[58] **viXra:0702.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Thomas R. Love

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In the standard model, isospin is not defined for all elementary
particles nor is it conserved in all interactions. A study of the isospin
subalgebra in the author’s U(3, 2) theory of matter shows that the
standard model assigned the wrong isospin values to many elementary
particles. The redefined isospin is defined for all particles and is
conserved in all interactions. This leads to a new interpretation of the
isospin algebra as a model of pion exchange between protons in the
nucleus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[57] **viXra:0702.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Peter Rowlands

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

It is possible to reconstruct a ‘defragmented’ Dirac equation in such a way as to
generate automatic second quantization, supersymmetry without extra particles, finite
energy of the free state without renormalization, propagators without an infrared
divergence, string theory without strings, explicit state vectors for fermions, bosons and
baryons, symmetry breaking between the weak, strong and electric interactions, quark
confinement and automatic baryonic mass. Even the Dirac equation itself becomes
unnecessary, as the entire information required to determine phase and amplitude
becomes compactified within a single expression for the Dirac state.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[56] **viXra:0702.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

It is shown that the value of α = (1/137.036...) can be derived from first physical principles by modeling
the renormalized charge differences in QED, between three prescribed scales, with the definite integrals of the
ground state probability density of the Hydrogen atom. This requires choosing the three fundamental scales
to be the Bohr radius, the Compton wavelength and the Rydberg scale, whose ratios among themselves
are related to α. The derivation is also compatible with the observed Astropysical variations of the fine
structure constant which results from the cosmological expansion of the Universe. Concluding remarks
pertaining Diophantine equations, number theory and physical constants are made.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:0702.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Applying the R. A. Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model of the atomic nucleus we discuss how
stable and unstable unmatter entities (the conjugations of matter and antimatter) may be formed
as clusters inside a nucleus. The model supports a hypothesis that antimatter nucleon clusters are
present as a parton (sensu Feynman) superposition within the spatial confinement of the proton
(1H1), the neutron, and the deuteron (1H2). If model predictions can be confirmed both
mathematically and experimentally, a new physics is suggested. A proposed experiment is
connected to othopositronium annihilation anomalies, which, being related to one of known
unmatter entity, orthopositronium (built on electron and positron), opens a way to expand the
Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:0702.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Thomas R. Love

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

A theory of quantum mechanics in terms of a quantized spacetime
shows that Einstein was correct in his debate with Bohr. The
conflict of the axioms of quantum field theory and the axioms of general
relativity may resolved by modifying both and equating quantum
field theory with harmonic analysis on the complex space-time
QAdS = U(3, 2)/U(3, 1)xU(1). This is consistent with the geometry
of particle interactions introduced in Love

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:0702.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

While the parameters, Z and A, of atomic nuclei indicate a general structural pattern for the nuclei, the exact nuclear masses in their fine differences seem not to exhibit the orderly kind of logical system that nature must exhibit.
At first consideration atomic nuclei are considered as an assembly of Z protons and N = A - Z neutrons. That description is not to say that such an assembling action actually occurs as such. Rather, the assembly point of view is a procedure for determining what the characteristics of the resulting nucleus must be: it must have a mass defect relative to the sum of the masses of those components in an amount equal to that which is required by the theoretical scenario of so assembling the nucleus.
Unlike the case of the neutron as a combination of a single proton and electron [see "A New Look at the Neutron and the Lamb Shift"2], the components of an atomic nucleus cannot come together to form the nucleus naturally and unaided because of the mutual electrostatic repulsion of the protons and the electric neutrality of the neutrons. That is, to assemble the particles as in a nucleus and make them stay so assembled requires removing from them the potential energy that they would have when assembled were it not somehow removed.
Analysis discloses a comprehensive orderly structure among the nuclear masses of all the nuclear types and isotopes. A component of that analysis and logical order is the family of geometric forms called polytopes, in particular the regular polyhedrons.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[52] **viXra:0702.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Thomas R. Love

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Using the spinor differential operator representation of U(3, 2) to
explore the hidden symmetries of the complex space-time U(3, 2)/U(3, 1)x
U(1) leads to an interpretation of this complex space-time as excited
states of Anti-de Sitter space-time. This in turn leads to new Lie Algebraic
Quantum Field Theory and a mathematical model of the internal
structure of elementary particles as oscillations of complex space-time.
This is a quantum theory of gravity which satisfies Einstein’s criteria
for a unified field theory

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[51] **viXra:0702.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carl A. Brannen

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Since 1982 the Koide mass relation has provided an amazingly accurate relation between the
masses of the charged leptons. In this note we show how the Koide relation can be expanded to
cover the neutrinos, and we use the relation to predict neutrino masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[50] **viXra:0702.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Marco A. Pereira

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity,
Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Biot-Savart Law is
derived from first principles. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. A 4D
Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe together with a Quantum
Lagrangian Principle resulting in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a
radial direction in a 4D spatial manifold. The hypergeometrical standard model for matter is
presented.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:0702.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Hu Changwei

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The neutrinos and electric charge are the two essences that are formed
the particles: Neutrino added to integral charge making up the lepton with electric
charge; neutrino added to fractional charge making up the quark. The ether is
composed by particles, it is the assembly of the bosons of the least energy state. The
transformation among the particles is the course that transferred electric charge and combined
anew among the particles, and together with virtual particles generally. This description can
accord with actual facts, it is the show of the reasonableness. Some examples will be given by the
disintegration of the part of particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:0702.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The rest mass of the neutron is exactly equal to the rest mass of a proton plus that of an electron plus the mass equivalent of the kinetic energy of those two particles after they have electrostatically accelerated from very far apart toward each other to a separation distance of a proton diameter. That fact is either a remarkable coincidence or evidence that the neutron is a combination of a proton and an electron. The calculation of this sheds new light on the nature and significance of the Lamb Shift.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:0702.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

While the idea of unification of gravitation and
electromagnetic theories via Kaluza-Klein metric is known for decades,
there is known disadvantage that 5th dimension is not yet observed in
experiments. In the meantime, there are known experiments suggesting
analogy between condensed matter physics and various cosmological
phenomena, therefore it seems reasonable to expect to observe this 5th
dimension via condensed matter physics. However, only few attempts have
been made in this direction. In the present article we argue that it is possible
to find neat linkage between Kaluza-Klein metric and condensed matter
physics via spinning string metric and Aharonov effect. From this
viewpoint, elementary particles could be described from excitation of
quantized spacetime. We start with alternative description of fine structure
of hydrogen in terms of four -velocity (vierbein). An obvious advantage of
the alternative interpretation of hydrogen fine structure and spin outlined
here is that it could be used to find direct observables, in particular using
superfluid experiments. This vierbein representation implies that elementary
particles could also be described in terms of phonon metric. Some
prediction of elementary particles is also discussed, in particular in the
context of Meessen’s framework. While for known particles our prediction
is essentially similar, for new prediction beyond Standard Model the present
article suggests that there is ‘shifting’ of time- component of the
modified-Minkowski metric due to Kaluza-Klein effect. Further observation to verify
or refute this proposition is recommended. Other viable observation method
is also considered, using Cherenkov radiation. In effect, this proposition of
describing elementary particles from excitation of phonon metric seems to
support the known condensed- matter analogue of chromodynamics theory
with gluonic interaction, albeit from different viewpoint.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:0702.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In a gas-like ether, the duality between the oscillating electric and magnetic fields,
which are transverse to the direction of propagation of electromagnetic waves, becomes a
triality with the longitudinal oscillations of motion of the ether, if electric field, magnetic field
and motion are coexistent and mutually perpendicular. It must be shown, therefore, that if
electromagnetic waves comprise also longitudinal condensational oscillations of a gas-like ether,
analogous to sound waves in a material gas, then all three aspects of such waves must propagate
together along identical wave-fronts. To this end, the full characteristic hyperconoids are
derived for the equations governing the motion and the electric and magnetic field-strengths
in a gas-like ether, in three space variables and time. It is shown that they are, in fact,
identical. The equations governing the motion and the electric and magnetic field-strengths
in such an ether, and their common characteristic hyperconoid, are all invariant under Galilean
transformation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:0702.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Lorentz [of the Lorentz transforms and Lorentz contractions fame] contended against
Einstein that there had to be a medium in which electro-magnetic waves exist and propagate,
which medium would of necessity be an absolute frame of reference for the universe. Einstein
won the dispute, but not by solid reasoning. Now solid reasoning and new data not available to
Einstein and Lorentz show that Lorentz was correct and that Einstein's Theory of Relativity
should correctly be termed Einstein's Principle of Invariance.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[44] **viXra:0702.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

A new theory of the refraction of light is presented, using the mathematical
fact that the equations of acoustics and optics are identical and that light may
therefore be treated as waves in a fluid ether. Light waves are penetrated
by the more slowly moving constituents of a refractive medium and so the
rays behind them are perturbed and made wavy as they are diffracted around
material particles. The arc-length along a wavy ray is thus increased by a factor...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[43] **viXra:0702.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The real space-time of Newtonian mechanics and the ether concept
is contrasted with the imaginary space-time of the non-ether concept and relativity.
In real space-time (x, y, z, ct) characteristic theory shows that Maxwell’s
equations and sound waves in any uniform fluid at rest have identical wave surfaces.
Moreover, without charge or current, Maxwell’s equations reduce to the same
standard wave equation which governs such sound waves. This is not a general
and invariant equation but it becomes so by Galilean transformation to any other
reference-frame. So also do Maxwell’s equations which are, likewise, not general
but unique to one reference-frame. The mistake of believing that Maxwell’s equations
were invariant led to the Lorentz transformation and to relativity; and to the
misinterpretation of the differential equation for the wave cone through any point
as the quadratic differential form of a Riemannian metric in imaginary space-time
(x, y, z, ict). Mathematics is then required to tolerate the same equation being transformed
in different ways for different applications. Otherwise, relativity is untenable
and recourse must then be made to real space-time, normal Galilean transformation
and an ether with Maxwellian statistics and Planck’s energy distribution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:0702.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The ten equations are derived that govern, to the first order, the propagation of small
general perturbations in the general unsteady flow of a general fluid, in three spacevariables
and time. The condition that any hypersurface is a wave hypersurface of
these equations is obtained, and the envelope of all such wave hypersurfaces that
pass through a given point at a given time, i .e . the wave hyperconoid, is determined.
These results, which are all invariant under Galilean transformation, are progressively
specialized, through homentropic flow and irrotational homentropic flow, to steady
uniform flow, for which both the convected wave-equation and the standard waveequation,
with their wave hypersurfaces, are finally recovered.
A special class of reference-frames is considered, namely those whose origins move
with the fluid. It is then shown that, for observers at the origins of all such reference
frames, the wave hypersurfaces satisfy specially simple equations locally. These
equations are identical with those for waves in a uniform fluid at rest relative to the
reference frame, except that the wave speed is not constant but varies with position
and time in accordance with the variable mean flow. These specially simple equations
appear to be invariant for Galilean transformations between all such observers.
These results are briefly applied, in reverse order, to Maxwell’s equations, and to
equations more general than Maxwell’s, for the electric and magnetic field-strengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:0702.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Much of contemporary science treats description and quantification of what
happens but fails to treat the causality of the events – how, why, through what
mechanism they happen. For example, gas pressure is causally explained by the kinetic
theory of gases but the cause of gravitation is not investigated nor presented; only the
description and quantification of gravitation is addressed. But, without understanding of
the causality of physical processes it cannot be said that they are well understood.
Understanding of causality cannot be addressed solely by mathematical analysis
and manipulations. It requires insight into the actual physical processes.
Related is the issue of impossibility. Sometimes clearly impossible hypotheses
or interpretations of observations are seriously proffered. Some examples are contended
instantaneous action at a distance involving "entangled" particles' quantum states and
contended universe accelerating expansion, which raises problems of conservation of
energy and thermodynamic principles of increasing entropy let alone that of anti-gravity.
Addressing issues solely by mathematical analysis and manipulations facilitates
neglecting the practical possibility or impossibility of the interpretation.
These issues apply to the Einstein-Hubble concept of space, the Einstein general
relativity treatment of gravitation, quantum mechanics in general, and general uncertainty
as compared to the original per Heisenberg.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[40] **viXra:0702.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Gao Shan

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The unknown constant in the holographic dark energy model is determined in terms of a recent conjecture...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:0702.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

It is shown that Planck’s energy distribution for a black-body radiation field can
be simply derived for a gas-like ether with Maxwellian statistics. The gas consists of an infinite
variety of particles, whose masses are integral multiples n of the mass of the unit particle,
the abundance of n-particles being proportional to...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:0702.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Howard G. Preston, Franklin Potter

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

We apply the new gravitational wave equation (GWE) derived from the General
Theory of Relativity to determine quantization states in solar systems. The GWE has one ad hoc
assumption: gravitational quantization states depend solely on the gravitationally-bound system’s total
angular momentum and its total mass. From the predicted planet and satellite equilibrium orbital
distances we make comparisons to the empirical values. To our surprise, we find that the angular
momentum in the Oort Cloud determines the planetary spacings! We derive also a mass relationship
for orbiting bodies in any planetary system, including exoplanetary systems. We suggest a laboratory
experiment with a torsion bar near a rotating mass.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[37] **viXra:0702.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Maxwell’s equations were, and still are, derived for a uniform stationary ether
and are not, therefore, the general equations of electromagnetism. The true
general equations, for an ether in general motion, have been derived and given
in the literature for many years but are continually ignored. Here, a further
attempt is made to bring home irrefutably the mathematics which negates the
concepts of no-ether and non-Newtonian relativity. Alternative derivations of
the general equations of electromagnetism are given in the simplest possible
terms, from basic principles. It is shown that the mathematical techniques
required are exactly the same as those which were used to derive the general
equations of fluid motion, long before the advent of Maxwell’s equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:0702.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Edward Halerewicz

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Anastasovki and Hamilton have argued that the shell
energy structure of nuclear matter maybe be bounded
to a gravitational constant with magnitude...

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[35] **viXra:0702.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

It is possible one thinks that the General Theory of Relativity
is a fossilized science, all achievements of which were reached
decades ago. In particular it is right - the mathematical apparatus
of Riemannian geometry, being a base of the theory, remains
unchanged. At the same time the mathematical technics have many
varieties: general covariant methods, the tetrad method, etc. Developing
the technics we can create new possibilities in theoretical
physics, unknown before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:0702.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Homer B. Tilton, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

For most of the 20th century, both relativity and star travel fascinated this writer. The reasons Albert
Einstein concluded there is an absolute barrier at the speed of light seemed at first clear, then later not
so clear upon closer examination.
"The speed of light relative to what?" I often asked anyone who would listen. The common response
was, "Light needs no specification of that kind; its speed is the same no matter who measures it."
"That's true." I would respond; "That's just the second postulate of special relativity which is not in
doubt; but that postulate applies to light, and we're talking about rocketships here." However it
seemed that no one understood what I was saying.
By referring to the universal constant c= 299.792 458 megameters per second as "the speed of light,"
we paint ourselves into a logical corner in which light is automatically taken as the subject of
discussion even when it is not. The careful reader will know not to immediately think "light" when he
hears or reads "the speed of light." But it is better to have a neutral name for that universal constant.
It has been called the Lorentz speed; Ignazio Ciufolini & John Archibald Wheeler (1995) called it the
characteristic speed of space, and they were then able to apply it to all "primordial forces" whether
electromagnetic or gravitational or other (what other, C&W did not say).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[33] **viXra:0702.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The subject is treated in two parts, inertial mass and gravitational mass. The present
paper is the first part: Inertial Mass, Its Mechanics – What It Is; How It Operates.
The behavior of inertial mass is well known, described by Newton’s Laws, the Lorentz
Contractions, and Einstein’s mass – energy equivalence. But just what mass is, how those
behaviors come about, what in material reality produces the effects of inertial mass, is little
understood.
The only extant hypothesis is the “Higgs Field” and its related particle, the Higgs Boson.
Neither has been detected in spite of significant efforts. Further, their hypothesis is not a
description of the mechanics of mass but an abstraction away from the problem, substituting
another field to explain that not well understood.
From a start of only the limitation on the speed of light, the necessity of conservation, and
the impossibility of an infinity in material reality, the present paper presents a comprehensive
analysis of the phenomenon inertial mass:
- how rest mass appears in particles,
- how the Newtonian behavior arises from that, and
- how the Lorentz Contractions operate in/on it,
or, in other words, the mechanics of inertial mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:0702.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The subject is treated in two parts, inertial mass and gravitational mass. The first
part, Inertial Mass, Its Mechanics – What It Is; How It Operates, developed inertial mass.
The present paper is the second part: Gravitational Mass, Its Mechanics – What It Is; How
It Operates.
The behavior of gravitation is well known, described by Newton’s Law of
Gravitation. But what gravitational mass is, how gravitational behavior comes about, what
in material reality produces the effects of gravitational mass, is little understood. The
extant hypotheses include Einstein's general relativity's bending of space, efforts to develop
“quantum gravitation”, and attempts to detect “gravitons” and “gravitational waves”.
Those do not address the mechanics of gravitation but, rather, are abstractions away from
it.
From a start of only the limitation on the speed of light, the necessity of
conservation, and the impossibility of an infinity in material reality, the present paper
presents a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon gravitational mass:
- how it appears in particles,
- how the Newtonian gravitational behavior arises from that, and
- how the values of inertial mass and gravitational mass are identical,
or, in other words, the mechanics of gravitational mass and gravitation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:0702.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Matter waves were discovered in the early 20th century from their wavelength, predicted by DeBroglie,
Planck's constant divided by the particle's momentum, that is...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:0702.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein’s gravitational field satisfying
the static vacuum conditions contain anomalies that are not mathematically
permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified
to account for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line-elements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:0702.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions
for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto.
In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is
singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be
dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types,
and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be
inconsistent with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:0702.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Raul A. Rapacioli

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Following the work recently developed by Guala-Valverde in
this journal, we search for the conditions which constrain the
choice of arbitrary sets of standards in order to make inertial
mass numerically equal to gravitational mass.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[27] **viXra:0702.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Guo Zeng-jian, Han Yan-ben, Guo An-ning, Chen I-wan

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Using the temporal triplet distribution with certain periodicity to fit the real temporal distribution of great earthquakes (EQs) (M≥8) in North China and in West America respectively, we found the fitness is rather good. It is therefore possible to use the fitness as reference for the prediction of future great EQs (M≥8) in these two regions. The temporal triplet distribution refers to the temporal series consisting of the periodicity, the multiplied periodicity and the golden section of such periodicities.
Key words: North China, West America, great earthquakes (M≥8), temporal regularity.

**Category:** Geophysics

[26] **viXra:0702.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Alex Kaivarainen

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

During many years our Laboratory of molecular biophysics was involved in study of
solvent dependent large-scale dynamics of proteins determined by relative thermal mobility of
their domains and subunits. The role of large-scale dynamics in the mechanism of protein
function, the signal transmission, allosteric effects and other water dependent effects in protein
solutions have been investigated.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[25] **viXra:0702.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

A proposal unifying four approaches to genetic code is discussed.
The first approach is introduced by Pitkanen and is geometric:
genetic code is interpreted as an imbedding of the aminoacid space to
DNA space possessing a fiber bundle like structure with DNAs coding
for a given aminoacid forming a discrete fiber with a varying number
of points. Also Khrennikov has proposed an analogous approach based
on the identification of DNAs coding for a given aminoacid as an orbit
a discrete flow defined by iteration of a map of DNA space to itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:0702.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The Big Bang had to be smoothly spherically symmetrical in its particles, energy, and radiation emitted outward from the origin, and likewise for the emitted particles versus their antiparticles. The result should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter with the expectation of their complete mutual annihilation.
A total annihilation did not take place as evidenced by the universe's existence. The currently favored explanation is that the universe is now all matter, all original antimatter having been annihilated with an equal amount of original matter, the total amount of the original matter having been greater than that of the original antimatter. That is, that the original symmetry was slightly skewed in favor of matter.
That conflicts with a purely symmetrical Big Bang and posits a condition, the skewed balance of original matter and antimatter, that is difficult to justify. Current investigations seek to detect an innate violation of matter / antimatter symmetry sufficient to justify the original matter being greater in amount than the original antimatter.
An alternative is developed, maintaining the original symmetry yet still resulting in our universe's existence. That involves showing that a total mutual annihilation of equal amounts of original matter and antimatter could not have occurred. The logic and mechanism of mutual annihilation and the conditions for it to take place are analyzed.
Our present universe still must contain large amounts of both forms of matter between some particles of which further mutual annihilations still occur at a modest rate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:0702.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Recent distance determinations to Type Ia supernovae [ SNe Ia ] by new means
exceed the Hubble distance by 10 - 15%.1,2 The explanation that has been offered is
an "anti-gravity effect" accelerating the universe' expansion. The effect is attributed to
some unknown substance pervading cosmological space, a modern variant on the
Ancients' fifth essence, "quintessence".
In other research 3, the study of galaxies and the larger cosmic structures of
groups of galaxies as rotating systems, with their concomitant balance of gravitational
attraction [G.M.m/R2] and centripetal force [m.V2/R], has disclosed a component of
the gravitational attraction that cannot be accounted for. It is inferred that a halo of
"dark matter" pervades the galaxies and supplies the unaccounted for gravitation.
Therefore, we are confronted with the contradiction:
[1] the SNe Ia data with its hypothesis that the cosmos is operated on by an
"anti-gravity effect", and
[2] the rotation curves data which indicates that an additional gravitational
effect is operating, not an anti-gravitational one.
The two hypotheses are mutually exclusive. At least one is completely incorrect [the
hypothesis, not the data] and quite possibly both hypotheses are wrong.
That being the case, it is essential that alternative explanations for the SNe Ia
data and the rotation curves data be sought. The status of such alternatives is reviewed
and a new alternative, based on NASA reported observations of long-term satellite
behavior, is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:0702.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

To discuss the possibility of deriving the law of Coulomb and Newton’s second law theoretically, according to the law of conservation of energy, the variable dimension fractal method is developed, and used to improved Newton’s second law and the law of Coulomb in an example (a small electrification ball moves down along a long incline within the electric field due to an electrification globe). ...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:0702.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Before the universe there was nothing, absolute nothing. That is the starting point because it is the only starting point that requires no cause, no explanation nor justification of its existence.
But, that starting point has two impediments to the universe, or anything, coming into existence from it. First is the problem of change from nothing to something without, at least initially, an infinite rate of change, which is impossible. Second is the problem of change from nothing to something without violating conservation, which must be maintained.
Mathematical analysis develops the sole solution to both problems. That is that the beginning had to be of a [1 – Cosine(2π.f.t)] form. That solution indicates the fundamental nature of matter, energy and field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:0702.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

By using the movement equation of planet derived by general relativity, this paper presents the improved formula of universal gravitation as follows...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:0702.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Researching change in the fine structure constant...

**Category:** Astrophysics

[18] **viXra:0702.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Antun Rubcic, Jasna Rubcic

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The square law rn = r1n2 for orbital sizes rn (r1 is a constant dependent on the
particular system, and n are consecutive integer numbers) is applied to the recently
discovered planets of Andromedae and to pulsars PSR B1257+12 and PSR
1828-11. A comparison with the solar planetary system is made. The product nvn of the
orbital velocity vn with the corresponding orbital number n for planets of Andromedae
is in good agreement with those for terrestrial planets, demonstrating the
generality of the square law in dynamics of diverse planetary systems. "Quantized
velocity" of nvn is very close to 24 kms-1, i.e. to the step found in the quantized
redshifts of galaxies. A definite conclusion for planetary systems of pulsars requires
additional observations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17] **viXra:0702.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Antun Rubcic, Jasna Rubcic

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Mean orbital distances of planets from the Sun and of major satellites from the parent
planets Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus are described by the square law, where the
values of are consecutive integers, and is the mean orbital distance expected at
for a particular system. Terrestrial planets and Jovian planets are analysed as separate systems.
Thus, five independent solar-like systems are considered. The basic assumption is
that specific orbital angular momentum is ”quantized”. Consequently, all orbital parameters
are also discrete. The number relates to the law of orbital spacing. An additional
discretization, related to, i.e. to the scale of orbits, accounts for the detailed structure of
planar gravitational systems. Consequently, it is also found that orbital velocity multiplied
by is equal to the multiple of a fundamental velocity, valid for all
subsystems in the Solar System. This velocity is equal to one of the “velocity” increments
of quantized redshifts of galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[16] **viXra:0702.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Jose Francisco Garcia Julia

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In this brief and very simple note, we consider that the nature of the light red shift is related with the variation of the gravitational field with the distance and not necessarily with the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:0702.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

There is general agreement that the universe began with an outward "explosion" of matter
and energy at a "singularity" followed by its on-going expansion -- the "Big Bang". This paper
analyses the mechanics of that beginning and two alternative theories related to it:
- The Hubble - Einstein theory that that beginning created space itself, expanding and
carrying the universe's matter and energy with it such that the velocity, v, of
recession of any distant astral object from us is directly proportional to its distance,
v = H0.d, where H0 is the "Hubble Constant", and
- The Universal Decay theory that the length, [L], dimensional aspect of all quantities
in the universe [e.g. distance [L], speed [L/T], gravitation constant, G, [L3/M.T2]
etc.] is exponentially decaying while the material universe is expanding outward
within passive, static "space".
The Hubble - Einstein theory has been accepted by consensus for many decades.
The Universal Decay theory was first propounded in "The Origin and Its Meaning"1 in
1996 and has since been validated by the Pioneer 10 and 11 "anomalous acceleration" as well as
by the theory's success in accounting for "dark matter" and "dark energy"2. The same centrallydirected,
distance-independent acceleration of (8.74 ± 1.33) x 10-8 cm/s2 that is the
Pioneer "anomalous acceleration" supplies the "additional gravitation" that "dark matter" is
sought to supply and is part of the on-going contraction and decay of all length, [L], dimensions.
The mass of the universe is calculated and the universe's "Schwarzschild Radius"
evaluated. The velocities and distances of cosmic objects in general are calculated and plotted
from the end of the "inflation" to the present. It develops that there is a theoretical limit on how
far back into the past can be observed regardless of the quality of our instrumentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0702.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Three major contemporary unresolved problems of astronomy and cosmology are that of "Dark
Matter", hypothesized to explain otherwise un-accounted for acceleration indicated by galactic rotation
curves; that of "Dark Energy" hypothesized to account for indications resulting from distance
measurements to Type Ia Supernovae that the expansion of the universe is accelerating; and the Pioneer
Anomaly, unaccounted for acceleration exhibited by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft.
The present paper is a summary analytic presentation, in a brief 3 pages, of the three problems and
the common solution to them. It presents the structure and logic of the situation but with only minimally
sufficient data to illustrate the points. The cited references provide the full analysis, calculations and
explication of theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0702.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Suppose that there existed the same, one, simple explanation that comprehensively
resolves the three apparently disparate problems:
[1] The galactic rotation curves' indications of "dark matter", and
[2] The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft' "anomalous acceleration",
[3] The Type Ia Supernovae distance measurements' indications of acceleration of
cosmic expansion with its implication of "dark energy" or quintessence.
Suppose further that this single explanation is merely another manifestation of one of
the most common and ubiquitous of physical processes -- that of the second order linear
differential equation with constant coefficients -- rather than being based on the inventing of
disparate new and unknown effects, effects that are not directly detectable, let alone directly
measurable: "dark matter" and "dark energy", with no viable explanation at all for the Pioneer
"anomalous acceleration".
Suppose still further that this explanation can readily be tested by direct astrophysical
observations and measurements whereas both "dark matter" and "dark energy" are not directly
observable, let alone directly measurable, and can only be indirectly inferred.
And, suppose even further that this explanation is regularly validated, albeit
unknowingly to the researchers, in everyday astronomical and astrophysical research.
That explanation is presented and developed in the following paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0702.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Alexander P. Yefremov

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In the framework of six-dimensional quaternionic theory of relativity (a short review is
given) non-inertial frames are reasonably described: uniformly accelerated observer on
rectilinear trajectory and arbitrary accelerated observer on circular orbit. The results are used
to derive exact Thomas precession formula and calculate change of position of Jupiter’s
satellite observed from Earth, an integral cinematic effect for frames with variable relative
velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0702.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Three anomalies associated with the solar system, namely Pioneer anomaly
[3], the evidence for shrinking of planetary orbits [7, 8, 9], and flyby anomaly
[4] are discussed. The first anomaly is explained by a universal 1/r distribution
of dark matter, second anomaly finds a trivial explanation in TGD
based quantum model for planetary orbits as Bohr orbits with Bohr quantization
reflecting macroscopically quantum coherent character of dark matter
with a gigantic value of Planck constant [11]. Fly-by anomaly can be understood
if planetary orbits are surrounded by a flux tube containing quantum
coherent dark matter. Also spherical shells can be considered.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:0702.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

@@Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented.
One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter
solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit
formula for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of
the ultraviolet/infrared ( UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem. ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0702.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented.
One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter
solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit formula
for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of the ultraviolet/
infrared ( UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem.....

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0702.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

A novel class of static spherically symmetric (SSS) solutions of Einstein’s equations
are explicitly constructed in terms of a family of admissible radial functions...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0702.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** P. A. LaViolette

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The novel physics methodology of subquantum kinetics predicted in 1980 that photons
should blueshift their frequency at a rate that varies directly with negative gravitational
potential, the rate of blueshifting for photons traveling between Earth and Jupiter having
been estimated to average approximately...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:0702.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Jorge Guala-Valverde

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

We probe a theorem recently advanced in this journal.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:0702.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Jorge Guala Valverde, Raul A. Rapacioli

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

We revisite the law of proportionality between gravitational
mass and inertial mass within a framework consistent with the
Principle of Mach as recently implemented by Assis.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:0702.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Paul A. LaViolette

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Recent fits to nucleon form factor data show that the nucleon core has a Gaussian charge
density distribution and peripheral periodicity of declining amplitude whose wavelength
approximates the particle's Compton wavelength. This periodic feature was not anticipated by
quark models, but its characteristics do match those of a three-dimensional Turing wave
pattern produced in certain nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. Almost three decades prior
to these observational findings, the novel physics methodology of subquantum kinetics had
predicted this type of electric field distribution for the nucleon, theorizing that subatomic
particles may be Turing patterns or dissipative structures that emerge from an underlying
reaction-diffusion matrix. This model, which is now confirmed by particle scattering data,
provides new insights into the origin of charge, spin, nuclear binding, particle diffraction and
electron orbital quantization.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:0702.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** V. Radchenko

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

We regard a classical field as medium. Then additional
parameter is appearing. It is the local fourvelocity vector of field.
If the one itself regard as potential of same field then all field’s
self energies became finite. As examples electromagnetic, mechanical,
pionic, and somewhat gluonic fields are regarding

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:0702.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In [G2] a semiclassical model based on dark matter and hierarchy of Planck
constants is developed for the fractionized principal quantum number n
claimed by Mills [1] to have at least the values n =

**Category:** Quantum Physics