[213] **viXra:1502.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 17:02:51*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The shorter distance between the bridging chlorine atoms compared with that between the aluminum atoms is discussed in terms of the sp^{3} hybrid model and the MCAS atomic model.

**Category:** Chemistry

[212] **viXra:1502.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 12:29:28*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

substrate specificities for the thioredoxin (Trx) system which consists of native Trx and the respective cytosolic mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) enzymes

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[211] **viXra:1502.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 13:09:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The brightest object in the sky may be hiding dark matter under its surface. To explain certain discrepancies between solar observations and theory, a new model proposes that a special sort of dark matter accumulates in the Sun and affects the transport of heat within the star. [15]
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core.
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[210] **viXra:1502.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 13:32:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is true that the superluminal dark photons responsible for quantum entanglement mimic the electromagnetic interactions but they cannot be detected directly i.e. they are dark. The dark matter is entangled with visible matter due to the superluminal dark photons carried by the superluminal entanglons the luminal Einstein-spacetime components consist of. Information can be sent with superluminal speed between entangled particles but appearing entanglement is created when luminal particles are very close one from another - it leads to conclusion that we cannot send information with superluminal speed because at first we must separate the entangled luminal particles. But when such separation is made then superluminal information is possible - it leads to the superluminal entanglement in quantum physics. Arrangements of the entangled Einstein-spacetime components in the physical matter and mental matter are different. For example, the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components on a torus/electric-charge are perpendicular to surface of the torus whereas the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components in the loops the thoughts consist of are tangent to the loops. It causes that the mental matter is flexible (the mental solitons are flexible) whereas the physical matter is rigid i.e. the bare particles are rigid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[209] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 09:57:32*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page final version

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle [1], both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps [2]. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable simultaneously! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser tweezers. Based on this observation a new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can carefully observe the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at deterministically predictable points.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[208] **viXra:1502.0248 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number. Version 3 (v3) updates graphics to make clear that Zeolite water must be Deuterated Heavy Water. Version 4 (v4) further corrects viXra number.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[207] **viXra:1502.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 08:28:50*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we create a self similar
analogous image of spiral structure
of elementary particles with that of
sea shells, using the mathematical
description of pigmentation pattern
of sea shells, which describes the
various potentials of the spiral
structure of elementary particles. It
also introduces the sea shells
analogous parameters for spiral
structure of elementary particles for
quantising the property of the
elementary particles. It applies the
Reaction-Diffusion equation for
Activator-Inhibitor model to produce
the ingredient activated potential
which once after the formation of the
spiral structure of elementary
particles is being described by the
Activator- Substrate model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[206] **viXra:1502.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 06:08:52*

**Authors:** Brett A Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I postulate the existence of a second time dimension, making five dimensions, three space dimensions and two time dimensions. I will postulate some basic properties based on a smoking gun and then use these basic properties to derive the time dilation equations of "Special Relativity", which helps defne additional properties of the second time dimension. The conclusion being that the Universe has five dimensions but that we only perceive four dimensions. Further more I will demonstrate that Newton's second law of motion still holds if you ignore the time contribution from the second time dimension and additionally as a result of this paper we will understand a little bit more about the very nature of time. I believe this to be quiet a significant paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[205] **viXra:1502.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 22:58:52*

**Authors:** J.X. Zheng-Johansson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Presentation at the 30th Int Colloq on Group Theo. Meth in Phys, Ghent Univ, Belgium

A microscopic theory of the neutron, which consists in a neutron model constructed based on key relevant experimental observations, and the first principles solutions for the basic properties of the model neutron, is proposed within a framework consistent with the Standard Model. The neutron is composed of an electron e and a proton p that are separated at a distance r_1\sim 10^{-18} m, and are in relative orbital angular motion and Thomas precession highly relativistically, with their reduced mass moving along a quantised l=1th circular orbit of radius r_1 about their instantaneous mass centre. The associated rotational energy flux or vortex has an angular momentum (1/2)\hbar and is identifiable as a (confined) antineutrino. The particles e,p are attracted with one another predominantly by a central magnetic force produced as result of the particles' relative orbital, precessional and intrinsic angular motions. The interaction force (resembling the weak force), potential (resembling the Higgs' field), and a corresponding excitation Hamiltonian (H_I), among others, are derived based directly on first principles laws of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and relativistic mechanics within a unified framework. In particular, the equation for (4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I, which is directly comparable with the Fermi constant G_F, is predicted as G_F=(4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I =A_o C_{01} /\ammag_e \gamma_p, where A_o=e^2 \hbar^2/12\pi\epsilon_0 m_e^0 m_p^0 c^2, m_e^0, m_p^0 are the e,p rest masses, C_{01} is a geometric factor, and \gamma_e, \gamma_p are the Lorentz factors. Quantitative solution for a stationary meta-stable neutron is found to exist at the extremal point r_{1m}=2.513 \times 10^{-18} m, at which the G_F is a minimum (whence the neutron lifetime is a maximum) and is equal to the experimental value. Solutions for the neutron spin (1/2), apparent magnetic moment, and the intermediate vector boson masses are also given in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[204] **viXra:1502.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 02:10:48*

**Authors:** Gerasimos T. Soldatos

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The problems of squaring the circle or “quadrature” and trisection of an acute angle are supposed to be impossible to solve because the geometric constructibility, i.e. compass-and-straightedge construction, of irrational numbers like π is involved, and such numbers are not constructible. So, if these two problems were actually solved, it would imply that irrational numbers are geometrically constructible and this, in turn, that the infinite of the decimal digits of such numbers has an end, because it is this infinite which inhibits constructibility. A finitely infinite number of decimal digits would be the case if the infinity was the actual rather than the potential one. Euclid's theorem rules out the presence of actual infinity in favor of the infinite infinity of the potential infinity. But, space per se is finite even if it is expanding all the time, casting consequently doubt about the empirical relevance of this theorem in so far as the nexus space-actual infinity is concerned. Assuming that the quadrature and the trisection are space only problems, they should subsequently be possible to solve, prompting, in turn, a consideration of the real-world relevance of Euclid's theorem and of irrationality in connection with time and spacetime and hence, motion rather than space alone. The number-computability constraint suggests that only logically, i.e. through Euclidean geometry, this issue can be dealt with. So long as any number is expressible as a polynomial root the issue at hand boils down to the geometric constructibility of any root. This article is an attempt towards this direction after having tackled the problems of quadrature and trisection first by themselves through reductio ad impossibile in the form of proof by contradiction, and then as two only examples of the general problem of polynomial root construction. The general conclusion is that an irrational numbers is irrational on the real plane, but in the three-dimensional world, it is as a vector the image of one at least constructible position vector, and through the angle formed between them, constructible becomes the “irrational vector” too, as a right-triangle side. So, the physical, the real-world reflection of the impossibility of quadrature and trisection should be sought in connection with spacetime, motion, and potential infinity.

**Category:** Geometry

[203] **viXra:1502.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 09:40:01*

**Authors:** Elemer Elad Rosinger

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Another ... friendly and creative ... author-editor interaction is presented in which several basic conundrums in physics are mentioned, conundrums no physicist seems to care about ...

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[202] **viXra:1502.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 08:19:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[201] **viXra:1502.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 21:13:20*

**Authors:** Rochelle Forrester

**Comments:** 143 Pages.

How Change Happens puts the study of social and cultural history and social change and cultural evolution on a scientific basis capable of rational analysis and understanding. It shows how social and cultural change happens and explains the sequence of events in social and cultural history. It shows how social and cultural history followed a necessary path that can be analysed and rationally understood and explained. Most books on history describe how one thing followed another. How Change Happens describes why one thing followed another.

**Category:** Social Science

[200] **viXra:1502.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 16:30:53*

**Authors:** Xinyang Deng, Zhen Wang, Qi Liu, Yong Deng, Yu Shyr

**Comments:** 38 pages, 7 figures

Opinion dynamics, aiming to understand the evolution of collective behavior through various interaction mechanisms of opinions, represents one of the most challenges in natural and social science. To elucidate this issue clearly, binary opinion model becomes a useful framework, where agents can take an independent opinion. Inspired by the realistic observations, here we propose two basic interaction mechanisms of binary opinion model: one is the so-called BSO model in which players benefit from holding the same opinion; the other is called BDO model in which players benefit from taking different opinions. In terms of these two basic models, the synthetical effect of opinion preference and equivocators on the evolution of binary opinion is studied under the framework of evolutionary game theory (EGT), where the replicator equation (RE) is employed to mimick the evolution of opinions. By means of numerous simulations, we show the theoretical equilibrium states of binary opinion dynamics, and mathematically analyze the stability of each equilibrium state as well.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[199] **viXra:1502.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 12:34:18*

**Authors:** Juergen Altenbrunn

**Comments:** 16 Pages. needs Theory of relativity without singularities

The cosmologic red shift is an effect of general relativity. It is possible to calculate cosmologic red shift of light, passing through a transparent continuum with mass. It is necessary to consider the mass variation caused caused from variation of potential energy demonstrated in [3] for this calculation. Result of this calculation is also an intensified increasing of cosmologic red shift at very long distances. Accelerated expansion of our universe or dark energy is not needed for this calculation, only pure theory of general relativity. It is possible to calculate the average density of our universe, if you know Hubble-constant. Calculated average density is 1.76*10^-26kg/m^3 by using a Hubble-constant of 21km/s per million light years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[198] **viXra:1502.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 15:00:00*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

An attempt is made to explain the Allais effect, the anomalous behavior of pendulums during a total solar eclipse, by Poisson diffraction of gravitational waves into the lunar shadow, with the waves emitted through large mass motion in the center of the sun by a thermonuclear fusion reaction driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline shield the strong magnetic field in the solar core.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[197] **viXra:1502.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 12:04:28*

**Authors:** Juergen Altenbrunn

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Singularities are avoidable in theory of relativity by consideration of mass variation. Mass varies not only by changing of kinetic energy but also by changing of the potential energy of the mass. This variation of the mass follows the relation E = m * c^2. The mass will be lighter, it decreases in the same way as potential energy of this mass decreases. This will be very clearly by consideration of distances in the same range like Schwarzschild radius. Standstill mass is the potential energy against infinity.
The dissemination of the gravitational field varies near the mass also by consideration of mass variation. Also red shift varies near a heavy dense mass by consideration of mass variation. The event horizon disappears. Physics are possible inside of Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[196] **viXra:1502.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 04:57:01*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory (IST) writing a SWOT analysis about that project is long overdue.
The paper provides a comprehensive SWOT analysis of IST based on a recent proposal concerning the terminology
for the theory and applications of instruction sequences.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[195] **viXra:1502.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 15:34:16*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Work in progress. References not included.

As natural outcome of dimensional regularization, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. This brief note suggests that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory points to a surprising duality between the MFM and classical gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[194] **viXra:1502.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 16:34:34*

**Authors:** Roger Schlafly

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to the 2015 FQXi essay contest.

Mathematics and physics are entirely different subjects, both in their methodology and results. The differences are illustrated with how they view randomness, enumeration, and truth. In physics, randomness can be an unknown, an observational error, an unpredictable event, or a quantum mystery. In math it is just part of probability theory. Mathematics has subtle properties of infinities that physics does not directly observe. Logical positivism is a philosophy that explains how mathematics and physics search for truth in different ways, but it has been rejected by modern philosophers, leaving them with deeply flawed views of what math and physics are all about.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[193] **viXra:1502.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 17:47:05*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Instruction sequences play a key role in computing and have the
potential of becoming more important in the conceptual development of
informatics in addition to their existing role in computer technology and machine architectures. After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory a more robust and outreaching terminology is needed for it which may support further development. Instruction sequencing is the central concept around which a new family of terms and phrases is developed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[192] **viXra:1502.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 20:21:50*

**Authors:** Rochelle Forrester

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

Sense Perception and Reality will cause a revolution in human understanding of the universe. It examines the remarkable similarities between philosophical idealism and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics. The book looks at perceptual relativity involving the latest scientific research in animal senses, neurology, and cognitive psychology. It concludes the universe we know is observer dependent and varies with the sensory apparatus used to observe it. The Copenhagen Interpretation is examined and perceptual relativity would appear to apply in the quantum world. The Copenhagen Interpretation suggests the universe is observer dependent, the same conclusion as is found in philosophical idealism in the macro world. The book concludes by examining the consequences of an observer dependent universe and by showing such a universe is quite consistent with a modern objective science.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[191] **viXra:1502.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 12:56:18*

**Authors:** Richard Hermida, Joseph N. Luchman, Vias Nicolaides, Cristina Wilcox

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the
power of a structural equation model (SEM) is rare in practice. This article provides an
accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of
Approximation (RMSEA) index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of
example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many
studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we
examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs.
Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not
the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.

**Category:** Social Science

[190] **viXra:1502.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 09:35:26*

**Authors:** Carsten S.P. Spanheimer

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I propose to ask mathematics itself for the possible behaviour of nature, with the focus on starting with a most simple realistic model, employing a philosophy of investigation rather than invention when looking for a unified theory of physics.
Doing a 'mathematical experiment' of putting a least set of conditions on a general time-dependent manifold results in mathematics itself inducing a not too complex 4-dimensional object similar to our physical spacetime, with candidates for gravitational and electromagnetic fields emerging on the tangent bundle.
This suggests that the same physics might govern spacetime not only on a macroscopic scale, but also on the microscopic scale of elementary particles, with possible junctions to quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[189] **viXra:1502.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 08:54:54*

**Authors:** Dimitris Poulos

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As the Nilometer at Rhoda Island is sinking over time, it's measurements have been corrected to depict the true water level of the river Nile.

**Category:** Climate Research

[188] **viXra:1502.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-02 01:50:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[187] **viXra:1502.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-24 23:15:37*

**Authors:** Yong Deng

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Shannnon entropy is an efficient tool to measure uncertain information. However, it cannot handle the more uncertain situation when the uncertainty is
represented by basic probability assignment (BPA), instead of probability distribution, under the framework of Dempster Shafer evidence theory. To
address this issue, a new entropy, named as Deng entropy, is proposed. The proposed Deng entropy is the generalization of Shannnon entropy. If uncertain information is represented by probability distribution, the uncertain degree measured by Deng entropy is the same as that of Shannnon’s entropy. Some numerical examples are illustrated to shown the efficiency of Deng entropy.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[186] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-28 15:51:17*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime between 5×10^34 and 7×10^34 years, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[185] **viXra:1502.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-26 11:55:01*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper I derive the formula for the temperature of a thermodynamic system as a
function of the multiplicity (number of microstates) and its the rate of change with respect to the absorbed or lost energy. Then the formula is used to obtain the “temperature-microstates- energy” relation for a black hole assuming that the number of microstates is
proportional to the energy of the emitted photon through either tunnelling effect or Hawking radiation.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[184] **viXra:1502.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-24 07:58:41*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: it is not the universe, which is expanding, rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. (As soon as a new mechanism for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” [1] it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang Cosmology, to understand the universe.) Since, as per this new interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the Red-shift-Distance-Curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c [2]. And to counter-balance this deceleration, the accelerations at the boundaries of: the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies and the galactic-clusters too, are of the same order as H0 c. This coincidence was numerically found by Sivaram [3]; and is explained here, in terms of equilibrium between self-gravitational-acceleration of structures and the acceleration of the un-manifest-energy contained in space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[183] **viXra:1502.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 20:24:09*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

With reference to particle data group, up quark mass is 2.15 MeV/c2 and down quark mass is 4.7 MeV/c2. Up and down quark mass ratio is 0.46(5). In the earlier published paper titled: “Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions”, the authors proposed a simple method for estimating the six quark masses. With reference to the earlier proposed results, up quark mass is 4.4 MeV/c2 and down quark mass is 9.473 MeV/c2. By considering the up and down quark rest masses, in this paper the authors proposed very simple methods for estimating the nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy and successfully extended the quark model to low energy scale nuclear physics. Topics covered are: 1) Hint of final unification and Up and Down quark rest masses, 2) Strong coupling constant, 3) Nucleon rest masses, 4) Nuclear stability, 5) Nuclear binding energy, 6) Strong interaction range, 7) Nuclear charge radius, 8) Rms charge radius of proton, 9) Rms charge radii of atomic nuclei and 10) Magic numbers. At the stable mass number of Z, nuclear binding energy seems to be proportional to the sum of 2Z up quarks rest energy and Z down quarks rest energy. Interesting point to be noted is that, binding energy near to stable mass number seems to be independent of the mass number. Finally an attempt is made to fit the SEMF energy coefficients. With further research and analysis, strong coupling constant and gravitational constant both can successfully be implemented in low energy nuclear binding energy scheme.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[182] **viXra:1502.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 20:50:22*

**Authors:** Sanjay Patel, Neha Parmar, Viral Patel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing. This paper contains an overview of IP address and IP Spoofing and its background. It also shortly discusses various types of IP Spoofing, MAC spoofing and how they attack on communication system. This paper also describes some methods to detection and prevention methods of IP spoofing and also describes impacts on communication system by IP Spoofing. Propose approach identifies the computer through defined unique identification address of computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[181] **viXra:1502.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-26 11:53:35*

**Authors:** Valeri Beck

**Comments:** 13 pages, 7 figures

According to the planetary origin conceptual model proposed in this paper, the protosun centre of the pre-solar nebula exploded, resulting in a shock wave that passed through it and then returned to the centre, generating a new explosion and shock wave. Recurrent explosions in the nebula resulted in a spherical standing sound wave, whose antinodes concentrated dust into rotating rings that transformed into planets. The extremely small angular momentum of the Sun and the tilt of its equatorial plane were caused by the asymmetry of the first, most powerful explosion. Differences between inner and outer planets are explained by the migration of solid matter, while the Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a spherical internal nebula and an expanding spherical shell of gas. The proposed conceptual model can also explain the origin and evolution of exoplanetary systems and may be of use in searching for new planets.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[180] **viXra:1502.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 12:12:17*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Schwarzschild solution. We obtain new solution in the General Schwarzschild solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[179] **viXra:1502.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 15:35:54*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This is seventh Part of the work

In this seventh part of the work on the completeness of the genetic code, we present further relationships of different variants of Genetic Code Table and modified Rumer Table of nucleotide doublets within genetic code.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[178] **viXra:1502.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 15:39:24*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 2 pages.

I prove the expansion in infinite seiries for the multiplication between sine, hyperbolic sine and exponential functions, that do not exist in the mathematical literature.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[177] **viXra:1502.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 20:37:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There are 4 particles Intrinsically (mc^2) more energetic than the copious tetraquark (4.430 GEV): The top quark (173 GEV), the Z particle (91.2 GEV), and the two W particles (80.4 GEV each). These are all much more energetic than the tetraquark and should be considered as a class of particle by themselves and as a group signaled by the copious tetraquark. The group is partly responsible for the E8-symmetry breaking at the time of the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[176] **viXra:1502.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 20:24:10*

**Authors:** Tom Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Health related experiments in alternative medications including hypnosis, reiki and other methods that seem to have work on my illnesses.

**Category:** Mind Science

[175] **viXra:1502.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 21:01:58*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Submittal to energy journals 2010, but never published

Clean distributable energy source is expected to develop for the sustainable societies in the 21st century. Recent research development of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS), which is the descendant new research filed of past controversial “cold fusion” saga, is now revealing the new possibility of potential clean nuclear energy in portable size devices, although the stage of research is still basic and fundamental. This review paper describes; 1) Brief experimental results of anomalous excess heat generation with 4He ash without visible neutron and gamma-ray emission by the two methods of deuterium loading into Pd-nano-metal reactor samples based on D2O electrolysis and the one method of gas-phase deuterium loading. Key issues for further engineering-phase development are discussed. 2) For the physical understanding of this “new phenomena”, as new-type of deuteron-related fusion reactions in the ordering and constraint dynamics of deuterium clustering in condensed matter as PdDx lattice or surface, brief review on the theoretical progress of condensed cluster fusion, typically 4D multi-body fusion by the tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC), is given with easier physical explanations. Key issues as reproducibility and increment of power density are summarized.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[174] **viXra:1502.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 00:37:59*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair Moshe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A method for testing the idea from a previous paper on Discrete Time Locations

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[173] **viXra:1502.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 04:29:38*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

A modular way of making progress concerning personal multithreading is suggested: collecting account snippet proposals and missing account indications without an immediate need for integration into a coherent account. Six account snippets for personal multithreading are proposed and and four options for further contributions, that is missing account indications, on personal multi-threading are listed.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[172] **viXra:1502.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 10:22:52*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Two models of the gravitational and inertial interactions are considered in this paper, the Newtonian model and the TI field model. We’ll see how each model addresses the equivalence principle and the three properties of mass: passive gravitational mass, active gravitational mass and inertial mass. In the Newtonian model the ratio of passive gravitational mass to inertial mass of an object falling at relativistic speed toward a black hole changes, so the often stated equivalence of these two properties of mass is not upheld. In the Newtonian model, absent extraneous forces, all objects moving at non- relativistic speed in a gravitational field accelerate at the same rate because the ratio
Mp / MI of the passive gravitational mass to the inertial mass is the same for all objects
regardless of their intrinsic mass or constitution. The ratio Mp / MI of the passive gravitational mass to inertial mass need not be unity for the acceleration of objects in a gravitational field to be the same for all objects regardless of size or constitution. In the
common expression for the acceleration profile about a gravitational body the ratio Mp /
MI of the passive gravitational mass to the inertial mass is sequestered within the gravitational constant G itself.
The TI field model of gravity and inertia unifies the nature of the gravitational and inertial interactions through the acceleration of massive particles relative to the TI field, an acceleration that is common both to the acceleration of an object in response to an external force and the acceleration of the TI field in response to gravity. The TI field model unifies the nature of the gravitational and inertial interactions not by equating the numerical values of passive gravitational mass and inertial mass, but by the relative acceleration of the TI field and matter particles that underlies both

**Category:** Classical Physics

[171] **viXra:1502.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 10:45:18*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages.

I prove some accelerations of the infinite series for the hyperbolic sine, hyperbolic cosine, Struve and Bessel function of the first kind.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[170] **viXra:1502.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 11:09:50*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages.

I proved some accelerations of the infinite series for the sine and cosine functions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[169] **viXra:1502.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 12:36:35*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We prove some estimates for von Mangold function, second Chebyshev function and Riemann’s J function by elementary methods.

**Category:** Number Theory

[168] **viXra:1502.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 13:22:06*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Devices that collect water from the atmospheric air using condensation are well-known. They operate in a manner very similar to that of a dehumidifier: air is passed through a cooled coil, making water to condense. This is the most common technology in use. Here, we present a device that can collect a large amount of water (more than 1m3/s) from the atmospheric air using gravitational condensation. Another novelty of this device is that it consumes little electricity. In addition, the new technology of this device leads to a new concept of pump, the Gravitational Pump, which can be used to pump water at very low cost from aquifers, rivers, lakes, etc., and also to supply the high pressure (100atm or more) needed to push seawater through the semipermeable membrane, in the desalinization process known as reverse osmosis.

**Category:** Geophysics

[167] **viXra:1502.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 14:58:04*

**Authors:** Waldemar Puszkarz

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We propose a new mathematical constant related to the gaps between consecutive primes obtained by concatenating the digits in the prime gap numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[166] **viXra:1502.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 07:53:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Nieves Rivas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this brief paper we present the necessary and sufficient conditions within the solution of the Erdos-Straus conjecture when (n) takes the values of any twin prime. Then we conclude with a table for its visualization and analysis proving by the Bayes' theorem that the twin primes are infinite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[165] **viXra:1502.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-06 12:59:52*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The pathology of shell shock has been identified by researchers, so stated a newspaper article. Why the brain injury occurs primarily in the frontal lobes and its “distinctive honeycomb pattern of broken and swollen nerve fibres” was not identified. Every munitions explosion emits a broadband pulse of electromagnetic energy. The electromagnetic energy pulse reaches the victim before the compression and particle components of the explosion. The characteristics of the head protection used by soldiers explains why the particular brain injury is as prevalent today as it was in World War I, but without the massive artillery barrages. The victims are receiving what can be termed an electromagnetic shock to their brain.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[164] **viXra:1502.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 06:05:29*

**Authors:** Alexander Fedorov

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

\
heIn this paper is offered and theoretically is based the algorithm
permissive with the lp of small number of arithmetic operations
with arbitrary positive integer(N) to answer a question : is N
composite or prime? The algorithm has a high operational speed
which depends a little on value N ,and is based on The method of
structurization of a set of positive integers (Np)
developed by the author. In limits of a framework of this method
is defined a special set of the structured integers (Ns) in which
it becomes possibility for testing of any structured integers (Sn)
on a membership of a set of composite structured integers (Nsc).
Between by Np and Ns is established one-to-one correspondence :
composite structured integers (Snc) are corresponded to composite
positive integers . Prime structured integers
are corresponded to prime positive integers
Thus for testing arbitrary (N) it is necessary to map it into .
Then we test obtained on a membership of
If Sn is a member of then the output follows
that tested N is also composite.If Sn is not a member of Nsc
then the output follows that tested $N$ is also prime , since if Sn
is not composite then it is prime ,tertiary is not given.

**Category:** Number Theory

[163] **viXra:1502.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-25 16:53:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons
(except neutrinos). Based on the hydrogen unit of time and following two simple rules I propose a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle. Then, based on the same rules I derive a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Finally, based on the two previous formulas and on the same rules, I derive the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the
electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought. This is in accordance with the author's belief that all matter is unstable.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[162] **viXra:1502.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-01 00:51:29*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Mass ratios of electron and proton to neutron.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[161] **viXra:1502.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 03:34:25*

**Authors:** Yuri Ozhigov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I propose a classification of scientific fields by the place that their typical objects occupy in three-dimensional space of physical dimensions: length, mass and time - on a logarithmic scale. Classification includes some areas of physics, chemistry, biology and geology, as well as history. Natural interdisciplinary connections are established , as well as the gaps - the region of space in which there are no objects of modern science.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[160] **viXra:1502.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 14:37:19*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Materialism, reductionism, behaviorism, functionalism, dynamic systems theory and computationalism are popular views, but they were shown by Wittgenstein to be incoherent. The study of behavior encompasses all of human life but behavior is largely automatic and unconscious and even the conscious part, mostly expressed in language (which Wittgenstein equates with the mind), is not perspicuous, so it is critical to have a framework which Searle calls the Logical Structure of Rationality (LSR) and I call the Descriptive Psychology of Higher Order Thought (DPHOT). After summarizing the framework worked out by Wittgenstein and Searle, as extended by modern reasoning research, I show the inadequacies in Carruther’s views, which pervade most discussions of behavior including contemporary behavioral sciences. I maintain that his book is an amalgam of two books, one a summary of cognitive psychology and the other a summary of the standard philosophical confusions on the mind with some new jargon added. I suggest that the latter should be regarded as incoherent or as a cartoon view of life and that taking Wittgenstein at his word, we can practice successful self therapy by regarding the mind/body issue as a language/body issue.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[159] **viXra:1502.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 15:07:45*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Materialism, reductionism, behaviorism, functionalism, dynamic systems theory and computationalism are popular views, but they were shown by Wittgenstein to be incoherent. The study of behavior encompasses all of human life but behavior is largely automatic and unconscious and even the conscious part, mostly expressed in language (which Wittgenstein equates with the mind), is not perspicuous, so it is critical to have a framework which Searle calls the Logical Structure of Rationality (LSR) and I call the Descriptive Psychology of Higher Order Thought (DPHOT). After summarizing the framework worked out by Wittgenstein and Searle, as extended by modern reasoning research, I comment on this first book in a trilogy on Human Nature by the leading authority on Wittgenstein.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[158] **viXra:1502.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 09:48:50*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

Această carte este un nou jurnal de lecturi instante, intenţional expeditive, marca Florentin Smarandache. Acelaşi mozaic de notiţe la prima mână, fără adnotări, fără intervenţii personale sau personalizate, fără judecăţi de valoare asupra lecturilor, fără trimiteri sau analogii savante sau savantlâceşti, întocmai ca în volumul precedent de cititoriri (Cititorind. Hic et nunc) şi, mai mult ca sigur, ca în următoarele. La foc de mitralieră, Florentin Smarandache conspectează un braţ de cărţi şi o căciulă de website-uri de conţinut variat şi, cum altfel?!, paradoxal/paradoxist. Cărţi de specialitate se aşează lângă website-uri de popularizare, publicaţii academice lângă publicaţii controversate ca valoare ştiinţifică, website-uri vulgarizatoare lângă website-uri ale unor instituţii
respectate. La fel, în conţinut: cercetări aplicate, cu metode ştiinţifice consacrate, sunt imprietenite cu teorii conspiraţioniste şi strategii de dezvoltare personală. Acest (talmeş-)Balmeş nu poate fi întâmplător. Ba dimpotrivă, este un portret (pictat pe dedesupt) al lumii în care trăim sau, dacă nu un portret, poate doar un peisaj al acesteia. O lume care îşi refuză tot mai mult
discernământul sustenabil, menţinând falii de gândire aparent insurmontabile între părţile-i componente, contorsionând mai profund fiindurile. (Stefan Iancu)

**Category:** Linguistics

[157] **viXra:1502.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 09:53:26*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

READUP BUILDUP. Thync is the third volume of α-instant readings put up by Florentin Smarandache. Although the style of the reading logs is uniform in the three volumes so far (rough and ready, kernel-extracting, absence of any secondary remarks, and thus masking the author-summarizer), this one address only technical issues from two topics of interest for the author (information fusion / data mining), unlike in previous eclectic books. Notes are taken directly from the source language (one language in this log, more languages before), and there are not abrupt transitions anymore in the selection of information. All works annotated here are from authoritative scientific sources, no more popularizers or debasers.
The title of the volume is an aftereffect of juxtaposition of the verb think, and the noun syncronization, resulting in an incentive - unveiled from the first chapter of readings: Think in sync! Far from being just a call to thinking synchronously, the notes speak about communication as activity-together, where the interlocutors share information. Very likely, it resides right here the drive for publication of the instant readings series: to share.
Besides, of course, multiple other layers of connotation (demonstrative or paideuma-tic), the reading series resemble an allegorical car, a carriage packed with books and bookmarks, which the author-summarizer shook of ideas. For personal use, but as well for a possible satisfaction of a possible spectator, necessarily perceived as a passer in a hurry, with no aptitude to dawdling around. (Nikos Vasiliou)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[156] **viXra:1502.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-01 04:28:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, the paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[155] **viXra:1502.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 08:45:39*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 226 Pages. Это более качественная версия сканирования 3. Старые версии 1,2 можно удалить.

Краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска и оценки глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Краткое оглавление:
Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Приложение методов α – , β –функционалов и максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1502.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 05:23:36*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).[1] This phenomenon has been verified

Einstein's theory of relativity can not explain ...
1. Movement principles of the fast-spinning pulsars,
2. Nuclear Fusion ,
3. Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion
4. the 4th Maxwell's equation,
5. Lorentz equals without the help of Space-Time,
6.Confinement of quarks
7. Great Table of Elementary Particles
8. Spectral line Hα
9. Neutrino Oscillations
10. Form of the interference field must be non-linear.
11.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical.
12.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
13. Yukawa potential

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[153] **viXra:1502.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 15:48:19*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the cable propulsion system, circle propulsion system and space keeper, kinetic propulsion system, gas-tube propulsion system, sliding rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, Sun and magnetic sail, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam propulsion system, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsator), Earth-Moon non-rocket and Earth-Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel.
The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[152] **viXra:1502.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 15:55:38*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

In the past years, the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion, beam space propulsion, MagSail, high speed AB-solar sail, transfer electricity in outer space, simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion, electrostatic linear engine and cable space launcher, AB-levitrons, electrostatic climber, AB-space propulsion, convertor any matter in nuclear energy, femtotechnology, wireless transfer of energy, magnetic space launcher, railgun, superconductivity rail gun, etc.
Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel.
The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[151] **viXra:1502.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 16:04:08*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 67 Pages. 67

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space technology. These include the Space Elevator, Men without the space suite into space, Artificial gravity, New method of atmospheric re-entry for space ship, Inflatable Dome for Moon, Mars, asteroids, Closed loop water cycle, Climber for Space Elevator, Cheap Protection from Nuclear Warhead, Wireless transfer of electricity throw outer Space, Artificial explosion of Sun, etc.
Some of them have the potential to decrease the space research costs in thousands of time, other allow decreasing the cost of the space exploration.
The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary ideas, innovations and patent applications for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Key words: Space Elevator, Men without the space suite into space, Artificial gravity, New method of atmospheric re-entry, Inflatable Dome for space, Closed loop water cycle, Climber for Space Elevator, Cheap protection from Nuclear Warhead, Wireless transfer of electricity throw outer Space, Artificial explosion of Sun.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[150] **viXra:1502.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 16:25:17*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

В 2008г автором был предложен и исследован новый искусственный вид ядерной материи (АБ-материя), который не встречается в природе. Опираясь на хорошо известные законы ядерной физики, автор показал, что предлагаемый искусственный материал будет обладать потрясающими свойствами: Он будет в миллионы моллионов раз прочнее всех известных материалов (включая знаменитые искусственные нанотрубы), может выдерживать температуру в миллионы градусов, обладает почти нулевой теплопроводностью, сверхпроводимостью, в одной из форм способен быть невидимым и пропускать сквозь себя обычную материю, в другой форме защищать от любого излучения, включая ядерное оружие.
Краткие результаты исследования были опубликованы в статье “Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties” [1] American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/24045154), (http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas22501-514.pdf) и некоторые его применения развиты в статье “Femtotechnology: Design of the Strongest AB-Matter for Aerospace”,(2009), http://www.archive.org/details/FemtotechnologyDesignOfTheStrongestAb-matterForAerospace .
Дальнейшие исследования устойчивости отдельных форм АБ-материи показало, что тончайшие нити из этой материи (АБ-иглы в миллион раз меньше атома водорода) обладают удивительным свойством: они находятся в натянутом состоянии и способны проникать безболезненно не только в человеческое тело, но доставлять микроприботы в любые укрытия из обычной материи на гиганские расстояния, в недра Земли, планет и Солнца. В частности, безракетные космические корабли на планеты солнечной системы.
Некоторые результаты этих исследований в популярной форме излагаются ниже.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[149] **viXra:1502.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 12:24:31*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A., Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator and its Application by Alexander Bolonkin (in Russian)

Еще из школьного учебника физики все хорошо знают закон Эйнштейна Е = Мс2 (где Е -энергия, М- масса, с = 300 тысяч км/сек – скорость), который связывает массу любого тела и энергию. Он показывает, что любое материальное тело (камни, песок, мусор) обладают гигантской энергией в миллионы раз большей чем нефть, газ, уголь и в тысячи раз большей, чем известные термоядерные реакции. Но как ее добыть из любого материального тела (камня, песка, мусора) - не знает никто. Лишь в последние годы появилась первая работа [2] , которая наметила путь, позволяющий в принципе прямо превращать материю согласно формулы Эйнштеина в самый удобный вид энергии – электричество. Реализация этого предложения означает гигантский скачек в развитии человечества, сравнимый с изобретением книгопечатания, электронно-счетной машины или выходом человечества в космос. Как предлагается это делать и показано в данной статье.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[148] **viXra:1502.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 14:02:31*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

transferring electric energy in long distance – from one continent to other continent through Earth ionosphere and storage the electric energy into ionosphere. Early he also offered the electronic tubes as the method of transportation of electricity into outer space and the electrostatic space 100 km towers for connection to Earth ionosphere. Early it is offered connection to Earth ionosphere by 100 km solid or inflatable towers. There are difficult for current technology. In given work the research this connection by thin plastic tubes supported in atmosphere by electron gas and electrostatic force. Building this system is cheap and easy for current technology. The computed project allows estimating the possibility of the suggested method.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1502.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 14:52:49*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 13 references

Hydrogen-bond kinetics plays an important role in the establishment of the transport properties of water. In this paper we propose to consider protons in water as a Fermi gas. We use the Fermi statistics to determine the Fermi energy, the averaged time between collisions of the protons, and the speed of sound in liquid water. This time is also used to interpret the response in frequency of the cytoplasm to an applied external electric field.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[146] **viXra:1502.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 15:15:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For nearly half a century, theoretical physicists have made a series of discoveries that certain constants in fundamental physics seem extraordinarily fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of a life-enabling universe. [9]
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[145] **viXra:1502.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-15 11:49:54*

**Authors:** Lori-Anne Gardi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The challenge of this essay was to demonstrate that the units of Planck’s constant are not [J x s]. Borrowing from the logic of the calibration, an attempt was made to find a complete set of small scale measuring sticks for each of time, space, mass, charge and temperature. This however was not possible unless we let the units of Planck’s constant be [J]. It appears that Planck et al forgot to incorporate measure-time into the famous energy equation, E = hν. The extra unit of [s] that is normally assigned to h actually belongs to a previously hidden measure-time variable. This logic suggests that Planck’s constant is an energy constant and not an action constant. After correcting this error, a complete set of unit measuring sticks, calibrated to the time scale of the cycle was calculated. A self-similar unit set was then calibrated to the time scale of the second. The scalability and self-similarity of these unit sets opens the door to the fractal paradigm, one of the main motivations for this research. This small change to the units of Planck’s constant has far reaching implications. All equations that contain h need to be reevaluated. All interpretations founded in unit analysis need to be reexamined. Much work still needs to be done to vindicate this approach.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[144] **viXra:1502.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 09:53:44*

[143] **viXra:1502.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 14:05:08*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There have been a spontaneous oscillations of elementary particles, called Neutrinos,
observed during the last few decades.
The results in the many types of research suggest the non-zero masses of the neutrinos.
The possibility of neutrino oscillations and transformation-stabilizations number in three or
four types of them, according to Italian scientist Bruno Pontecorvo’s (1946) research and
theory, has not been eliminated until these days.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[142] **viXra:1502.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 12:13:12*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published also in FQXi Essay Contest 2015

Extraordinary mathematicality of physics is also shown by dimensionlessness of Planck spacetime and mass. At the same time the Planck granularity of spacetime also shows that physics can be simulated by a binary computer. So physics is informational. But mathematics is not everything in physics, consciousness cannot be solely explained by mathematics. The reason that quantum gravity (QG) does not yet exist is the lack of knowledge about spacetime as background. Quantum mechanics is not complete, because foundational principle is not yet known, and because consciousness and QG are not yet explained. The free will and quantum randomness are similar unexplained phenomena. Even philosophy is important in physics, because what mathematics cannot describe in physics is ontology. And, intuition affects what is mainstream physics. Simplicity and clearness of physics and mathematics of physics are important not only for beginners, but also for the development of the fundamental physics. Uncertainty principle is so simple that maybe it could be derived without the use of wave functions. On the simplicity and clearness of fundamental physics it can be done a lot.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[141] **viXra:1502.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 18:28:48*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we shall show that the standard derivation of the non-locality
contains the logical error which invalidates the whole derivation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[140] **viXra:1502.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 02:09:59*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Experimental realization of Gedanken experiments on Quantum Mechanics continue to suggest inferences of action at a distance, action into the future or past as reported in Delayed choice Quantum entanglement experiments recently by Ma et al (2012). Is it possible to read through this and investigate through simple logic and experiments whether control of the past or future is possible? A set of experiments are suggested here to do the same whose results may be interesting.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[139] **viXra:1502.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 14:15:59*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 4 Pages. first draft

In this paper, as the first part of BOEC series, we compiled several different ways to show how USL1 can roughly halve the GDP (per capita) growth rates of countries, or equivalently speaking, how USL1 roughly double their growth rates. The first and easiest one simply focuses on the world average, which is about 3.5% and the U.S.A. or OECD average GDP growth rate, which is about 2.5% for the past 5 years or so. We compare the results with the projections by Hanushek-Woessmann from the UNESCO paper simulation. The Hanushek-Woessmann simulated projection growth values seem about 25-30% less than those from our simplified estimation values.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[138] **viXra:1502.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 14:28:05*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, as the second paper of BOEC series, we show why and how USL1 can induce the (Real) GDP per capita growth rates as well as the (Real) GDP growth rate by halving the GDP (per capita) growth doubling time. An equivalent statement to this is roughly doubling the GDP growth rates. The presentations in each part will become increasingly more detailed or sophisticated in this paper. We present this by first simply estimating by adding 1% (after USL 0.5) or 2% (after USL1) etc. on the baseline growth rates. We first demonstrate that the USL doubling the GDP growth rates for the average world GDP, OECD average, the U.S.A., and Sub-Saharan Africa. They are the rough estimations, but they seem to fit reasonably well. Secondly, we use a bit more sophisticated algorithm adapted from the paper by Hanushek-Woessmann to visually demonstrate that USL1 roughly halving the (Real) GDP growth doubling time. Then we project the various scenarios for the baseline (Real or nominal) GDP (per capita or not) growth rates from 0.5% up to 7%. We didn´t include beyond the 7% because the USL1´s halving the doubling time error bars will be too big after then in most cases.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[137] **viXra:1502.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 04:31:14*

**Authors:** A. Messad

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Doping an insulator to make it a BCS-type superconductor, is equivalent to creating states in the Debye shell on both sides of the Fermi level. This doping is, therefore, equal to twice the product between the density of states at the Fermi level and the Debye energy. This formula works well for optimally doped cuprates suggesting a major role for phonons behind the superconductivity of these materials.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[136] **viXra:1502.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-18 20:01:29*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Dear readers, the picture of Physics lefts you in confusion. The prime example is refutation of black holes in 2014, Phys.Lett.B 738, 61–7 by Laura, a Professor. I have arguments against her paper, but perhaps I am the only one, who is worried. They keep bringing things forward, which are thought to be refuted and over refuted. Another example of mind blowing is the Dr. Cooperstock. First his attempt was to deny the Standards of Metrology (within "Energy Localization hypothesis"). I have arguments against his idea. Then he came up with another mind abuse: absence of long detected Dark Matter. In the following I am defending the Dark Matter from the nihilistic aggression of Dr. Cooperstock. Speaking of nihilism, the most grim picture is in Quantum Mechanics of Niels Bohr. In 2015 they have "proved" in elitist "Nature", that Shr"odinger's Cat is real. Thus, the world does not exist: a thing can not both be and not be. It is very convenient now: if even a grain of sand is crazy hallucination (like the "proven" "reality" of undead cat), then this non-existent grain needs no divine (loved, but more often hated) Creator. The reason of delusion: they have missed an intelligent factors, e.g. evil spirits, which very often act on the measuring device. Recall the wrong alarms in atomic armies.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[135] **viXra:1502.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-18 14:01:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[134] **viXra:1502.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-20 18:08:56*

**Authors:** Charles Nunno

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Correcting mistakes

**Category:** Astrophysics

[133] **viXra:1502.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-18 12:28:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory we showed that the structure of proton leads to the Theory of Chaos and that, due to the gluon-photon transition, such structure leaks from protons. We proved that the structure of the non-chaotic star KIC 5520878 mimics the internal structure of the core of baryons. The more precise observations should show that the ratio of the two principal frequencies for KIC 5520878 is 1.5711 (the today observations lead to 1.57) and that the ratio has nothing with the golden ratio 1.618…. Moreover, notice that the ratio of the radius of the equator of the torus in the core of proton to the radius of the gluon loops the neutral pions consist of is 1.5 so there should be stars with such ratio of principal frequencies also. The same concerns the quasars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[132] **viXra:1502.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 10:16:50*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1502.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 23:04:56*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This highlights some of my findings and derivation in the theory of arbitrary step size finite differences. Most are fairly simple

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[130] **viXra:1502.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 12:35:20*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract – This article shows, from several points of view, why the equation E=mc2 must be an untenable equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1502.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 15:25:10*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents an alternative kinetic energy which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[128] **viXra:1502.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 14:05:00*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Language is not English. Polkovnik Kondrashov.

Unipolar motor. Faraday paradox. Blanco effect. Free energy. Polkovnik Kondrashov. In some case when you try to move the rotor of this unipolar DC Electric Motor you cant not or will obtain not to much turns and after disconnecting the electric supply by disengage of the brush, the rotor will rotate in the backward sense of rotation almost the same quantity of the quantity of turns that is in forward direction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[127] **viXra:1502.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 04:02:37*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages - [v2] minor editing

In this paper, the conclusive origin of the Special Relativity (SR) mathematical conflicts identified in the author’s prior related works will be presented and linked to these various conflicts. It is shown that for inertial reference frames in relative motion, the constancy of the speed of light postulate inherently results in time transformations independent of the spatial coordinates. The time of events occurring along the longitudinal coordinate axis is transformed with a different scaling factor than that of events occurring along the transverse coordinate axes. The incorporated x coordinate (considering that the relative motion is in the X-direction) in the Lorentz transformation time equation is the result of the SR assumption forcing the transformation to take a linear form as a function of the time and x coordinate. The SR derived Lorentz transformation time equation takes the assumed form by the aid of the imposed constancy of the speed of light equation, resolving itself as x=ct and x’=ct’ to supply the x and x’ terms to the assumed time transformation and its inverse, respectively. The resulting time transformation equation (and its inverse) dependence on the x (and x’) coordinate is therefore fake, since x (x’) in the transformation is nothing but ct (ct’) making the transformation time-dependent only, yet contradicting the time transformation for events in the transverse Y-Z plane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1502.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 02:20:02*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Considering that the Large Eddington Number has correctly predicted the number of atoms in the Universe, the properties of the Eddington electric number 137 are studied. This number shows abnormal arithmetic properties, in liaison with the 5th harmonic number 137/60. It seems that Egyptians was aware of this, as the architecture of the Hypostyle Karnak room reveals, as well as the Ptolemaic approximation p ≈ 2 + 137/120, together with a specific mention in the Bible, and overhelming connexions with musical canonic numbers. The SO(32) characteristic superstring number 496, the third perfect number, connects directly with the three main interaction parameters, and is very close to the square root of the Higgs boson-electron mass ratio, so the Higgs boson discovery excludes the Multiverse, favoring rather a unique Cosmos being a finite computer using 137 and its extension 137.036 as calculation basis. The direct liaison between the mean value of the two main cosmic radiuses and the Bohr radius through the simplest harmonic series excludes any role of chance. Precise symmetric relations involving the Kotov non-Doppler period permit to propose precise (100 ppb) values for the weak and strong interaction constants, as well as G ≈ 6.675464346 × 10^-11 kg-1 m3 s-2, at 2 sigmas higher than the tabulated value. This value is confirmed by a direct connection with the Superspeed ratio C/c ≈ 6.945480 × 10^60.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[125] **viXra:1502.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 11:46:10*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

The Exceptional Lie Algebra groups contain a series of Magic Squares, shown above. This paper presents this series, especially the series E6 – E7 and E8. In addition a Magic Square Series related to the Octonions, Fano Plane, the Klein Quartic and PS / 2 has been found, called the Octonion Magic Square Series. Unlike the Freudenthal – Tits “Magic Square,” these magic squares are related to the FTMS and are true magic squares.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[124] **viXra:1502.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 06:44:25*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter, Samson Ojako Dickson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The energy of a graph is related to the sum of -electron energy in a molecule represented by a molecular graph and originated by the HMO (Hückel molecular orbital) theory. Advances to this theory have taken place which includes the difference of the energy of graphs and the energy formation difference between and graph and its decomposable parts. Although the complete graph does not have the highest energy of all graphs, it is significant in terms of its easily accessible graph theoretical properties and has a high level of connectivity and robustness, for example. In this paper we introduce a ratio, the eigen-complete difference ratio, involving the difference in energy between the complete graph and any other connected graph G, which allows for the investigation of the effect of energy of G with respect to the complete graph when a large number of vertices are involved. This is referred to as the eigen-complete difference domination effect. This domination effect is greatest negatively (positively), for a strongly regular graph (star graphs with rays of length one), respectively, and zero for the lollipop graph. When this ratio is a function f(n), of the order of a graph, we attach the average degree of G to the Riemann integral to investigate the eigen-complete difference area aspect of classes of graphs. We applied these eigen-complete aspects to complements of classes of graphs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[123] **viXra:1502.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 07:33:26*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Twelve-page letter

This paper proposes a new way of understanding the difference between observed and predicted velocities of the stars at the out skirts of spiral galaxies, as follows: The massive stars orbiting around the galactic center give rise to gravitational waves, which propagate towards the out skirts at the speed of light. Since the distances involved are so large that it becomes important to think in terms of superposition and interference of gravitational waves, rather than Newtonian gravity. The waves from different radial distances reach at different times at the out skirts giving rise to interference of gravitational waves. The slope of the resultant gravitational field can be different from the expected inverse square law followed by Newtonian gravity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1502.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:10:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper introduces a new exponential formula for the fine-structure constant. This approximate
formula is expressed in terms of the masses of the electron, the neutron and the proton. The error of
the formula is less than 1%. This accuracy suggests that there is an unknown parameter which has not been taken into account.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[121] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-06 14:41:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for
quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were
found to be correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and
quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[120] **viXra:1502.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 16:09:21*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 5 pages.

I proved two approximations for prime numbers using trigonometric sums.

**Category:** Number Theory

[119] **viXra:1502.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 16:26:35*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Kyle Sundqvist

**Comments:** 2 Pages. submitted for publication

The zero-point (quantum) term in the Johnson noise of resistors has been a controversial topic. In this talk, we add new arguments to the discussion to clarify the matter, however, open questions will still remain.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[118] **viXra:1502.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 17:41:53*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The possibility of the locality of quantum mechanics is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[117] **viXra:1502.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 19:07:44*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 223 Pages. This is better scanning than previous copy (Эта версия имеет лучшее качество сканирования)

This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1962-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Оглавление:
Часть 1. Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Часть 2. Приложение методов α - и β –функционалов и Максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1502.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 19:49:22*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages.

I proved two lower bound for rst Chebyshev function and leave a conjecture on prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[115] **viXra:1502.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 21:36:07*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages.

We write a prove for Oppermann's conjecture using the Hardy-Wright's estimate for prime-counting function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[114] **viXra:1502.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 12:47:00*

**Authors:** Christopher Thron

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

For a general quantum theory that is describable by a path integral formalism, we construct a mathematical model of an accumulation-to-threshold process whose outcomes give predictions that are nearly identical to the given quantum theory. The model is neither local nor causal in spacetime, but is both local and causal is in a non-observable path space. The probabilistic nature of the squared wavefunction is a natural consequence of the model. We verify the model with simulations, and we discuss possible discrepancies from conventional quantum theory that might be detectable via experiment. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1502.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-18 11:18:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of the Einstein-spacetime, dark-energy and dark-matter particle. Such particle carries unitary spin and very small gravitational mass. It is the neutrino-antineutrino pair which we will refer to as the Planck boson. The superluminal non-gravitating energy frozen in the Planck boson is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. Detection of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs is much difficult than neutrinos because their resultant weak charge is equal to zero. The different properties of dark energy and dark matter follow from the quantum entanglement. Emphasize that the particle associated with the Einstein spacetime, dark matter and dark energy is the same particle so there should be some phenomena that distinguish the dark matter from dark energy. The obtained here theoretical results for abundances in the today Universe (i.e. for visible matter we obtained 4.91%, for dark matter 26.46%, for dark energy 68.63%) and the ratio of dark and visible matter 5.389, are consistent with the Planck results (CMB + lensing) at the 68% levels. The Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is not the Standard Model particle associated with the Higgs mechanism. Such Higgs boson is the condensate composed of confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism) so it is the composite Higgs boson. The real Higgs mechanism describing the transition from the non-gravitating tachyons/pieces-of-space the Higgs field consists of to the lightest gravitating objects, i.e. to the stable neutrinos all Principle-of-Equivalence particles consist of, is beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity. Such mechanism is described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[112] **viXra:1502.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 13:02:14*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages.

I proved some three approximations for prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[111] **viXra:1502.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 06:13:26*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We will attempt to resolve a long-standing and important problem in gauge theory. We will also delve further into theoretical mathematics and computation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[110] **viXra:1502.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-05 01:04:27*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

What is the difference between the mind and the brain? The brain is thought to be roughly three pounds of physical material but nobody seems to have adequately defined what the mind is. I’ve recently read interesting thoughts by mathematical physicist Roger Penrose and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff; as well as by 20th-century Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian theoretical physicist Erwin Schrodinger, Discover Magazine’s writer Shannon Palus and philosopher / neuroscientist Eddy Nahmias. I’d like to weave these thoughts together (with a few of my own) to hopefully find a satisfactory definition of mind. In the article’s Highlights, this proposed definition obeys fractal geometry and proceeds from universe-pervading consciousness to the mind of an immaterial body and brain (events outside the attention of the conscious mind are, by definition, in the unconscious). The large-scale of the cosmos and small-scale of humans or organelles in cells (or atoms in the inanimate) are united, so the definition could also proceed in reverse. That approach will be taken now. If the reader thinks those paragraphs dealing with space-time, engineering and maths have departed from the mind / brain topic; I point out that it’s included as an extension of my “elimination of distance” argument and is intended to further demonstrate the validity of that unusual idea. Also, I’m convinced absolutely everything is intricately related. To understand anything completely, it should be incorporated into the “big picture” of the entire cosmos and all time.
Most doctors today are convinced the true nature of mind will eventually be discovered simply by continued study of the brain. From my point of view, this won't happen. We need to sacrifice the reductionist, conservative beliefs that have served us so well to this point. A holistic, imaginative approach seems to be necessary to find out what the mind is. An approach where consciousness isn't even limited to the body, but embraces the whole universe and all time.
Highlights
•The universe and brain are ultimately composed of base 2 mathematics.
•This means consciousness is not limited to the brain but pervades the universe.
•Mind is neither reducible to, nor distinct from, the workings of our brain.
•Another view is that mind deletes distance between brains and space-time.
•Learning is potentially unlimited – extending to remotest times and entire cosmos.
•Fractals repeat cosmos on small scales (immaterial human bodies=infinite learning).

**Category:** Mind Science

[109] **viXra:1502.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 16:31:49*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The extremely precise extraction of the proton radius by Pohl et al. from the mea- sured energy diference between the 2P and 2S states of muonic hydrogen disagrees signiﬁcantly with that extracted from electronic hydrogen or elastic electron-proton scattering. This is the proton radius puzzle.
Randolf Pohl Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany
Ronald Gilman Department of Physics & Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019, USA.
Gerald A. Miller Department of Physics, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560, USA.
Krzysztof Pachucki Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoz˙a 69, 00-681 Warsaw, Poland
arXiv:1301.0905v2 [physics.atom-ph] 30 May 2013
In this paper, using the fundamental equation that equals the electromagnetic force and gravity; obtained in one of our previous work; and which is derived from gravity, both elementary electric charge, the mass of electron and gravitino; as a dependent equation canonical partition function of the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function and the Planck mass. This equation directly implies the existence of a repulsive gravitational force at very short distances. The decay of gravitinos in a W boson and lepton (muon) would be the phenomenon responsible for this repulsive force that would make the radius of the proton in the muonic hydrogen atom, was that obtained experimentally 8.4087 x 10 ^ -16 m . Likewise, the long half-life, very massive gravitinos, would allow these, penetrate the proton where they finally decay in the W boson and the a lepton. The invariance of the proton, ie its non transformation into a neutron; would be the consequence of an effect of virtual particles: gravitinos, W boson, muon and even the X,Y bosons, of the theories SU(5) grand unification.
The same canonical partition function of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function; It is indeed a sum of Yukawa type potential; therefore repulsive by exchanging a vector boson.
The absence of singularities of black holes, surely, is an effect of this repulsive force. For this reason, increasing the area of a black hole can be interpreted physically as the action of this repulsive force.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[108] **viXra:1502.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 21:11:02*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Anyone shooting 3D is immediately confronted with the problem of stereo camera geometry—how to align the cameras for best results. This looks like it should be the easiest part of the entire project but in fact it’s by far the hardest. Just aligning the cams perfectly in all 3 axes and locking them down is tough and keeping them aligned when changing interaxial, convergence or zoom is extremely hard. There is very little in the way of comprehensive reviews of this subject in the literature. Some may be surprised to learn that these problems are not new, nor are they unique to 3D video and photography. In addition to attention from stereographers for over 150 years, they have been the subject of intensive research in the fields of photogrammetry going back well over 100 years, and more recently in computer vision. Every book in these arenas has extensive discussions on multiple camera geometry and essentially the entire texts revolve around the problems of camera registration and image rectification for human viewing and/or computer image understanding. Algorithmic transforms for producing rectified images from single moving cameras, polydioptric (plenoptic or multiple image single lens cameras) or multiple cameras take up large sections of these books and thousands of papers, which blend into the literatures of robotics, machine vision, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, telepresence and every aspect of 3D imaging. Here I provide a cursory review with a few pertinent references.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[107] **viXra:1502.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 14:54:48*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Nowak is (or was) a respected Harvard professor of mathematical biology with numerous well regarded publications. Sadly, he has chosen to launch an arrogant attack on science motivated by religious fervor. His recent actions show the evil consequences when universities accept money from religious groups, science journals are so awed by big names that they avoid proper peer review, and egos are permitted to get out of control. Most of this book is good, but it repeats the utterly misconceived attacks on inclusive fitness in favor of group selection which he and his much more famous Harvard colleague E.O.Wilson have been making the last 5 years, so it is on that chapter of the book that I will concentrate. This takes us into the nature of evolution, the basics of scientific methodology, how math relates to science, what constitutes a law or a theory, and what attitudes to religion and generosity are appropriate as we inexorably approach the collapse of industrial civilization.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[106] **viXra:1502.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 11:32:09*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The discovery of what we call the gossamer number system ∗G, as an extension of
the real numbers includes an infinitesimal and infinitary number system; by using ‘infinite integers’, an isomorphic construction to the reals by solving algebraic equations is
given. We believe this is a total ordered field. This could be an equivalent construction
of the hyperreals. The continuum is partitioned: 0 < Φ+ < R+ + Φ < +Φ−1 < ∞.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[105] **viXra:1502.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 07:58:51*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

An infinitesimal and infinitary number system the Gossamer numbers is fitted to
du Bois-Reymond’s infinitary calculus, redefining the magnitude relations. We connect
the past symbol relations much-less-than
and much-less-than or equal to
with
the present little-o and big-O notation, which have identical definitions. As these
definitions are extended, hence we also extend little-o and big-O, which are defined in
Gossamer numbers. Notation for an reformed infinitary calculus, calculation at a point
is developed. We proceed with the introduction of an extended infinitary calculus.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[104] **viXra:1502.0120 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 11:41:31*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

An algebra for comparing functions at infinity with infinireals, comprising of infinitesimals and infinities, is developed: where the unknown relation is solved for.
Generally, we consider positive monotonic functions f and g, arbitrarily small or large,
with relation z: f z g. In general we require f, g, f − g and f/g to be ultimately
monotonic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[103] **viXra:1502.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 11:47:02*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Between gossamer numbers and the reals, an extended transfer principle founded
on approximation is described, with transference between different number systems
in both directions, and within the number systems themselves. As a great variety of
transfers are possible, hence a mapping notation is given. In ∗G we find equivalence
with a limit with division and comparison to a transfer ∗G → R with comparison.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[102] **viXra:1502.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:14:36*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Investigate and define non-reversible arithmetic in ∗G and the real numbers. That
approximation of an argument of magnitude, is arithmetic. For non-reversible multiplication we define a logarithmic magnitude relation. Apply the much-greater-than
relation in the evaluation of limits. Consider L’Hopital’s rule with infinitesimals and
infinities, and in a comparison f (z) g form.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[101] **viXra:1502.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 11:51:07*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

With the partition of positive integers and positive infinite integers, it follows naturally that sequences are also similarly partitioned, as sequences are indexed on integers.
General convergence of a sequence at infinity is investigated. Monotonic sequence testing by comparison. Promotion of a ratio of infinite integers to non-rational numbers is
conjectured. Primitive calculus definitions with infinitary calculus, epsilon-delta proof
involving arguments of magnitude are considered.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[100] **viXra:1502.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:25:09*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Within the gossamer numbers ∗G which extend R to include infinitesimals and
infinities we prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC). Riemann sums are
also considered in ∗G, and their non-uniqueness at infinity. We can represent the sum
as a continuous function in ∗G by inserting infinitesimal intervals at the discontinuities,
and threading curves between the sums discontinuities. As the FTC is a difference of
integrals at the end points, the same is true for sums.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[99] **viXra:1502.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:31:38*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Development of sum and integral convergence criteria, leading to a representation of
the sum or integral as a point at infinity. Application of du Bois-Reymond’s comparison
of functions theory, when it was thought that there were none. Known convergence
tests are alternatively stated and some are reformed. Several new convergence tests are
developed, including an adaption of L’Hopital’s rule. The most general, the boundary
test is stated. Thereby we give an overview of a new field we call ‘Convergence sums’.
A convergence sum is essentially a strictly monotonic sum or integral where one of the
end points after integrating is deleted resulting in a sum or integral at a point.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[98] **viXra:1502.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:36:32*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Calculating the radius and interval of convergence with power series at infinity. By
using non-reversible arithmetic, either by factoring, comparison or application of the
logarithmic magnitude relation, convergence or divergence may be determined. We
interpret uniform convergence with a convergence sum.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[97] **viXra:1502.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:41:48*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

For convergence sums, by threading a continuous curve through a monotonic sequence, a series difference can be made a derivative. Series problems with differences
can be transformed and solved in the continuous domain. At infinity, a bridge between
the discrete and continuous domains is made. Stolz theorem at infinity is proved.
Alternating convergence theorem for convergence sums is proved.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[96] **viXra:1502.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:47:05*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Convergence sums theory is concerned with monotonic series testing. On face
value, this may seem a limitation but, by applying rearrangement theorems at infinity,
non-monotonic sequences can be rearranged into monotonic sequences. The resultant
monotonic series are convergence sums. The classes of convergence sums are greatly
increased by the additional versatility applied to the theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[95] **viXra:1502.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:51:41*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

For positive series convergence sums we generalize the ratio test in ∗G the gossamer
numbers. Via a transfer principle, within the tests we construct variations. However,
most significantly we connect and show the generalization to be equivalent to the
boundary test. Hence, the boundary test includes the generalized tests: the ratio test,
Raabe’s test, Bertrand’s test and others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[94] **viXra:1502.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:55:18*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With convergence sums, a universal comparison test for positive series is developed,
which compares a positive monotonic series with an infinity of generalized p-series. The
boundary between convergence and divergence is an infinity of generalized p-series.
This is a rediscovery and reformation of a 175 year old convergence/divergence test.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[93] **viXra:1502.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 17:30:15*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The escape velocity equation shows mathematical parallels between General Gravitational Relativity & Special Relativity Time distortions. Like the light speed limit that SR puts to Real velocity, GR puts a parallel limit to escape velocity. Time Distortion would mean all Bosons are slowed. There is a mathematic argument that General Relativity Graviton slowdown leads to that escape velocity limit – the fundamental escape velocity from any body will never be greater than light speed. The principal equation introduced in this paper is a rephrased GR Time equation. The Escape velocity equation |vesc=(2GM/r)^½| can also be as written |vesc^2=(2GM/r)|.
So |1 – 2GM/rc^2| can be re-expressed as |1 – vesc^2/c^2|. It is reasoned the expression will never have a zero value, only a Graviton||Boson slowdown. Time passage would never cease; only approach cessation. Time slowdown predicted by Relativistic distortion is confirmed by muon decay. The different phrasing of the Gravitational Force equation |F=GMm/r^2| would mean a limitless gravitational force. While Bosons compression would be unlimited, any matter could escape after formation absorbing sufficient kinetic energy from slowing Photons||Bosons. This reasoning is illustrated by calculating Classic Relativity interpretations for distortions for Sagittarius A [SA] body at the center of the Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1502.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-16 18:25:07*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The relations of power products of physical quantities (PQs) are determined by the generalized relational expression (GRE). Assuming the relations of two, three and four PQs to the GRE separately, we find the corresponding general formulas. Ordering the exponent of physical constants in relations is zero or fit numbers, we gain many famous equations without factors such as Einstein mass-energy relation, formula of event horizon temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH), equation of holographic dark energy (HDE) model, Casimir effect equation, Planck black body radiation formula, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Einstein field equation, Newtonian attraction law, Schrodinger dinger equation, Coulomb law, Newtonian second law, Clapeyron equation, power law of superconducting films, centrifugal force formula, and so on. Some new relations are given including the square of total energy with energy density of HDE, square of energy with its density of SBH, energy density with sextic radii of SBH, pressure in SBH centre and entropy density of SBH center etc. We show that the GRE can determine the relations of power products of two, three and four PQs, it is useful and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[91] **viXra:1502.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 02:44:27*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six-page letter

Accepting Einstein’s General Relativity Theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially-outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy, when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the derivation presented here we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’, during its inter-galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1502.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-09 00:37:16*

**Authors:** Dirk. J. Pons, Arion. D. Pons, Aiden. J. Pons

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Problem: Several measurement effects, including superposition and entanglement, lack descriptive explanations though can be quantified by quantum mechanics (QM). Historical applications of the inequality method appear to favour QM and reject physical realism and hidden-variable (HV) solutions. In particular, Colbeck & Renner showed that no extension of quantum theory can exist with better predictive power than quantum mechanics itself. Purpose: This paper critiques the inequality method and the C&R proof. Approach: Logical considerations are used to examine the premises of the proofs. Findings: The analysis shows the inequalities are based on circular reasoning. They are premised on particles being zero-dimensional points, and then conclude that particles are incapable of having internal structure. The inequalities are falsified by showing that a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution does exist to explain superposition and entanglement, without using quantum theory. In this new Cordus theory particles are proposed to have a specific internal structure. These structures provide the causality for behaviours including spin, polarisation, charge, frequency, matter-antimatter species differentiation, superposition, and entanglement. Originality: The ability to explain superposition and entanglement is especially relevant because it rebuts the C&R claim that it is ‘impossible’ that such a hidden-variable theory could exist. This is significant because these quantum phenomena have historically been considered to be only explainable with quantum mechanics.This shows that fundamental physics may be explained from the basis of physical realism after all. Implications: New physics based on NLHV principles can explain multiple phenomena, and suggests a way to better understand coherent phenomena.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[89] **viXra:1502.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 17:51:22*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is argued that the lesson we should learn from Bell inequalities (BI) is not that Quantum Mechanics (QM) is nonlocal, but that QM contains an error which must be corrected.
1

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[88] **viXra:1502.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-16 18:19:43*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose the generalized relational expression (GRE) to unify all the uncertainty relations (URs) with dimensions by the dimensional analysis. Here we find and prove the general expression of URs which products of two non-commutative physical quantities (PQs) with dimensions are equivalent to the power products of the reduced Planck constant h, gravitational constant G, speed of light in vacuum c, Boltzmann constant κ and elementary charge e, and the basic relationship that any physical quantity with dimension has a corresponding Planck scale. Many PQs have the same Planck scale because of same dimensions. All Planck scales are divided into two categories, one is the basic Planck scale and derived Planck scale, and the other is Femi-Planck scale, Bose-Planck scale and Other-Planck scale. The corresponding Planck scale of any physical quantity is proved to be equivalent to power products of the Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, Planck temperature and elementary charge (or Planck charge). The GRE is found and proved that the power products of non-commutative PQs are equivalent to the ones of corresponding Planck scales. We also find the Big Bang UR for temperature of Big Bang and its volume by the GRE, and the Schwarzschild black holes (SBH) UR for SBH mass and its volume. These URs suggest no singularity at Big Bang and in SBH with the quantum effect. We show that the GRE is generalized, interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1502.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 03:41:23*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research paper an algorithm to find the Prime Sequence is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[86] **viXra:1502.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 09:29:09*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Accepting Einstein’s theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the Gauss’s law for gravity we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ during its inter galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1502.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-08 12:30:23*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In portuguese.

Observation that the Earth can be a shield to the gravitational force of the Sun, and measures of the acceleration of Earth's gravity or mass of bodies at different times can verify this hypothesis.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[84] **viXra:1502.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 03:07:45*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first (Universal) and the second (local) space deformation, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space describes how the neutron cortex is structured around the space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space at the light speed, defining on the one hand this elementary motion as quantum time in the units region and on the other the completion of the elementary phenomenon (i.e. the creation of a particle, photon etc.) as quantum time in the formations region. So, an electrical and geometric deformation of the neutron cortex occurs, as the third space deformation, resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks) in the neutron cortex, to which the particles spin is due.
The inevitable end of the primary neutron is its breaking (beta decay), due to the growing space cohesive pressure, as the neutron is accelerated centrifugally to the Universe periphery. The presence of the proton and electron has result in induction of the electrical units of dynamic space, with the creation of the inverted electric (nuclear) field and the outer electric field.
Finally, the physical meaning of Planck’s constant is interpreted, as the product of two Nature entities: of the above quantum time in the formations region and of the energy talantonion (oscillator), which is the foundation of motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] **viXra:1502.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 10:12:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion with 147-atom Palladium clusters containing Deuterium in Sodium Zeolite Y cages produces energy that can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D20 to form steam. If the Water that is initially in the Zeolite and released as the Zeolite is heated by fusion is Hydrogen water, then the Hydrogen could contaminate the Pd cluster Deuterium and impair the TSC fusion process so all Zeolite used for TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion should be of the form AmXpO2p · nD2O that is, all the water in the Zeolite used for Pd-D fusion should be Heavy Water D2O which can be accomplished by taking ordinary Zeollte, then heating it to flush out all the Ordinary Water H2O and then cooling it with Heavy Water D2O to give AmXpO2p · nD2O. Version 2 (v2) adds viXra number and Zeolite heat capacity.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[82] **viXra:1502.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 02:15:11*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper illustrates a family of 2-dimensional graphs that admit pretty good state transfer over arbitrary distances.
ramereau@gmail.com

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1502.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 15:14:04*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Derivation of a technique of determining distances from spherical cameras. Can be generalized to more complex surfaces

**Category:** Geometry

[80] **viXra:1502.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 09:26:57*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

The Neo-classical Theory of Relativity uses concepts of Classical Mechanics and Classical Electromagnetism to describe the relativity of inertial motion better than it is described in the Special Theory of Relativity conceived by Albert Einstein in 1905.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1502.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 23:37:45*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents an alternative classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[78] **viXra:1502.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 05:42:06*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There has been some confusion about the previous paper on this subject, so some basic calculations were included to allow for mathematically minded people to understand the concepts more fluidly.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[77] **viXra:1502.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-14 14:27:30*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In portuguese

We transform the Schwarzschild metric in spherical coordinates to rectangular, confirming that the conclusion obtained by Einstein for rulers disposed perpendicular to a gravitational field remains unchanged when using the exact solution of Schwarzschild, obtained under the conditions of static field in vacuum and with spherical symmetry. Beyond this transformation also talked again about the speed of light in radial and perpendicular directions measures in the Earth's surface, we recall tests for the verification of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in generally, in a radial static gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1502.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 05:44:52*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

In this paper we identify the superposition principle as a main source of problems in QM (measurement, collapse, non-locality etc.). Here
the superposition principle for individual systems is substituted by the antisuperposition
principle: no non-trivial superposition of states is a possible individual state (for ensembles the superposition principle is true).
The modified QM is based on the anti-superposition principle and on the new type of probability theory (Extended Probability Theory [1]), which allows the reversible Markov processes as models for QM.
In the modified QM the measurement is a process inside of QM and the concept of an observation of the measuring system is defined. The outcome
value is an attribute of the ensemble of measured systems. The collapse of the state is substituted by the Selection process. We show that the derivation of Bell’s inequalities is then impossible and thus QM remains a local theory.
Our main results are: the locality of the modified QM, the local explanation of EPR correlations, the non-existence of the wave-particle duality, the solution of the measurement problem. We show that QM can be understood as
a new type of the statistical mechanics of many-particle systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1502.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 17:17:59*

**Authors:** Hector Javier Durand-Manterola, Hector Perez-de-Tejada

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this year (2015) the ¨New Horizons¨ spacecraft will have a close encounter with Pluto. In the present study we discuss some possibilities regarding what the spacecraft may encounter during its approach to Pluto. Among them we should include: the presence of geological activity due to heat generated by tides; the unlikely presence of an intrinsic magnetic field; the possibility of a plasmasphere and a plasmapause; the position of an ionopause; the existence of an ionospheric trans-terminator flow similar to that at Venus and Mars; and the presence of a Magnus force that produces a deflection of Pluto’s plasma wake. This deflection oscillates up and down in its orbit around the sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1502.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-24 11:24:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 24

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal,
Or the idea that the universe can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever.
I will call that the cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons the cyclic multiverse.
I have tried to translate this idea into the Quantum FFF model
Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory.
The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of
Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a
consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (
without Graviton production), able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by
entropy decrease, in combination with a Chiral vacuum, seems to be able to explain quick Gas
and Dust production and Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets,
Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[73] **viXra:1502.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 00:49:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Replaced Lorentz Transformation with Lorentz Factor

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Factor

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] **viXra:1502.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-15 01:17:32*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents a linear equation of motion which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[71] **viXra:1502.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The Dirac Quantization Condition (DQC) for magnetic charges and its elegant Dirac-Wu-Yang (DWY) derivation based on U(1)em gauge theory predicts an electric / magnetic duality which to the best of our knowledge simply has never been observed in nature, as well as a charge quantization which is observed. The fact that this predicted duality has never been observed to our knowledge means as a matter of elementary logic that this DWY derivation (and the DQC itself) is either elegant but physically wrong, or elegant and correct but physically incomplete. This paper pinpoints a flawed assumption deeply-hidden in the DWY derivation that the south gauge field patch of the posited monopole charge differs from the north patch merely by an unobservable gauge-transformation. By correcting this assumption by defining an observable difference between the north and south patches, the DQC is made fully compatible with the non-observation of magnetic charges and its correct prediction of electric charge quantization is maintained, while the incomplete DWY derivation is made complete. Some concurrences among the corrected DWY derivation and the FQHE and the electronic structure of electrons in atoms are reported without present claim, and several experiments designed to empirically arbitrate these concurrences are proposed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[70] **viXra:1502.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-22 06:59:32*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An example of mind blowing is the Dr. Cooperstock. First his attempt was to deny the Standards of Metrology (within "Energy Localization hypothesis"). I have arguments against his idea. Then he came up with another mind abuse: absence of long detected Dark Matter. In the following I am defending the Dark Matter from the nihilistic aggression of Dr. Cooperstock. Speaking of nihilism, the most grim picture is in Quantum Mechanics of Niels Bohr. In 2015 they have "proved" in elitist "Nature", that Schr"odinger's Cat is real. Thus, the world does not exist: a thing can not both be and not be. It is very convenient now: if even a grain of sand is crazy hallucination (like the "proven" "reality" of undead cat), then this non-existent grain needs no divine (loved, but more often hated) Creator. The reason of delusion: they have missed an intelligent factors, e.g. evil spirits, which very often act on the measuring device. Recall the wrong alarms in atomic armies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[69] **viXra:1502.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 11:00:43*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 05 pages, 07 references

Two different ways of computing the time between collisions related to the electrical conductivity of metals are presented. The combination of them leads to the formula for the Fermi energy of metals.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[68] **viXra:1502.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 07:45:24*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is based on two, in 1905 not yet existing, postulates: one regarding the property of the velocity of light, the other regarding the phenomenon ‘time’. In this article it is demonstrated that both postulates are wrong. This must lead to the unavoidable conclusion that the STR is invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[67] **viXra:1502.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 08:41:01*

**Authors:** Uzma Siddique, Hina Tabassum, Ekram Hossain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to the IEEE Transactions of Communications

The diverse transmit powers of the base stations (BSs) in a multi-tier cellular network, on one hand, lead to uneven distribution of the traffic loads among different BSs when received signal power (RSP)-based user association is used. This causes under utilization of the resources at low-power BSs. On the other hand, strong interference from high-power BSs affects the downlink transmissions to the users associated with low-power BSs. In this context, this paper proposes a channel access-aware (CAA) user association scheme that can simultaneously enhance the spectral efficiency (SE) of downlink transmission and achieve traffic load balancing among different BSs. The CAA scheme is a network-assisted user association scheme that requires traffic load information from different BSs in addition to the channel quality indicators. We develop a tractable analytical framework to derive the SE of downlink transmission to a user who associates with a BS using the proposed CAA scheme.
To mitigate the strong interference, the almost blank subframe (ABS)-based interference coordination is exploited first in macrocell-tier and then in smallcell-tier. The performance of the proposed CAA scheme is analyzed in presence of these two interference coordination methods. The derived expressions provide approximate solutions of reasonable accuracy compared to the results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical results comparatively analyze the gains of
CAA scheme over conventional RSP-based association and biased RSP-based association with and without the interference coordination method. Also, the results reveal insights regarding the selection of the proportion of ABS in macrocell/smallcell-tiers for various network scenarios.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[66] **viXra:1502.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 05:25:35*

**Authors:** Zhenghai Song

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Chunxuan Jiang is a tragic mathematician in the history of modern mathematics.In China Jiang work was completely repelled and been considered as pseudoscience.Jiang dedicates his work to alma mater (Beihang university) and China which rejected.

**Category:** Number Theory

[65] **viXra:1502.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-12 03:20:49*

**Authors:** Dirk. J. Pons, Arion. D. Pons, Aiden. J. Pons

**Comments:** Pages. Published asL Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Hidden variable theory supports variability in decay rates of nuclides Applied Physics Research 2015. 7(3): p. 18-29. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n3p18

PROBLEM- The orthodox expectation is for decay rates to be strictly constant for all types of decay (β+, β-, EC, α). However empirical results show strong evidence for nuclides having variable decay rates, typically evident as periodicity. The volume of data available suggests this is a real phenomenon, not merely a spurious outcome of measurement errors. However the problem is complex because the data are conflicted for different decays. Furthermore, there is no coherent theory for why the phenomenon should exist in the first place. The effect is not required or predicted by quantum theory. Consequently it is a significant challenge to explain how the variability might arise, what factors could be involved, and how the underlying mechanisms of causality might operate. This lack of explanation contributes to the phenomenon often being dismissed as erroneous. PURPOSE- This paper develops a theoretical explanation of the variability of nuclide decay rates. APPROACH- The non-local hidden-variable solution provided by the Cordus theory was used, specifically its mechanics for neutrino-species interactions with nucleons. FINDINGS- It is predicted that the β-, β+ and electron capture processes are induced by pre-supply of neutrino-species, and that the effects are asymmetrical for those species. Also predicted is that different input energies are required, i.e. that a threshold effect exists. Four simple non-contentious lemmas are proposed with which it is straightforward to explain why β- and EC would be enhanced and correlate to solar neutrino flux (proximity & activity), and α emission unaffected. It is shown that the concept of a neutrino-species asymmetry makes sense of the broad patterns evident in the empirical data. IMPLICATIONS- The results support the variability of decay rates, on theoretical grounds. The type of decay (β+, β-, EC, α) is found to be a key variable in this theory, as is the type of neutrino species and its energy. Past experiments have generally not recorded the variables sufficiently. Future empirical tests of nuclide decay rates need to be more specific about the identity of the external environmental, neutrino-species, both the energy and flux thereof. It is also necessary to be more specific about the decay path. The different decays have to be considered separately, not lumped together, nor classified primarily by element (e.g. U, Pb, Cl, etc.) but rather by type of decay process (β+, β-, EC, α). A more radical implication is that hidden-variable theories offer profoundly new perspectives on fundamental physics, and can explain complex phenomena that are inconceivable from within the zero-dimensional point framework of quantum theory. ORIGINALITY- The novel contribution is the provision of a theoretical explanation for why decay rates would be variable. A detailed mechanism is presented for neutrino-species induced decay. Also novel is the prediction that the interaction is asymmetrical, and that the energy requirements are different for the various types of decay. The explanation is qualitatively consistent with the empirical evidence.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[64] **viXra:1502.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-10 12:07:24*

**Authors:** Mohammad Bahrami, Mehdi Zareie, Davood Hashemian

**Comments:** 13 pages, 3 figures and 1 table

We found out that force in nature cannot be infinite and by deriving Lorentz factor of force, we were able to obtain the relativistic form of the gravitation law and the second law of Newton. These relativistic equations are compatible with special relativity. We also propose a procedure for solving the dark matter problem in which the validity of these equations can be tested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1502.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-14 07:41:19*

**Authors:** Sinisa Bubonja

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Serbian language, Title of paper in translation from Serbian to English changed, Corrected typos, Revised definitions and added example in section 4, results unchanged

In this work I am going to mention historical development of divergent series theory, and to give a number of different examples, as some of the methods for their summing. After that, I am going to introduce the general method, which I discovered, for summing divergent series, which we can also consider as a method for computing limits of divergent sequences and functions in divergent points, In this case, limits of sequences of their partials sums. Through the exercises, I am going to apply this method on given examples and prove its validity. Then I'm going to apply the method to compute the value of some divergent integrals.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[62] **viXra:1502.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-10 02:02:19*

**Authors:** Manu Kalia, Saugata Ghosh

**Comments:** 13 pages, 6 figures

We analyze cross-correlation between runs scored over a time interval in cricket matches of different teams using methods of random matrix theory (RMT). We obtain an ensemble of cross-correlation matrices $C$
from runs scored by eight cricket playing nations for (i) test cricket from 1877 -2014
(ii)one-day internationals from
1971 -2014 and (iii) seven teams participating in the Indian Premier league T20 format (2008-2014) respectively.
We find that a majority of the eigenvalues of C fall within the bounds of random matrices having joint probability distribution $P(x_1\ldots,x_n)=C_{N \beta} \, \prod_{j<k}w(x_j)\left | x_j-x_k \right |^\beta$ where $w(x)=x^{N\beta a}\exp\left(-N\beta b x\right)$ and $\beta$ is the Dyson parameter. The corresponding level density gives Marchenko-Pastur (MP) distribution while fluctuations of every participating team agrees with the universal behavior of Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). We analyze the components of the deviating eigenvalues and find that the largest eigenvalue corresponds
to an influence common to all matches played during these periods.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[61] **viXra:1502.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 12:22:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the non-perturbative quantum electrodynamics of electron is presented. We calculated the lower and upper limits for the fine structure constant (1/137.035999053(11194)). The error is equal to the value of the coupling constant for the electron-proton weak interactions. The obtained results are very close to the experimental values which follow from the experimental values of the electron charge and reduced Planck constant (1/137.35999053(12095)). As expected, the error is a little higher than the theoretical value. There appeared papers in which theoretical and experimental values of the fine structure constant have much higher accuracy than the quantities which appear in its definition. In this paper is proven that the higher accuracies are groundless. Using the combined value of the fine structure constant (the experimental central value plus the theoretical limits), 1/137.035999053(11194), we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly 0.001159652191(95). The weak interactions cause that this value cannot have higher accuracy. Within SST are calculated physical constants and other quantities which appear in definitions, from the fundamental initial conditions. The initial parameters lead to 1/137.036001 and 0.001159652174. We can see that both results are consistent with the determinations. Emphasize that today the mainstream QED contains the 12,672 diagrams (number of terms is tremendous) whereas presented here non-perturbative QED contains only one diagram with six terms. The difference follows from an improperly understood weak interactions and the production of virtual pairs in the Einstein spacetime. To calculate all needed quantities we do not need supercomputers, we used the Microsoft Office Excel with 13 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1502.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 21:00:19*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in general under the influence of a static gravitational field with spherical symmetry, in the vacuum and in a radial movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1502.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-14 22:48:18*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Muon fusion is a known process based on the high muon / electron mass ratio enabling a muon of a Deuterium atom to screen the positive charge of its Deuterium nucleus and allow two Deuterium nuclei to approach one another close enough for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place. Julian Schwinger, who said “... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”, encouraged Simons and Walling to propose that Deuterium nuclei and electrons in Palladium could get increased effective mass through Palladium structure quantum processes to screen Deuterium nuclei enough for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place and for the “heavy electrons” to carry away most of the 23.8 MeV fusion energy into Palladium structure electron system and for the entire process to be “... enhanced ... by high electron density contributed by ... Pd centers” located near the point of fusion. Akito Takahashi proposed that the structure of Palladium would encourage a tetrahedral configuration of 4 Deuterium nuclei and 4 Deuterium electrons as a coherent quantum Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) that would collapse ( with the 4 electrons screening the 4 D nuclei ) and fuse D + D + D + D -> 8Be + 47.6 MeV -> 4He + 4He + 47.6 MeV. Palladium clusters of 147 atoms ( about 1.5 nanometers ) have a ground state icosahedral configuration that encourages TSC fusion and a metastable cuboctahedral configuration that allows reloading of ambient Deuterium into the Palladium cluster by a Jitterbug transformation with, for each TSC configuration, a central Palladium atom to enhance the process. If each 147-atom Palladium cluster is embedded into a Zeolite cage then the fusion energy can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D2O to form steam. Version 2 (v2) corrects typo, adds reference, and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[58] **viXra:1502.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 14:28:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[57] **viXra:1502.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 09:40:00*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The consistency and, hence, validity of the theory of General Relativity is questioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1502.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 10:58:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[55] **viXra:1502.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-19 01:07:37*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a consequence of the postulate that coordinate
and momentum representations are related
to each other by the Fourier transform. This postulate has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory by analogy with classical electrodynamics. We argue that the postulate is based neither on strong theoretical arguments nor on experimental data. A position operator proposed in our recent publication resolves inconsistencies of standard approach and sheds a new light on important problems of quantum theory. We do not assume that the reader is an expert in the given field and the content of the paper can be understood by a wide audience of physicists.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1502.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-08 23:09:13*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Famous ant-man E.O. Wilson has always been one of my heros--not only an outstanding biologist, but one of the tiny and vanishing minority of intellectuals who at least dares to hint at the truth about our nature that others fail to grasp, or insofar as they do grasp, studiously avoid for of political expedience. Sadly, he is ending his long career in a most sordid fashion as a party to an ignorant and arrogant attack on science motivated at least in part by religious fervor. It shows the vile consequences when universities accept money from religious groups, science journals are so awed by big names that they avoid proper peer review, and when egos are permitted to get out of control. It takes us into the nature of evolution, the basics of scientific methodology, how math relates to science, what constitutes a theory, and even what attitudes to religion and generosity are appropriate as we inexorably approach the collapse of industrial civilization.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[53] **viXra:1502.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-08 13:49:15*

**Authors:** T. E. Phipps Jr.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A reformulation of Maxwell's equations that is invariant under the Galilean transformation, rather than covariant under the Lorentz transformation, is proposed. It leads to the customary Lorentz force law plus an extra term that is the gradient of a scalar quantity. This extra term would not be observable in experiments using steady circuital currents. But it should produce destabilizing effects similar to Ampere longitudinal forces in plasma experiments, such as those involving Tokamaks and similar devices aimed at controlling hot fusion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[52] **viXra:1502.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-08 14:38:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 177 Pages.

Acest volum este o versiune nouă, revizuită și adăugită, a "Problemelor Compilate şi Rezolvate de Geometrie şi Trigonometrie" (Universitatea din Moldova, Chișinău, 169 p., 1998), și include
probleme de geometrie și trigonometrie, compilate și soluționate în perioada 1981-1988, când profesam matematica la Colegiul Național "Petrache Poenaru" din Bălcești, Vâlcea (Romania), la Lycée Sidi El Hassan Lyoussi din Sefrou (Maroc), apoi la Colegiul Național "Nicolae Balcescu" din Craiova. Gradul de dificultate al problemelor este de la usor si mediu spre greu. Cartea se dorește material didactic pentru elevi, studenți și profesori.

**Category:** Geometry

[51] **viXra:1502.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-08 10:45:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

"These young stars are likely the signature of this predicted galaxy," said Chakrabarti, assistant professor in RIT's School of Physics and Astronomy. "They can't be part of our galaxy because the disk of the Milky Way terminates at 48,000 light years" referring to a cluster of young, pulsating stars discovered in the far side of the Milky Way may mark the location of a previously unseen dark-matter dominated dwarf galaxy hidden behind clouds of dust. [11]
The calling card of dark matter is that it remains invisible to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t occasionally interact with light. Researchers have now examined the possibility that dark matter scatters star light, producing a potentially detectable glow around galaxies. The team found no conclusive evidence of this “light halo,” but they argue that longer wavelength observations could offer an opportunity to “see” dark matter. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1502.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-07 11:12:07*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Cancer is caused at the sub – atomic level by three types of sub – atomic particles which prevent normal atomic development. These particles are known as Dasyu, Sunu, Pisaca and Raksasas in Vedic Particle Physics. These particle types may be undiscovered by western nuclear physics, yet Vedic Literature may provide helpful clues to identify them within the atomic nucleus.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[49] **viXra:1502.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-07 08:11:46*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page letter

Inverse square-law is followed by electric charges, gravity, and light. Light has shown even an unexpected property, of double-slit-interference of single photons. So it is not unreasonable to expect inverse-square-law to be followed by single photons. Assuming that the single photon is emitted either from the surface of an electron, or a globular-cluster, or a galaxy, the derivation presented here suggests that even a single photon seems to follow the inverse square-law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1502.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 16:25:28*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. See question on magnetic moments.

A dielectric array transmitting structure, formed
into a partial circle, demonstrated the propagation of electromagnetic fields that decayed with distance by 1/R rather than 1/R2. The
array had an electromagnetic field wavefront with an angular rate which will present signal detection and identification problems to
conventional antenna-receiver-signal processing systems. A properly structured cylindrical electromagnetic field creates a contiguously
linked field from the point of emission to where it has propagated.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1502.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 17:31:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One can think of the IVBs as "wormholes" to a younger, hotter universe, connecting our ground-state cold electromagnetic universe with the universe as it existed a few micro-seconds after the "Big Bang". What comes through the "IVB wormhole" is a single elementary particle, newly minted in the original forge and mold of the electroweak era from long ago, and hence identical to every elementary particle (of its type) ever created, or that ever will be created. The "wormhole" connection effectively circumvents the enervating entropy of eons of cosmic expansion that would otherwise make the exact replication of single elementary particles impossible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1502.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 19:25:22*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A., Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 110 Pages. Это Версия сканирования 2. This is Version of scan 2.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Оглавление:
Часть 1. Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Часть 2. Приложение методов α - и β –функционалов и Максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.
Версия сканирования 2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[45] **viXra:1502.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 20:04:30*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 111 Pages. Это более качественная версия сканирования. Старую -удалить.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Оглавление:
Часть 1. Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Часть 2. Приложение методов α - и β –функционалов и Максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1502.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 23:02:10*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This is a rough draft of paper, not yet submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome

The sunspot data seems to indicate that the Sun is likely to enter Maunder Minimum, then it will mean that low Sun activity may cause low temperature in Earth. If this happens then it will cause a phenomenon which is called by some climatology experts as “The Little Ice Age” for the next 20-30 years, starting from this year (2015). Therefore, the Earth climate in the coming years tend to be cooler than before. This phenomenon then causes us to ask: what can we do as human being in Earth to postpone or avoid the worsening situation in terms of Earth cooling temperature in the coming years? I think this is a pressing problem for the real and present danger that we are facing in the Earth. What I am suggesting in this paper is that perhaps it is possible to model Sun-Earth interaction in terms
of Shannon entropy. Since Shannon entropy can be expressed as bit of information, then it would mean that perhaps we can do something with Earth temperature by controlling the amount of information transfer and storage in the Earth.

**Category:** Climate Research

[43] **viXra:1502.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 23:33:41*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This was adapted by me from my entry in the Foundational Questions Institute’s (FQXi’s) 2015 contest, “Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics”. My entry is “Explaining The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics By Reconciling the Unified Field and Anthropic Principle” (http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2312). I’ve tried to make the article below understandable without referring to the FQXi entry, though it may well be recommended to view FQXi at times for more information. The article below touches on the following -
1) 3 POSITIVES OF SPACE-TIME, BLACK HOLES AND GRAVITY BALANCED BY A NEGATIVE HIGHER DIMENSION,
2) PARTLY REVISED GRAVITY REQUIRES THE IDEA OF NEWTON AND KEPLER THAT THE MOON CAUSES THE TIDES, TO BE JOINED WITH GALILEO’S PARTLY CORRECT IDEA THAT THE EARTH’S MOVEMENTS SLOSH ITS WATER
3) MICROWAVE BACKGROUND WITHOUT A BIG BANG, AND ALTERNATIVE TO INFLATION,
4) SUPERPOSED ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITY, QUANTUM SUPERPOSED PHOTON AND GRAVITON,
5) COSMIC EXPANSION VIA BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS,
6) RELATING MASS GENERATION BY PHOTON-GRAVITON INTERACTION TO BLACK HOLES, THE SOLAR NEBULA AND THE HIGGS BOSON,
7) HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE, 5TH-DIMENSIONAL HYPERSPACE, AND DARK ENERGY

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1502.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 07:22:35*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show the existing solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) to violate charge conservation principle, and then derive the correct formula for charge density distribution $(\rho_e)$ in a fluid. We replaced unphysical old boundary conditions with some conditions that have never been used. Our result demonstrates that PBE cannot explain the formation of `Electric Double Layer' (EDL); it follows that the present physical interpretation of `Debye length' $(\lambda_D)$ is wrong, too.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[41] **viXra:1502.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-12 21:14:17*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents a radial equation of motion which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[40] **viXra:1502.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-19 04:57:02*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper I invite you to take a step aside current quantum field theory (QFT): QFT has been said to be "well-established" since the 80's of the last century by its foremost theorists), and the majority of physicists consider it to be essentially complete since the discovery of the Higgs particle. It will be interesting to see, what that really means: What are the problems left over to the younger generations? I'll show you that a.o. it fails in its Lagrangian formalism, its postulate of positivity of energy, I'll show the uselessness of the uncertainty principle as to electromagnetic fields, and we'll see that there are serious doubts as to its conception of the photonic nature of electromagnetic fields, which a simple experiment could test against.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[39] **viXra:1502.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-05 23:42:58*

**Authors:** Phil Ascio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We shall reassess the simplex algorithm by observing an injective semi-separable morphism. Recent interest in affine, geometric functionals has centered on studying linearly n-dimensional, minimal random variables in NP. In contrast, we shall show that there exists a combinatorially Cauchy projective set acting algebraically on P to demonstrate that P=NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] **viXra:1502.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 03:21:31*

**Authors:** Vasile Patrascu

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, pp. 40-46, Vol. 7, 2015.

This paper presents two variants of penta-valued representation for neutrosophic entropy. The first is an extension of Kaufmann's formula and the second is an extension of Kosko's formula.
Based on the primary three-valued information represented by the degree of truth, degree of falsity and degree of neutrality there are built some penta-valued representations that better highlights some specific features of neutrosophic entropy. Thus, we highlight five features of neutrosophic uncertainty such as ambiguity, ignorance, contradiction, neutrality and saturation. These five features are supplemented until a seven partition of unity by adding two features of neutrosophic certainty such as truth and falsity.
The paper also presents the particular forms of neutrosophic entropy obtained in the case of bifuzzy representations, intuitionistic fuzzy representations, paraconsistent fuzzy representations and finally the case of fuzzy representations.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[37] **viXra:1502.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-05 14:16:23*

**Authors:** Martin Erik Horn

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Dirac operator is the general relativistic generalization of Minkowski’s Lorentz operator and describes the geometric derivative in general relativity. But while the Dirac operator is discussed in length in books about Geometric Algebra, the discussion of the Lorentz operator usually is avoided. This leads to a huge didactical gap, as a discussion of the geometric derivative in special relativity becomes impossible without reciprocal frames.
These didactical problems are a consequence of three shocks special relativity suffered in its youth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1502.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-05 08:24:46*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Will describe a geometric link related with the ratio between two physical forces , gravitational force and electromagnetic force .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[35] **viXra:1502.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 15:36:39*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The sixth Part of the work

In this sixth part of the work on the completeness of the genetic code, we present further relationships within Rumer Table and modified Rumer Table of nucleotide doublets within genetic code.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[34] **viXra:1502.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 23:56:09*

**Authors:** Posey Bonennnn, Posey Bonennn, Posey Bonenn, Posey Bonen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

ZFC IS WEEEEKK NEEDS MORE POWER> I CAN FIX THAT> I INTRODUCE A GENIUS AXIUM THAT SOLVES SEVERAL NOW TRIVIAL CONJECTURES THAT HAVE BEEN LONG STANDING. IT ALSO MAKES POSSIBLY IT TO PROOVE CONTINUOUM HYPOTHESIS AND THAT ZFC IS COMPLETE WITH MY NEW AXIUM>>>\\\\\\
THE AXEIUM IS THAT ZFC IS COMPLETE>

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1502.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 23:57:46*

**Authors:** Posey Bonennn

**Comments:** 1 Page.

ZFC IS WEEEEKK NEEDS MORE POWER> I CAN FIX THAT> I INTRODUCE A GENIUS AXIUM THAT SOLVES SEVERAL NOW TRIVIAL CONJECTURES THAT HAVE BEEN LONG STANDING. IT ALSO MAKES POSSIBLY IT TO PROOVE CONTINUOUM HYPOTHESIS AND THAT ZFC IS COMPLETE WITH MY NEW AXIUM>>>\\\\\\
THE AXEIUM IS THAT ZFC IS COMPLETE>

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1502.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-05 02:10:04*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In seven of my previous papers, I defined the MC function and I showed some of its possible applications. In this paper I present new interesting properties of other three Smarandache type sequences analyzed through the MC function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1502.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 07:59:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Relativistic mass follows from constancy of the speed of light in “vacuum” and the law of conservation of spin. Relativistic mass appears in grainy spacetime. The Einstein-spacetime components (the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) have gravitational mass and luminal speed but they are the non-relativistic objects. In the Einstein spacetime can appear virtual objects. A virtual object consists of a particle-antiparticle pair or a condensate carrying positive mass and of a gravitational-mass “hole” carrying negative mass. The gravitational fields are not directly associated with the luminal Einstein spacetime, they are directly associated with the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field. Today production of virtual objects in the Higgs field is impossible - it is the reason that we cannot unify directly (within the same methods) gravity with electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions i.e. a direct unification of gravity and Standard Model is impossible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1502.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 14:36:56*

**Authors:** Tadafumi Ohsaku

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Several aspects of the anomalous Nambu-Goldstone theorem are noted/listed and discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[29] **viXra:1502.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 14:39:00*

**Authors:** Tadafumi Ohsaku

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Some mathematical aspects of holonomy in the Nambu-Goldstone theorem
are discussed. A unied theorem of the normal, generalized, and anomalous
Nambu-Goldstone theorems are presented.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[28] **viXra:1502.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 14:40:41*

**Authors:** Tadafumi Ohsaku

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Some Lie-algebraic structures of three-dimensional quantum Nambu mechanics
are studied. From our result, we argue that the three-dimensional quantum
Nambu mechanics is a natural extension of the ordinary Heisenberg
quantum theory, and we give our insight that we can construct several candidates
"beyond the Heisenberg quantum theory".

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[27] **viXra:1502.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 14:42:43*

**Authors:** Tadafumi Ohsaku

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

Various geometric aspects of the Nambu-Goldstone ( NG ) type symmetry
breakings ( normal, generalized, and anomalous NG theorems ) are summarized,
and their relations are discussed. By the viewpoint of Riemannian
geometry, Laplacian, curvature and geodesics are examined. Theory of Ricci
ow is investigated in complex geometry of the NG-type theorems, and its
diusion and stochastic forms are derived. In our anomalous NG theorems,
the structure of symplectic geometry is emphasized, Lagrangian submanifolds
and mirror duality are noticed. Possible relations between the Langlands correspondence,
the Riemann hypothesis and the geometric nature of NG-type
theorems are given.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[26] **viXra:1502.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 14:51:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The calling card of dark matter is that it remains invisible to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t occasionally interact with light. Researchers have now examined the possibility that dark matter scatters star light, producing a potentially detectable glow around galaxies. The team found no conclusive evidence of this “light halo,” but they argue that longer wavelength observations could offer an opportunity to “see” dark matter. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[25] **viXra:1502.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 15:00:42*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Light Matter (LM) is a substance composed of light nuclei of neutrinium (NN) with a mass of 1 to several tens of MeV. It is assumed that neutrinos are able to form short-lived Cooper pairs, some of which quickly decays, and the other part is undergoing fusion, becoming a non-relativistic nuclei of LM. Studying the structure of NN shows that neutrinos can be joined together by 2 types of bonds, alpha and kappa. Chemistry of neutrinium elements (CNE) is studying reactions involving NN, including the synthesis of NE with larger mass number, condensation of NN in molecular aggregations, and annihilation of neutrinium and antineutrinium. CNE allows explain a number of astrophysical phenomena, including sunspots, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, coronal holes, aurora and polar radio emission, Herbig-Haro objects, the radio emission of pulsars, the spiral arms of galaxies and relativistic jets, the emission of quasars, and extragalactic background light.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[24] **viXra:1502.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 11:52:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Building a quantum computer can sometimes yield unexpected benefits — like providing the right environment to demonstrate that Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity is, in fact, correct. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1502.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 14:20:25*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 42 pages, 2 tables, 5 figures, 134 references

This paper provides an overview of the 4-D World – Universe Model (WUM). The World – Universe Model unifies and simplifies existing Cosmological models and results into a single coherent picture, and proceeds to compare the origin, evolution, structure, ultimate fate, and parameters of the World to the Big Bang Model.
WUM explains the experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics over the last decades: the size and age of the World; critical energy density and the gravitational parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the peak of the far-infrared radiation; observed expansion of the World and cosmological redshift; gamma-ray background and macrostructure of the World. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, axions, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak) and the fundamental physical parameters of the World; explains “Pioneer Anomaly” and the rise of the solar luminosity steadily from about 70% of its current value during the last 4.6 Byr.
The Model proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values for calculating time dependent parameters of the World.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1502.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 22:21:45*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 219 Pages.

This book is a translation from Romanian of "Probleme Compilate şi Rezolvate de Geometrie şi Trigonometrie" (University of Kishinev Press, Kishinev, 169 p., 1998), and includes 255 problems of 2D and 3D Euclidean geometry plus trigonometry, compiled and solved from the Romanian Textbooks for 9th and 10th grade students, in the period 1981-1988, when I was a professor of mathematics at the "Petrache Poenaru" National College in Balcesti, Valcea (Romania), Lycée Sidi El Hassan Lyoussi in Sefrou (Morocco), then at the "Nicolae Balcescu" National College in Craiova and Dragotesti General School (Romania), but also I did intensive private tutoring for students preparing their university entrance examination. After that, I have escaped in Turkey in September 1988 and lived in a political refugee camp in Istanbul and Ankara, and in March 1990 I immigrated to United States. The degree of difficulties of the problems is from easy and medium to hard. The solutions of the problems are at the end of each chapter. One can navigate back and forth from the text of the problem to its solution using bookmarks. The book is especially a didactic material for the mathematical students and instructors.

**Category:** Geometry

[21] **viXra:1502.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-05 01:16:28*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The Papyrus of Ani illustrates the sub – atomic process of decay, symbolized by the Higgs Boson in western physics. This paper explains the Papyrus of Ani in terms of Vedic Particle Physics, and reveals the existence of four Dark Matter particles which are probably the Higgs Boson after its decay into two electrons and two muons. The relationship explained in this paper leads to the question of which came first – Vedic Literature or the Egyptian Books of the Dead – or were both derived from a common, earlier source? The two ancient traditions feature similar myths – the Four Sons of Horus, and the Four Sons of Brahma.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:1502.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 12:49:33*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10 references

Flory’s model of a polymer deals with three characteristics lengths, namely: the monomer’s length, the chain’s length and the length of the radius of gyration. A first analogy can be established between this model and that of the electrical conductivity of good metals at the room temperature, by taking the Compton’s length, the electron mean free path and the Fermi’s length. A second analogy is considered, thinking the universe world line as a segmented chain, where we have the Planck’s length, the radius of the observable universe and the length associated to the cosmological constant. A characteristic time for the evolution of the universe is obtained (not the Hubble’s time), and it is compared with a possible proton’s decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1502.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-12 21:12:12*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents a scalar equation of motion which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1502.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 09:33:43*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is possible that a negative feedback cycle is responsible for the recent global warming ‘pause’ and will delay further warming for centuries.

The only necessary assumption is that organisms with access to a free source of energy will take advantage of it. These are poikilothermic animals which migrate vertically across the ocean thermocline. The change in body temperature which results can be used to generate energy for the animal’s use, using internal chemical mechanisms whose efficiency is limited by the Carnot cycle.

Even a small rise in surface temperature greatly increases the energy available to such animals, and will tend to increase their numbers and activity. A thermodynamically inevitable consequence is that increasing quantities of heat energy will be pumped down into the mid-depths, as is already observed to be happening.[1]

Confirmation of the effect would support Jeremy England’s hypothesis[2] that life tends to dissipate energy available from the environment at the highest possible rate. At the ecosystem level, an event such as a jellyfish bloom could be described as the available biomass reorganising itself from forms which perform modest vertical transport of heat, fish which carry ~2 kg of water per kg dry weight as they migrate, to forms which perform far more: jellyfish which carry up to 20 kg of water per kg dry weight internally, and can drag even larger quantities externally.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[17] **viXra:1502.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 18:42:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that for any pair of twin primes p and p + 2 there exist an odd positive integer n such that the value of Smarandache function for n is equal to p and the value of MC function for n is equal to p + 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1502.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-05 05:50:51*

**Authors:** Khalid Jerrari

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

De nombreuses recherches restées infructueuses tentent d’expliquer l’univers qui nous entoure par la présence de matières inconnues et d’énergies mystérieuses toujours introuvables. Mais alors ne serait-il pas temps de considérer d’autres hypothèses ? Dans cet ouvrage pédagogique et à la portée d’un large public visant à expliquer la « Théorie spatiale », l’auteur présente une réflexion philosophique suivie d’une explication scientifique sur l’influence de l’espace sur notre univers, l’espace étant considéré ici comme une substance physique. Pour son premier ouvrage scientifique, Khalid Jerrari s’affiche sans doute comme le premier auteur à « vulgariser » ses propres recherches scientifiques dans le but de les rendre accessibles à un public non scientifique. En reprenant pas-à-pas quelques lois de la physique et en expliquant certains grands principes universels, son livre propose une théorie qui unifie les lois de la cosmologie.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[15] **viXra:1502.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-05 12:49:51*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we show how the gravitational field can be amplified under certain circumstances, and how a planet with Earth's size can have a gravitational field much stronger than the Neptune. A new interpretation for quasars is here formulated.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14] **viXra:1502.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 11:50:50*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The cosmological constant lambda is derived from the radius of the observable universe. The corresponding value of vacuum energy density is equal to the value derived from zero-point energy on the boundary, at the scale of the Bohr Radius, of a six-dimensional AdS spacetime. The two length scales are related.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1502.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 06:24:35*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper reveals a mysterious exponential law governing the observed behavior of light. A new term is introduced: eV/c . Existing theories of light involve the terms like c + V, c - V, c2 - V2, (c2 - V2)1/2 . No existing theory of light gives a complete, clear and explicit explanation for values of V ≥ c and the significance. Special Relativity Theory (SRT) imposes an artificial constraint that nothing can move faster than the speed of light. Ether and emission theories do not address the case of V ≥ c . In emission theory, V ≥ c implies a bizarre consequence of light being dragged by its source. A formula of a true law of nature should return valid values representing real physical quantities for all valid values of its variables. It should allow all valid values of its variables. This has never been the case for light. For material waves, the condition V ≥ cm represents real physical quantities and phenomena. For sound waves, this represents shock waves and supersonic flight. Therefore, a true theory of light should at least fulfill the following conditions: 1. should be able to explain all conditions: V = 0 , V< c , V = c , V > c , V = ∞ , both for receding and approaching source observer relative motions, with a single formula. 2. Doppler effect: λ’ = λ for V = 0 , λ’ = ∞ for V = ∞ (receding) , λ’ = 0 for V= ∞ (approaching) 3. Constant phase velocity: λ . f = λ’. f’ = c . I already proposed the following theories in my previous paper[1]: 1. Both notions of motion and space (absolute and relative) are valid. But the ether doesn’t exist. 2. A universe without matter (massive cosmic objects) is Galilean space and Galileo’s principle of relativity applies to such a space. 3. Our real universe contains billions of stars and galaxies. Every massive cosmic object ( galaxies, stars, planets, ..) defines the space in its vicinity, with its influence diminishing with distance. Thus all cosmic objects in our universe have collectively created an absolute space. Many experiments have already detected absolute motion, including the Silvertooth, Marinov, CMBR frequency anisotropy measurement, Ronald de Witte experiments. 3. The effect of absolute motion is to create a change in path length, and not the speed, of light. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source, not relative to the real source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the past position of the light source, relative to an observer. This theory reveals the fallacy in the conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments. 4. This theory explains why the measured speed of light was always independent of the velocity of its source, for source and observer in relative motion. The effect of absolute motion of the source is exactly canceled by the change in path length of light. 5. The phase velocity of light is always constant, both in Galilean space and in absolute space, where as the group velocity is variable. These theories explained most of the century old problem of absolute vs. relative and the puzzle of the speed of light. However, a few experiments and facts remained ‘anomalous’ . One of this is the red shift in the Ives Stillwell experiment. Related ones are the ‘GPS correction’ and ‘time dilation’ experiments. The effort to resolve this anomaly led to the discovery of the problem with the terms such as c + V, c - V, c2 - V2, (c2 - V2)1/2 in existing theories of light. It has been discovered that it is impossible to explain all possible conditions mentioned above ( i.e. 0 ≤ V≤ ∞ , .. ) with theories and formulas involving these terms. Search for the alternative single formula finally led to the discovery of the term: e V/ c governing all observed behavior of the speed of light.
Doppler effect: f ‘ = f . e V/ c , λ’ = λ . e V/ c
Absolute motion: D’ = D . e V/ c
For V ˂˂ c , the above formulas give the same result as conventional formulas containing the terms c + V , c – V , c2 – V2 , ( c2 – V2 )1/2 , with a typical error of 0.00017 % ( for absolute velocity Vabs = 390 Km/s ) . The new formula for Doppler effect predicts exactly the same red shift as Special Relativity : ½ β2 , in the Ives Stillwell experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1502.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 06:34:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect ‘dark matter’, the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe’s mass. [14]
Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can’t even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today’s paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1502.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 07:10:11*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract

I propose a model for indeterminate information in a mixed state.

Keywords

quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, mixed state, superposition, wave packet, measurement problem, epistemology, perfect symmetry, broken symmetry, symmetry breaking.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1502.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using the approximation of constant pressure , a thermodynamic identity for GR as given by Padmanabhan is applied to Early universe graviton production, We build upon an earlier result in doing this calculation. Previously, we reviewed a relationship between the magnitude of an inflaton, the resultant potential, GW frequencies and also GW wavelengths. The NLED approximation makes full use of the Camara et.al. result about density and magnetic fields to ascertain when the density is positive or negative , meaning that at a given magnetic field strength, if one uses a relationship between density and pressure at the start of inflation one can link the magnetic field to pressure. From there an estimated initial temperature is calculated. This temperature scales down if the initial entropy grows.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1502.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:49:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted to IOP DICE 2014 conference proceedings, in December 2014

We find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Mukhanov’s chapter on “self reproduction” of the universe in in his reference. The stronger an early-universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H, with H the early-universe Hubble constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as comparing entropy in galaxies versus entropy in the universe, through a lens of Mistra’s quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1502.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 22:04:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Tokamaks to identify and possibly detect GW generated due to processes identified with Plasma Fusion burning, in Tokamaks, with experimental equipment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1502.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 03:03:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Classic thermodynamics studies and describes the thermal behavior of complex systems, in particular gaseous, reaching the definition of the three principles of thermodynamics and of the concept of entropy. In this paper we want to demonstrate also single charged massive elementary particles have a thermodynamic behavior that is related to the elementary structure and to the electrodynamic mass of particle. Thermodynamics of single elementary particles is defined by physical transformations and by energy exchanges that particles experience when the speed and the temperature change.
These transformations allow to define for elementary particles an intrinsic temperature and an intrinsic entropy that have a different behavior with respect to the same physical quantities of complex classic systems and with respect to the collective behavior of particles inside a plasma.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1502.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 07:16:14*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In few of my previous papers I defined the MC function. In this paper I make a classification of primes in four classes using a formula involving this function, id est the formula p + MC(p + 2) – 5, where p is prime. The classification is strict, a prime can not belong simultaneously to two classes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5] **viXra:1502.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 15:31:53*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Published in Progress in Physics, 28 Jan 2015. Revised on May 24, 2015. No copyright limitations.

Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own
equation and its constants, h and k, universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were
said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain black, or normal radiation,
which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the
nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies are specialized, heated devices
whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or
other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s
Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing
on Max Planck’s classic text, "The Theory of Heat Radiation", it can be demonstrated
that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn,
he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity
and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to
derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polarized.
Through the use of an element, dσ, at the bounding surface between two media,
he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective properties.
His Eq. 40 (ρ =ρ′), constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident
that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that
perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute
carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect
absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stewart
had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection.
Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also did not correctly address
real materials, especially metals, from which reflectors would be constructed. These
shortcomings led to universality, an incorrect conclusion. Arbitrary cavities do not contain
black radiation. Kirchhoff’s formulation is invalid. As a direct consequence, the
constants h and k do not have fundamental meaning and along with “Planck length”,
“Planck time”, “Planck mass”, and “Planck temperature”, lose the privileged position
they once held in physics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] **viXra:1502.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 07:51:15*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Two circles C(O,r) and C(O',r'), expanding at an equal and uniform rate in a plane, come to intersect each other in a branch of a hyperbola, referred to here as a dynamic hyperbola.
In this paper, the analytical equation of the dynamic hyperbola is derived in a step by step fashion. Also, three of its immediate applications, into neuroscience, engineering and physics, respectively is summarized at the end.

**Category:** Geometry

[3] **viXra:1502.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 09:09:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We use the results of A. Montiel et al, as to the contribution of energy density of non linear magnetic components to RW inflationary physics, as well as the standard of ephemeris time to come up with a standard of bound to early universe graviton mass. In doing so, we also ascertain that using the derived evolution equations that the mass of the graviton today could be different from the early universe value with obtain in closed form. Our results also indicate that quintessence, i.e. a time varying cosmological “constant” parameter, will in the case of large initial values of this “cosmological constant” inevitably lead to a singularity. . If one has a magnetic field contributing to a non zero initial scale factor, we will be assuming that the “cosmological constant” remains invariant during space-time expansion. The case of a fast roll physics treatment of inflation is gone over in the end, as a counter point to some of the discussion so offered. I.e. a fast roll, approximation means that the simple cancellation given below in Eq.(3) is no longer assumed. Which would influence the value of initial graviton mass. I.e. heavy gravity in the case of the elimination of slow roll is almost 20 orders of magnitude larger in initial magnitude for gravitons than the observations today portend for massive gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1502.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 09:10:45*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** Français, 7 pages, site web: http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html , English at: http://vixra.org/abs/1501.0255

Nous faisons un retour sur l’expression de la loi de Hubble, réduisons Ho à trois constantes fondamentales et définissons la surface de Hubble
σH.
We review Hubble’s law formulation, we reduce Ho to a combination of three fundamental constants and define the Hubble surface σH .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1502.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-07 06:24:59*

**Authors:** Wenming Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This is a short and interesting paper.

We discuss the P versus NP problem from the perspective of addition operation about polynomial functions. Two contradictory propositions for the addition operation are presented. With the proposition that the sum of k (k<=n+1) polynomial functions on n always yields a polynomial function, we prove that P=NP, considering the maximum clique problem. And with the proposition that the sum of k polynomial functions may yield an exponential function, we prove that P!=NP by constructing an abstract decision problem. Furthermore, we conclude that P=NP and P!=NP if and only if the above propositions hold, respectively.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms