crossed product methods. Also, we conjecture the existence of a ``contravariant duality'' between the liberations of $H_N$ and of $U_N$, as a solution to the lack of a covariant duality between these liberations.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[357] viXra:1904.0413 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-18 06:57:09

Quantum Gravity Idea

Authors: Tomasz Kobierzycki
Comments: 20 Pages. Corrected mistakes with energy field tensor.

Quantum gravity is one of biggest puzzle in modern physics. Idea behind it is that spacetime has quantum nature. General Theory of Relativity is a classical theory but from theoretical point of view quantum physics must apply to gravity . In this paper i will present possible model that describes wave function as tensor field in curved spacetime. Idea is that Planck’s scale is fundamental and can’t be lower scale than it, it means that smallest unit of time is Planck’s time and so on, it means that energy can go to maximum of Planck’s energy and in Planck’s time there can’t be more than one vibration of field. It connects cyclic nature of waves in scalar part of tensor field with geometry of spacetime.That cyclic nature of spacetime leads to loops that are closed surface in space-time, it means that at inside of a black hole or any place where energy goes to Planck’s energy there are loops in spacetime where events repeat.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[356] viXra:1904.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 12:56:28

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory1

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

gravitation is because of electromagnetic waves in space the more the space expands the more the molecules start to get separated and the more electromagnetic waves are produced and whenever a molecule in some mass is separated electromagnetic waves push the masses toward each other the reason for electrostatics is because the protons and electrons are aligned so that no proton come near a proton and no electron near an electron so that maximum amount of space is passed through at any moment
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[355] viXra:1904.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 15:12:46

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory2

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

the universe has been hot for a long time after the big bang ans the heat produced afflicted masses in the universe with heat when the heat is cooled down from a mass the mass ends having extra space inside and as the heat produced as electromagnetic waves push two masses inwards due to them searching for extra space gravity happens
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[354] viXra:1904.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 15:17:55

Fermat Equation for Hypercomplex Numbers

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 3 Pages.

We consider generalized Fermat equation for hypercomplex numbers, in order to stimulate research and development of those generalization
Category: Number Theory

[353] viXra:1904.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 19:52:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Reinterpreting Why Volatile Compounds are Mostly Missing From the Inner Planets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is claimed by researchers that when the solar nebula formed, it drove out large amounts of volatile compounds from the inner planets. Some corrections are made with direct quotes in light of the general theory. Quotes are taken from John M. Wallace, Peter V. Hobbs, in Atmospheric Science (Second Edition), 2006, 2.5.1 Formation and Evolution of the Earth System.
Category: Astrophysics

[352] viXra:1904.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 00:32:30

What Was Division by Zero?; Division by Zero Calculus and New World

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 73 Pages. Please kindly give me suggestions and comments to the paper.

In this survey paper, we will introduce the importance of the division by zero and its great impact to elementary mathematics and mathematical sciences for some general people. For this purpose, we will give its global viewpoint in a self-contained manner by using the related references.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[351] viXra:1904.0407 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-26 07:20:57

Proof that the Ether Exists and that the Speed of Light is Anisotropic

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 5 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson Morley interferometer experiment in 1887 has been widely regarded as proof that the aether does not exist, and that Relativity’s assertion that the speed of light is isotropic is all reference frames is the correct model. However, a number of experiments have detected anisotropy in the speed of light by exploiting the effect known as Fresnel Dragging to reveal the different travel times by light in each direction between two points.
Category: Astrophysics

[350] viXra:1904.0406 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-21 00:12:26

Why Copenhagen Interpretation is Wrong.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 16 Pages. GOD DOES NOT PLAY DICE.

PILOT WAVES FROM THE SPACE ITSELF.
Category: Quantum Physics

[349] viXra:1904.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 08:15:10

Refutation of Type Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the subset equations for the basis of type theory. They are not tautologous. Therefore the basis of type theory is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[348] viXra:1904.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 09:11:52

Deep Learning Image Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23] In early 2018, with support from IBM Corporate Citizenship and the Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, IBM and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) embarked on a partnership aimed squarely at the need to better understand migration drivers and evidence-based policy guidance for a range of stakeholders. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[347] viXra:1904.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 09:30:09

Helpfulness of Machine Explanations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

To address this gap in the existing literature, a team of researchers at SRI International has created a human-AI image guessing game inspired by the popular game 20 Questions (20Q), which can be used to evaluate the helpfulness of machine explanations. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[346] viXra:1904.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 09:41:18

On Physics and Politics in the United States after World War II

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani
Comments: 7 Pages.

The atom bomb was used by the US as a wartime weapon. The detonation of this recent technology got the military to realize it as a remarkable asset and subsequently, supported hydrogen bombs. This transition which continued during the post-war peacetime period – encompassed noteworthy changes in relationship between the physics community and US politics. The cause for the transition is that government realized with the hydrogen bombs, which was also true for atomic bombs at the time, that they were inherently different from all previous weaponry and to accomplish a successful business for the military, a peaceful rapport with the physics community was necessitated. Further, government realized that the new weapons were practically unrestrained in regard to the destructive potential that they could inflict. This paper investigates the attitude of both the parties towards each other after the World War II. Physics gradually got taken more as resource - this necessitated more trust from physics community, which politicians worked to obtain as they sought to mitigate security concerns and the potential embarrassments in the wave of McCarthyism and Red Scare. While the concept of militaries benefiting from general advancements in technology and science is certainly not new, many physicists involved in the development of nuclear weapons argued that it marked uncharted territory in what lengths science should be applied to war; at least the US should not break any lines.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[345] viXra:1904.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-24 07:40:05

Explaining Magnetism by Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 27 Pages. copyright to writer .

In this paper , equations of Magnetism are rediscovered by using Special Relativity and Coulomb's law with different method and various cases are studied . Magnetic field near a current carrying conductor is redefined as ratio of relativistic electric field experienced by reference frame of a moving charge near the conductor to velocity of that reference frame with respect to the conductor. Mathematically, it is found that the existing formulas of magnetism given by Biot- Savart Law are valid only for normal velocities and completely fail for higher or microscopic velocities of moving charge. 'Fleming's Right/Left Hand Rules' can easily be explained by Relativity as just interaction between charges. Unlike existing idea, a magnet or current carrying conductor can exert some force even on charges at rest. Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor is nothing but ratio of approximate relativistic electric field to the velocity of reference frame. Lorentz force can be calculated as 'Just Electric Force' rather as 'Sum of Electric and Magnetic Force' by using Relativity. Magnetic force is just an electric force in Relativistic Electrodynamics that could not be explained by Classical Electrodynamics. The values of speed of light in vacuum and permittivity of free space are fundamental and permeability depends upon them given by formula µ = 1/εc^2. It is claimed that "As Maxwell's Equations are based upon existing equations of Magnetism which are only approximation for lower velocities and fail in higher velocities, they are likely to be useless now". It is suggested that, "As Magnetic Force is nothing but Electric Force in Relativistic Electrodynamics, the name of one of the four fundamental forces ; 'Electromagnetic Force' should be changed into just 'Electric Force'." It is claimed that radiations are just non-mechanical waves that can propagate at velocity of light and are not necessarily electromagnetic in nature. Moreover, the writer suggests that electromagnetic waves may not exist at all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[344] viXra:1904.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 10:44:39

Physical Activity Reduces Brain Aging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Incremental physical activity, even at light intensity, is associated with larger brain volume and healthy brain aging. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Mind Science

[343] viXra:1904.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 11:06:10

Computing a Well-Connected Midsurface

Authors: Yogesh H. Kulkarni, Anil D. Sahasrabudhe, Muknd S. Kale
Comments: 4 Pages.

Computer-aided Design (CAD) models of thin-walled parts such as sheet metal or plastics are often reduced dimensionally to their corresponding midsurfaces for quicker and fairly accurate results of Computer-aided Engineering (CAE) analysis. Generation of the midsurface is still a time-consuming and mostly, a manual task due to lack of robust and automated techniques. Midsurface failures manifest in the form of gaps, overlaps, not-lying-halfway, etc., which can take hours or even days to correct. Most of the existing techniques work on the complex final shape of the model forcing the usage of hard-coded heuristic rules, developed on a case-by-case basis. The research presented here proposes to address these problems by leveraging feature-parameters, made available by the modern feature-based CAD applications, and by effectively leveraging them for sub-processes such as simplification, abstraction and decomposition. In the proposed system, at first, features which are not part of the gross shape are removed from the input sheet metal feature-based CAD model. Features of the gross-shape model are then transformed into their corresponding generic feature equivalents, each having a profile and a guide curve. The abstracted model is then decomposed into non-overlapping cellular bodies. The cells are classified into midsurface-patch generating cells, called ‘solid cells’ and patch-connecting cells, called ‘interface cells’. In solid cells, midsurface patches are generated either by offset or by sweeping the midcurve generated from the owner-feature’s profile. Interface cells join all the midsurface patches incident upon them. Output midsurface is then validated for correctness. At the end, real-life parts are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.
Category: Geometry

[342] viXra:1904.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 11:02:57

Neural Network Read Scientific Papers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can do much the same thing, at least to a limited extent: It can read scientific papersand render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two. [26] To address this gap in the existing literature, a team of researchers at SRI International has created a human-AI image guessing game inspired by the popular game 20 Questions (20Q), which can be used to evaluate the helpfulness of machine explanations. [25]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[341] viXra:1904.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 11:32:24

Robots with Communication Skills

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology have recently proposed a neurorobotics approach that could aid the development of robots with advanced communication capabilities. [27] Now, a team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can do much the same thing, at least to a limited extent: It can read scientific papersand render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[340] viXra:1904.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 11:36:55

On the Essence of the Structure of Material Structures from Centrally Symmetric Fields//О сути строения материальных структур из центрально-симметричных полей

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article presents the beginnings of the idea of building stable material structures from centrally symmetrical fields. The author uses the main achievements of classical physics. The main goal is to build a stable material structure and a reasonable explanation of the mechanism of physical phenomena.// В статье представлены истоки идеи построения устойчивых материальных структур из центрально-симметричных полей. Автор использует основные достижения классической физики. Главной целью есть построение стабильной материальной структуры и разумное объяснение механизма физических явлений.
Category: Classical Physics

[339] viXra:1904.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 11:59:43

Improving Triangulation Accuracy in High-Velocity Systems

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 8 Pages.

Wireless tracking and triangulation approaches have existed for many decades, but the last decade has seen much more focus on efficiency and accuracy of triangulation which has translated into the use of fewer sensors and more efficient algorithms. In the case of tracking high-velocity objects, there is a necessity for accuracy as the error in a tracking system can accumulate quickly and a lock on the object can be lost and never recovered. In the following paper, we will discuss a method of tracking that uses the motion of an object as an advantage in tracking it, with a higher-velocity object providing more data points to allow for more accurate tracking.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[338] viXra:1904.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 18:26:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if masses and nonexistence are splitting the universe into two then half for existence and half for nonexistence and if so then the amount of electromagnetic waves is huge and its what is used to form the rest of existence or masses
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[337] viXra:1904.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 19:04:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

masses move in space because they need to cover a volume of half the universe and they expand in the universe because there is more volume out there and the mass cannot help but discover more because of its inertia so it spins and then expands in the universe
Category: Astrophysics

[336] viXra:1904.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 04:01:46

Etymology of the Russian words HEATS, FIRE

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

The inexplicable fires in California and in France as terrible harbingers of the Apocalypse necessarily direct at reflections about an origin and value of the word FIRE.
Category: Linguistics

[335] viXra:1904.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-25 19:43:04

The Free Photon Wave Function's Gauge-Invariant, Lorentz-Covariant Antisymmetric-Tensor Form

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 3 Pages.

If a free photon's wave function is taken to be a four-vector function of its space-time coordinates that has vanishing four-divergence (the Lorentz condition), it isn't uniquely determined by the free-photon Schroedinger equation. This gauge indeterminacy can be eliminated by taking that wave function to be a three-vector function of its space-time coordinates -- at the expense of its Lorentz-covariant form. These conflicts are resolved by taking a free photon's wave function to be an antisymmetric-tensor function of its space-time coordinates which has vanishing four-divergence and also satisfies the Lorentz-covariant cyclic Gauss-Faraday equation that is satisfied by all antisymmetric-tensor real-valued electromagnetic fields. It is shown that for every source-free antisymmetric-tensor real-valued electromagnetic field, there exists a corresponding free-photon antisymmetric-tensor complex-valued wave function.
Category: Quantum Physics

[334] viXra:1904.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 08:50:17

About Matter Fundamentally//О материи Фундаментально

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article describes the essence of matter and energy at the most fundamental level. Fundamental physical phenomena are presented. They are the basis of phenomena and influences in complex material structures.// В статье описывается сущность материи и энергии на самом фундаментальном уровне. Представлены фундаментальные физические явления. Они являются основой явлений и воздействий в сложных материальных структурах.
Category: Classical Physics

[333] viXra:1904.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 03:52:42

The Mathematics of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 180 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Classical Physics

[332] viXra:1904.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 10:27:58

Why Earth moves Daily A Distance = The Moon Orbit Circumference?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 19 Pages.

I have tried frequently to solve this question why Earth daily motion distance = the moon orbit circumference …..let's try here one more time… -Earth and Moon move by equal velocities - Otherwise they should be separated from Each other- if the situation is such so the moon should be seen as a bright stationary point in the Earth Sky …and No changes the moon will show …. But this is Unreal….why? let's try to analyze the actual data…. -We have 2 equal distances – Earth Daily Motion Distance (d) and the moon Orbit Circumference (C ) now d = C …Note Please d is almost a straight line trajectory but C is a curved one (Circumference)… ! How that can be occurred..? -It's Einstein experiment… he had left the rock to be dropped from the moving train – and he had seen the rock falling trajectory as a straight line but this same trajectory is seen by People standing on the train platform as a curved trajectory…. We have a similar case here… we see the Earth Motion Distance as a straight line Trajectory but the moon Circumference as a curved one… What conclusion we may reach here? -We move with Earth by the same velocity (So Earth is Static for Us) but there's some difference in velocities between Earth and moon motions which causes the straight trajectory to be seen as a curved one..…easy idea but unacceptable! Why? Because …… if there's a difference in Earth and Moon velocities that will cause the separation between each other…! they aren't separated ..so No difference in Velocity …and No straight trajectory will be seen as a curved one There's one solution for this dilemma…. -Earth and Moon Velocities difference is found in some stage in their motions course and this difference will cause the straight line trajectory to be a curved one and then this difference is compensated later to enable the moon to reach to the Earth and prevent their separation… How this idea can work really? let's see that as deeply as possible… -I have suggested that there are relativistic effects in the solar group – where the length contraction phenomenon causes the rate 1.0725…. Let's tell the story in following… -Earth Daily motion = 2.58 mkm …. Moon Should move by this distance also -Moon Daily motion = 2.58 mkm but because there are relativistic effects between The Earth and Moon so … 2.58 mkm = 1.0725 x 2.41 mkm -That means ..The Moon Daily motion in fact 2.41 mkm … now there's a difference in velocities between Earth and Moon Motions which causes the straight line trajectory to be seen as a curved one… -The required distance 0.17 mkm is provided by Mars Effect On The Moon Motion Trajectory- which enable the Moon to reach to Earth Again and prevent their separation… -Mars Effect on the Moon Motion explain the Harmony between Mars and the Moon Data which we have noticed before. But -The relativistic effects cause geometrical effects and rules to control the solar group motions…. That means.. -The geometrical rules to which I have referred in the abstract in addition to many other geometrical rules all of them are found for geometrical necessity created by the relativistic effects… which causes a great extension for Special Theory of Relativity and provide many new fields for astrophysics research..
Category: Astrophysics

[331] viXra:1904.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 11:38:30

Meaning of Irrational Numbers

Authors: Divyendu Priyadarshi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this short paper, I have tried to give a physical meaning to irrational numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[330] viXra:1904.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 12:16:13

Refutation of logic first order team (FOT)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate a definition equation as not tautologous, hence refuting first order team (FOT) logics. Therefore FOT is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[329] viXra:1904.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 13:11:46

Ropes Waves in Space

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

shake a rope in space and notice how it produces no heat because there are no particles in space to produce sound waves
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[328] viXra:1904.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 14:56:28

Change Constant of Gravity When Mass is the Fifth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and transformation of gravity constant between them.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[327] viXra:1904.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 18:08:39

Unified Field Theory0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in a previous paper called uniform field theory we have shown what happened to masses in space now its time to show how the masses interact with each other without the notion of spacetime now its all about electromagnetic waves electromagnetic waves produced by all masses push existing electromagnetic waves in space and so the mass moves in space because electromagnetic waves has a charge
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[326] viXra:1904.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 19:31:31

Mr. Y

Authors: Toshichan-Man
Comments: 15 Pages.

------ A 22-year-old man with a social anxiety disorder who has left a picture of three cats ------ A 22-year-old man suffering from social anxiety disorder jumped down from the eighth floor of the apartment and committed suicide. Social anxiety disorder in a case (hereinafter referred to as Y) is estimated to be onset at the age of 12 years. Y's only hobby is drawing pictures, and for Y, his home cat was his only friend. And there are 3 pictures of cats left behind. Y was deeply moved by Tsurumi's work, and one of them, "The Complete Personality Remodeling Manual," states that "Drinkling alcohol little by little while going out. The content of "can be changed" was hidden and executed because I was very troubled by social anxiety disorder. Alcohol consumption gradually increased, and one day, Y jumped and committed suicide in an alcoholic drunk state suffering from a social anxiety disorder that did not show a tendency to decrease.
Category: Mind Science

[325] viXra:1904.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 20:00:44

Integral Seno Por Coseno Que Tiene Como Solución un Determinado Número de Fibonacci

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 2 Pages.

Integral seno por coseno que tiene como solución un determinado número de Fibonacci. La fórmula sirve tanto para hallar integrales de línea de funciones tipo x*y sobre trayectorias curvas si queremos que tenga como solución un número de Fibonacci. Como para integrales de campos vectoriales como un campo de fuerzas en trayectorias curvas.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[324] viXra:1904.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 21:33:45

Riemann Zeta Function Nine Propositions

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 27 Pages.

The Riemann Zeta function or Euler–Riemann Zeta function, ζ(s), is a function of a complex variable z that analytically continues the sum of the Dirichlet series: () = ∑ ^(-z) from k=1,∞ The Riemann zeta function is a meromorphic function on the whole complex z-plane, which is holomorphic everywhere except for a simple pole at z = 1 with residue 1. One of the most important advance in the study of Prime numbers was the paper by Bernhard Riemann in November 1859 called “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (On the number of primes less than a given quantity). In this paper, Riemann gave a formula for the number of primes less than x in terms the integral of 1/log(x), and also provided insights into the roots (zeros) of the zeta function, formulating a conjecture about the location of the zeros of () in the critical line Re(z)=1/2. The Riemann Zeta function is one of the most studied and well known mathematical functions in history. In this paper, we will formulate nine new propositions to advance in the knowledge of the Riemann Zeta function
Category: Number Theory

[323] viXra:1904.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 02:42:38

Nature Works the Way Number Works

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 32 Pages.

Based on Euler ’s formula a concept of duality unit or dunit circle is discovered. Continuing with Riemann hypothesis is proved from different angles, zeta values are renormalised to remove the poles of zeta function and discover relationships between numbers and primes. Other unsolved prime conjectures are also proved with the help of theorems of numbers and number theory. Imaginary number i can be defined such a way that it eases the complex logarithm and accounts for the scale difference between very big and very small. Pi can also be a base to natural logarithm and complement the scale gap. 96 complex constants derived from complex logarithm can explain everything in the universe.
Category: Number Theory

[322] viXra:1904.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 03:17:11

Thermodynamic Magic Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system-meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[321] viXra:1904.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 04:11:50

Dipolar Quantum Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Atomic systems that behave very much like supersolids have been created independently by teams of physicists in Italy, Germany have Austria. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[320] viXra:1904.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 04:43:36

RNA Chloroplast-to-Nucleus Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Now, Salk Institute researchers have found that GUN1-a gene that integrates numerous chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathways-also plays an important role in how proteins are made in damaged chloroplasts, which provides a new insight into how plants respond to stress. [25] An LMU team has improved both the sensitivity and efficiency of a popular method for single-cell RNA sequencing, which yields a molecular fingerprint for individual cells based on their patterns of gene activity. [24] The goal is to find bits of DNA in common between the known relatives and the unidentified remains, suggesting both belong to a particular lineage. One analysis develops a profile that combines what's found at 23 spots in the DNA, for example. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[319] viXra:1904.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 05:04:32

Neutrons Track Lithium Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Virginia School of Engineering are employing neutron-imaging techniques at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to probe lithium-ion batteries and obtain insights into the electrochemical characteristics of the batteries' materials and structures. [30] To provide the data necessary to improve these products, a team of engineers and scientists from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a new pinhole-based diffraction technique they call PIND. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[318] viXra:1904.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 05:21:30

Piezoelectric Crystals Performance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Australia has found that adding the rare-earth element samarium to piezoelectric crystals can dramatically improve their performance. [31] Researchers from the University of Virginia School of Engineering are employing neutron-imaging techniques at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to probe lithium-ion batteries and obtain insights into the electrochemical characteristics of the batteries' materials and structures. [30]
Category: Condensed Matter

[317] viXra:1904.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 07:25:21

Refutation of Huemer’s Confirmation Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

Huemer proposed a confirmation theory to solve the problem of induction. In lieu of the excess of content from Popper and Miller, the proposed replacement is also not tautologous, so we correct it for the intended use. That applied to the subsequent proposal in three parts shows one part is not tautologous, hence denying the proposal. Therefore Huemer’s confirmation theory is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[316] viXra:1904.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 07:23:24

Photoacoustic Computed Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a non-invasive hybrid imaging technique that excites biological tissues with light and detects the subsequently generated ultrasound to form images. [29] ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. [28] The discovery that protein therapeutics can hijack the HOPS complex to gain access to the cell interior should help scientists design therapeutic proteins to treat diseases that are not adequately treated using other approaches, Schepartz said. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important HYPERLINK "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0734-6" study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[315] viXra:1904.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 07:43:31

Revolutionise Internet Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of University of Otago/Dodd-Walls Centre scientists have created a novel device that could enable the next generation of faster, more energy efficient internet. [22] UCLA researchers and colleagues have designed a new device that creates electricity from falling snow. [21] Two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors are promising for quantum computing and future electronics. Now, researchers can convert metallic gold into semiconductor and customize the material atom-by-atom on boron nitride nanotubes. [20]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[314] viXra:1904.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 08:12:55

Maxwell's Demon at Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Now, researchers at the University of Barcelona have presented the first theoretical and experimental solution of a continuous version of Maxwell's demon in a single molecule system. [27] Lensless microscopy with X-rays, or coherent diffractive imaging, is a promising approach. It allows researchers to analyse complex three-dimensional structures, which frequently exist in nature, from a dynamic perspective. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[313] viXra:1904.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 08:26:57

Refutation of Parikh’s Axiomatization of Game Logic G and Completeness of Logic System Par

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

Three equations of Parikh’s axiomatization of game logic G are not tautologous. Hence, the extended logic system Par is refuted, and Parikh’s completeness conjecture is also refuted. Therefore these artifacts are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[312] viXra:1904.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 08:48:29

Dark Matter at Large Hadron Collider

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Now that they've identified the Higgs boson, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have set their sights on an even more elusive target. [44] A team of researchers in the Republic of Korea, the U.S., Brazil, Indonesia and the U.K. have recently carried out a direct search for inelastic boosted dark matter (IBDM) using a terrestrial detector. [33] After watching YouTube videos of people supercooling water in a bottle and then triggering it to freeze by banging it, something about this concept solidified for Matthew M. Szydagis, an assistant professor of physics at the University at Albany, State University at New York, especially when he saw it again during the Disney movie "Frozen." [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[311] viXra:1904.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 08:52:44

A Brief Analysis of the Research Scheme of the Cyclotron Radiation from a Single Electron

Authors: DING Jian
Comments: 16 Pages.

The experiments of Project 8 have been excellent, but the expected goals still difficult to achieve. So much so that some of the results at your fingertips were also missing. In view of this, the focus of this article is to clarify several easy confused concepts. Only in this way, we can reasonably explain the experimental data. The main points are as follows: 1. The value c of the light speed in vacuum and a particle with zero static mass, both of which do not exist in the reality. That is to say, the so-called a photon's static mass is equal to zero but has energy, which is a paradox that confuses two different definitional domains. 2. In the reality, photons are high-speed particles generated by electromagnetic radiation. They must have the characteristics of (static) mass, energy and wave, in order to describe the main body to aim at photons from different angles. 3. After any main body comes into being electromagnetic radiation, its static mass will inevitably decrease according ly. 4. The charge-mass ratio of an electron is a physical constant, which is the ratio of its charge to the amount of matter, and is not affected by relativistic effects and electromagnetic radiation. 5. The uncertainty of moving electrons is caused by random electromagnetic radiations. Finally, it is pointed out that if the cyclotron frequency of a single electron is measured, and at the same time, its de Broglie wavelength or frequency can also be measured, then its static mass can be obtained. Even so, the expected goals are still difficult to achieve, because random electromagnetic radiations are always taking away continually the matter composition of the single electron being measured. However, this was precisely a result of the research obtained by Project 8, and had universality, which should be reflect on.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[310] viXra:1904.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 09:13:14

Room-Temperature Polar Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

An international team of researchers has discovered a way to create and observe room-temperature polar skyrmions. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[309] viXra:1904.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 11:03:15

The Law of the Dynamics of Self-Acting Movement // Закон динамики самодейственного движения

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article shows that the law of conservation of energy does not exist. Evidence of this can be significantly different particles, for example, a proton and a neutron. These different particles accelerate each other in different ways.// В статье показано, что закон сохранения энергии не существует. Свидетельством тому могут быть существенно разные частицы, например, протон и нейтрон. Эти различные частицы ускоряют друг друга по-разному.
Category: Classical Physics

[308] viXra:1904.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 13:19:38

Surprising Integral Definition of the Number e

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 2 Pages. MSC2010: 58C05

A new definition of the number e is presented by the integral of a function that involves an infinite product of nested radicals whose indexes form the sequence 1, 2, 3, ... ____________________________________________________________________
Category: Functions and Analysis

[307] viXra:1904.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 15:46:35

The Ricci Flow for Connections

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We define a natural Ricci flow for connections over a Riemannian manifold.
Category: Geometry

[306] viXra:1904.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 18:11:07

Electrons Pressure Heat Effect

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electrons can get cooled down indefinitely by doing pressure on it the more you do pressure thr more the electrons start to emit heat energy and that effect is forever
Category: Condensed Matter

[305] viXra:1904.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 18:28:12

Complex Nonlinear Optics of Noncentrosymmetric Matter: Extended SBHM Model for Theoretical Describing of Nonlinear High-Order Harmonic Light Matter Interaction of Surfaces

Authors: Peter Krampl
Comments: 15 Pages.

In dieser Arbeit wird ein verbessertes Simplified bond- hyperpolarizability model vorgestellt, welche bislang nur experimentell und theoretisch angenähert zugänglich sind. Die bislang daraus resultierenden Oberflächenspektren durch nichtlineare Materialanregung sind zu ungenau und deshalb ist eine verbesserte Modellbildung notwendig um die Oberflächenspektren exakt zu bestimmen und von den Schnittstellensignalen und Bulksignalen exakt separieren zu können. Dazu wird ein leistungsfähigeres mikroskopisch physikalisches und mathematisches Modellbild zur Beschreibung der SHG Oberflächensignale gezeigt, welche auf Standard phänomenologischer Verfahren entwickelter Tensor bzw. Fourier Korrektur- Koeffizienten beruht. Dieses Modellbild liefert erstmals analytische Lösungen für die reinen nichtlinearen Emissionsfelder, welche zur exakten Vorhersage des SHG responses besispielhaft gezeigt an (111) Si- SiO2 Schnittstellen, welche durch Vergleich mit den bisherigen Daten von Aspnes et. al. verifiziert wurden. Mit diesen analytischen Ausdrücken konnten darüberhinaus die nichtlineare Emission (Intensität) von rotierenden Kristallen beschrieben werden. Die entwickelten mathematischen Ausdrücke ermöglichen es nichtlineare Systeme, welche auf Dipol-, Quadrupol- Octapol-… -Näherungen beruhen unabhängig ihrer bislang nicht separierbaren linearen Feldanteile rein nichtlinear zu lösen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen in Anlehnung an die experimentell gewonnenen nichtlinearen SBHM Spektren, dass vollständige Phasenanpassung die unabdingbare zentrale Voraussetzung für nichtlineare Feldpropagation in kondensierter Materie ist. Der Erfolg dieser verbesserten Formulierung impliziert die verbesserte Beschreibung von SHG ohne die Einfachheit des Ausgangsmodells unnötig zu verkomplizieren. Damit ist es möglich SHG Spektren simulationstechnisch zugänglich zu machen und zuverlässige Vorhersagen von SHG Antworten und darüberhinaus noch höherer Harmonischer und Subharmonischer bzw. Ultraharmonischer gerader Ordnung für Oberflächen und Schnittstellen beliebiger Stoffklassen zu machen.
Category: Condensed Matter

[304] viXra:1904.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 02:17:23

Triplet Superconductivity Demonstrated

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers in France and Japan have demonstrated a theoretical type of unconventional superconductivity in a uranium-based material, according to a study published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only two-fold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[303] viXra:1904.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 02:39:22

Quantum Simulations on Larger Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Through randomly selected measurements, Austrian physicists can now determine the quantum entanglement of many-particle systems. [36] In a recent study published in Nature Physics, a team of researchers at Max Planck Institute Dresden, Heidelberg University, University of Cologne, and DESY-Hamburg attempted to image a material's active orbitals directly in real space, without any modeling. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[302] viXra:1904.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 02:59:16

Charm Quarks at CEBAF

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

The world's most advanced particle accelerator for investigating the quark structure of the atom's nucleus has just charmed physicists with a new capability. [47] Bob Zwaska, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermilab, was watching a contestant on the cooking show Chopped spin sugar for their dessert when he realized the same principle might be applicable to accelerator targets. [46] Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[301] viXra:1904.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 03:16:50

Protons Spin Flipper

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

Protons spin. It's an intrinsic property that can affect experiments at accelerators that use beams of protons. [48] The world's most advanced particle accelerator for investigating the quark structure of the atom's nucleus has just charmed physicists with a new capability. [47] Bob Zwaska, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermilab, was watching a contestant on the cooking show Chopped spin sugar for their dessert when he realized the same principle might be applicable to accelerator targets. [46] Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[300] viXra:1904.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 03:37:34

Energy Flow in Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Whether studying the core of our sun or the inside of a fusion reactor, scientists need to determine how energy flows in plasma. Scientists use simulations to calculate the flow. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[299] viXra:1904.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 07:37:55

Numerical Solution of Master Equation Corresponding to Schumann Waves

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Following a hypothesis by Marciak-Kozlowska, 2011, we consider one dimensional Schumann wave transfer phenomena. Numerical solution of that equation was obtained by the help of Mathematica.
Category: Geophysics

[298] viXra:1904.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 07:39:46

Remark on Possible Use of Quadruple Neutrosophic Numbers for Realistic Modelling of Physical Systems

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Axioms journal (MDPI). Comments are welcome

During mathematical modeling of real technical system we can meet any type and rate model uncertainty. Its reasons can be incognizance of modelers or data inaccuracy. So, classification of uncertainties, with respect to their sources, distinguishes between aleatory and epistemic ones. The aleatory uncertainty is an inherent data variation associated with the investigated system or its environment. Epistemic one is an uncertainty that is due to a lack of knowledge of quantities or processes of the system or the environment. In this short communication, we discuss quadruple neutrosophic numbers and their potential application for realistic modelling of physical systems, especially in the reliability assessment of engineering structures.
Category: Statistics

[297] viXra:1904.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 10:59:22

Mass Defect the Mechanism of the Phenomenon // Дефект массы механизм явления

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 9 Pages.

On the topic the defect of mass, can create many fabrications. Here excogitations are limited to a minimum. Here is a mechanism that clarifies the essence of the phenomenon, which physicists call a defect of mass.// На тему дефекта массы можно создавать много измышлений. Здесь измышления ограничены до минимума. Здесь представляется механизм, который выясняет суть явления, которое физики называют дефектом массы.
Category: Classical Physics

[296] viXra:1904.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 11:48:26

Imaging Orbitals in Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

In a recent study published in Nature Physics, a team of researchers at Max Planck Institute Dresden, Heidelberg University, University of Cologne, and DESY-Hamburg attempted to image a material's active orbitals directly in real space, without any modeling. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[295] viXra:1904.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 12:23:48

Stoe Explains ``planet 9''

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 2 Pages.

Planet 9 is a hypothetical mass in the Kuiper Belt that causes the trans--Neptunian bodies to have unexplained orbits. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests the rotation curve anomalies of spiral galaxies, the Pioneer Anomaly, and the hypothetical Planet 9 phenomena are linked by a common cause, another application of the STOE Universal Equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1904.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 13:05:50

World-Record Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A world-record result in reducing errors in semiconductor 'spin qubits', a type of building block for quantum computers, has been achieved using the theoretical work of quantum physicists at the University of Sydney Nano Institute and School of Physics. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[293] viXra:1904.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 13:30:58

H. e. Kondakci, A.f. Abouraddy. Optical Space-Time Wave Packets Having Arbitrary Group Velocities in Free Space (In Russian)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 13 Pages. in Russian

Controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse typically requires traversing a material or structure whose dispersion is judiciously crafted. Alternatively, the group velocity can be modified in free space by spatially structuring the beam profile, but the realizable deviation from the speed of light in vacuum is small. Here we demonstrate precise and versatile control over the group velocity of a propagation-invariant optical wave packet in free space through sculpting its spatio-temporal spectrum. By jointly modulating the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, arbitrary group velocities are unambiguously observed in free space above or below the speed of light in vacuum, whether in the forward direction propagating away from the source or even traveling backwards towards it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[292] viXra:1904.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 13:30:11

Increase Reliability of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new technique by researchers at Princeton University, University of Chicago and IBM significantly improves the reliability of quantum computers by harnessing data about the noisiness of operations on real hardware. [33] A world-record result in reducing errors in semiconductor 'spin qubits', a type of building block for quantum computers, has been achieved using the theoretical work of quantum physicists at the University of Sydney Nano Institute and School of Physics. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[291] viXra:1904.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 14:26:12

Completeness in Physics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here it is intended to raise some questions surrounding the whole notion of completeness in physics. This does, of course, have bearing on issues raised by the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[290] viXra:1904.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-07 19:42:51

Derivation of All Linear Transformations that Meet the Results of Michelson-Morley’s Experiment and Discussion of the Relativity Basics

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 33 Pages. This article presents formal proof that STR is a wrong theory.

The paper presents a formal proof that the mathematics on which the Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is based is currently misinterpreted. The evidence is based on an analysis of the importance of parameter e(v). Understanding the meaning of this parameter was achieved by analyzing the general form of transformation, for which the Lorentz transformation is only a special case. If e(v) ≠ 0 then the clocks in inertial systems are desynchronized. Measurements, e.g. one-way speed, using such clocks do not give real values.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[289] viXra:1904.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 23:26:26

Einstein’s Notational Equation of Electro-Magnetic Field Equation in Rindler Spacetime

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Einstein’s notational equation of the electro-magnetic field equation and the electro-magnetic field in Rindler space-time. Because, electromagnetic fields of the accelerated frame include in general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[288] viXra:1904.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 01:21:20

AI for Fusion Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science that is transforming scientific inquiry and industry, could now speed the development of safe, clean and virtually limitless fusion energy for generating electricity. [32] Using machine-learning and an integrated photonic chip, researchers from INRS (Canada) and the University of Sussex (UK) can now customize the properties of broadband light sources. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/intelligence/" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[287] viXra:1904.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 01:40:01

Machine Learning Microcapsules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Micro-encapsulated CO2 sorbents (MECS)-tiny, reusable capsules full of a sodium carbonate solution that can absorb carbon dioxide from the air-are a promising technology for capturing carbon from the atmosphere. [33] Artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science that is transforming scientific inquiry and industry, could now speed the development of safe, clean and virtually limitless fusion energy for generating electricity. [32] Using machine-learning and an integrated photonic chip, researchers from INRS (Canada) and the University of Sussex (UK) can now customize the properties of broadband light sources. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/intelligence/" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[286] viXra:1904.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 03:53:13

The Theorems of Rao--Blackwell and Lehmann--Scheffe, Revisited

Authors: Hazhir Homei
Comments: 5 Pages.

It has been stated in the literature that for finding uniformly minimum-variance unbiased estimator through the theorems of Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe, the sufficient statistic should be complete; otherwise the discussion and the way of finding uniformly minimum-variance unbiased estimator should be changed, since the sufficiency assumption in the Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe theorems limits its applicability. So, it seems that the sufficiency assumptions should be expressed in a way that the uniformly minimum-variance unbiased estimator be derivable via the Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe theorems.
Category: Statistics

[285] viXra:1904.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 04:30:58

Redefining the Electron (Part 3): The Implications for EMR and Gravity

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 30 pages. Concluding paper of 3. Links to other 2 introductory papers are provided in the abstract of this paper. Email address provided for feedback.

The Spin Torus Energy Model (STEM) was introduced in Part 1 of the ‘Redefining the Electron’ series to define the structure of electrons and positrons so as to explain the nature of electric and magnetic fields, electric current generation from battery and induction sources, capacitor charge and discharge, and superconductivity. STEM was extended in Part 2 to define a structure Preons, quarks and nucleons and to explore the nuclear structure of atoms. The atomic model developed provides explanations for the physical characteristics and different allotropic forms of elements in the Periodic Table, their various bonding geometries, and for electron capture and beta decay. This is the third and final paper which provides a STEM explanation for the particle-wave nature of EMR, spectral line emission and absorption, the photo-electric effect, the Compton effect, P-N semiconductors, electron pair generation and annihilation, plasma, cosmic radiation and Gravity. Part 3 also provides a summary of physics and chemistry related phenomena addressed by STEM in parts 1 to 3 plus an appendix that addresses the special nature of micro and radio waves.
Category: Classical Physics

[284] viXra:1904.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 07:31:44

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances: Mathematical Equation

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to provide a mathematical equation for my new discovery . Link to my new discovery : http://vixra.org/abs/1904.0013
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[283] viXra:1904.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 10:03:58

Discovery of the Fundamental Particle and Theory of the Universal Temporality

Authors: Marc J. Meurens
Comments: 9 Pages.

The fundamental particle is the elementary particle of which the active mass corresponds to the fundamental quantum of action and to the fundamental time unit equal to the number 1. The universal temporality is the relation between the unit, the course and the duration of the Universe expansion time. The identification of the fundamental particle in the Planck’s constant and its integration in the Newton’s constant reveal that its interaction simultaneously causes the expansion and the gravitation. The mechanical modelling of this primordial interaction with the Newton’s cradle completes the general relativity with the cosmological relativity and the quantum mechanics with the primordial mechanics. In relating the notions of mass, space and time, the discovery of the fundamental particle and its primordial interaction links the mechanics with the relativity. In relating the unit, the course and the duration of the universal time, the theory of the universal temporality demystifies the black energy as well as the black matter. The spectral time signature is the gravitation weakening hidden behind the expansion acceleration in the spectrum of the universal temporality. The Moon distancing measured since 50 years in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment is a spectral time signature which allows calculate the Universe age with the Newton’s constant more easily and precisely than with the Hubble’s constant. Together the theory of the universal temporality and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment unveil the time nature and demonstrates that in its unit, its course and its duration the universal time is an energy ratio between the Universe and the fundamental particle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[282] viXra:1904.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 10:25:21

Neutrino Mass, Electroweak Coupling Constant and Weak Mixing Angle

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 5 Pages, including 1 table

A formula for the magnetic moment of a massive Dirac neutrino was deduced in the context of electroweak interactions at the one-loop level in 1977. A linear dependence on the neutrino mass was found. Alternatively, a magnetic moment for a massive neutrino arising from gravitational origin is predicted by the so-called Wilson-Blackett law. Both formulas for the magnetic moment can be combined, yielding a value of 1.530 meV for the lightest neutrino mass m1.

The remaining neutrino masses can then be calculated from recent neutrino oscillation experiments. The results are remarkable. First, the so-called geometric mean mass relation between the three neutrino masses m1, m2 and m3 is in good agreement with our results. Moreover, the empirical ratio of m3 to m1 is close to 33. This result suggests a value of 32 for the reciprocal value of the electroweak coupling constant αW at low energy. The latter value for αW implies an electroweak mixing angle, in reasonable agreement with the value calculated from atomic parity violation experiments on cesium. The obtained result deviates, however, from the weak mixing angle deduced from the standard model.


Category: Quantum Physics

[281] viXra:1904.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 10:22:17

A Special Geometry - and its Consequences

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is explained why the geometry of space-time, first found by Rainich, is generally valid. The equations of this geometry, the known Einstein-Maxwell equations, are discussed, and results are listed. We shall see how these tensor equations can be solved. As well, neutrosophics is more supported than dialectics. We shall find even more categories than described in neutrosophics.
Category: Geometry

[280] viXra:1904.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 11:03:20

Biosynthetic Dual-Core Cell Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. [28] The discovery that protein therapeutics can hijack the HOPS complex to gain access to the cell interior should help scientists design therapeutic proteins to treat diseases that are not adequately treated using other approaches, Schepartz said. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important HYPERLINK "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0734-6" study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[279] viXra:1904.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 11:44:40

Network Software Advance Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

High-performance computing (HPC)-the use of supercomputers and parallel processing techniques to solve large computational problems-is of great use in the scientific community. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[278] viXra:1904.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 11:59:07

Attractions of the Sun and the Moon on The Earth

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. In French.

This note gives the elements on the attraction of the sun and the moon. It was inspired by the reading of the book by Helmut Moritz and Ivan I. Muller entitled Earth Rotation: Theory and Observation which can be a tidal introductory course. \\ It includes the following chapters: - The lunar-solar tidal potential. - Zonal, sectoral and tesseral terms
Category: Geophysics

[277] viXra:1904.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 12:45:12

The Unprecedented Decade

Authors: HG Haleswood
Comments: 12 Pages.

In response to various reports of ongoing crises throughout the world, this essay has been written with the aim of proposing a radical transition in the way the world currently operates. Through general observation, the case presented below posits that human labour is insufficient to provide the means of modern lifestyles, and that current economic systems are incompatible with a sustainable and decent human lifestyle due to this insufficient productivity. To compensate, mechanised labour has been produced and implemented to offset this insufficiency, but at the cost of the environment and a growing human insolvency. To avoid economic and ecological disaster, this essay posits that human labour must be abandoned and replaced by sustainably powered and automated labour worldwide, simultaneously fulfilling the various global demands freely and obsoleting emissions-intensive mechanised labour. Doing so would eliminate economic contentions that prevent many from attaining a decent quality of life while also addressing the issue of heavily polluting industries.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[276] viXra:1904.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 13:09:17

Electricity from Snowfall

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

UCLA researchers and colleagues have designed a new device that creates electricity from falling snow. [21] Two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors are promising for quantum computing and future electronics. Now, researchers can convert metallic gold into semiconductor and customize the material atom-by-atom on boron nitride nanotubes. [20] U.S. Naval Research Laboratory scientists have developed and patented the fabrication of transparent, luminescent material they say could give smartphone and television screens flexible, stretchable, and shatterproof properties. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[275] viXra:1904.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 13:18:02

The Possibility of Physical Waves as the Basis of Wave Mechanics

Authors: David M. Gilliam
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new possibility is presented for the development of an alternative picture of wave mechanics, based on physical waves. In this approach, it is postulated that particles emit physical waves that play a role in the mediation of interactions with other particles. Doppler-shifted echoes of these postulated waves are shown to give a new explanation for Bragg scattering with the apparent wavelength h/p, the de Broglie wavelength. The issue of conservation of mass-energy is discussed. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[274] viXra:1904.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-17 10:37:51

On Memory

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 2 Pages.

I explain what Memory is, how it can be used and the difference between conscious memory and unconscious memory. I give examples of tools on how to bring unconscious memories into conscious perception. I show how one can consciously use tools to create a memory. Memory is the human ability to access a storehouse of knowledge, because the body records everything automatically, on just needs to know how to access all this data.
Category: Mind Science

[273] viXra:1904.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 13:33:08

Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A team of researchers in the Republic of Korea, the U.S., Brazil, Indonesia and the U.K. have recently carried out a direct search for inelastic boosted dark matter (IBDM) using a terrestrial detector. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[272] viXra:1904.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 13:49:50

Super Cold Graphene Foam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from Nankai University in China and Rice University in the U.S. has developed a type of foam that retains its squishiness when exposed to extremely cold temperatures. [45] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) discovered a new method to passivate defects in next generation optical materials to improve optical quality and enable the miniaturization of light emitting diodes and other optical elements. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[271] viXra:1904.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-13 11:09:47

Time and Continuum: Zenon Manifold

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 31 Pages. Comments welcome.

Ensuing from first principles, I suggest pre-geometric theory of spacetime, in which the apex of light cone ‘here and now’ is not modeled with dimensionless point, but with non-trivial mathematical object along null intervals, endowed with brand new structure, topology and dynamics, and defined on so-called Zenon manifold. To that end, I offer proposals relevant to Mathematics and mathematical physics, a new model of spacetime (pp. 10-12), my opinion of gravitational radiation (pp. 13-15), and speculations about spacetime engineering (pp. 16-31).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[270] viXra:1904.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 15:28:51

The Fifth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and find the mass limit for any body is moves
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[269] viXra:1904.0313 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-22 11:12:01

Determinism Theorem

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 7 Pages.

The modus operandi of Nature is established as cause and effect based on the Determinism Theorem, for all the events that compose it. The Determinism Principle is established on the basis of the Uncertainty Principle, and a complementation is made with derived Theorems and Principles that characterize Determinism. It is proven that all Artificial Intelligence is a Natural Intelligence and the ocurrence of the Linguistic Singularity Phenomenon.
Category: Classical Physics

[268] viXra:1904.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 17:41:49

Confirmation of the Collapse of the Buss Hierarchy of Bounded Arithmetics

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

Two seminal rules of inference evaluated as not tautologous. This means the following are also refuted: Buss’s hierarchy of bounded arithmetics does not entirely collapse; Takeuti’s argument implies P ≠ NP; and systems PV and PV−. What follows is that separation of bounded arithmetic using a consistency statement is not viable. Therefore the above are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[267] viXra:1904.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 22:13:42

Confirmation that Impossible Worlds Mean Nothing is Necessary there But Everything is Possible.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We confirm the definition that impossible worlds mean “nothing is necessary there but everything is possible”. The truth axiom as given is not tautologous, but rather the logical value of truthity. The rules of extensionality and monotonicity as given are not tautologous. When the definition of impossible worlds is combined with monotonicity + T + 4 that conjecture is also tautologous. Therefore the failed equations are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[266] viXra:1904.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 23:34:39

The CMB Energy Equivalence Principle : A Correlation to Planck and Cosmic Horizon Energy

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 6 Pages.

According to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and Wien's displacement law, the CMB's energy value is equivalent to that of the measured and determined neutrino energy. The resulting CMB/neutrino mass is used to determine a ratio by correlating the accelerative work of two forces which corresponds to the cosmic particle horizon and Planck length. Planck's constant is shown to be proportional to the cosmic particle horizon and the CMB mass/energy and the speed of light in vacuum. Planck's constant, the cosmic horizon, the CMB energy and speed of light all appear to be interconnected and their correlations provide an amending perspective on the concepts of the fundamental laws and theories of the cosmos. Specifically, the squared energy of a CMB/neutrino is equal to the product of the energy of the maximum cosmic Rindler horizon, cosmic diameter, and the Schwarzschild radius for a Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[265] viXra:1904.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 03:29:46

Smart Tattoo Without a Needle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In today's medical world, tattoo-resembling techniques are used for treatment of skin, masking scars, or treating hair diseases. [29] ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. [28] The discovery that protein therapeutics can hijack the HOPS complex to gain access to the cell interior should help scientists design therapeutic proteins to treat diseases that are not adequately treated using other approaches, Schepartz said. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important HYPERLINK "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0734-6" study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots.
Category: Physics of Biology

[264] viXra:1904.0307 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-18 08:19:32

Do not make laugh Lord God ... and Einstein

Authors: Fursa E.Ja.
Comments: 34 Pages. new reference added

There are three Great Principles at the foundation of Creation: Causality, Temporality and Reasonableness. The unity of the evolutionary movement of the World at all levels of its organization ensures the principle of causality; the direction of movement (from the past to the future) - the passage of time - the principle of temporality; orderliness - the principle of “pre-established harmony” (Leibniz), otherwise, the principle of reasonableness.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[263] viXra:1904.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 03:43:22

Spinning Targets for Accelerators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

Bob Zwaska, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermilab, was watching a contestant on the cooking show Chopped spin sugar for their dessert when he realized the same principle might be applicable to accelerator targets. [46] Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[262] viXra:1904.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 03:57:10

Ultrafast 3-D Images of Nanostructure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Lensless microscopy with X-rays, or coherent diffractive imaging, is a promising approach. It allows researchers to analyse complex three-dimensional structures, which frequently exist in nature, from a dynamic perspective. [26] A new type of light-emitting diode has been developed at TU Wien. Light is produced from the radiative decay of exciton complexes in layers of just a few atoms thickness. [25] In a recent study published in Physical Review Letters (PRL), researchers at Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg have gathered interesting findings about the formation of complex crystals from size-disperse spheres. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[261] viXra:1904.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 04:07:57

Software of Life's Questions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A University of Waterloo researcher has spearheaded the development of a software tool that can provide conclusive answers to some of the world's most fascinating questions. [30] In today's medical world, tattoo-resembling techniques are used for treatment of skin, masking scars, or treating hair diseases. [29] ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. [28] The discovery that protein therapeutics can hijack the HOPS complex to gain access to the cell interior should help scientists design therapeutic proteins to treat diseases that are not adequately treated using other approaches, Schepartz said. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important HYPERLINK "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0734-6" study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[260] viXra:1904.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 04:19:21

Phonon Laser Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Now a Rochester Institute of Technology researcher has teamed up with experts at the University of Rochester to create a different kind of laser-a laser for sound, using the optical tweezer technique invented by Ashkin. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[259] viXra:1904.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 09:04:56

The Material Structures Their Vibrations and Wabble // Материальные структуры их вибрации и колебания

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents the basics of the formation of material structures and a way to model this process. The construction of the structure and the properties of their components affect the basic properties of matter, such as elasticity, for example. The construction of the structure and the properties of the components affect the basic properties of matter, such as elasticity, for example. The current short article presents how the elasticity and the oscillations of material structures associated with it can be modeled in a simple way.// В статье представляются основы формирования материальных структур и способ моделирования этого процесса. Конструкция структуры и свойства компонентов влияют на основные свойства материи, например, такие как упругость. Нынешняя короткая статья представляет, как простым способом можно моделировать упругость и связанные с нею колебания материальных структур.
Category: Classical Physics

[258] viXra:1904.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 07:43:28

Supercooled Water Search Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

After watching YouTube videos of people supercooling water in a bottle and then triggering it to freeze by banging it, something about this concept solidified for Matthew M. Szydagis, an assistant professor of physics at the University at Albany, State University at New York, especially when he saw it again during the Disney movie "Frozen." [32] Researchers from the National University of science and technology MISIS (NUST MISIS, Moscow, Russia) and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN, Naples, Italy) have developed a simple and cost-effective technology that allows increasing the speed of automated microscopes (AM) by 10 to 100 times. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[257] viXra:1904.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:25:32

Sobre Una Ecuación Polinomial de Grado Nueve

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

En esta nota se muestra una raíz real de una ecuación polinomial de grado nueve.
Category: Algebra

[256] viXra:1904.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:28:41

Explorando Una Fórmula de Ramanujan

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

En esta nota recordamos una fórmula de Ramanujan y mostramos algunos resultados relacionados con dicha fórmula.
Category: General Mathematics

[255] viXra:1904.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:28:04

Discrete Time Inside Continuous Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete—roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[254] viXra:1904.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:51:57

Gravitational Waves with Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[253] viXra:1904.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 09:26:26

The Law of Conservation of Energy Does not Exist!//Закон сохранения энергии не существует!

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 2 Pages.

For hundreds of years it has been suggested to people that in nature all physical processes occur in accordance with the law of the conservation of energy. This opinion about the nature of the processes occurring in nature is untruthful. The article states that the law of conservation of energy is true only in certain conditions.// В течение сотен лет внушано людям, что в природе все физические процессы происходят в соответствии с законом сохранения энергии. Это мнение о сути протекающих в природе процессов есть неправдивое. В статье говорится о том, что закон сохранения энергии верен только в определенных условиях.
Category: Classical Physics

[252] viXra:1904.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-17 12:04:23

Analysis of the HRM Spectra in Plasma Glow Discharge

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 12 pages

The HRM effect (Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism) is predicted in the Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG). In properly activated neutral plasma a discrete frequency spectrum in radiofrequency range is observed. The term heterodyne means that the process is activated in the kHz range, while the observed spectrum is in the MHz range. The spectrum is different from the vibrational rotational spectra of molecules. It has spatial and time duration limits and could be observed only in a small volume at fast sweep time. The spectrum characteristics depend on the type of gas and conditions of the transient process. Hydrogen and inert gases are the most suitable for the HRM effect. According to analysis, the HRM spectrum is a signature of synchronized spin-flips of the electrons involved in ion-electron pairs. HRM effect involves quantum mechanical interactions in which the electrons access the zeropoint energy of the physical vacuum. It is predicted that the HRM effect takes place in the transient process of lightning. The signature of HRM effect in the lightning is a subject of another article. Keywords: neutral plasma, glow discharge spectrum, Rydberg matter, electron spin flip, zeropoint energy
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[251] viXra:1904.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 10:23:52

Multi-Particle Exciton Complexes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A new type of light-emitting diode has been developed at TU Wien. Light is produced from the radiative decay of exciton complexes in layers of just a few atoms thickness. [25] In a recent study published in Physical Review Letters (PRL), researchers at Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg have gathered interesting findings about the formation of complex crystals from size-disperse spheres. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[250] viXra:1904.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 10:26:51

Refutation of Ramsey’s Theorem Via Pythagorean Triple of Integers

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the lemma proffered to prove Ramsey’s theorem, and the strengthened lemma in a note. Neither are tautologous. We evaluate the proof of Pythagorean triple of integers as colored. It also is not tautologous. In fact, the coloring or non-coloring produces a logically equivalent result, meaning the Ramsey theorem is neither a tautology nor a contradiction. This implies “the inductive hypothesis” is suspicious. What follows is that the HOL proof assistant for the Ramsey theorem is an historical enormity in its 200 TB computer program with a certified prize result. Therefore the Ramsey theorem and HOL proof assistants are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[249] viXra:1904.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 11:07:43

Slow Travel Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A Harvard physicist has shown that wormholes can exist: tunnels in curved space-time, connecting two distant places, through which travel is possible. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[248] viXra:1904.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 11:33:56

Refutation of Inclusion Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

We evaluate a seminal equation from a proof sketch, which is not tautologous. By extension, this means dependence logic, inclusion logic, and independence logic are also not tautologous. Therefore dependence logic, inclusion logic, and independence logic are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[247] viXra:1904.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 12:38:47

Device for Wasterwater Treatment in Constructed Wetlands Dauzuc

Authors: Dan Ivan
Comments: 8 Pages.

Introduction Many studies around the world have been devoted to climate change and the impact of climate change on water resources. It is necessary to assess the specific effects and the need for adaptation and mitigation of the effects for the water systems and their impact on the economy and the life of the people. There is, therefore, an urgent need to establish an overall picture focused on water supply and wastewater treatment in urban and rural areas. The range of challenges related to climate change is very high, depending on geography, economy, administrative capacity and demography. Water extraction and wastewater treatment fall into two major types of systems: the formal one formally established by the governing or local and informal governance structures. In most of the rural or suburban or urban areas associated with urban sprawl, water extraction and evacuation fall into the informal system. Formal and informal systems have different capacities to respond to the problems that climate change will bring. Both systems provide water delivery to the population and waste water evacuation. Formal systems with many financial and technical moods can generally respond more easily to climate change than informal. Given the financial constraint and the failure to plan the resources they support, informal systems are less able to cope with changes in both demand and supply of water expected to be brought about by climate change. Functions of the formal system include storage, supply, distribution and treatment of waste water and its disposal or reuse. The infrastructure includes, in general, water and sanitation facilities, water storage facilities, rainwater collection systems, drinking water and waste water treatment equipment, pipelines and pumps, local distribution systems and other installations. Urban water infrastructures in the formal system should be built and beyond cities to expand. That is why the city's internal distribution system may sometimes include regions that are regulated separately. Many of these facilities, structures, sources of supply and waste disposal mechanisms are vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change. Urban water consumption can be affected by changes in water availability due to rainfall increases or decreases, mean temperature increases, increase or decrease in water levels in rivers and lakes. An important objective of urban water suppliers is to provide safe drinking water in quantities that meet the requirements for commercial and industrial enterprises for agriculture and household consumption. These tasks are not always met, even in the absence of climate change. Sewage treatment plants are neither ecological nor economical, solved in Europe, even in the absence of these changes. There are no storage systems required for water reuse including: local tanks, infiltration ponds for groundwater recharge, as well as aquifer storage and recovery systems. Wastewater management should be integrated into all irrigation systems and include at least one reuse of wastewater. Because of this, climate change will certainly result in water shortages in agriculture due to prolonged drought periods. Wastewater treatment, distribution and disposal are also directly affected by the effects of climate change, by increasing the energy costs of transporting and treating larger volumes of wastewater and rainwater entering treatment facilities in areas where, and at times when, which precipitation grows, as well as by greater necessity, where drought occurs. Formal Wastewater System in Large Cities of the U.S. and Canada receives wastewater and treats it at several primary, secondary and tertiary levels, the water resulting from each treatment having a direct reuse degree. Waste water treatment facilities include water pollution control facilities, combined sewerage installations, water and mud pumps, laboratories, sludge dewatering facilities, and sludge transport systems. Especially in eastern Europe, water systems for part of rural areas but also for suburban areas are informal. In these systems, water supply as well as wastewater treatment and disposal are not provided at large scale, centralized, managed engineering systems in line with long-term plans, but rather include a mix of local improvisations: informal water markets. Lack of centralization leads to lack of planning and maintenance. These limitations, in turn, indicate that informal systems are more vulnerable to climate change than formal ones, where planning and more financial resources for infrastructure, development and maintenance can be used. The localities under 2000 inhabitants are not subject to regulations included in a European directive nor have the possibility to develop their own sewerage and water supply network through distinct projects from the localities of over 2,000 inhabitants. That's why systems were designed and built for the latter, with sewerage lengths that include the distances between localities, often tens of kilometers. We can not talk about efficiency or durability. The costs of these very large projects will never be amortized by charging subscribers. And as shown above, the number of people connected to sewerage is and will be very small. If we add the fact that a mechanical - biological treatment plant can not function at the required treatment parameters, unless the number of inhabitants used for the design is at least equal to the one using the sewerage system and the population in the rural area has almost halved, it can be appreciated that most of these treatment plants only work formally. In addition, due to lack of technical supervision and maintenance, they are degrading at an accelerated pace, with no real reconditioning possibilities. For this reason, we can not speak in the case of many rural localities of informal systems that include the extraction of groundwater from wells and drilling wells and the disposal of waste water, not directly or indirectly through so-called septic tanks in soils communicating the groundwater canvas or in surface waters and partially with vidanje trucks with discharge not in purification stations or even in natural emissaries, existing sewage on the soil or in surface waters. Climate change predictions for Europe suggest an increase in high-intensity rainfall alternating with drought increase due to the increase in annual average temperature Therefore, it is reasonable to accept that the number of variations in demand and supply of water are likely to increase with such scenarios. The biggest challenge to adapt to climate change in water supply and sewage treatment is in the informal system. Concrete action at the level of communities, which are best placed to monitor and implement policies and programs in the informal system, is clearly lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop policies to ensure adequate monitoring and modeling of demand-side adaptation strategies and water supply. A new water policy has to be drafted and must include informal water markets and the administrative capacity to implement the policy.
Category: Physics of Biology

[246] viXra:1904.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 14:58:20

Is This a Black Hole?

Authors: Mohamed Ababou
Comments: 02 Pages.

the news about capturing a black hole are spreading quickly all over the globe, but it is clear and according to physical and Mathematical evidences that it can't be a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[245] viXra:1904.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 20:14:48

Fine Structure of Energy Level of Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Daehyeon KANG
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is believed that the study by the perturbation term is meaningful if the energy level of the hydrogen atom is correctly obtained by special theory of relativity and quantum theory. In this paper, we have investigated the energy levels of hydrogen atoms, including electron and atomic nucleus movements.
Category: Quantum Physics

[244] viXra:1904.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 20:29:49

Stoe Beginnings

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) was started from these initial considerations about the organization of the universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[243] viXra:1904.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 20:35:54

Refutation of Ethical Reasoning and Hol as a Universal Meta-Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

An exemplary equation in HOL for ethical reasoning is not tautologous. By extension, HOL is refuted as “a universal meta-logic”, and “ethical reasoning” is refuted. Therefore HOL and ethical reasoning are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[242] viXra:1904.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 02:55:05

7 Myths about Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

One of the leading lights in the field, Richard Feynman himself said: "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics." [14] What if the brain could detect its own disease? Researchers have been trying to create a material that "thinks" like the brain does, which would be more sensitive to early signs of neurological diseases such as Parkinson's. [13] University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[241] viXra:1904.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 03:15:05

Superconductor Unexpected Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only two-fold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[240] viXra:1904.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 03:31:57

Gravitational Echo Phenomenon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Gravitational echoes may be caused by the collision of two black holes, and may indicate that these objects have completely new physical properties. [21[ An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, a so-called jet, emerging from the only gravitational wave event involving two neutron stars ever observed. [20]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[239] viXra:1904.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 04:07:09

Laser Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) discovered a new method to passivate defects in next generation optical materials to improve optical quality and enable the miniaturization of light emitting diodes and other optical elements. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[238] viXra:1904.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 04:23:39

Understanding Fusion Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[237] viXra:1904.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 07:14:05

Quantum Dot Polymer Screens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory scientists have developed and patented the fabrication of transparent, luminescent material they say could give smartphone and television screens flexible, stretchable, and shatterproof properties. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[236] viXra:1904.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 07:33:35

Two-Dimensional Semiconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors are promising for quantum computing and future electronics. Now, researchers can convert metallic gold into semiconductor and customize the material atom-by-atom on boron nitride nanotubes. [20] U.S. Naval Research Laboratory scientists have developed and patented the fabrication of transparent, luminescent material they say could give smartphone and television screens flexible, stretchable, and shatterproof properties. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[235] viXra:1904.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 07:58:41

Heuristic Thoughts about Classical Physics

Authors: Ohad Frand
Comments: 7 Pages.

Classical physics is obsolete for more than a century if the question at stake is an accurate and complete description of Nature. Under that light if an alternative classical assumptions bundle may be capable of withstanding some of the major limitations of classical physics, it is reasonable to say that further discussion is required. This manuscript presents very specific and minimal assumptions in the domain of classical physics and extend them with bold ambitious conjectures. Although relation to nature is not shown, the main purpose of this manuscript is to inspire possibility of such relation.
Category: Classical Physics

[234] viXra:1904.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 08:19:01

2-D Phosphorene Nanoribbons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Tiny, individual, flexible ribbons of crystalline phosphorus have been made by UCL researchers in a world first, and they could revolutionise electronics and fast-charging battery technology. [21] Two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors are promising for quantum computing and future electronics. Now, researchers can convert metallic gold into semiconductor and customize the material atom-by-atom on boron nitride nanotubes. [20] U.S. Naval Research Laboratory scientists have developed and patented the fabrication of transparent, luminescent material they say could give smartphone and television screens flexible, stretchable, and shatterproof properties. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[233] viXra:1904.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 08:43:10

Quantum Warn Neurological Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[232] viXra:1904.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 09:56:34

Nanobodies Therapy to Solid Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

In the journal PNAS this week, researchers at Boston Children's Hospital and MIT show that these mini-antibodies, shrunk further to create so-called nanobodies, may help solve a problem in the cancer field: making CAR T-cell therapies work in solid tumors. [14] What if the brain could detect its own disease? Researchers have been trying to create a material that "thinks" like the brain does, which would be more sensitive to early signs of neurological diseases such as Parkinson's. [13] University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[231] viXra:1904.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-21 10:22:35

Spherical Harmonics and Crystals

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 27 Pages. In English. Updated.

The description of Point Groups is made in crystallography, among other, with "character tables". Following my classification work entitled "5 bit 32 crystal classes" and some other curious properties I've noticed, I wanted to try to find a representation with Spherical Harmonics namely: a set of 32 Spherical Harmonics each one representing a Point Group. So the purpose of this work, in a nutshell, is to combine each of the 32 crystal classes with the corresponding Spherical Harmonic that has the same symmetry properties, in a certain sense therefore a "group description". These are among all the Spherical Harmonics the only 32 with which it is possible to create periodic structures with no gaps nor overlapping. A sort of Spherical Harmonics Restriction Theorem. Other possibly interesting connections with the s p d f sub-shells, and with spin, are to be investigated.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[230] viXra:1904.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 10:29:29

Nasa and Gyro in Orbit//nasa и гироскоп на орбите

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 7 Pages.

Precession in the gravitational field - this phenomenon has been known to mankind since ancient times. Here is a phenomenon that can be considered a precession of a completely different kind. This newly discovered phenomenon consists in changing the direction of the axis of rotation of the gyroscope. But the phenomenon occurs when the gyroscope (in the form of a gyrocompass) moves in the gravitational field of a celestial body. It occurs during orbiting around a celestial body or during movement near the body, when this body remains aside.// Прецессия в гравитационном поле - это явление известно человечеству с давних времен. Здесь представляется явление, которое можно считать прецессией совсем иного рода. Это новооткрытое явление заключается в изменении направления оси вращения гироскопа. Но явление происходит, когда гироскоп (в виде гирокомпаса) движется в гравитационном поле небесного тела. Оно происходит во время орбитирования вокруг небесного тела или во время движения вблизи тела, когда это тело остается в стороне.
Category: Classical Physics

[229] viXra:1904.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 10:33:14

Locking Together, or Not, the Fractional Charge Quarks that Make up a Proton

Authors: Bruce A. Lutgen
Comments: 1 Page.

Fractional-charge up and down quarks make up an atom’s protons. The existence of such quarks is well accepted. Despite enormous amounts of energy being expended in the effort, recalling from necessarily limited written resources, a proton has never been successfully broken apart into identifiable constituent quarks. How then is this inability to successfully break protons into observable individual quarks explained?
Category: Quantum Physics

[228] viXra:1904.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 11:27:30

An MHCE8S Flow Diagram Emphasizing the Existence of Two New Quarks and Older Holography

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing 2 new neutron quarks and holography extending back to at least the 3rd cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[227] viXra:1904.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 13:47:40

Several Thoughts About Equation of Unified Field in Estm Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Was analyzed possible kind of equation of unified field in theory of emergent space-time matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[226] viXra:1904.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 15:36:27

Permanent Solution To The Global Water Problem.

Authors: Bhasanpal S.
Comments: Pages.

This is the need of the Decade. So please, spread this paper as far as possible, until this reaches the hands of the Organisation or Persons, Who can take care of that. And we kindly request you to be & make aware of The Common People about the Problem as far as possible, as if they get awareness, they may also start to think about the Solution to it, which may also be better than this. Thanking you. Hopping You, L.R.S..
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[225] viXra:1904.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 08:00:20

Refutation of the Meet-Tree

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

Two equations defining the meet-tree are not tautologous, thereby contradicting the claim that “proof is straightforward (using similinearity)”. Therefore these results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Topology

[224] viXra:1904.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 08:36:56

Self-Assembly of Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In liquid crystals, molecules automatically arrange themselves in an ordered fashion. Researchers from the University of Luxembourg have discovered a method that allows an anti-ordered state, which will enable novel material properties and potentially new technical applications, such as artificial muscles for soft robotics. [27] In a breakthrough discovery, University of Wollongong (UOW) researchers have created a "heartbeat" effect in liquid metal, causing the metal to pulse rhythmically in a manner similar to a beating heart. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[223] viXra:1904.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 08:45:34

Some Hereditary Properties of the E-J Generalized Cesàro Matrices

Authors: H. C. Rhaly Jr.
Comments: 3 Pages.

A countable subcollection of the Endl-Jakimovski generalized Ces\`{a}ro matrices of positive order is seen to inherit posinormality, coposinormality, and hyponormality from the Ces\`{a}ro matrix of the same order.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[222] viXra:1904.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 08:53:25

Learn a New Skill with Short Breaks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

In a study of healthy volunteers, National Institutes of Health researchers found that our brains may solidify the memories of new skills we just practiced a few seconds earlier by taking a short rest. [31] Focused ultrasound from outside the body can safely and reversibly open the blood–brain barrier in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, researchers in Canada have shown for the first time. [30] Small vessel vasculitis—inflammation of the small blood vessels—appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29]
Category: Mind Science

[221] viXra:1904.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 10:00:14

Atomic Particles Adhesion

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in the paper entitled unified field theory we have shown how electromagnetic waves attract each other to form bigger masses in this papet we will show how same sized masses and different sized masses work together same sized masses such as two protons are equaly competent for having space domains which is also equal to their equal strength to hold onto and fight for a space domain and so they stay together agglomerated at the distance separated by unneeded neutrons to fill the gap of electromagnetic waves forming the particles and then we have the unequal masses such as an electron and a proton these two have unequal competency to have space domains and they have unequal strength to hold onto and fight for a space domain and so the electron ends up going closer as much as possible to the proton
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[220] viXra:1904.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 10:42:32

Immune System Causing Cavities

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the University of Toronto's Faculty of Dentistry provides the first evidence that the body's own defence system could be a major contributor to tooth decay and filling failure. [25] An extensive experiment testing the immune effects of a broad group of lab-designed nucleic acid nanoparticles did not find a strong, uniform immune response, as had been predicted. [24] The goal is to find bits of DNA in common between the known relatives and the unidentified remains, suggesting both belong to a particular lineage. One analysis develops a profile that combines what's found at 23 spots in the DNA, for example. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[219] viXra:1904.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 11:23:45

Fractional Crystallization Mixtures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In a recent study published in Physical Review Letters (PRL), researchers at Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg have gathered interesting findings about the formation of complex crystals from size-disperse spheres. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[218] viXra:1904.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 11:44:21

Negative Capacitor Improve Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

With a little physics ingenuity, scientists have designed a way to redistribute electricity on a small scale, potentially opening new avenues of research into more energy-efficient computing. [45] For the first time ever, an international team of researchers imaged the microscopic state of negative capacitance. [44] One of the leading candidates, spintronics, is based on the idea of carrying information via the spin of electrons. [43]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[217] viXra:1904.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-16 17:33:32

Causality

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 16 Pages.

Causality and Information are linked variables characterizing atomic matter, bridging the conceptual gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory. A brief summary of a Unified Field Theory is included.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[216] viXra:1904.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 13:50:44

Diffusion Gravity: Dynamics and Scalability

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 13 Pages.

A previous paper introduced the heuristic model of Diffusion Gravity (DG) based on the principle of mass diffusion [1]. That work provided an initial development of an explanation of inertia, acceleration, and gravity from the interaction of mass objects with the active quantum vacuum environment via virtual particle mechanisms. This follow-on article extends the model to incorporate the related dynamics of the virtual particle outflows from mass objects and presents model specifics for inertia, kinetic energy, and orbital motion. Mass Diffusion is the primary active force that drives interactions of the virtual particle agents of the quantum vacuum to produce linear and orbital motion; the active quantum vacuum may be more accurately described as a an agent in gravitation; these aspects of diffusion gravity and other mass-energy considerations are described and discussed in this paper, including derivation and consistency with mass-energy E 0 =mc 2 . Motion models and their descriptions, which comprise Diffusion Gravity Dynamics (DGD), are added to the Diffusion Gravity theory. The Diffusion Gravity model and theory implies application to other physical phenomena such as relativity, light refraction and the role of virtual particles therein, and the model’s scalability to astrophysical phenomena such as flattening of the galactic rotation curves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[215] viXra:1904.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 17:27:15

The Universe is a Perfect Sphere-Theoretical Calculation of the TCMBR

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I show that the universe is a perfect sphere and provide a theoretical calculation of the TCMBR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[214] viXra:1904.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 00:04:13

Unification of Forces // Унификация сил

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Аuthor shows how you can create a unification of all the forces and phenomena that exist in nature.// Автор показывает, каким способом можно создать унификацию всех сил и явлений, которые существуют в природе.
Category: Classical Physics

[213] viXra:1904.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 01:05:15

First Physical Paradigm // Первая Физическая Парадигма

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the article, The Author presents the foundations on which the ability to study the world and human knowledge is based.// В статье Автор представляет основы, на которых основывается способность изучать мир и человеческие знания.
Category: Classical Physics

[212] viXra:1904.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 02:16:53

Effectiveness of Multiple Tray-Aerators in Reducing Iron (Fe) Water Wells in Gowa Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Ronny, Abdul Hafid Hasim
Comments: 4 Pages.

The aim of this study was to see the effectiveness of aeration in decreased levels of iron (Fe) in water wells before and after the aeration process using multiple tray aerator methods. The use of multiple tray aeration is expected to reduce the levels of iron (Fe) in water wells. This research is an experiment with 30 samples of good water that had higher levels of iron (Fe), which do not qualify as water obtained by non-random sampling in Gowa Regency. To find out the effectiveness decreased levels of iron (Fe) before and after aeration performed with SPSS statistical testing. The results obtained show the rate of decline in levels of iron (Fe) average about 2.21 mg/L with an average percentage of 68.01% decline. Value levels of iron (Fe) on average after aeration obtained at 1.12 mg/L. Although it has seen a decline the effective look at the results showed significant before and after the aeration is done but not yet clean water requirements with value levels of iron (Fe) up to 1.00. In contrast to the results of another study that the results of decreased levels of iron (Fe) obtained only around 0.20 mg/L or simply a decline of about 10%. The difference in the results achieved by the research conducted in the laboratory with a reduction of circulating air in the rooms was not big. To achieve the levels of iron (Fe) to fit the requirements it is necessary to further processing after aeration. Aeration method with multiple tray aerator can reduce levels of iron (Fe) in water wells significantly but the results are not yet qualified to clean water.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[211] viXra:1904.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 03:28:58

The Spinorial Einstein Equations

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 3 pages, written in french

We define Einstein spinors and Einstein equations for spin geometry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[210] viXra:1904.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 07:36:06

Crop Failures and Astrogeophysics. I. Medieval North East Europe and Stormy 2019

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 7 Pages.

A brief revisiting of possible astrogeophysical causes of historical climate disasters in medieval North-East Europe and brief look to ongoing climate disaster season of 2019.
Category: Climate Research

[209] viXra:1904.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 07:49:22

Electric Charge and Electric Field of Elementary Particles.

Authors: Alexandr I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 10 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. The inaccuracy of the modern view of the electric charge and the electric field is shown. The whole theory of Maxwell, Coulomb and other giants of physics, is valid only for macroscopes, on the order of more than 100 sizes of elementary particles. In the microscale there are completely different laws. Including the field of a single charge does not have spherical symmetry and the Coulomb dependence is inverse to the radius.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[208] viXra:1904.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 07:54:09

Электрический заряд и электрическое поле элементарных частиц.

Authors: Александр Дубинянский и Павел Чурляев
Comments: 10 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Абстракт. Показана неточность современного воззрения на электрический заряд и электрическое поле. Вся теория Максвелла, Кулона и других гигантов физики, справедлива только для макромасштабов, порядка более 100 размеров элементарных частиц. В микромасштабе действуют совсем другие законы. В том числе поле одиночного заряда не имеет сферической симметрии и кулоновской зависимости обратной от радиуса.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[207] viXra:1904.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 09:09:45

On the C Constant0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.the distance at 3*10^8 m is independent of time 2.any amount of time is independent of the distance 3*10^8 m 1.this means that the distance 3*10^8 m is the distance that you cant add more time more than 1 second 2.this means that no matter how much time you add or take the distance 3*10^8 is the same in all casesv
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[206] viXra:1904.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 10:54:43

The Constructive Field Theory Fundamentals of Ideology // Конструктивная теория поля Основы идеологии

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Author presents the foundations on which Constructive Field Theory is based. They are very simple and are the basis for interpreting the structure of matter and physical phenomena.// Автор представляет основы, на которых основана Конструктивная Теория Поля. Они очень просты и являются основой для интерпретации структуры материи и физических явлений.
Category: Classical Physics

[205] viXra:1904.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 11:49:25

Human Brain Cloud Interface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Imagine a future technology that would provide instant access to the world's knowledge and artificial intelligence, simply by thinking about a specific topic or question. [27] Just like living ecosystems, web services form a complex artificial system consisting of tags and the user-generated media associated with them, such as photographs, movies and web pages. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[204] viXra:1904.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 13:26:39

Quantum Simulation More Stable

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

"Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:1904.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 13:31:30

The Oppsoite Push Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you want to produce a great amount of electromagnetic waves push a dense mass from two opposite sides of the mass the atoms will start jerking and then producing electromagnetic waves
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[202] viXra:1904.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 15:31:54

There's A Light Beam Travels With 1.16 mkm per sec (My Claim)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Main Claim There's A Light Beam Travels With 1.16 mkm/ sec – In The Solar Group- But We Can't Observe It. This paper provides and discusses many clear arguments which prove this fact. Also The paper explains why we can't observe or realize this higher velocity (1.16mkm/sec) which supports the Special Theory of Relativity Basic Hypothesis that the highest velocity (in our universe) is 0.3mkm/second.
Category: Astrophysics

[201] viXra:1904.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 17:45:46

Riemann Hypothesis Yielding to Minor Effort

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 8 Pages. Trilinear, IIIVNII

A set of distinct and elementary approaches, all embarking on the Euler-Riemann equivalence representing the zeta at zero, invariably point to a consistent solution structure. The Riemann Hypothesis as regards Re=1/2 gains full support as a core solution, albeit one amounting to a special nontrivial case warranting extensions and qualifications.
Category: Number Theory

[200] viXra:1904.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 18:22:15

Ether and Einstein

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein's theory of relativity is based on Ether. Einstein's statements that there is no Ether and that all systems are equal are just an attempt to hide the fact that Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Poincare Principle are one and the same.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[199] viXra:1904.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 21:57:24

Redefining the Electron (Part 2): The Implications for Atomic Structure

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 25 Pages. Redefining the Electron (Part 1) introduces STEM: a link to it is provided in the abstract of the pdf paper Part 2.

The Spin Torus Energy Model (STEM) was introduced in Part 1 of the ‘Redefining the Electron’ series to define the structure of electrons and positrons so as to explain the nature of electric and magnetic fields, electric current generation from battery and induction sources, capacitor charge and discharge, and superconductivity. In Part 2, STEM is extended to define a structure Preons, quarks and nucleons and to explore the nuclear structure of atoms. The atomic model developed provides explanations for the physical characteristics and different allotropic forms of elements in the Periodic Table, their various bonding geometries, and for electron capture and beta decay. The third and final paper provides a STEM explanation for the particle-wave nature of EMR, spectral line emission and absorption, the photo-electric effect, the Compton effect, electron pair generation and annihilation, and Gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[198] viXra:1904.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 03:21:55

Thin Films for Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Researchers at Missouri S&T have found an unprecedented, economical method for creating high-performance inorganic thin films, or "epitaxial" films, used in the manufacture of semiconductors for flexible electronics, LEDs and solar cells. [41] Femtosecond X-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Condensed Matter

[197] viXra:1904.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 04:32:09

Traffic Cops for Optical Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley have built a new photonic switch that can control the direction of light passing through optical fibers faster and more efficiently than ever. [42] Researchers at Missouri S&T have found an unprecedented, economical method for creating high-performance inorganic thin films, or "epitaxial" films, used in the manufacture of semiconductors for flexible electronics, LEDs and solar cells. [41] Femtosecond X-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[196] viXra:1904.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 04:43:26

Artificial Intelligence Singles Out Neurons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Biomedical engineers at Duke University have developed an automated process that can trace the shapes of active neurons as accurately as human researchers can, but in a fraction of the time. [28] Imagine a future technology that would provide instant access to the world's knowledge and artificial intelligence, simply by thinking about a specific topic or question. [27] Just like living ecosystems, web services form a complex artificial system consisting of tags and the user-generated media associated with them, such as photographs, movies and web pages. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[195] viXra:1904.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 07:11:05

Novel Fusion-Reaction Fuel Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

To capture and control on Earth the fusion reactions that drive the sun and stars, researchers must first turn room-temperature gas into the hot, charged plasma that fuels the reactions. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[194] viXra:1904.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 07:38:10

Quantum Fluctuation in the Void

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 98 Pages.

Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method that allows them to characterize the fluctuations in detail. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[193] viXra:1904.0227 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-26 08:48:53

Algorithm Capable of Proving Goldbach’s Conjecture

Authors: Elizabeth Gatton-Robey
Comments: 5 Pages.

I created an algorithm capable of proving Goldbach’s Conjecture. This is not a claim to have proven the conjecture. The algorithm and all work contained in this document is original, so no outside sources have been used. This paper explains the algorithm then applies the algorithm with examples. The final section of the paper contains information to accompany my thoughts on why I believe Goldbach’s Conjecture can be proven with the use of my algorithm.
Category: Number Theory

[192] viXra:1904.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 07:57:23

Microscope Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from the National University of science and technology MISIS (NUST MISIS, Moscow, Russia) and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN, Naples, Italy) have developed a simple and cost-effective technology that allows increasing the speed of automated microscopes (AM) by 10 to 100 times. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30] In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[191] viXra:1904.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 08:36:24

Chiral Asymmetry of Self-Reproduction in Cellular Automata Spaces

Authors: Perry W Swanborough
Comments: 8 Pages.

Focusing on the cellular automata (CA) self-replicating structures and state-transition function of H-H Chou and JA Reggia (1997), self-replication is shown to be homochiral. More briefly, chiral asymmetry is shown also for earlier examples of CA self-replicating structures. The work concludes with brief speculation about inevitability or otherwise of homochirality observed in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[190] viXra:1904.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 10:30:21

Optical Atomic Clocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers have measured an optical clock's ticking with record-breaking accuracy while also showing the clock can be operated with unprecedented consistency. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[189] viXra:1904.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 11:01:33

Artificial Atoms at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Ultra-secure online communications, completely indecipherable if intercepted, is one step closer with the help of a recently published discovery by University of Oregon physicist Ben Alemán. [32] Researchers have measured an optical clock's ticking with record-breaking accuracy while also showing the clock can be operated with unprecedented consistency. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[188] viXra:1904.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 17:12:55

The Wrong ‘EHT Black Hole Image’ and Money; the Ferent Image. Einstein and All the Scientists Did not Understand Gravitation

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 343 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The Wrong ‘EHT Black Hole image’ and money; the Ferent image. Einstein and all the scientists did not understand Gravitation “Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons” Adrian Ferent The first Black Hole image of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is Wrong, it is a Fraud. The image of the supermassive Black Hole that lies at the centre of the huge Messier 87 galaxy is Einstein Black Hole image, it is Einstein description of gravity! EHT image is Einstein Black Hole image: Galaxy image and Ferent Black Hole image: “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent 85% of the matter in the universe is Dark Matter. More accurate: “Black Holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter: Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density “Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent We do not need to look for Black Holes in another galaxy. Sagittarius A* is the location of the supermassive Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Milky Way galaxy has a supermassive Black Hole, 4.1 million solar masses, at its center, 26000 light-years from the Solar System. Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity! Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume! The Planck density = 5.155 × 10^96 kg/m^3 At Planck wall the volume of the Black Hole: V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3 “The volume of this supermassive Black Hole is much smaller than V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black! Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White! “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White” Adrian Ferent “Because inside the Black Holes, the Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “The energy of the Gravitons inside a Black Hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people” Adrian Ferent But you see on TV, YouTube wrong things about Wormholes, how scientists like Michio Kaku, Kip Thorne… can travel trough a Black Hole! “Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent Money and Fraud! Living in Romania, the most corrupt country, I understand very well the corruption in science. Like LIGO and the discovery of Higgs boson, the ‘EHT Black Hole image’ is another Fraud! LIGO: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent “The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“ This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. “Scientists who are not capable to work with Planck units, they can work with atoms in chemistry, medicine, biology, technology, they can work in mathematics to build wrong models, they can work in economics, they can work in AI…” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons” Adrian Ferent 198. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White 199. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume 200. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[187] viXra:1904.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-12 08:42:52

Report of Spatial Geodesy on the Rapid Implementation of a Unified Geodetic System in Africa

Authors: Fezzani Chedly, Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 13 Pages. It is a numerical edition of the original paper dedicated to the memory of the first author who passed away on March 09, 2019. In French.

Having a unified reference system, established on a universally accepted and utilitarian basis, is an important contribution to the judicious use of geographic information to promote Africa's economic development at the national level, regional and continental. To do so, it is important today to make the best use of space technologies and to assimilate them, especially through Cartographic National Institutions. This paper: - is written for small African mapping institutions, - defines the organizational prerequisites for rapidly implementing the Unified Reference System at the continental level. - serves as a framework to guide the debate on the real questions to be asked in this area.
Category: Geophysics

[186] viXra:1904.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 17:45:53

Ethics in Ai: the force of Good

Authors: James Sandy
Comments: 2 Pages. This just the abstract of the work

Artificial Intelligence has both its good side and its wrong side. and in a country like nigeria when migrants get to know the value and use of it, it may be used to affect Elections, Decisions of public and all manner of evil it can also be used to create solutions to petinent problems. so as to this there should be a code of conduct, a guideline, a moda operandi which should be instill in all Researchers and Developers in this field. Just like the medical practitioners have a pledge which guides its members so should they be in the field of Artificial Intelligence. I strongly advise that educating the Developers and researchers in this field about the Good conducts and its after effects and also the Bad conduct and its after effect will really prevent ​ Abuse. Ai is a very powerful force which i believe should be used for the sole purpose of good, for human development and making the world a better place not to create sophisticated weapons or robots which will be harmful to humans. The general of it all is not to use AI in a way that it will be a treat to human life but for
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[185] viXra:1904.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 18:49:36

The Twin Power Conjecture

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 2 Pages.

We consider a new conjecture regarding powers of integer numbers and more specifically, we are interesting in existence and finding pairs of integers: n ≥ 2 and m ≥ 2, such that n^m = m^n.
Category: Number Theory

[184] viXra:1904.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-24 22:18:32

Back to Cosmos

Authors: F.M. Sanchez, V. Kotov, M. Grosmann, D. Weigel, R. Veysseyre, C. Bizouard, N. Flawisky, D. Gayral, L. Gueroult
Comments: 28 Pages. To be published in Progress in Physics

To the memory of Sir Michael Atiyah Abstract. The ancestral concept of Cosmos is rediscovered through the idea of a Tachyonic Grandcosmos Multibasis Computer, inversing the Anthropic Principle and reestablishing the Laplace Determinism. The observed fine tuning between physical dimensionless parameters is interpreted as relations between optimal calculation basis, announcing a dramatic progress in computer software. Three type of mathematical constants are considered: Large, Intermediate and close to unity. The famous Large Number problem is resolved by Eddington's statistical theory and the gravitational Hydrogen Molecule model, leading to the visible Universe horizon radius R ≈ 13.812 Giga ligth-years. The extension of the double cosmic correlation defines a Topological Axis using Euler-Napier constant e as primary basis, confirming String Theory, Cartan-Bott periodicity and the 30 holic dimensions corresponding to the simplest space-time-matter diophantine equation T2 = L3 = M5 = N30. This dimension n = 30 corresponds to the common time, about 10^58 s, given by two mandatory dimensional analysis, interpreted as the Supercycle period. The visible Universe wavelength 'Topon' 2Għ/Rc3 ≈ 4 × 10^-96 m corresponds to n ≈ 2e^e and enters the 1D mono-radial holographic extension of the Bekenstein-Hawking Universe entropy, implying the critical condition, and breaking the Planck wall by a factor 10^61, justifying the Hawking trans-planckian frequencies. The monochrome holographic extension leads to a Grandcosmos, larger than the visible Universe by the same factor 10^61. A toponic quantization justifies the Cosmos vastness in a scanned Universe, justifying the entropy factor 1/4. This implies a tachyonic speed in the same ratio by respect to c, justifying the Planck re-normalisation of the vacuum energy, independently checked by the Casimir effect. The couple Universe-Grandcosmos is confirmed by a dramatic geo-dimensional analysis, where Length, Time and Mass ratios are considered as unit vectors in a 3D Super-space. A matter-antimatter 10^104 Hz Oscillatory Bounce unifies standard Single Bang with steady-state cosmology, but suppress Relativity in cosmology at large, reestablishing the Newton Absolute Space realized by the Microwave Cosmic Radiation, while Kotov cycle defines an absolute clock. This new scanning space-time structure is confirmed by single-electron cosmology, connected with Kotov period, and relying Sternheimer Scale Factor and Atiyah constant, which appear as privileged computation basis, as well as e, p and a ≈ 137.036, in liaison with the sporadic groups. The Atiyah constant enters dramatic ppb precision relations with particle data. This unifies philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and informatics. It is predicted that the future telescopes will find mature galaxies in the very far range, instead of a Dark Space, ruining the standard evolutionary cosmology, ill-founded on an imperfect Cosmological Principle.
Category: Astrophysics

[183] viXra:1904.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-13 09:42:13

Considerations and Calculations on the Fraction of Helium in Neutral Matter of the Net Charged Universe NCU [1,2,3]

Authors: Ulrich Berger
Comments: 9 Pages.

Abstract: As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. Based on the NCU model, the present article aims to explain the observed fraction of Helium (approximately 7%) in the universe’s baryonic matter. For this purpose, calculations on collision rates of excess protons are performed and applied to determine the Helium fraction in the universe’s matter. The results of these calculations correspond very well to the observations and thus, they further support the NCU model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[182] viXra:1904.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 01:09:47

What is New in Theoretical Science//Что новое в теоретической науке

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 2 Pages.

The author points to coarse logical errors, which exist in modern theoretical science of nature, and ways to correct them
Category: Classical Physics

[181] viXra:1904.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 03:09:37

Quantum Particles at Large Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

In a new study published in EPJ ST, Dr. J.S. Ben-Benjamin and colleagues from Texas A&M University, USA, reverse this approach; starting with quantum mechanical rules, they explore how to derive an infinite number of quasi-distributions, to emulate the classical mechanics approach. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[180] viXra:1904.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 18:47:01

Solving Incompletely Predictable Problems Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures Using Information-Complexity Conservation

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 18 Pages. Rigorous proofs for Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures.

Prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable numbers calculated using complex algorithm Sieve of Eratosthenes. Involving proposals that prime gaps and associated sets of prime numbers are infinite in magnitude, Twin prime conjecture deals with even prime gap 2 and is a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even prime gaps 2, 4, 6, 8, 10,.... Treated as Incompletely Predictable problems, we solve these conjectures with research method Information-Complexity conservation to get Plus Gap 2 Composite Number Continuous Law and Plus-Minus Gap 2 Composite Number Alternating Law.
Category: Number Theory

[179] viXra:1904.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 03:36:35

Speed Boost to Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[178] viXra:1904.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 04:00:41

AI Agent Explain its Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Georgia Institute of Technology researchers, in collaboration with Cornell University and University of Kentucky, have developed an artificially intelligent (AI) agent that can automatically generate natural language explanations in real-time to convey the motivations behind its actions. [25] The New York Times contacted IBM Research in late September asking for our help to use AI in a clever way to create art for the coming special section on AI. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[177] viXra:1904.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 05:14:30

Open-Ended Web Services

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Just like living ecosystems, web services form a complex artificial system consisting of tags and the user-generated media associated with them, such as photographs, movies and web pages. [26] Georgia Institute of Technology researchers, in collaboration with Cornell University and University of Kentucky, have developed an artificially intelligent (AI) agent that can automatically generate natural language explanations in real-time to convey the motivations behind its actions. [25] The New York Times contacted IBM Research in late September asking for our help to use AI in a clever way to create art for the coming special section on AI. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[176] viXra:1904.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 05:31:05

Quantum Gravitational Force and Coulomb Force in Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Zane Andrea Quintili
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we want to present how an atomic quantum gravitational force hypothesis can be equivalent to the Coulomb force for the hydrogen atom, with quantum gravitational QHT. FG = FC
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[175] viXra:1904.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 05:31:02

Smart Materials Under Pressure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Advanced robotics sensitive touch or next-generation wearable devices with sophisticated sensing capabilities could soon be possible following the development of a rubber that combines flexibility with high electrical conductivity. [32] The fibers can detect even the slightest pressure and strain, and can withstand deformation of close to 500 percent before recovering their initial shape, all of which makes them perfect for applications in smart clothing and prostheses, and for creating artificial nerves for robots. A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[174] viXra:1904.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 10:18:59

Un Modelo Y Una Metodología Para la Transformación de Ciudades Hacia la Sostenibilidad

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 658 Pages. Text in Spanish

The present Doctoral Thesis proposes an indicators’ model and a methodology whose objective is enabling the quantitative characterization of different urban situations’ Sustainability Degree and the later use of this parameter in usual urban transformations’ design processes. In order to do so, we follow a procedure that combines two approaches: On the one hand, we build on A mathematical theory of Sustainability and Sustainable Development [Alvira, 2014a], which provides us the following matters: • General principles for Sustainability logical decomposition / hierarchical structuring of the model. • Design methodology / mathematical formulation of sustainability indicators. • Mathematical formulas for indicators aggregation. • General principles for the design of an operational model. On the other hand, we review most accepted general recommendations for indicators’ models formulation, including recommendations by more acknowledged organizations / entities. Although some of these recommendations are actually applied during the drafting process we herein undertake, we do not always explicit it, considering that compliance with main recommendations for the development of indicator models is not a requirement for the formulation of the model but 'guidelines' which provide us a framework for its posterior validation, which we detail in the Conclusions and Annexes. Combining both approaches we design an operational model, which is complemented by a methodology that allows its use in the usual processes of city conformation. Later, we validate the proposal in two levels: • We review its applicability, by using the model to confront the design of a hypothetical transformation of existing urban area: the Palos de Moguer neighborhood in Madrid. • We contrast obtained results for the E dimension with the economic evolution of the EU 28 countries during the period 2005‐2014, finding a high similarity with reality. Finally, in the conclusions we detail the main differences / contributions regarding existing models, as well as pending issues that we advance for possible further development.
Category: Social Science

[173] viXra:1904.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 06:49:14

The Origin of New Dark Energy.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 13 Pages.

New dark energy is related to a new cosmological model (RTHU). This paper refers to the origin of this new dark energy. As a follow-up this paper considers why CERN (LHC), and other colliders, are relics of the past and why the RTHU-scanner will be the future. The RTHU stands for a rotating hologram universe. The details are anchored in my series of article hosted in the vixra-archive, category mathematical physics. Reach it on www.vixra.org/author/dan_visser. It represents my horizon, my art and my basic-science for the work-out of the new dark energy in the RTHU.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[172] viXra:1904.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 07:16:11

The Energy Loss Toe.pdf

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

any loss in energy in any way is a loss in thr form of heat or electromagnetic waves however there are some cases where energy is not lost but transferred from one thing to the other in a uniform system that is not heat loss but in any case any energy lost is lost in the form of heat even if the lost energy was in any form it woulf be in heat and electromagnetic waves
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[171] viXra:1904.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 10:01:51

D-Wave Quantum Computer Algorithm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[170] viXra:1904.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 10:33:32

Saturn Effect On The Solar Group Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Saturn Effect On The Solar Group Geometry Saturn shows Clearly The Solar Group Geometrical Structure. The Basic Hypothesis: The Solar Group Is One Trajectory Of Energy And Each Planet Is A Point On This Same Trajectory… i.e. The Solar Planets (matter is energy because E=mc2) and their orbital distances (Space is Energy – hypothesis)both are created from the same energy which makes The solar group as one body and each planet is a member of this same body. Or The solar group can be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the solar group is created depending on the cooperation and integration between the solar planets. Saturn Effect Saturn tells how the solar group is created based on the previous vision i.e. Saturn tells us which planet is created first and which second and what geometrical rule control this creation process. Shortly The solar group is one family, all planets are relatives to each other – but Saturn tells us who's brother to whom and who's uncle, who's parent and who's nephew Saturn Data tells this fact clearly as the sun …Saturn Is The Solar Group Secret
Category: Astrophysics

[169] viXra:1904.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 10:33:25

AI to Understand Collective Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Looking ahead, Thomas Müller believes that future research in this area will benefit from large data sets on animals, such as schools of fish with their dynamic behavioural patterns. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[168] viXra:1904.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 11:12:16

First Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[167] viXra:1904.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 11:48:45

IBM AI Work in Human Resources

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

IBM CEO Ginni Rometty touted IBM's successful use of AI for leading the workforce at CNBC's @ Work Talent + HR Summit. She sat down with Jon Fortt and delivered some impressive numbers on how the IBM's AI tool helped the company. [21] Looking ahead, Thomas Müller believes that future research in this area will benefit from large data sets on animals, such as schools of fish with their dynamic behavioural patterns. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[166] viXra:1904.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 12:50:06

On the Accelerating Universal Expansion (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 25 Pages.

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein’s equations by introducing a cosmological constant, excluding the dark energy interpretation. For a new cosmological model, the big-bang singularity has been replaced by a granular primeval particle and expansion is controlled by the velocity of light. Subsequently, well known problems inherent in the standard model of cosmology do not arise.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[165] viXra:1904.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 13:13:03

Compounds that Prevent Aging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a new method for identifying compounds that prevent aging. [22] A biological switch that reliably turns protein expression on at will has been invented by University of Bath and Cardiff University scientists. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[164] viXra:1904.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 14:33:39

Fine Structure Constant for Gravity or do We Feel Gravitons

Authors: Vladimir Aksayskiy
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper presents an estimate of gravitational fine-structure constant.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[163] viXra:1904.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 15:15:00

Orbital Radius of Electron in the Hydrogen Atom and 137 with QHT

Authors: Zane Andrea Quintili
Comments: 4 Pages.

we present a hypothesis to estimate the orbital radius of the electron in the hydrogen atom using new QHT equations. QHT is a hypothesis of atomic quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[162] viXra:1904.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-04 18:01:06

Kinematyka w Szczególnej Teorii Eteru (in Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Celem artykułu jest pokazanie, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie są wystarczające do uzasadnienia Szczególnej Teorii Względności. Możliwe jest bowiem wyjaśnienie tych eksperymentów przy pomocy innej teorii, w której występuje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy nową teorię kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalnego układu odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Wyprowadzona została także transformacja prędkości, wzór na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej, wzór na skrócenie długości oraz wzór na dylatację czasu. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[161] viXra:1904.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 17:20:40

Possible Dark Matter Mass Candidates in Spinning Sphere Theory

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

In Sphere Theory, the universe is a sphere made of spheres. In “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[7]. It was shown how to construct the first zero, one, two, and three-dimensional objects. These are, perhaps, regions of high stability in the construction of the universe. It is proposed that these structures will have fractals in different levels of dimensions. It was found that the zero-dimensional object was made of one sphere, the one-dimensional object was composed of two spheres, the two-dimensional object was composed of six spheres, and the three-dimensional object was composed of 42 particles. For reference, it is shown in Appendix A, how these layers of dimensions, and the cuboctahedron structure can be correlated to the masses of particles over one GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[160] viXra:1904.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 20:04:53

Real Clifford Algebras and Our Universe: VOID to Cl(16) Lagrangian to Cl(1,25) AQFT

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 38 Pages.

This paper is an outline of basic ideas of Cl(16) and Cl(1,25) Physics. For details see my papers listed at viXra for author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr including vixra 1903.0485 about the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Higgs-Truth Quark System. Version 2 (v2) adds page about 3 Generations. Version 3 (v3) adds discussion about African history and Cellular Automata.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[159] viXra:1904.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-31 05:02:44

The Dark Side of Gravity (Living Review)

Authors: Henry-Couannier Frederic
Comments: 62 Pages.

Dark Gravity (DG) is a background dependent bimetric and semi-classical extension of General Relativity with an anti-gravitational sector. The foundations of the theory are reviewed. The main theoretical achievement of DG is the avoidance of any singularities (both black hole horizon and cosmic initial singularity) and an ideal framework to understand the cancellation of vacuum energy contributions to gravity and hopefully solve the old cosmological constant problem. The main testable predictions of DG against GR are on large scales as it provides an acceleration mechanism alternative to the cosmological constant. The detailed confrontation of the theory to SN-Cepheids, CMB and BAO data is presented. The Pioneer effect, MOND phenomenology and Dark Matter are also investigated in the context of this new framework.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[158] viXra:1904.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-17 08:32:08

Quantization of Electromagnetic Field in Rindler Space-Time

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article treats quantization of lectromagnetic field that is defined in Rindler spacetime. Likely the electromagnetic field, the potential did quantizated in inertial frame, the electromagnetic field, the potential can quantizate by the transformation of electromagnetic field or the transformation of the potential in the accelerated frame
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[157] viXra:1904.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 06:50:09

Picturing a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[156] viXra:1904.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 08:29:16

ATLAS Measure Higgs Boson Coupling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

As only about 1 percent of the Higgs bosons are produced in association with a top-quark pair at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), achieving this observation was especially challenging. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[155] viXra:1904.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 09:50:04

Pair-Density Wave in Spin-Valley

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Recent discoveries in high Tc superconductorshave resulted in an intense interest in a "pair-density wave" (PDW) formed in Cooper pairs (an electron pair bound together at low temperatures), although there is little theoretical understanding on the driving mechanisms of this exotic state. [30] Researchers at Northeast Normal University, in China, and University of the Basque Country, in Spain, have recently carried out a study investigating the superconducting transition of electrides. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[154] viXra:1904.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 10:08:38

Mechanism of High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[153] viXra:1904.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 11:32:13

A Simple Spin on Gravity

Authors: David Colasante
Comments: 8 Pages.

Euclidean interval-time coordinates reveal a surprisingly simple explanation of gravity. From this, gravitational mass, inertial mass and energy inextricably arise with inherent duality.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[152] viXra:1904.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-30 06:57:27

Interpolating Values in Code Space

Authors: Adam Bourne
Comments: 7 pages, English

A method is described for interpolating un-sampled values attributed to points in code space. A metric is used which counts the number of non-equal corresponding indices shared by two given points. A generalised interpolation equation is derived for values ascribed to nodes on undirected graphs. The equation is then applied specifically to values at points in code space. This interpo- lation equation is then solved in general for a set of given sampled values in the space.
Category: General Mathematics

[151] viXra:1904.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 11:35:38

On the Integrability of Liénard Equations

Authors: Y.F. J. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 4 pages

A simple condition for integrability of Liénard equations is established to compute their general solution explicitly or by quadrature via a nonlocal transformation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[150] viXra:1904.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-22 06:07:09

Refutation of Fodor’s Causality Principle and Extension to the Class Fodor Principle

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages.

We evaluate Fodor’s principle in two versions we name weaker and stronger. Neither is tautologous. By extension, the class Fodor principle is not tautologous. Because of this, using Kelly-Morse set theory as a basis for denial is rendered moot. However, to rely on KM set theory to deny Fodor principles as a class principle is obviated by the refutation above. Therefore Fodor’s causality principles and extension are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[149] viXra:1904.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 17:19:04

Stellar Metamorphosis: An Alternative to the Giant-Impact Hypothesis for Moon Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

An ad hoc proposition was made by scientists to form the Moon. In it, they state that the Earth was hit by an incredibly massive object, which then the moon formed out of as a giant blob of shrapnel. They hypothesized that in order to create the Moon, another object called Theia was needed which is of course an object that has never been observed, as well as a process that has never been observed. Alternatively, if stellar metamorphosis is used, the Moon can be explained as well as Venus's lack of one, in accordance to the observations found in the age of exoplanets.
Category: Astrophysics

[148] viXra:1904.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 17:28:04

The Error in the 1st Schwarzschild Exact Solution. Total Relativity and the Atom in the Generalization of the Schwarzschild and Reissner Nordström Solutions for Point Particle Energy.

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 7 Pages.

Is shown the field and energy momentum tensor solutions of the Total Relativity equations for a discretized distribution of point-particle energy with a shell in spherical symmetry. A generalization of the Schwarzschild and Reissner Nordström solutions with an equivalent of the spherical atomic model with shell, mass and electric charge in radial static distribution is obtained. An equivalence between mass, radial distance and electric charge is observed. The solution is vacuum with no singularities and points to incompleteness and error in the Schwarzschild Vacuum Solution due to the problem of total energy conservation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[147] viXra:1904.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-22 11:45:10

The Concept of Basic Clocks and Simultaneity in TSR

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 15 Pages.

The concept of ‘basic clocks’ was introduced in Hokstad (2018b). These are moving clocks to be applied in the theory of special relativity (TSR). They experience an initial synchronization at a common location, and provide the basis for defining time and simultaneity. Here we further motivate and elaborate the concept, e.g. by utilizing symmetry. We provide a general criterion of simultaneity, for any event on any reference frame of arbitrary velocity. Further we allow a chain of events with successive ‘initial synchronizations’. Such a feature is required in the ‘travelling twin’ example, in order to handle the turning of the twin. Finally, the approach is used to discuss the interpretation of the case of the µ-mesons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[146] viXra:1904.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 06:26:15

Optical Tweezer Make Phonon Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The device, which works in the mesoscopic mass range for the first time, might not only be used to help solve fundamental problems in quantum mechanics, it might also find use in precision metrology applications. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[145] viXra:1904.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 07:34:35

Theories of Everything in Physics About Extension of Relativity

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.

This manuscript includes the extension of relativity to describe the angle change effect of special relativity and derive relative angular velocity and rotational energy. This paper also gave charge relativity explanation to link the rotation matrix to Faraday tensor. It also propose a new Plank length and Plank unit and predict the fate of universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[144] viXra:1904.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 08:26:32

Как можно рассчитать ускоренное расширение Вселенной?

Authors: Елкин Игорь Владимирович
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Пространство квантуется. Хаббловское расширение делает все эти кванты-области не инерциальными. Это приводит к разным предельным скоростям в этих областях. Из-за этого возникает некая дополнительная сила.
Category: Astrophysics

[143] viXra:1904.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 08:28:57

Dipolar Quantum Supersolid Gasses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Three teams of researchers working independently of one another have shown that certain dipolar quantum gases are able to support a state of supersolid properties. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[142] viXra:1904.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 09:07:35

Time-Reversal Violation for Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[141] viXra:1904.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 09:44:41

Hierarchical RNN-Based Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers at Shanghai University have recently developed a new approach based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to predict scene graphs from images. [20] Computer scientists at Carnegie Mellon University say neural networks and supervised machine learning techniques can efficiently characterize cells that have been studied using single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[140] viXra:1904.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 10:14:33

DNA Copying Machine Recycling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Wollongong's (UOW) Molecular Horizons initiative have shed new light on how an important but not well understood protein goes about its vital role of reducing errors and mutations in DNA replication. [20] DNA is a lengthy molecule-approximately 1,000-fold longer than the cell in which it resides-so it can't be jammed in haphazardly. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[139] viXra:1904.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 10:46:02

Bekenstein Bound Action on the 3rd Cyclic Universe Produced MHCE8S Starting Energy for the 4th Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The starting energy for the 4th cyclic universe came from Bekenstein collapse energy produced by the 3rd cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[138] viXra:1904.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 10:32:31

Metal-Organic Framework Mimics DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The field of materials science has become abuzz with "metal-organic frameworks" (MOFs), versatile compounds made up of metal ions connected to organic ligands, thus forming one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. [21] Researchers at the University of Wollongong's (UOW) Molecular Horizons initiative have shed new light on how an important but not well understood protein goes about its vital role of reducing errors and mutations in DNA replication. [20] DNA is a lengthy molecule-approximately 1,000-fold longer than the cell in which it resides-so it can't be jammed in haphazardly. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[137] viXra:1904.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 11:06:35

Фикция в жизни и науке Унификация физических взаимодействий

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 10 Pages.

In the article, the author presents the basics of human consciousness. This is at the same time the basis on which the development of science rests. The author puts a special emphasis on the development of science about nature, and specifically on the development of theoretical physics. It shows the connection of science with logical thinking and experimental facts. But pays special attention to the fiction of chutzpah. Using this fiction in the twentieth century, scientists in the area of science about nature found themselves in a dead-end street. The author shows how one can return to the path of real development based on logical thinking.
Category: Classical Physics

[136] viXra:1904.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 17:18:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Some Thoughts on White Dwarf Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

I agree with Daniel Archer that pinching and magnetic constriction of interstellar material are what birth stars from the interstellar medium. This being said, gravitation, at first, has little effect during the very beginnings of a star's birthing process as gas in outer space would expand, not contract with gravity alone forming a star. Some ideas and reasoning is included in this paper about the nature of white dwarfs.
Category: Astrophysics

[135] viXra:1904.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-15 20:21:36

Human DNA Polymerase η is a Reverse Transcriptase

Authors: Andrew Franklin, Edward J Steele
Comments: 9 Pages.

We are molecular immunologists and immunogeneticists, and we have spent decades working with our collaborators on the mechanism of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation. We bring to your attention an important issue of scientific priority and thus maintenance of the integrity of the published scientific record. We have just become aware of two articles published recently in the Journal of Biological Chemistry that describe the reverse transcriptase activity of human DNA polymerase η (Su et al., 2017; Su et al., 2019). We would like it to be noted that clear priority for the demonstration of the reverse transcriptase activity of human DNA polymerase η was published previously by us in the journal Immunology and Cell Biology (Franklin et al., 2004). Please find the abstracts of all three articles below. We would appreciate that our note here be published without delay in the Journal of Biological Chemistry and linked to both articles (Su et al., 2017; Su et al., 2019) so that the scientific record is corrected. Our collaborators and colleagues in the international scientific community are following developments closely with us and we look forward to this matter being resolved promptly by publication of this letter and necessary attachments (see short list of supporting colleagues below). Yours sincerely, Andrew Franklin PhD, Edward J. Steele PhD References Franklin A., Milburn P.J., Blanden R.V., Steele E.J. (2004). Human DNA polymerase-η , an A-T mutator in somatic hypermutation of rearranged immunoglobulin genes, is a reverse transcriptase. Immunol Cell Biol 82, 219–25. Su Y., Egli M., Guengerich F.P. (2017). Human DNA polymerase η accommodates RNA for strand extension. J Biol Chem 292, 18044–51. Su Y., Ghodke P.P., Egli M., Li L., Wang Y., Guengerich F.P. (2019). Human DNA polymerase η has reverse transcriptase activity in cellular environments. J Biol Chem, in press (published on March 6, 2019).
Category: Biochemistry

[134] viXra:1904.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 19:20:15

Dark Matter Major Particle Predicted at 12.78 GeV

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In Sphere Theory, the universe is a sphere made of spheres. Most of these spheres are packed in a cuboctahedron structure, but there are inclusion and dislocation defects. As part of the theory the high mass particles come from combinations of the layers of the cuboctahedron structures. The mass of these layers is shown in this paper, but what is interesting, is that there is one layer, that should be the most stable layer, that is missing as a stand-alone layer. Since this layer is one of the major layers for the first 3 dimensional object in the creation of the universe, which is the number of spheres on the 2nd layer of a cuboctahedron, it is proposed here, that it will be the mass of one of the most major components of dark matter. Why is it dark matter? It would be dark matter, because it would be one of the fractals of a stability region in the universe. The actual prediction for this major component of dark matter would be about 12.78 GeV. Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between the larger mass quarks and bosons, and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres. The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[133] viXra:1904.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 19:37:00

Refutation of Temporal Type Theory (TTT), Temporal Landscapes, and Scott’s Topology

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

From a footnote, and then a three part definition, temporal type theory (TTT), and then temporal landscapes for open sets are not tautologous and hence refuted. That further refutes Scott’s topology. These results therefore form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[132] viXra:1904.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 20:09:23

Unification of Electromagnetism, Weak Gravitation, and Classical and Quantum Mechanics by Diamond Equations

Authors: Hideki Mutoh
Comments: 4 Pages.

It was found that electromagnetic and weak gravitational fields can be unified by diamond equations, which is one of extended Maxwell’s equations. Classical mechanics is derived from the diamond equation for weak gravitational field by assuming that gravitational wave is not generated under the condition of stable motion. Quantum mechanics is derived from the same equation by assuming that the square of total energy consists of square of total momentum, square of the mass, and imaginary part of the energy creation-annihilation rate.
Category: Classical Physics

[131] viXra:1904.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 22:57:13

Solving the Black Hole Information Paradox

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

I show an issue with an experiment involving the event horizon of a black hole, and use it to solve the black hole information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[130] viXra:1904.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 23:23:48

The Toxic Scientists

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 334 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“If you can not put your name on an equation you are not a scientist” Adrian Ferent “The toxic scientists are those who work, publish, promote… wrong theories” Adrian Ferent “In mankind history few scientists were right, the majority were wrong about their theories” Adrian Ferent “Today like yesterday a lot of scientists in packs work on wrong theories” Adrian Ferent The most difficult theory is Gravitation. “Working at Planck scale on Quantum gravity is not easy, that is why a lot of scientists in packs work on wrong Gravitation theories” Adrian Ferent “The packs of scientists are toxic for science when they promote wrong theories, because they block the right theories at universities, in peer-reviewed journals, in media…” Adrian Ferent Copernicus against toxic scientists confirmed that the Earth revolved around in the Sun. Ludwig Boltzmann was ‘killed’ by toxic scientists. “Scientists who worked on wrong Gravitation theory must do something else; they are like engineers who worked on wrong aircraft, like managers who destroy companies, like toxic leaders who destroy countries” Adrian Ferent “Scientists who are not capable to work with Planck units, they can work with atoms in chemistry, medicine, biology, technology, they can work in mathematics to build wrong models, they can work in economics, they can work in AI…” Adrian Ferent For example: In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory axions do not exist. Dark matter experiment finds no evidence of axions. Scientists in peer-reviewed journals published a lot of wrong articles about axions. 10 of my discoveries: 1. I unified Matter, Dark Matter with an equation 2. I unified Matter, Dark Matter and Spiritual Matter with the Universe equations 3. I discovered the first Transdisciplinarity equation, the Soul equation 4. I am the first who discovered that the Gravitons and the Dark Photons are faster than light; the Gravitational waves are Gravitons 5. I discovered a new Gravitation theory based on Gravitons, which breaks the wall of Planck scale; I am the first who quantized the Gravitational Field. 6. I am the first who unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f. Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν 7. I discovered Ferent equation for elementary particles; Standard model is wrong, do not explain Gravitation and heavier elementary particles have more Dark Matter. 8. I discovered a new Evolution theory based on consciousness evolution. 9. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by Black Holes, they change Matter in Dark Matter inside the Black Holes; this explains the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy. 10. I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole. A Black Hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the Black Hole. “For scientists Spiritual Matter doesn’t exist; they do not understand Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The majority of scientists live inside packs, teams and they discover wrong things in science” Adrian Ferent “A new Gravitation theory is not accepted at conferences, only the old wrong theories” Adrian Ferent “For scientists Dark Matter and Gravitation are very difficult topics; for scientists Spiritual Matter is an impossible topic” Adrian Ferent “The professors are not accountable for the wrong theories at universities, because the students do not ask the money back for wrong theories” Adrian Ferent “The majority of scientists want money doing nothing, like government money at CERN” Adrian Ferent You learned that Dark Matter is ‘invisible’, is ‘transparent’! In Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Matter is not ‘invisible’, is not ‘transparent’. Einstein did not understand Gravitation, that is why String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. About these theories there are a lot of books, articles in peer-reviewed journals, courses at universities… “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent LIGO: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent Hawking did not understand Gravitation, Black Holes, Dark Matter and God! The equation on his gravestone is wrong. “Hawking radiation doesn’t exist” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity at Event horizon there are Gravitons; Virtual particles do not exist” Adrian Ferent The scientists do not understand how the Sun was formed! You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that formation of the Sun was triggered by shockwaves from one or more nearby supernovae, or by waves of energy traveling through space pressed clouds of such particles closer together! “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the gravitational field created by Dark Matter collapsed the gas and dust within a region and the Sun was formed.” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about Gravitation, Black Holes, Dark Matter… is wrong” Adrian Ferent "The value of your brain is given by your discoveries" Adrian Ferent “It is important what you discovered not what you memorized” Adrian Ferent “The Ego is the missing consciousness” Adrian Ferent “The Wise was born wise” Adrian Ferent
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[129] viXra:1904.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 03:37:45

About Parity Conservation

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

According to contemporary physics the conservation law of parity states that parity is conserved in electromagnetism, strong interactions and gravity. In weak interactions the parity can be violated. This article shows that violation of parity conservation in the weak interactions is apparent. In reality, parity is also conserved in weak interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[128] viXra:1904.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 02:30:37

From Turbulence to the Unification of Maxwell Field and Gravitational Field (Back to the Roots)

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 151 Pages. corrected formula-typing-errors

The central focus of the theory lies on the solution of the since more than 165 years unsolved problem of turbulence. To achieve this aim the following interstations are reached successfully: 1. definition of a pure continuum corresponding uniquely to a fluid, 2. stochastic turbulent particle transport by a fluctuating continuum, 3. context of deterministic turbulence and its stochastic counterpart in the sense of an ensemble theory. The result turns out to be geometrodynamics: 1. a pure geometrodynamics of turbulence in a 1+3-dimensional Euclidian Space, 2. a pure geometrodynamics of deformation. Both geometrodynmics lead to 1. evolution equations of General Relativity, 2. the quantitative unification of Maxwell Field and Gravitational Field, 3. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields, 4. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective. The importance of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[127] viXra:1904.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 06:06:28

Quantum Superposition Futures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 97 Pages.

A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[126] viXra:1904.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 07:50:28

Gene Regulation Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of biologists and computer scientists has mapped out a network of interactions for how plant genes coordinate their response to nitrogen, a crucial nutrient and the main component of fertilizer. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[125] viXra:1904.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 08:08:55

Genetic Causes of Poor Sleep

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

The largest genetic study of its kind ever to use accelerometer data to examine how we slumber has uncovered a number of parts of our genetic code that could be responsible for causing poor sleep quality and duration. [24] A team of biologists and computer scientists has mapped out a network of interactions for how plant genes coordinate their response to nitrogen, a crucial nutrient and the main component of fertilizer. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[124] viXra:1904.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 08:30:11

Light and Sound Treat Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Not much is known about the course of events leading to Alzheimer’s disease, but the formation of toxic β-amyloid plaques and phosphorylated tau proteins have long been described as major hallmarks of the disease. [34] Neurobiologists Cátia Frias and Corette Wierenga have studied the formation of inhibitory synapses, a complex process that occurs when the brain adapts. Their research uncovered an astonishing link to autism. [33]
Category: Mind Science

[123] viXra:1904.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 09:03:13

Unexpected Rain on Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Computer simulations predicted the coronal rain could be found there. Observations of the solar wind, the gas escaping from the Sun and out into space, hinted that the rain might be happening. [20] The sun's magnetic field is ten times stronger than previously believed, new research from Queen's University Belfast and Aberystwyth University has revealed. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[122] viXra:1904.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 09:10:07

Hoаw Can You Calculate the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Space is quantized. The Hubble extension makes all these areas non-inertial. Limit speeds in these areas will be different. Because of this, there is some extra force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[121] viXra:1904.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 09:55:15

Student Quiz Denied as a Paradox and Refuted as a Conjecture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We assume the teacher is veracious and evaluate the assertion “There is possibly a quiz next week on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday.” It is not tautologous, hence denying it is a paradox and refuting it as a conjecture. Therefore the student quiz paradox is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[120] viXra:1904.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 11:09:44

Photons and Polarization

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 13 Pages. First draft

Light consists of photons, not waves, and yet virtually every article and textbook about light polarization describes and uses illustrations of light as consisting of waves. This article is an attempt to analyze, illustrate and explain how light photons can be visualized, how they work, and how they can be polarized.
Category: Classical Physics

[119] viXra:1904.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 14:40:11

A Tentative of The Proof of The ABC Conjecture - Case c=a+1

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 10 Pages. Submitted to the journal Research In Number Theory. Comments welcome.

In this paper, we consider the $abc$ conjecture in the case $c=a+1$. Firstly, we give the proof of the first conjecture that $c rad(ac)$. We choose the constant $K(\epsilon)$ as $K(\epsilon)=e^{\ds \left(\frac{1}{\epsilon^2} \right)}$. A numerical example is presented.}
Category: Number Theory

[118] viXra:1904.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 17:06:59

“Fuzzy Time”, a Solution of Unexpected Hanging Paradox (a Fuzzy Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics)

Authors: Farzad Didehvar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Although Fuzzy logic and Fuzzy Mathematics is a widespread subject and there is a vast literature about it, yet the use of Fuzzy issues like Fuzzy sets and Fuzzy numbers was relatively rare in time concept. This could be seen in the Fuzzy time series. In addition, some attempts are done in fuzzifying Turing Machines but seemingly there is no need to fuzzify time. Throughout this article, we try to change this picture and show why it is helpful to consider the instants of time as Fuzzy numbers. In physics, though there are revolutionary ideas on the time concept like B theories in contrast to A theory also about central concepts like space, momentum… it is a long time that these concepts are changed, but time is considered classically in all well-known and established physics theories. Seemingly, we stick to the classical time concept in all fields of science and we have a vast inertia to change it. Our goal in this article is to provide some bases why it is rational and reasonable to change and modify this picture. Here, the central point is the modified version of “Unexpected Hanging” paradox as it is described in "Is classical Mathematics appropriate for theory of Computation".This modified version leads us to a contradiction and based on that it is presented there why some problems in Theory of Computation are not solved yet. To resolve the difficulties arising there, we have two choices. Either “choosing” a new type of Logic like “Paraconsistent Logic” to tolerate contradiction or changing and improving the time concept and consequently to modify the “Turing Computational Model”. Throughout this paper, we select the second way for benefiting from saving some aspects of Classical Logic. In chapter 2, by applying quantum Mechanics and Schrodinger equation we compute the associated fuzzy number to time.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[117] viXra:1904.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-12 08:29:39

Time - The Equivalence of Gravitational and Inertial Mass

Authors: Tony Collins
Comments: 8 Pages.

Gravity, the force that attracts all, and inertia - the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate. Are two separate and distinct phenomena, yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. Starting from first principles and general assumptions, we present a heuristic argument that provides an explanation for this equivalence, as well as an in-depth understanding of how time is the responsible underlining mechanism and why. To accomplish this, we took a step back and reanalyzed the nature of time, which subsequently led to an undeniable conclusion about the universe and time’s role within it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[116] viXra:1904.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-07 08:03:46

Fresnel Law Awesome Consequences

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 5 Pages. Special Theory of Relativity is disproved and removed.

Not only that the Relative-Velocity Completion of Newton Gravity Law has replaced the General Theory of Relativity (without pointing to any inconsistency or disagreement with experiment), but, herein, also removes the Special Theory of Relativity, via the Fresnel law on his hypothetical ether. We extend Fresnel’s law to vector form, by postulation, and using the gravitational index of refraction apply it to account for Michelson type experiments (including Miller’s). Reasons to resort to the Lorentz transformations, i.e., to the special theory of relativity, to account for the Michelson-Morley experiment do no more exist. Keywords: Fresnel law; Fresnel law vector generalized; Michelson-Morley experiment; Miller experiment.
Category: Classical Physics

[115] viXra:1904.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-23 10:59:28

Probability of Immortality and God’s Existence. A Mathematical Perspective

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 11 Pages.

What are the probabilities that this universe is repeated exactly the same with you in it again? Is God invented by human imagination or is the result of human intuition? The intuition that the same laws/mechanisms (evolution, stability winning probability) that have created something like the human being capable of self-awareness and controlling its surroundings, could create a being capable of controlling all what it exists? Will be the characteristics of the next universes random or tend to something? All these questions that with different shapes (but the same essence) have been asked by hu-man beings from the beginning of times will be developed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[114] viXra:1904.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 07:54:12

IoT for the Failure of Climate-Change Mitigation and Adaptation and IIoT as a Future Solution

Authors: Nesma Abd El-Mawla, Mahmoud Badawy, Hesham Arafat
Comments: 10 Pages.

Day after day the world stuck more and more in wars, pollution and so many other risk that threaten the environment. With a population of more than 7.3 billion, the planet suffers from continuous damage from human activity. As a result of these human distortions, climate change is one of the most fatal challenges that face the world. Climate Change won’t be stopped or slowed by a single action, but with the help of too many small contributions from different fields, it will have an impressive impact. Changing to electricity generation, manufacturing, and transportation generate most headlines, but the technology field can also play a critical role. The Internet of Things (IoT) in particular, has the potential to reduce greenhouse emissions and help slow the rise of global temperatures. IoT includes more than super brilliant new gadgets and smart widgets. It also influences the Earth's condition, from its available resources to its climate. In this paper we are showing that technology itself could be the tool will save the world if we take advantage of it. Environmental monitoring is a broad application for the Internet of Things (IoT). It involves everything from watching levels of ozone in a meat packing facility to watching national forests for smoke. These solutions are the first step toward creating a numerous connected infrastructures to support innovative services, better flexibility and efficiency. We also make a spot on Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and its challenges as the future is for it.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[113] viXra:1904.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 08:34:40

Masses in Spacetime

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in our previous paper we noted that space is the envelope of masses and that time is the effects done till the rupture of time now we will study how masses interact with space time lets study first why masses accelerate in space now imagine having three types of masses in the universe a mass that is sprinkled in the universe in the form of electromagnetic waves and masses that are agglomerated together in groups and masses that are in blackholes now when we look at the first case we find that electromagnetic waves are taking the whole volume of the universes space and that means that they cover the whole space and so the effect of time of space time is not much and cannot make it accelerate now in masses agglomerated together in groups we find that masses do not take the whole space and so time of spacetime effects starts to happen much intensively and so the agglomerated mass start to escape its own domain shared with other masses and thus they accelerate away from each other now in blackholes the effect of time of spacetime on black holes is left to conclude that they only happen because of the expansion of the agglomerated masses
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[112] viXra:1904.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 08:36:03

Ramanujan Value of Ln(x) When X Tends to Zero

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 3 Pages.

As we know, the natural logarithm at zero diverges, towards minus infinity: lim┬(x→0)⁡〖Ln(x)〗=-∞ But, as happens with other functions or series that diverge at some points, it has a Ramanujan or Cauchy principal value (a finite value) associated to that point. In this case, it will be calculated to be: lim┬(x→0)⁡〖Ln(x)〗=-γ Being γ the Euler-Mascheroni constant 0.577215... It will be shown that Ln(0) tends to the negative of the sum of the harmonic series (that of course, diverges). But the harmonic series has a Cauchy principal value that is γ, the Euler-Mascheroni constant. So the finite associated value to Ln(0) will be calculated as - γ .
Category: Functions and Analysis

[111] viXra:1904.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 08:37:46

Unified Field Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.electromagnetic waves are taking the whole of the universe and space is in equilibrium with electromagnetic waves 2.electromagnetic waves are increased more than the equilubrium status of electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic waves are not in equilibrium with space and they start needing more space and time starts to act up by making the electromagnetic waves collapse on themselves into masses and the masses are expanding in space at the same time 3.masses reach a very large space and so they explode and form electromagnetic waves and they be at their best equilibrium /on 2 when the electromagnetic waves become collapsed on themselves they are doing gravitation and when they are expanding they are doing anti gravitation /we want to understand electrostatics /just like gravitation and antigravitation when we look at masses being compressed by gravitation and expanded by having more space we end up having electrostatic charges that keep atomic particles attracted so to sum it up there are four forces here 1.the force of expansion or repulsion(antigravitation) 2.the force of compression or attraction(gravitation) 3.the force of repulsion between charges(due to the masses as expanding in space would find more space and thus want to expand away from each other(but that doesnt happen more due to the force no. 2 the force of compression)) 4.the force of attraction between charges(due to the masses being compressed towards each other by time(something that is more than the force no.1 the force of expansion))
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:1904.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 08:54:35

Negative Capacitance Perovskite

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

On the verge of outcompeting current thin-film solar cells, perovskite solar cells seem to embody an ideal solar cell with high efficiency and low cost.
Category: Condensed Matter

[109] viXra:1904.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 09:17:01

Kaon Lifetime and Decay

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

The Standard Model presumes that there are two different types of neutral kaons, i.e., short-lived KS kaons which decay to 2 pions and long-lived kaons KL which decay to 3 pions. This article shows that in reality there is only one type of neutral kaons. The lifetime of kaons depends on their velocity in the gravity field. The fast kaons have more energy, more lifetime and therefore they can decay to 3 pions. If the fast kaons slow down they lose energy and therefore can decay only to 2 pions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[108] viXra:1904.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 09:18:19

Nanotechnology Enhanced Biochip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Nanotechnology Enhanced Biochip With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[107] viXra:1904.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 09:38:37

Laser Sheds Light on Nanoparticle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[106] viXra:1904.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 10:56:43

Can We Have an Observer-Independent Description of Physical Reality?

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 22 Pages.

Classical physics assumes that the things exist independently of an act of observation; however, quantum theory suggests that the apparent form of quantum system emerges as a consequence of an act of observation. However, quantum theory is silent on the state of the systems prior to the act of observation. It assumes that the wavefunction collapses as a consequence of an act of observation but does not explain the mechanism of the collapse of wavefunction. Therefore, it is at least incomplete, if not incorrect. In this paper, we have shown that our understanding of the nature of physical reality is based on the false premise that we observe the physical entities, but the mechanism of perception is such that we can only perceive the information generated by the physical entities, not the physical entities. As per the current understanding of the process of perception, the brain projects the information it receives from the sense organs in the physical forms. Therefore, the entity that generates the information must preexist before it can be projected in the physical form. We do not perceive the actual Moon. The apparent form of the Moon is only a projection created by our brain. The apparent form is only a manifestation of something that generates information, but that cannot be observed directly. In the light of this observation, it becomes necessary to examine if we can establish causal relationships between events assuming that the place and time and events are observer independent. Apart from using the criterion prescribed by the EPR paper, we have also used these two methods to determine if we can have an observer independent description of reality. We have shown that an entity must have observer independent values of the physical quantities, but the act of measurement only reveals the observer dependent values of the physical quantities even in the macro world. We have confirmed our observations experimentally as well as through the observation of the natural phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[105] viXra:1904.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 11:52:36

Stellar Metamorphosis: Where are the Stars Earth Orbited in the Past?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Earth did not always orbit the Sun, because the Sun is at least 100 times younger than the Earth. So the question arises, where are all the stars Earth used to orbit if the Sun was not always in the picture? The reader will realize in this paper the Sun is a foster host, as were many others. As well, we are dealing with a solar system that has a deep, deep history, and a certain strangeness that is now addressed with clarity.
Category: Astrophysics

[104] viXra:1904.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 14:00:21

The Surprise Exam Paradox: Students Should be Surprised on Wednesday or Tuesday.

Authors: Tomonori Hirasa
Comments: 2 Pages.

The students in the surprise exam story reasoned that no surprise exam could take place on any day of the week. Actually, however, the students were surprised on Wednesday by the teacher's surprise exam. In this paper, we show where the students' reasoning went wrong and that students should be surprised on Wednesday or Tuesday.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[103] viXra:1904.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 15:05:52

Spinning Sphere Theory May Describe Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In Spinning Sphere Theory, the universe is spinning and the universe is a sphere made of spheres. When packing spheres in a spherical shape many imperfections or discontinuities are formed. These are postulated to be the basis for matter. These discontinuities end up being close to the surface area of the sphere which is calculated in “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”[6] When one calculates the total mass and the Lorentz mass from a rotating the universe the total mass ends up being pi times the rest mass. This Lorentz mass is postulated to be equivalent to the dark energy that is postulated in an expanding universe, but in the Spinning Sphere Theory, the universe is static, in the sense that it is not expanding. The dark energy fraction equal to the Lorentz fraction=(pi-1)/pi*100 percent=68.169 percent. Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5). This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size. Calculations
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] viXra:1904.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 20:31:07

Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves) Time And Distance Values Can Be Equivalent In Higher Velocity i.e. Time & Distance Values Equivalence Is Occurred As A Relativistic Effect. Briefly …. When a particle moves with high velocity (near to light velocity), So this particle may suffer from the following effects: 1-Mass Increasing 2-Length Contraction 3-Time Dilation 4-Time & Distance Values Equivalence Point No. 4 is my conclusion I have reach through The Solar Planets Data Analysis - This paper tries to prove this fact that (Time and Distance Values can be equivalent – In Higher Velocity)
Category: Astrophysics

[101] viXra:1904.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 20:47:50

Quantum Theory of the Development of Science, Economic and Society.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 41 Pages.

This paper discusses the wave description in biology, chemistry and economics. Using quantum mechanics to study social processes, it was shown that the economic waves of N. Kondratiev are theoretically derived from the quantum theory of the development of science and society. The use of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for social phenomena shows that the development of society is conceptually probabilistic in nature and cannot be strictly predicted in principle (given the mathematical formula). The rejection of the “time arrow” at the quantum level leads to the conclusion that “time in our world” is a definite “averaging and transformation” of periodic quantum processes at the fundamental level. It also shows the impossibility of achieving technological singularity and the creation of artificial intelligence like human.
Category: Economics and Finance

[100] viXra:1904.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 21:12:45

A Note on the Arbelos in Wasan Geometry, Satoh's Problem and a Circle Pattern

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 3 Pages.

We generalize a problem in Wasan geometry involving an arbelos, and construct a self-similar circle pattern.
Category: Geometry

[99] viXra:1904.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 05:52:10

Pioneer 10 Anomaly, the Surprising Final Explanation

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Pioneer 10 anomaly, discovered at the end of the 70's by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a supplemental acceleration, in addition to the normal gravity from the solar system, acting on the probe with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s². I calculated here that the value of this anomaly is surprisingly exactly equal to the difference between the result given by the Doppler relativistic formula based on the Einstein's second postulate (used by JPL), and the result given by the Doppler classic Galilean velocity addition formula.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[98] viXra:1904.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 07:26:31

Black Nanoparticles Slow Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[97] viXra:1904.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 08:13:02

Machine Learning Molecular Water

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A new study from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has achieved a breakthrough in the effort to mathematically represent how water behaves. [26] A new tool is drastically changing the face of chemical research-artificial intelligence. In a new paper published in Nature, researchers review the rapid progress in machine learning for the chemical sciences. [25] A new type of artificial-intelligence-driven chemistry could revolutionise the way molecules are discovered, scientists claim. [24] Tired of writing your own boring code for new software? Finally, there's an AI that can do it for you. [23] Welcome to Move Mirror, where you move in front of your webcam. [22] Understanding how a robot will react under different conditions is essential to guaranteeing its safe operation. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[96] viXra:1904.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 08:42:48

Photons Trained for Optical Fiber

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Singtel, Asia's leading communications technology group, have demonstrated a technique that will help pairs of light particles smoothly navigate these networks, a breakthrough that will enable stronger cyber security. [36] Researchers of the Institute of Photonic Integration of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) have developed a 'hybrid technology' which shows the advantages of both light and magnetic hard drives. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[95] viXra:1904.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 09:07:38

Pin-Sized Sensor Bring Chemical ID

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Imagine pointing your smartphone at a salty snack you found at the back of your pantry and immediately knowing if its ingredients had turned rancid. [37] Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Singtel, Asia's leading communications technology group, have demonstrated a technique that will help pairs of light particles smoothly navigate these networks, a breakthrough that will enable stronger cyber security. [36] Researchers of the Institute of Photonic Integration of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) have developed a 'hybrid technology' which shows the advantages of both light and magnetic hard drives. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[94] viXra:1904.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 09:41:40

Laser Detecting Pollution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Researchers at EPFL have come up with a new middle infrared light source that can detect greenhouse and other gases, as well as molecules in a person's breath. [38] Imagine pointing your smartphone at a salty snack you found at the back of your pantry and immediately knowing if its ingredients had turned rancid. [37] Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Singtel, Asia's leading communications technology group, have demonstrated a technique that will help pairs of light particles smoothly navigate these networks, a breakthrough that will enable stronger cyber security. [36] Researchers of the Institute of Photonic Integration of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) have developed a 'hybrid technology' which shows the advantages of both light and magnetic hard drives. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[93] viXra:1904.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 09:50:38

Gravitational and Gravity Constans , and Their Physical Interpretation.

Authors: Markos Georgallides
Comments: 73 Pages.

In Mechanics Work = Energy = motion is [Force] x[Displacement] and is conserved . In order Motion is conserved as Displacement in all directions , then Displacement must be kept , Quantized , in a Finite Space differently is annihilated .The only possible motion in a Finite -Space is the Periodic-excitation [→ ←] and Revolving motion [(+)↻↺(-)] which is proved define the quality of Particles . Periodic excitation between Space (+) and Anti-Space (-) , may exist only as Collision of Opposite , and this because of the equal and opposite Point-charges that are infinitely close together which create Coulomb Electric dipole-moment in an Electric-field . Motion is captured in a [Box-P] called Stationary-Material-point containing these three elements [ (+) ,[↔], (-)] which are , Space , Energy , Anti-space . The Spin of this Dipole is Stationary and is proved to be the Gravity g . Revolving motion may exist between Space (+) and Anti-Space (-) so the Revolving of Two-Points A(+) and B(-) consist the Material-Point in Segment r = |AB| , and carries the Principal stress , σ , between , A , B , which stress σ as Centripetal acceleration is the Centripetal-force and the minimum Energy becoming from the in-storage [AB] acceleration and is proved to be equal to the Gravity-wave , g . The continually produced Work in this [Box-R] is stored in it as the Golden-ratio-frequency-motion , not eternally but Partially , and the rest superfluous motion is launched out the Box as an Propagating Electromagnetic-Wave , which Out-Wave carries the [Box–R] , and it is called the Photon . Local Spin of [Box-P] is oriented to that of [Box-R] , by a Local-uniform Pressure equal to , g * [Force/Area] = G , which is Newton-Universal-Gravitational-constant G force , such for Macrocosm as for Microcosm , and for both cases Obeying Newton`s Laws of motion . It was Proved that Force G is the Pressure on Gravity g , the First-kick-Start , to Enter Planck-cave and formulate in orbit of Planck`s cave , the lightest and the less-mass Particle of this universe which is the Hydrogen-cave . In the Undamped Planck`s – Conservative -System , Total-Energy of , -13,6 eV , of Hydrogen , corresponds to the Natural-frequency of the Primary-Particle with the less Negative-charge-frequency, and this is The Electron , e , which mass and frequency follows min.- g . In the Extreme -Three-Body-Problem case ,where any two massive bodies infinitely close together consist a Slit , The-Slit-Focus , is then created a New Structure for Atom as in article [77] which Properties and Configuration anomalies dependent on , e , p , n , numbers. Since Force G is a Uniform-Pointy–Force , therefore needs a Conductor , a Layer , a kind of mass , to be spread and act on it as Stress = Surface-force , which is the Layer or the Conductor of Spin S , or the Stress g , and this because of Stress-Layer, g , where all the Energy-Structures present mass . Gravity acceleration , g , produced from the in Material-points acceleration is equal to the pressure , σ , i.e. the Conductor to all Waves as , Force G - ON-Layer - A , [A = m x g] , = Gravity .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[92] viXra:1904.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 11:08:53

Experiments2

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

experiments
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[91] viXra:1904.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 12:08:38

Time Dilatation: Real or Apparent?

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures

In contemporary physics the relativity theory states that the length of moving bodies contracts and the local time of a moving system dilates. This paper discloses an analysis of basic relativity equations which show that length contraction and time dilatation are apparent.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[90] viXra:1904.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 14:51:28

Security and Key Management Challenges Over WSN (a Survey)

Authors: Nesma Abd El-mawla, Mahmoud Badawy, Hesham Arafat
Comments: 20 Pages.

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have turned to be the backbone of most present-day information technology, which supports the service-oriented architecture in a major activity. Sensor nodes and its restricted and limited resources have been a real challenge because there’s a great engagement with sensor nodes and Internet Of things (IoT). WSN is considered to be the base stone of IoT which has been widely used recently in too many applications like smart cities, industrial internet, connected cars, connected health care systems, smart grids, smart farming and it's widely used in both military and civilian applications now, such as monitoring of ambient conditions related to the environment, precious species and critical infrastructures. Secure communication and data transfer among the nodes are strongly needed due to the use of wireless technologies that are easy to eavesdrop, in order to steal its important information. However, is hard to achieve the desired performance of both WSNs and IoT and many critical issues about sensor networks are still open. The major research areas in WSN is going on hardware, operating system of WSN, localization, synchronization, deployment, architecture, programming models, data aggregation and dissemination, database querying, architecture, middleware, quality of service and security. In This paper we discuss in detail all about Wireless Sensor Networks, its classification, types, topologies, attack models and the nodes and all related issues and complications. We also preview too many challenges about sensor nodes and the proposed solutions till now and we make a spot ongoing research activities and issues that affect security and performance of Wireless Sensor Network as well. Then we discuss what’s meant by security objectives, requirements and threat models. Finally, we make a spot on key management operations, goals, constraints, evaluation metrics, different encryption key types and dynamic key management schemes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[89] viXra:1904.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-09 12:13:38

A Neoclassical Model of Nature

Authors: J Mark Morris
Comments: 3 Pages.

A neoclassical model of nature is proposed, based upon two equal and opposite fundamental particles. These particles may also be considered as conserved excitations. This model is derived from thought experiment and re-interpretation of modern physics and cosmology. A parsimonious neoclassical model of nature is proposed where the electrino ε- and positrino ε+ are the basis of all matter, the carriers of all energy, and form a superfluid gas which permeates most of the universe. At high energies matter and gas change phase to plasma wherein general relativity does not apply. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics include the electrino, positrino, nor graviton particles. The neoclassical model informs solutions to many open problems in physics and cosmology. A new narrative emerges that requires recasting and reframing the interpretations of experimental results and theory from physics, cosmology, and astronomy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[88] viXra:1904.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 17:52:35

Why Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Best regards When I have discovered that.. Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance I have asked Why? But the usual answer was …… It's Pure coincidence….! Later I have discovered more equalities….As the following: 1.Saturn Orbital Distance = Mars Orbital Circumference = Pluto Eccentricity distance = Saturn Uranus Distance = 1433.5 million km 2.Mercury Saturn Distance = Neptune Pluto Distance = 1375 million km 3.Saturn Pluto Distance = Mercury Neptune Distance = 4436.5 million km Then I have asked again… why These Distances Are Equal? Is there a geometrical reason behind?…but the usual answer always be …. " Pure Coincidences" The question wasn't so simple and the answer was mentioned…. I ask clearly… are the solar planets members in the same body? or parts in the same building?- shortly are the solar group as the human hand and the fingers are similar to the planets? means the planets are created and moving depending on each other because all of them consist one machine –one body –one building – one geometrical structure – means the planets aren't separated from each other– but connected with each other. (that means the space between the planets is a method to connect each planet with others and not to separate each planet from the others)…. This is my question aim! And the current theory understood that clearly… And told also a clear answer … that Any solar planet is separated from the others - each planet is found and move independently.. So the two visions are clear before our eyes ……And the fighting is clear also…. The Solar Group Classical Vision: tells us that… the planet is created independently and move by gravity with the sun without effect of the other solar planets…. My Suggested Vision Is: The Solar Group is one body – one machine – one building – one geometrical structure – No Planet can be found or move independently from the other planets …. Even the sun herself can't be found without the solar planets… we deal here with one machine – one geometrical structure- so if this geometrical structure has many elements we should be wise enough to see that these elements are members in the same geometrical structure and this structure is found by the cooperation and integration of his members….. We should fight to prove that we are correct and the current theory is mistaken… Please read the argument…
Category: Astrophysics

[87] viXra:1904.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 20:54:25

On Olbers Paradox

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we discuss a possibility to resolve Olbers paradox that states that if the universe is static, infinite and distributed over with an infinite number of stars then the sky should always be brightly illuminated, and obviously, this contradicts with the observed darkness of the night. Our discussion is based on the observation that matter seems to be distributed mainly on the boundaries of geometric and topological structures in the spatiotemporal continuum, which can be formulated in terms of a CW complex composed of n-cells. And in the case of the three-dimensional observable universe the observation can be justified from our work on the spacetime transcription of physical fields that shows that massive matter can only be formed as three-dimensional objects and all four-dimensional physical fields must have the structure of a static electromagnetic field. From the analysis of the possibility of physical creation from spacetime through the process of transcription we may conclude that most of the observable massive matter are formed and distributed on the boundary, which may be composed of 3D balls, of a 3-sphere and therefore the Oblers paradox can be resolved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[86] viXra:1904.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 23:10:51

Denial of Summers’ Malice and Alice as a Logical Puzzle

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

The clauses of the Malice and Alice logical puzzle of Summers are mapped for evaluation of the conjecture. It should return tautology for all pairwise answers, before removing pairs of the antecedent to discover the correct pair of murder and victim. However, the conjecture is not tautologous, albeit one value shy. This means the puzzle as rendered is not well formed, thereby denying the status of a puzzle. Therefore the conjecture is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[85] viXra:1904.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 00:57:16

Discovery on Beal Conjecture

Authors: Idriss Olivier Bado
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we give a proof for Beal's conjecture . Since the discovery of the proof of Fermat's last theorem by Andre Wiles, several questions arise on the correctness of Beal's conjecture. By using a very rigorous method we come to the proof. Let $ \mathbb{G}=\{(x,y,z)\in \mathbb{N}^{3}: \min(x,y,z)\geq 3\}$ $\Omega_{n}=\{ p\in \mathbb{P}: p\mid n , p \nmid z^{y}-y^{z}\}$ , $$\mathbb{T}=\{(x,y,z)\in \mathbb{N}^{3}: x\geq 3,y\geq 3,z\geq 3\}$$ $\forall(x,y,z) \in \mathbb{T}$ consider the function $f_{x,y,z}$ be the function defined as : $$\begin{array}{ccccc} f_{x,y,z} & : \mathbb{N}^{3}& &\to & \mathbb{Z}\\ & & (X,Y,Z) & \mapsto & X^{x}+Y^{y}-Z^{z}\\ \end{array}$$ Denote by $$\mathbb{E}^{x,y,z}=\{(X,Y,Z)\in \mathbb{N}^{3}:f_{x,y,z}(X,Y,Z)=0\}$$ and $\mathbb{U}=\{(X,Y,Z)\in \mathbb{N}^{3}: \gcd(X,Y)\geq2,\gcd(X,Z)\geq2,\gcd(Y,Z)\geq2\}$ Let $ x=\min(x,y,z)$ . The obtained result show that :if $ A^{x}+B^{y}=C^{z}$ has a solution and $ \Omega_{A}\not=\emptyset$, $\forall p \in \Omega_{A}$ , $$ Q(B,C)=\sum_{j=1}^{x-1}[\binom{y}{j}B^{j}-\binom{z}{j}C^{j}]$$ has no solution in $(\frac{\mathbb{Z}}{p^{x}\mathbb{Z}})^{2}\setminus\{(\overline{0},\overline{0})\} $ Using this result we show that Beal's conjecture is true since $$ \bigcup_{(x,y,z)\in\mathbb{T}}\mathbb{E}^{x,y,z}\cap \mathbb{U}\not=\emptyset$$ Then $\exists (\alpha,\beta,\gamma)\in \mathbb{N}^{3}$ such that $\min(\alpha,\beta,\gamma)\leq 2$ and $\mathbb{E}^{\alpha,\beta,\gamma}\cap \mathbb{U}=\emptyset$ The novel techniques use for the proof can be use to solve the variety of Diophantine equations . We provide also the solution to Beal's equation . Our proof can provide an algorithm to generate solution to Beal's equation
Category: Number Theory

[84] viXra:1904.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 04:01:07

Big Look at Tiny Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

In a recent paper, a team led by Constantia Alexandrou at the University of Cyprus modeled the location of one of the subatomic particles inside a proton, using only the basic theory of the strong interactions that hold matter together rather than assuming these particles would act as they had in experiments. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[83] viXra:1904.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 05:33:39

Mass Deficit and Topology of Nucleons

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

Nucleus is identical with the lower inverse electric-nuclear field where a rapid increase of its potential occurs with a corresponding reduction of the space cohesive pressure, resulting to the mass deficit of the neutron entering the nucleus and to the finding of its location potential. Therefore, the so called topology of the nucleons can be now found. So, the neutrons are stable into the lower inverse nuclear field where a reduced cohesive pressure prevails. Moreover, there would be no nuclei without the presence of neutrons that reduce the negativity of the protons field, while neutrons are those that move into the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) on circular orbits around immobilized protons which have spin only.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[82] viXra:1904.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 05:49:55

Autism and Inhibitory Synapses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Neurobiologists Cátia Frias and Corette Wierenga have studied the formation of inhibitory synapses, a complex process that occurs when the brain adapts. Their research uncovered an astonishing link to autism. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Mind Science

[81] viXra:1904.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 06:03:04

Refutation of the Axiom of Dependent Choices (DC) on Supercompactness of ω1

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

The axiom of dependent choices (DC) is evaluated in two equations on supercompactness of ω1, with neither tautologous and hence refuting DC. Therefore DC equations are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[80] viXra:1904.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 07:00:53

On Einsteins Time Dilation

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in einsteins theory of relativity there is the concept of time dilation its an effect that happens when you tend to reach the speed of light in this paper we will study why does time dilation happens in our previoud paper on einsteins spacetime we have seen how mass inside space acts up now when we move a mass that means that we are moving it from one space domain to the other and since we are moving it from one domain to the other we could assume that space is excluding the mass and accepting new masses which is perfectly normal but then the time part of spacetime starts to act up when you add mass from space domain to the other at high speeds you end up having masses that are passing through lots of space and when you pass through much space thtough much speeds(near the speed of light) you end up passing through lots of time pressing effects and then time starts to increase and then time dilates
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[79] viXra:1904.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 07:18:23

Calculation of Dipole Radiation

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 4 Pages. Was submitted to AJP, EJP, NJP, JOPT, JETP

The effect of the retarded electromagnetic field of an oscillating dipole on this very dipole is calculated. In this way, we have verified the method that is used to prove the spin radiation of a rotating dipole.
Category: Classical Physics

[78] viXra:1904.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 07:35:30

Spin Laser Data Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Engineers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a novel concept for rapid data transfer via optical fibre cables. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[77] viXra:1904.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 08:01:45

Better Laser-Material Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Using ultrashort laser pulses lasting a few picoseconds (trillionths of a second), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have discovered an efficient mechanism for laser ablation (material removal) that could help pave the way to the use of lower-energy, less costly lasers in many industrial laser processing applications. [20] Engineers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a novel concept for rapid data transfer via optical fibre cables. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[76] viXra:1904.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 08:40:19

Propositional Logic Without The Deduction Theorem

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

In propositional logic, given a set of axioms, we can derive formulas. Here we present the derivations of some formulas without the use of the Deduction Theorem. The derivations are presented compactly with only few referrals to other theorems. Most textbooks in this subject avoid this kind of approach.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[75] viXra:1904.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 08:40:16

Analyzing X-Ray Laser Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) produce incredibly powerful beams of light that enable unprecedented studies of the ultrafast motions of atoms in matter. [21] Using ultrashort laser pulses lasting a few picoseconds (trillionths of a second), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have discovered an efficient mechanism for laser ablation (material removal) that could help pave the way to the use of lower-energy, less costly lasers in many industrial laser processing applications. [20] Engineers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a novel concept for rapid data transfer via optical fibre cables. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[74] viXra:1904.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 08:56:01

Way to Control Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

University of Central Florida researchers have developed a way to control the speed of light. Not only can they speed up a pulse of light and slow it down, they can also make it travel backward. [22] X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) produce incredibly powerful beams of light that enable unprecedented studies of the ultrafast motions of atoms in matter. [21] Using ultrashort laser pulses lasting a few picoseconds (trillionths of a second), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have discovered an efficient mechanism for laser ablation (material removal) that could help pave the way to the use of lower-energy, less costly lasers in many industrial laser processing applications. [20] Engineers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a novel concept for rapid data transfer via optical fibre cables. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1904.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 09:13:28

Lattice Vibrations in Semiconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

In analogy to the amplification of light in a laser, vibrations of a semiconductor crystal, so-called phonons, were enhanced by interaction with an electron current. [23] University of Central Florida researchers have developed a way to control the speed of light. Not only can they speed up a pulse of light and slow it down, they can also make it travel backward. [22] X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) produce incredibly powerful beams of light that enable unprecedented studies of the ultrafast motions of atoms in matter. [21] Using ultrashort laser pulses lasting a few picoseconds (trillionths of a second), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have discovered an efficient mechanism for laser ablation (material removal) that could help pave the way to the use of lower-energy, less costly lasers in many industrial laser processing applications. [20] Engineers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a novel concept for rapid data transfer via optical fibre cables. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[72] viXra:1904.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-05 06:56:03

Faux Proton Charge Smearing in Dirac Hydrogen by "Electron Zitterbewegung"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The commutator of the Dirac free-particle's velocity operator with its Hamiltonian operator is nonzero and independent of Planck's constant, which violates the quantum correspondence-principle requirement that commutators of observables must vanish when Planck's constant vanishes, as well as violating the absence of spontaneous acceleration of relativistic free particles. The consequent physically pathological "zitterbewegung" is of course completely absent when the natural relativistic square-root free-particle Hamiltonian operator is used; nevertheless the energy spectrum of that pathology-free natural relativistic square-root free-particle Hamiltonian is exactly matched by the positive-energy sector of the Dirac free-particle Hamiltonian's energy spectrum. Contrariwise, however, Foldy-Wouthuysen unitary transformation of the positive-energy sector of any hydrogen-type Dirac 4 x 4 Hamiltonian to 2 x 2 form reveals a "zitterbewegung"-induced "Darwin-term" smearing of the proton charge density which is completely absent in the straightforward relativistic extension of the corresponding hydrogen-type nonrelativistic Pauli 2 x 2 Hamiltonian. Compensating for an atomic proton's physically absent "electron zitterbewegung"-induced charge smearing would result in a misleadingly contracted impression of its charge radius.
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1904.0080 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-23 11:37:18

Special Relativity: the Old and the New Theory

Authors: Lahcen Aderras
Comments: 11 Pages.

By adjoining the local time to the Newtonian mechanics together with the constancy of the speed of light;a new unprecedented and insightful derivation of the Lorentz transformation (LT) is proposed. The procedure consist of elementary arguments and simple but rigorous mathematical techniques. The usually assumptions concerning the linearity and homogeneity in the standard derivations of the LT are obtained as results. Moreover, an other, entirely new, transformation is established. As expected, a new special relativity theory ensue from this new transformation. Unlike the special relativity theory (SRT), with this new theory we can tame superluminal velocities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[70] viXra:1904.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 20:03:07

False Formalisms and Ends Justifying Means: the Case of Quantum Theory

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is argued that the wave-mechanical formalism that serves as the basis of quantum theory is fundamentally flawed on several counts. Primarily, the de Broglie equation is manifestly invalid as it implies that even macroscopic objects would acquire a substantial wavelength as they approach resting velocities. Furthermore, ostensible diffraction phenomena are not only logically dubious but also amenable to alternative explanations (including in the case of Newton’s rings). A subliminal thread apparently links diverse observations via the standing-wave idea, with the Planck treatment of black body radiation likely having inspired the particle-in-a-box model, which serves as the gateway to quantum chemistry via a quantum mechanical analogue of the Bohr orbits. These arguments apparently indicate that quantum theory is best regarded as an empirical model for dealing with certain natural phenomena, but also raise epistemological questions as to whether natural phenomena can at all be modelled by exact theories.
Category: Chemistry

[69] viXra:1904.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 01:32:06

Once Again About the "Arrow of Time" (In Russian)

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

The concept of the "arrow of time" arose and was established in classical (macro -) physics in Newton's age under the domination of the concept of absolute space and time (3-space and 1-time) as the receptacles of space-time events. However, to talk about the "arrow of time", we must first define the concept of "time".
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1904.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 02:34:58

All Energy Hypothesis

Authors: Simon Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

try to explain gravity in another way
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] viXra:1904.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 02:36:39

Calculation of Gravitational Acceleration

Authors: Simon Zhou
Comments: 2 Pages.

Calculation of gravitational acceleration form the basic of All energy hypothesis
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] viXra:1904.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-09 23:11:21

Energy in Closed Systems

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 10 Pages.

The writing indicates a breakdown of the classical laws . We consider conservation of energy with a many body system in relation to the inverse square law and point out the breakdown. The breakdown is first demonstrated with a two body system and finally with a many body system.
Category: Classical Physics

[65] viXra:1904.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 08:09:11

Non-commutativity: Unusual View

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 4 Pages. Prog. Phys. 15 (2019) 48-51

Some ambiguities have recently been found in the definition of the partial derivative (in the case of presence of both explicit and implicit dependencies of the function subjected to differentiation). We investigate the possible influence of this subject on quantum mechanics and the classical/quantum field theory. Surprisingly, some commutators of operators of space-time 4-coordinates and those of 4-momenta are not equal to zero. We postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta and we derive mass splitting in the Dirac equation. Moreover, two iterated limits may not commute each other, in general. Thus, we present an example when the massless limit of the function of E, p, m does not exist in some calculations within quantum field theory
Category: Mathematical Physics

[64] viXra:1904.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 08:42:09

AI Treatment of Brain Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A team from Heidelberg University Hospital and the German Cancer Research Centre has developed a new method for the automated image analysis of brain tumors. [25] And if that isn't surprising enough, try this one: in many cases, doctors have no idea what side effects might arise from adding another drug to a patient's personal pharmacy. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[63] viXra:1904.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 09:23:23

Machines Reason About They See

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

To give computers the ability to reason more like us, artificial intelligence (AI) researchers are returning to abstract, or symbolic, programming. [26] A team from Heidelberg University Hospital and the German Cancer Research Centre has developed a new method for the automated image analysis of brain tumors. [25] And if that isn't surprising enough, try this one: in many cases, doctors have no idea what side effects might arise from adding another drug to a patient's personal pharmacy. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[62] viXra:1904.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-09 13:48:13

Proof of Lagarias’s Elementary Version of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Riemann Hypothesis is one of the most important unresolved problems in Number Theory, it was first proposed by Bernhard Riemann, in 1859. For 160 years mathematicians have struggled with this problem to no avail. The difficulty of the Riemann Hypothesis is the main reason the hypothesis has remained unsolved. Although the Riemann Hypothesis remains unsolved, several mathematicians have proven other problems are the equivalent of the Riemann Hypothesis. In other words, if any of these equivalent criteria were solved, it would also solve the Riemann Hypothesis. Of particular interest to the author is a very elementary equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis, Lagarias’s Elementary Version of the Riemann Hypothesis. In 2002, Jeffrey Lagarias proved that his problem is equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis, a famous question about the complex roots of the Riemann zeta function. The beauty of the Lagarias’s Elementary Version of the Riemann Hypothesis, is that it is truly an elementary and very simple problem compared to the Riemann Hypothesis. The simplicity of Lagarias’s proof is what attracted the author to attempt to solve the Riemann Hypothesis. The author was very surprised at the simple proof he formulated using the elementary work of Lagarias. The moral of this story is that many times elementary or simple proofs exist to complex mathematical problems, this is one of those cases.
Category: Number Theory

[61] viXra:1904.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 10:26:07

Hidden Order in Disorder

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and colleagues from several countries have now found that in amorphous, i.e. disordered, systems, optimization of the individual cells gradually results in the same structure, although it remains amorphous. [18] Understanding how these materials mix has implications in industries such as pharmaceuticals and concrete manufacturing, but little is still known about how to best mix them. [17] The scientists identified a shortlist, a kind of "periodic table" of the most designable knot types, i.e. those knots that could easily self-assemble under appropriate physical and chemical conditions. [16] Scientists have now observed for the first time how diamonds grow from seed at an atomic level, and discovered just how big the seeds need to be to kick the crystal growing process into overdrive. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[60] viXra:1904.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 10:41:49

Smart Transactions

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 13 Pages.

. Fully realized ACCP-based (Atomicity, Consistency, Concurrency, Permanency) online transactions would allow, first, to connect and manage all associative input transactions to a single output transaction, second, to eliminate any third party that is not a participant of transaction contract, third, to fully automate an execution of multi-steps contracts with a possibility to track them on every step, fourth, to promptly identify and extract any transaction data, and fifth, to dynamically scale a transaction network proportionally to the amount of its active participants. We propose a mechanism that allow every single participant of the transaction network to dynamically manage any transaction on his or her own economic way.
Category: Economics and Finance

[59] viXra:1904.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 10:49:49

Proof of Participation Protocol

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 21 Pages.

We present an innovative approach to the design of a decentralized asynchronous protocol that will, first, let business of any kind realize any project that can be formalized on a “step-bystep” basis, second, allow its users to completely solve Byzantine problem with one or many contracts-related associative network (subnetwork), third, allow business to design, if needed, a strictly economy-based model that can be stable for a long period of time. The innovative approach is totally based on the technology of Smart Transaction [1]. The protocol is mainly focused on a practical realization of economical business contracts of any kind.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[58] viXra:1904.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 10:57:17

Sphere - A Decentralized Economy-Based Electronic Currency

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 15 Pages.

. A decentralization of electronic currency would allow business activity and development of a single network to be independent of other different business networks. Cost of a decentralized currency of the network can become stable as long as participants of that network are still active. We propose a solution for such a big problem of traditional economy as a “direct dependency of local prices on global ones”. We also propose an innovative mechanism that allows participants of NCN to get any service of one business network for money (hours) earned in other network (‘s). The currency is implemented by usage of two innovative technologies, “Proof of Participation protocol” (PoP) [3] and “Smart Transactions” [2].
Category: Economics and Finance

[57] viXra:1904.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:00:13

Sphere Currency

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 7 Pages.

Decentralized nature of Sphere electronic currency introduces several new properties that the traditional one does not have. Here, we shortly review all functions and properties of real (fiat) money and propose new features that belong to Sphere.
Category: Economics and Finance

[56] viXra:1904.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:02:18

Neurochain

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a system where there are tons of information of different types it is always hard and frequently impossible to tie the effect to the cause. There is also a challenge to find relevant data quickly, especially in case of absence of classification algorithm that is capable of working with different fields of business and science in parallel. We propose a mechanism for building a network of associative chains that are decentralized to each other. The network allows its participants to build quickly an associative chain from “effect-tocause”. This feature of the network is extremely useful for identification of a scam activity. The mechanism is based on two technologies, “Smart Transactions” [1] and “Proof of Participation Protocol” [2].
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[55] viXra:1904.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:03:57

P-S Standard

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 9 Pages.

An information of any kind can take two forms, at least. The first one is interpreted as a solution to a problem. The second one is interpreted as a plain text. For the last several centuries the mankind generated tons of different information relating to a number of different fields. Number of standards were created for the purpose of ruling its applications. But what percent of the generated information is a real solution for a real problem? 10% or less? We propose a simple solution for such an important problem as a “converting text to solution”, IPSC standard. It is abbreviation for “Introduction-Problem-Solution-Conclusion”.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[54] viXra:1904.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:05:31

Digital Bank

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 17 Pages.

Decentralization of BANK services would allow its users, first, to primarily earn money, second, to extremely reduce document routines, third, to make their activity more transparent and secure. We propose a new concept of BANK, a digital BANK that never can be a bankrupt and has professional skills and degree of activity of its customers as a main capital.
Category: Economics and Finance

[53] viXra:1904.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:08:23

Blockchain Remedy or Poison

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 11 Pages.

We propose a brief analysis of Blockchain technology. Here we try to show as pluses as minuses of this technology in context of storing, intellectual search, analysis and other functionality that is crucial for Big Data System of any kind. We also share our vision of future development of crypto/digital market.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[52] viXra:1904.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:24:22

Optical Tweezers Capturing Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Trapping single atoms is a bit like herding cats, which makes researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder expert feline wranglers. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1904.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 11:45:32

Brain's Auto-Complete Function

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A new collaborative study between the Universities of Birmingham and Bonn now reveals the underlying mechanisms of this auto-complete function. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Mind Science

[50] viXra:1904.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 14:15:19

The Nature of Singularity

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we have examined some important proposals of the big bang theory. We have also examined a few important interpretations of the quantum mechanics. We have shown that these proposals are not correct but not too far from the reality. We have explained the mechanism of the quantum jump and quantum tunneling. We have also analyzed the peculiar motion of the galaxies. We have shown that the singularity did appear everywhere and that the space emerged from the singularity has been expanding ever since the big bang. However, we have explained that the physical world is only a projection. The concept of multiverse or the principle of holographic universe are not correct, because the fact is that the universe is still being projected from each of the singularity. Every singularity projects the same universe because every singularity is a hologram, but this hologram is changing constantly because the information is being created continuously in the universe. We have also explained the mechanism that ensures that the hologram is updated constantly to ensure that at any given time, all the singularities project the same universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1904.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 15:30:21

Refutation of the Correspondence Theory of Sahlqvist

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the example of mapping the Sahlqvist formula of p ∧ ◊p → ◻p into corresponding quantified expressions. The formula is not a theorem, but the corresponding quantified expressions are theorems. Hence the mapping refutes the Sahlqvist correspondence theory. Therefore these failures are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[48] viXra:1904.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-04 03:54:59

Pioneer 10 Anomaly Calling Into Question Einstein's Second Postulate

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages. Some precisions in the title and in the article...

Based on the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s² directed towards the Sun, we can demonstrate that there is serious indication that the anomaly is due to the use of a wrong Doppler shift formula by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Indeed if we compare the result given by the formula used by JPL based on the Einstein's second postulate, and the result given by the classic Galilean velocity addition formula, we found exactly the value of the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 toward the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1904.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 17:24:44

Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 1 Page.

Matter and antimatter are in a perfect balance in the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[46] viXra:1904.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 20:31:13

D\"aumler's Horn Torus Model and\\ Division by Zero \\ - Absolute Function Theory -\\ New World

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 12 Pages. In Section 1, we will introduce the horn torus model by V.V. Puha and in Section 1.1, by modifying the Puha mapping, we introduce D\"aumler's horn torus model. In Section 1.2 we introduce division by zero and division by zero calculus with up-to-date

In this paper, we will introduce a beautiful horn torus model by Puha and D\"aumler for the Riemann sphere in complex analysis attaching the zero point and the point at infinity. Surprisingly enough, we can introduce analytical structure of conformal to the model. Here, some basic opinions on the D\"aumler's horn torus model will be stated as the basic ones in mathematics.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[45] viXra:1904.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 21:18:51

How the Solar Group is Created? (Discussion No. 1)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

This Paper provides our first try to answer the question… How The Solar Group Is Created? Here we'll try to prove The Following Arguments: 1-The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same geometrical structure (building)- i.e. Each planet data is created to be suitable for the required task of this planet in the whole building and No solar planet can be found or move independently a.Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) b.OR, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move. c.Also, The solar group can be similar to a great river has many canals and these canals created soils on their banks. The river, canals and their soils all of them are created from the same water (the same energy) The previous claim and conclusion is discussed in this paper strongly and the paper provides curial proves to show this fact as clear as the sun herself. 2-Saturn is The Most Important Planet in the solar group and he connects the group together where without Saturn the solar group can't be found or move. 3-Mars current existence and motion depends on Earth Moon Orbit.
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1904.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 21:49:58

Refutation of Skolem Axiom Form

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

"A Skolem axiom has the form ∀x,y(φ(x, y)→φ(x,f(x))), where f is a new function symbol introduced to denote a "Skolem function" for φ." The Skolem axiom form is not tautologous, hence refuting it. Therefore the Skolem axiom form is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[43] viXra:1904.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 01:51:45

Quantum String with Periodic Boundary Condition

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. original article

We consider the string, the left end of which is fixed and the right end of the string is in periodic motion. We derive the quantum internal motion of this system.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] viXra:1904.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 09:08:52

Plato's Deception

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Plato's Atlantis was not an island at all. It was located off the coast of Gibraltar but no one found something on the sea bottom. Maybe Atlantis was something totally different than we think. Atlantis had more to do with Greek imperialism - by leon elshout, 2 april 2019, aurichalcum at protonmail.com
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[41] viXra:1904.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 09:11:22

Stellar Metamorphosis: What are White Dwarf Stars?

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 5 Pages. made possible by DARE (Daniel Archer Research Enterprise)

This is en exploratory paper about White Dwarf stars, are we sure we know what they are? The standard astronomy explanation is questioned and replaced with the position of White Dwarf stars in Stellar Metamorphosis. A main characteristic of these stars is changed.
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:1904.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 09:39:46

Trapped Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A team of physicists at the University of Cologne has, for the first time, seen a particularly exotic behaviour of electrons on an atomic scale. [25] University of Adelaide researchers have delved into the realm of Star Wars and created a powerful tractor beam-or light-driven energy trap-for atoms. [24] The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1904.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 10:14:21

Light-Matter Interaction Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

An international team of physicists from the Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics at Wits University and the Institut Néel in Grenoble, France, has created a tiny superconducting circuit that mimics the quantum mechanical process in which an atom absorbs or emits light. [34] A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing,
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1904.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 10:36:44

Refutation of Projective Determinancy Via the Ultrapower

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the definition of ultrapower as a convention. The two states equated to 1 as designated proof value and as ordinal value are not tautologous. This refutes the ultrapower and hence colors the subsequent exposition to deny projective determinancy. Therefore the ultrapower and projective determinancy are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[37] viXra:1904.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 10:42:55

Photonic Disease Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In the not-too-distant future, people may have a simple device that monitors and reports health indicators, identifies even trace amounts of undesirable biomarkers in the blood or saliva and serves as an early warning system for diseases. [13] University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[36] viXra:1904.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 11:50:56

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances: Relativistic Mass Equation

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove gravity spread out with the speed of light c using relativistic mass equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[35] viXra:1904.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 12:48:01

Amorphic Encryption

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 16 Pages.

As a symmetric as an asymmetric scheme requires a key (session or private) to be hidden. In this case, an attacker gets a chance and time for finding and decrypting it. As long as a secret has static attributes (length, type of characters, etc.) it will always be vulnerable for an attack. We propose a new concept of keyless encryption, “Amorphic scheme”, which is semantically secured and has “Perfect Secrecy” level. It allows a secret to be transmitted over any public channel with no public or private key to be generated and stored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[34] viXra:1904.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 12:50:41

Neuro-Amorphic Construction Algorithm (NACA)

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 12 Pages.

Under certain circumstances, determinism of a block cipher can lead to a disclosure of sensitive information about working mechanism of underlying machine. Unveiled restrictions of the mechanism can also give a possibility for an adversary to brute-force the cipher at a reasonable period of time. We propose a nondeterministic algorithm operating on variable-length groups of bits with dynamically varying parts of round ciphertext. We named it as “Neuron Cipher”. It does not use as public as private key. In compared with symmetric or asymmetric encryption, it has obvious practical advantages. Among them is a “Perfect Secrecy” [4].
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[33] viXra:1904.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 13:04:04

The Mechanics of Perception

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 21 Pages.

Perception is a very complex process. Physics examines not only the mechanism of communication of information but also the role of mind/consciousness in the process of perception. Medical science assumes that the brain processes and analyzes the information it receives from the sense organs. It also suggests that the brain is the decision-making authority. Medical science assumes that the mind and consciousness do not play any role in the process of perception. In this paper, we have analyzed all aspects of the process of perception. We have shown that the information is not communicated physically. We have also shown that the information is projected in physical form only in the state of mental alertness. This paper also shows that the mind, not the brain, is the decision-making authority. This paper resolves several major theoretical problems in physics and offers clues to the solutions to some other unresolved issues like measurement problem and entanglement problem. It also adds a new dimension to the world of neuroscience by showing that the mind is the key player in the process of perception.
Category: Mind Science

[32] viXra:1904.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 13:07:26

The Meaning of Death (No Entity Has Pre-Existing Values in the Physical World)

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 15 Pages.

Classical physics assumes that the things exist independently of an act of observation; however, quantum theory suggests that the apparent form of quantum system emerges as a consequence of an act of observation. However, quantum theory is silent on the state of the systems prior to the act of observation. It assumes that the wavefunction collapses as a consequence of an act of observation but does not explain the mechanism of the collapse of wavefunction. Therefore, it is at least incomplete, if not incorrect. In this paper, we have shown that the apparent form of entities emerges as a consequence of an act of observation even in the macro world. We have shown that all the entities exist in non-physical form. The wavefunction of an entity is the sum of all the properties the entity may manifest in the physical world. The wavefunction remains unaffected by an act of observation. The apparent form of the observed entity depends as much on the observer as it does on the entity being observed. We have also explained the scientific meaning and significance of death.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1904.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-06 08:24:53

Further Evidence for the Cantor Dust Composition of Dark Matter

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recent experiments continue to falsify the hypothesis that Dark Matter (DM) consists of quantum-like particles resembling the content of the Standard Model (SM). Several arguments also exist against theories where DM arises from modifications or thermodynamic analogs of General Relativity (GR). These findings indirectly favor earlier interpretations of DM as Cantor Dust, an outcome of the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Cantor Dust is consistent with the idea of Unmatter, an exotic phase containing fractional numbers of quanta per state, mixing particles with their antiparticles and carrying arbitrary non-integer spins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30] viXra:1904.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 14:51:02

Proof that Mersenne Prime Numbers are Infinite and that Even Perfect Numbers are Infinite

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. That is, it is a prime number of the form Mn = 2n − 1 for some integer n. They are named after Marin Mersenne, a French Minim friar, who studied them in the early 17th century. The exponents n which give Mersenne primes are 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, ... (sequence A000043) and the resulting Mersenne primes are 3, 7, 31, 127, 8191, 131071, 524287, 2147483647, ... If n is a composite number then so is 2n − 1. More generally, numbers of the form Mn = 2n − 1 without the primality requirement may be called Mersenne numbers. Sometimes, however, Mersenne numbers are defined to have the additional requirement that n be prime. The smallest composite Mersenne number with prime exponent n is 211 − 1 = 2047 = 23 × 89. Mersenne primes Mp are also noteworthy due to their connection to perfect numbers. A new Mersenne prime was found in December 2017. As of January 2018, 50 Mersenne primes are now known. The largest known prime number 277,232,917 − 1 is a Mersenne prime. Many fundamental questions about Mersenne primes remain unresolved. It is not even known whether the set of Mersenne primes is finite or infinite. Ever since M521 was proven prime in 1952, the largest known prime has always been Mersenne primes, which shows that Mersenne primes become large quickly. Since the prime numbers are infinite, and since all large primes discovered since 1952 have been Mersenne primes, this seems to be evidence indicating the infinitude of Mersenne primes since there has to continually be an infinite number of large primes, even if we don’t find them. Additional evidence, is that since prime numbers are infinite, there exist an infinite number of Mersenne numbers of form 2p – 1, meaning there exist an infinite number of Mersenne numbers that are candidates for Mersenne primes. However, as with 211 – 1, we know not all Mersenne numbers of form 2p – 1 are primes. All of this evidence makes it reasonable to conjecture that there exist an infinite number of Mersenne primes. First we will provide additional evidence indicating an infinite number of Mersenne primes. Then we will provide the proof.
Category: Number Theory

[29] viXra:1904.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 15:00:11

Proof that Fermat Prime Numbers are Infinite

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 8 Pages.

Fermat prime is a prime number that are a special case, given by the binomial number of the form: Fn = 22n + 1, for n ≥ 0 They are named after Pierre de Fermat, a Frenchman of the 17th Century, Pierre de Fermat, effectively invented modern number theory virtually single-handedly, despite being a small-town amateur mathematician. Throughout his life he devised a wide range of conjectures and theorems. He is also given credit for early developments that led to modern calculus, and for early progress in probability theory. The only known Fermat primes are: F0 = 3 F1 = 5 F2 = 17 F3 = 257 F4 = 65,537 It has been conjectured that there are only a finite number of Fermat primes, however, we will use the same technique the author used to prove that the Mersenne primes are infinite, to prove the Fermat primes are infinite.
Category: Number Theory

[28] viXra:1904.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 15:07:04

Proof that Wagstaff Prime Numbers are Infinite

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Wagstaff prime is a prime number q of the form: q = (2^p- 1)/3 where, p is an odd prime. Wagstaff primes are named after the mathematician Samuel S. Wagstaff Jr. Wagstaff primes appear in the New Mersenne conjecture and have applications in cryptography. The New Mersenne conjecture (Bateman et al. 1989) states that for any odd natural number p, if any two of the following conditions hold, then so does the third: 1. p = 2k ± 1 or p = 4k ± 3 for some natural number k. 2. 2p − 1 is prime (a Mersenne prime). 3. (2p + 1) / 3 is prime (a Wagstaff prime). There is no simple primality test analogous to the Lucas-Lehmer test for Wagstaff primes, so all recent primality proofs of Wagstaff primes have used elliptic curve primality proving which is very time consuming. A Wagstaff prime can also be interpreted as a repunit prime of base , as if p is odd, as it must be for the above number to be prime. The first three Wagstaff primes are 3, 11, and 43 because The first few Wagstaff primes are: 3, 11, 43, 683, 2731, 43691, 174763, 2796203, 715827883, 2932031007403, 768614336404564651, … (sequence A000979 in the OEIS) As of October 2014, known exponents which produce Wagstaff primes or probable primes are: 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 31, 43, 61, 79, 101, 127, 167, 191, 199, 313, 347, 701, 1709, 2617, 3539, 5807, 10501, 10691, 11279, 12391, 14479, 42737, 83339, (all known Wagstaff primes) 95369, 117239, 127031, 138937, 141079, 267017, 269987, 374321, 986191, 4031399, …, 13347311, 13372531 (Wagstaff probable primes) (sequence A000978 in the OEIS) In February 2010, Tony Reix discovered the Wagstaff probable prime: which has 1,213,572 digits and was the 3rd biggest probable prime ever found at this date. In September 2013, Ryan Propper announced the discovery of two additional Wagstaff probable primes: and, Each is a probable prime with slightly more than 4 million decimal digits. It is not currently known whether there are any exponents between 4031399 and 13347311 that produce Wagstaff probable primes. Note that when p is a Wagstaff prime, need not to be prime, the first counterexample is p = 683, and it is conjectured that if p is a Wagstaff prime and p>43, then is composite.
Category: Number Theory

[27] viXra:1904.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 15:13:48

Proof of Landau’s Fourth Problem

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 7 Pages.

At the 1912 International Congress of Mathematicians, Edmund Landau listed four basic problems about prime numbers. These problems were characterised in his speech as "unattackable at the present state of mathematics" and are now known as Landau's problems. They are as follows: 1.Goldbach's conjecture: Can every even integer greater than 2 be written as the sum of two primes? 2.Twin prime conjecture: Are there infinitely many primes p such that p + 2 is prime? 3.Legendre's conjecture: Does there always exist at least one prime between consecutive perfect squares? 4.Are there infinitely many primes p such that p − 1 is a perfect square? In other words: Are there infinitely many primes of the form n2 + 1? We will solve Landau’s fourth problem by proving there are infinitely many primes of the form n2 + 1.
Category: Number Theory

[26] viXra:1904.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-27 00:46:50

On the Ricci Scalar, Ricci Tensor and the Riemannian Curvature Tensor

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 17 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1904.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 20:08:20

Division by Zero and Bh\={a}skara's Example

Authors: Saburou Saitoh, Yoshinori Saitoh
Comments: 10 Pages. In this paper, from an example of Bh\={a}skara, we will see the result $1/0=0/0=0$. {\bf This very simple and clear example will be very attractive for general people over mathematicians}.

In this paper, we will introduce the division by zero calculus and Bh\={a}skara's simple example which shows clearly both $1/0=0$ and $0/0=0$.
Category: General Mathematics

[24] viXra:1904.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 22:53:17

Refutation of Zermelo–Fraenkel (ZF), Method of Forcing, and Continuum Hypothesis (CH)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

From the fundamental axiom of ZF (or ZFC), ZF is proved contradictory. This means the method of forcing and the continuum hypothesis are also denied. Therefore these results are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[23] viXra:1904.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-09 08:03:40

Démonstrations 2 C-C-Goldbach Par le TFNP

Authors: BERKOUK Mohamed
Comments: 12 Pages.

en ce qui concerne la conjecture forte, chaque nombre pair n, à partir de 4 peut générer plusieurs couples dont les éléments a et b < n et que parmi ces couples, qui déjà répondent à la conjecture par la sommation (n=a+b).Le nombre ou le cardinal des couples premiers sera estimé par le théorème fondamentale des nombres premiers , en démontrant que ce cardinal > 0 c'est-à-dire ∀ N pair > 3, ∃ un couplet Goldbach premier (p, p’) généré par N / N= p + p’ En établissant l’inéquation de Goldbach qui exprime autrement la conjecture dédié à Mostafa , mon petit frère décédé d'une mort subite (R.A).
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1904.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 07:27:29

Algunas Relaciones Del Tipo Arcotangente

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

En esta nota se muestran algunas relaciones del tipo arcotangente.
Category: Algebra

[21] viXra:1904.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 07:30:13

Dos Cuestiones de Geometría

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

En esta nota mostramos dos cuestiones elementales de geometría.
Category: Geometry

[20] viXra:1904.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 07:34:05

Sobre Una Integral Del Tipo Frullani

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

En esta nota se presentan algunas fórmulas relacionadas con una integral del tipo Frullani.
Category: General Mathematics

[19] viXra:1904.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 08:45:02

An Attempt to Create Self-Conscious Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Ui-yeong Jeong
Comments: 23 pages, 7 figures, language: Korean (Important part of core code 1 is also written in English.)

Self-conscious Artificial Intelligence refers to artificial intelligence that has a 'finished personality', that actively thinks and acts like a person. In this paper, I describe the whole structure and four core codes to create the self-consciousness by referring to the collective unconsciousness, concept about the reincarnation of the Buddhism, the philosophy of the soul that I think. The entire structure is hierarchical and the four core codes are involved in all tiers. The purpose of this paper is not the result of learning. The purpose of this study is to see changes in the process of learning as experiences and to derive an artificial singularity through accumulation of the experiences. Suggesting the possibility of ultimately creating self-consciousness through initial design based on techniques such as intentionally using "Vanishing Gradient".
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18] viXra:1904.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 08:29:19

New Spin on Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Majorana fermions are particle-like excitations called quasiparticles that emerge as a result of the fractionalization (splitting) of individual electrons into two halves. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1904.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 09:08:00

A Closed 3-Form in Spinorial Geometry

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in english

We define a 3-form over a spinorial manifold by mean of the curvature tensor and the Clifford multiplication.
Category: Geometry

[16] viXra:1904.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 09:21:11

Quantum Magnetometers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

On April 1 2019, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft launches the lighthouse project "Quantum Magnetometry" (QMag): Freiburg's Fraunhofer institutes IAF, IPM and IWM want to transfer quantum magentometry from the field of university research to industrial applications. [34] Majorana fermions are particle-like excitations called quasiparticles that emerge as a result of the fractionalization (splitting) of individual electrons into two halves. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1904.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 09:43:32

QMC Simulations Spin Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Recent polarized inelastric neutron scattering experiments have identified the amplitude (i.e. Higgs) mode in C9H18N2CuBr4, a 2-D, near-quantum-critical spin ladder compound that exhibits a weak easy-axis exchange anisotropy. [35] On April 1 2019, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft launches the lighthouse project "Quantum Magnetometry" (QMag): Freiburg's Fraunhofer institutes IAF, IPM and IWM want to transfer quantum magentometry from the field of university research to industrial applications. [34] Majorana fermions are particle-like excitations called quasiparticles that emerge as a result of the fractionalization (splitting) of individual electrons into two halves. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1904.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 10:00:06

Coupling Between Distant Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A team of scientists from Waseda University, the Japan Science and Technology Agency, and the University of Auckland have developed an integrated, all-fiber coupled-cavities quantum electrodynamics (QED) system in which a meter-long portion of conventional optical fiber seamlessly and coherently connects two nanofiber cavity-QED systems. [36] Recent polarized inelastric neutron scattering experiments have identified the amplitude (i.e. Higgs) mode in C9H18N2CuBr4, a 2-D, near-quantum-critical spin ladder compound that exhibits a weak easy-axis exchange anisotropy. [35] On April 1 2019, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft launches the lighthouse project "Quantum Magnetometry" (QMag): Freiburg's Fraunhofer institutes IAF, IPM and IWM want to transfer quantum magentometry from the field of university research to industrial applications. [34] Majorana fermions are particle-like excitations called quasiparticles that emerge as a result of the fractionalization (splitting) of individual electrons into two halves. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1904.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 10:17:56

Molecular-Scale Rubik's Cube

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Ever since Ernő Rubik invented the Rubik's Cube in 1974, the mathematical puzzle has tested the brains and patience of people of all ages. [37] A team of scientists from Waseda University, the Japan Science and Technology Agency, and the University of Auckland have developed an integrated, all-fiber coupled-cavities quantum electrodynamics (QED) system in which a meter-long portion of conventional optical fiber seamlessly and coherently connects two nanofiber cavity-QED systems. [36] Recent polarized inelastric neutron scattering experiments have identified the amplitude (i.e. Higgs) mode in C9H18N2CuBr4, a 2-D, near-quantum-critical spin ladder compound that exhibits a weak easy-axis exchange anisotropy. [35] On April 1 2019, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft launches the lighthouse project "Quantum Magnetometry" (QMag): Freiburg's Fraunhofer institutes IAF, IPM and IWM want to transfer quantum magentometry from the field of university research to industrial applications. [34] Majorana fermions are particle-like excitations called quasiparticles that emerge as a result of the fractionalization (splitting) of individual electrons into two halves. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1904.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 10:27:25

No Random Process Causes The Solar Group Creation (No Big Bang)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract The Main Conclusion The solar group can't be created by any random process. i.e. The Big Bang Concept is Unreal The previous conclusion is produced easily and clearly through the solar planets data analysis.. That means… The Big Bang Theory contradicts strongly and clearly with the solar planets data analysis and their geometrical meanings which supports the claim that, the big bang concept is Unreal one. This paper tries to show and prove this contradiction and to show that the solar planets data analysis is the best way to understand the solar group origin and motion which necessitates to review many other theories concern the solar group origin an motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1904.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 11:42:01

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove the non-existence of gravity at infinite distances and prove gravity has a limited range this range is extendable by the speed of light c.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1904.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 18:01:18

An Argument Against the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Thanh Nguyen
Comments: 7 Pages.

This argument is a section in my book, Beyond the World of Relativity to the World of Invariance. In this argument, we are going to analyze the light aberration to show that the special theory of relativity is inconsistent with the constancy of the speed of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1904.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 20:41:11

Does Mars Fit his Position Is The Solar Group? Why Not?!

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Mars Data Doesn't Fit his Position In The Solar Group Because Mars had immigrated from his original point with distance 84 million km from the sun and dwell in his new point with distance 227.9 million km from the sun (My Conclusion) So Mars Data was fit to his original position (with distance 84 mkm) But Mars Data doesn't fit his new position (with distance 227.9 mkm) This paper analyzes Mars Data to prove this Fact.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1904.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 22:07:57

The Dirac Equation and the Mass of the Fermions

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is a fact from the standard Model that fermions should be massless. The article brings out this fact in a mathematical manner along with the uncanny attributes like the left handed Dirac spinor moving along the z direction should be independent of the z coordinate.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1904.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 23:02:46

Quantum Gravity in the Fano Plane

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 10 Pages. an essay written for the 2019 Gravity Research Foundation competition.

The argument that modern string theory has become lost in math is compelling, controversial, and ever more timely. A perspective arguably of equal compulsion takes the view that the math is just fine, that string theory has become lost in physics. It's all about the wavefunction. Almost a century after Bohr and Copenhagen, ongoing proliferation of conflicting quantum interpretations of the unobservable wavefunction and its interactions attests to the profound confusion in philosophical foundations of basic quantum physics. Taking the octonion wavefunction to be comprised not of one-dimensional oscillators in eight-dimensional space, but rather the eight fundamental geometric objects of the Pauli algebra of 3D space - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar - yields a long overdue and much needed coherent phenomenology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1904.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 02:07:58

Refutation of Ackermann’s Approach for Modal Logic and Second-Order Quantification Reduction

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 4 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

From one source we evaluate the Ackermann rule and from another source three examples in 15 equations of second-order reduction. None of the equations is tautologous. This implies these approaches to map modal clauses of first-order logic to and from second-order logic are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[5] viXra:1904.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 04:32:20

Photoswitches Activate Neurons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers in Spain have developed azobenzene “photoswitches” that are able to efficiently and selectively activate neurons in brain tissue and in living nematodes, an animal model for the study of neuronal circuits. [23] Researchers at the University of Twente have designed a tiny needle in which micro-channels can be used for extracting small liquid samples from a local area of the brain. [22] The ability to grow large protein crystals is the single biggest bottleneck that limits the use of neutron protein crystallography in structural biology. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[4] viXra:1904.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-24 21:20:06

A New Light Estimation of Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Ternary Space-Times, Based on the Special Theory of Relativity and Space Genesis

Authors: Fumitaka Inuyama.
Comments: 12 Pages.

Published studies have stated that the mass of dark matter and the mass of dark energy are approximately five times and fourteen times greater in mass, respectively, than ordinary substances such as atoms. However, it has not been successfully realized until today to detect and thus to prove the existence of dark matter and dark energy. There should be some fundamental problems to be addressed and the universal space-time itself must have its own hidden characteristics. I estimated here in this article the universal space-time by using the special theory of relativity i.e. the combined velocity and the increasing mass. The results suggest that “the ternary space-times” created in the inflationary epoch during the very early universe exist in the modern universe and that each of these space-times has its own specific light velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1904.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 04:53:42

Laser Scrutinize Cancer Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[2] viXra:1904.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 01:34:32

Model of Quarks and Leptons Based on Spacetime Symmetries

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 12 Pages.

The experimental search of standard model superpartners, and the derivation of the standard model from higher dimensional theories have been challenging for some time now. In this article these technologies are kept but they are applied to a simpler environment. A coherent scenario of particles based on Kaluza-Klein theory and unbroken supersymmetry is proposed. It offers an economic basis for constructing the standard model particles without the superpartner problem of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. With local supersymmetry one arrives at supergravity without Yang-Mills fields. A number of results in the literature would have to be reconsidered according to this model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1904.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-10 10:49:20

The Hilbert Book Model Project Survey book

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 84 Pages. You can bring this file to a local print shop, so that they can turn it in an US Letter-sized book

This survey treats the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe.
Category: Quantum Physics