[186] **viXra:1309.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 16:38:40*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Again it is hoped this short note will provoke more examination of this topic.

Here two derivations of Hamilton’s equations of motion are examined and found to depend crucially on both the system being conservative and the mass being constant. It is speculated that these derivations might be extended to the case where, as well as the system being conservative, the mass varies purely with time. However, at this stage, other generalisations seem unlikely and, if that is so, the usefulness of the Hamilton approach in mechanics would appear to be limited.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[185] **viXra:1309.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 23:28:54*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 3 charts

In our holographic and combinatorial universe, there actually are no discrete conventional particles. Particles are merely a convenient way of discussing combinatorial phenomena. Nor is there linear velocity or the physical transport of objects in the “black hole” Substratum form of matter. Instead, there is a transfer of vibratory ensembles. However, for those who find particles convenient, there are 18 orders of Quarks, not merely six. Quarks exist in the “dark hole” Substratum form of matter, where matter begins to form at the algorithm of 2.718… or the natural logarithm e.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[184] **viXra:1309.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 14:46:09*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 6 Pages. It is hoped this short note will provoke further examination of the topic discussed.

In most, if not all, introductions to classical mechanics, the mass is assumed to be constant. Usually this is mentioned and often attention is drawn to such systems as rocket motion to indicate that, in practice, the mass is not always a constant. In truth, many students actually meet a varying mass for the first time when introduced to the Special Theory of Relativity. However, varying masses do occur in nature when relativistic effects are not important. Here an attempt is made to draw together some common results of classical mechanics with a variable mass taken into account. Particular attention will be drawn to a perceived change in the expression for the kinetic energy and to crucial changes in the basic form of Lagrange’s equations of motion.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[183] **viXra:1309.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 14:49:13*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this article it is showed how sub-micron dust is able to reach the lunar exosphere and produce the “horizon glow” and “streamers” observed at lunar horizon by astronauts in orbit and surface landers, during the Apollo era of exploration.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[182] **viXra:1309.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 08:13:34*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 4 references, 1 diagram

According to mainstream dogma, white dwarfs have the mass of the Sun and the size of the Earth. This is mathematical fantasy. No experiment has ever proven the existence of matter denser than the element osmium. They are simply stars in regular stages of evolution, in-between blue stars and yellow stars. White dwarfs are very young stars which are hotter, bigger and brighter than the Suns current stage of metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[181] **viXra:1309.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 08:40:01*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 4 references, 1 diagram

Brown dwarfs, planets and stars are all the same objects in different stages of evolution. The mystery is solved.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[180] **viXra:1309.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 08:53:34*

**Authors:** Milen V. Velev

**Comments:** 36 pages, 6 figures. This article appeared in Physics Essays, Vol. 25, No. 3 (2012) 403-438.

This article discusses the motion of particles in multiple time dimensions and in multiple space dimensions. Transformations are presented for the transfer from one inertial frame of reference to another inertial frame of reference for the case of multidimensional time. The implications are indicated of the existence of a large number of time dimensions on physical laws like the Lorentz covariance, CPT symmetry, the principle of invariance of the speed of light, the law of addition of velocities, the energy-momentum conservation law, etc. The Doppler effect is obtained for the case of multidimensional time. Relations are derived between energy, mass, and momentum of a particle and the number of time dimensions in which the particle is moving. The energy-momentum conservation law is formulated for the case of multidimensional time. It is proven that if certain conditions are met, then particles moving in multidimensional time are as stable as particles moving in one-dimensional time. This result differs from the view generally accepted until now [J. Dorling, Am. J. Phys. 38, 539 (1970)]. It is proven that luxons may have nonzero rest mass, but only provided that they move in multidimensional time. The causal structure of space-time is examined. It is shown that in multidimensional time, under certain circumstances, a particle can move in the causal region faster than the speed of light in vacuum. In the case of multidimensional time, the application of the proper orthochronous transformations at certain conditions leads to movement backwards in the time dimensions. It is concluded that the number of different antiparticles in the k-dimensional time is equal to 3^k - 2^k. Differences between tachyons and particles moving in multidimensional time are indicated. It is shown that particles moving faster than the speed of light in vacuum can have a real rest mass (unlike tachyons), provided that they move in multidimensional time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[179] **viXra:1309.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 15:13:43*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 208 Pages.

A human life is special. It may turn this or that way and put you on trial. Unfortunately, young people very often make the same mistakes their parents did. That is why if we have a look at biographies of senior people – especially those ones who lived unusual lives and had very special destinies – it may help us to avoid many mistakes, delusions, wrong decisions and deceit. Of course, political powers, authorities, regimes and social situation constantly change, but there are some vital general basics always remaining in a human society and they are quite necessary to be realized and understood for an individual to survive and not to repeat stupid mistakes of older generations. This is the prime and important goal of this book.
The author of this book is a researcher. A main goal of any true researcher is impartial and comprehensive investigation of the reality, discovering its laws and building models of nature, environment, human and society behavior. These laws help to predict human and environment reaction to our activity, and consequently, achieve required results and make all human progress move forward.
The most important feature of a true researcher is the ability to change (or revise) his opinions, conclusions and regulations in case the reality response does not coincide with his theories and forecasts.
The author worked a lot for Soviet aviation, rocket and space industries and in research labs of the NASA and USAir Force. He was not much interested in minor routine technical problems which were again and again to be solved by engineers and scientists in the course of projecting, designing and final operational development of some spacecraft or rocket, and which he was supposed to deal with by virtue of office. His spare time was devoted, first of all to breakthrough technologies of the future which would make mankind leap to a new stage of technological progress. Some of these technologies suggested by the author are understandably expounded in a special Appendix to this book (Breakthrough to the Future)
Besides current and future problems of aviation, astronautics, energy, breakthrough technologies of the future he devoted a lot of time to the purpose of existence and to the future of mankind, or more exactly to the future of Intellect and Universe. The Self-copying System Complexity Increase law discovered by Alexander Bolonkin explains not only beginnings of Homo Sapience on Earth, but also its inevitable transition into E-creatures and to Superior Intellect (to God, as true believers would say), to a total control by its Universe laws and creation of new Universes with new life.
All these ideas are compactly and plainly expounded in a special chapter of this book (Pondering on Life, Progress, Mankind and Science) so that a reader uninterested in these problems may just skip this section.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[178] **viXra:1309.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 15:41:00*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 287 Pages.

Каждая человеческая жизнь уникальна. Однако у каждого она складывается по-своему и преподносит разные испытания. К сожалению, молодежь, как правило, повторяет ошибки старшего поколения. Поэтому знакомство с жизнью и биографиями людей старшего возраста, особенно с необычными, уникальными судьбами, может помочь им избежать многих ошибок, иллюзий, неверных решений и обмана. Конечно, власти, политические режимы, социальная обстановка все время меняются, но в человеческом обществе есть важные общие моменты, знать, понимать и осознавать которые весьма важно для выживания любого индивидуума, чтобы не повторять глупейших ошибок предыдущих поколений. Это главная цель и задача данной книги.
Автор книги ученый. Цель всякого настоящего ученого – объективно и всесторонне изучать окружающую действительность и находить законы, которым она подчиняется, строить модели действительности (природы, среды, поведения индивидуума и социума). Эти законы позволяют предсказывать реакцию людей и внешней среды на наши действия и тем самым добиваться нужных нам результатов, обеспечивать прогресс человечества. Важнейшее качество истинного ученого – менять (или модифицировать) свои мнения, обновлять выводы, если реакция внешней среды не совпадает с предсказаниями его теории.
Автор много работал в советской авиационной и ракетной промышленности, в научных лабораториях НАСА и военно-воздушных сил США. Его интересовали не текущие технические проблемы, которые приходится постоянно решать ученым и инженерам в процессе проектирования и доводки того или иного самолета, космического корабля или ракеты. В первую очередь его интересовали прорывные технологии будущего, которые позволили бы человечеству сделать прыжок, совершить рывок в своем технологическом развитии. Некоторые предложенные им технологии популярно излагаются в специальном приложении к данной книге (Рывок в Будущее).
Помимо текущих и будущих проблем авиации, космонавтики, энергетики, прорывных технологий, автор много занимался вопросами смысла существования человечества и его будущим,
8
точнее, вопросами Разума и Вселенной. Открытый им закон «Повышения сложности самокопирующих систем» объясняет не только появление разумного человека, но и неизбежный переход его в электронное Е-существо, и приближение к Высшему Разуму (т.е., в понимании верующих, к Богу), к управлению законами своей Вселенной, созданию новых Вселенных и жизни в них. Все это автор попытался кратко и популярно изложить в отдельной главе, которую не интересующийся этими проблемами читатель может просто пропустить (Размышления о жизни, прогрессе, человечестве и науке).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[177] **viXra:1309.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 16:27:05*

**Authors:** Scott Lesch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Section 1 outlines tests to determine if expanding space is the best explanation of lights changing wavelengths. Section 2 proposes tests to determine if if the curvature of space (gravity) is the best explanation for lights changing wavelengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[176] **viXra:1309.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 18:07:16*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Designs of new forms of matter composed of nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles are detailed. This matter is measured in the femtometer (10-15 m) scale (“femtotechnology”), which is millions of times smaller than material on the nanometer (10-9 m) scale (“nanotechnology”). This new Femtotubes has extraordinary properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency and zero friction. All of these properties are magnified millions of times in comparison to those of conventional molecular matter. Applications include concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities such as invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux.
Key words: femtotechnology, nuclear matter, artificial AB-Matter, Femtotubes, super strength matter, superthermal resistance, invisible matter, super-protection from nuclear explosion and radiation.
* Presented to WEB the Cornel University http://arxiv.org on February 2009.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[175] **viXra:1309.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 18:26:52*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator.
Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket.
* Initial version was presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2–5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[174] **viXra:1309.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 18:40:32*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.
Key words: Space suit, space colonization, space civilization, life on Moon, Mars and other planets, people existing in space.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[173] **viXra:1309.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 19:01:05*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Joseph Friedlander

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The Sun contains ~74% hydrogen by weight. The isotope hydrogen-1 (99.985% of hydrogen in nature) is a usable fuel for fusion thermonuclear reactions. This reaction runs slowly within the Sun because its temperature is low (relative to the needs of nuclear reactions). If we create higher temperature and density in a limited region of the solar interior, we may be able to produce self-supporting detonation thermonuclear reactions that spread to the full solar volume. This is analogous to the triggering mechanisms in a thermonuclear bomb. Conditions within the bomb can be optimized in a small area to initiate ignition, then spread to a larger area, allowing producing a hydrogen bomb of any power. In the case of the Sun certain targeting practices may greatly increase the chances of an artificial explosion of the Sun. This explosion would annihilate the Earth and the Solar System, as we know them today.
The reader naturally asks: Why even contemplate such a horrible scenario? It is necessary because as thermonuclear and space technology spreads to even the least powerful nations in the centuries ahead, a dying dictator having thermonuclear missile weapons can produce (with some considerable mobilization of his military/industrial complex)— an artificial explosion of the Sun and take into his grave the whole of humanity. It might take tens of thousands of people to make and launch the hardware, but only a very few need know the final targeting data of what might be otherwise a weapon purely thought of (within the dictator‘s defense industry) as being built for peaceful, deterrent use.
Those concerned about Man‘s future must know about this possibility and create some protective system—or ascertain on theoretical grounds that it is entirely impossible.
Humanity has fears, justified to greater or lesser degrees, about asteroids, warming of Earthly climate, extinctions, etc. which have very small probability. But all these would leave survivors --nobody thinks that the terrible annihilation of the Solar System would leave a single person alive. That explosion appears possible at the present time. In this paper is derived the ‗AB-Criterion‘ which shows conditions wherein the artificial explosion of Sun is possible. The author urges detailed investigation and proving or disproving of this rather horrifying possibility, so that it may be dismissed from mind—or defended against.
Key words: Artificial explosion of Sun, annihilation of solar system, criterion of nuclear detonation, nuclear detonation wave, detonate Sun, artificial supernova. * J. Friedlander corrected the author‘s English, wrote together with author Abstract, Sections 8, 10 (―Penetration into Sun‖ and ―Results‖), and wrote Section 11 ―Discussion‖ as the solo author

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] **viXra:1309.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 19:21:50*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. That allows keeping the outside atmospheric conditions (for example weather) away from the interior of the inflatable Dome, protecting a city by its’ presence from chemical, bacterial, and radioactive weapons and even partially from aviation and nuclear bombs.
The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. The cover is spread on a flat surface and a ventilator pumps air under the film cover and lifts the new dome into place (inflation takes many hours). However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course (as opposed to an empty, mowed field) we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees without risking damage to it by snagging and other complications. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium - although of these, methane will be the most practical and least leaky). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and radioactive fallout or particulates. After finish of dome building the light gas can be changed by air.
Two projects for Manhattan (NY, USA) and Moscow (Russia) are targets for a sample computation.
Key words: Dome for city, blanket for city, greenhouse, regional control of weather, protection of cities from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[171] **viXra:1309.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 20:36:49*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In Part1 author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between main parameters in a given field of nature. He applied this theory for estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of the energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.
In part 2 of the author shows that the parameters of space (volume, distance) and time have limits (maximal values). The volume (distance), time contract (collapse) into a point under the specific density of the energy, matter, pressure, frequency, temperature, intensity of electric, magnetic, acceleration fields. The maximal temperature and force are independent from other conditions.
Key words: Universe, time, matter, volume, distance, energy; limits of specific density of energy, matter, pressure, temperature, intensity of fields; collapse of space and time into point.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[170] **viXra:1309.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-21 12:16:47*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We can apply the Kasner metric that is an exact solution to Einstein’s equations of General Relativity to the fields composed of the superluminal non-gravitating objects i.e. to the Higgs field composed of tachyons and to the field composed of entanglons (they are the zero-helicity vector objects and they are responsible for the quantum entanglement) that during the inflation created the Einstein spacetime composed of the gravitating neutrino-antineutrino pairs. All quantities defining the ground state of the Einstein spacetime are invariant. The invariance causes that the ground state behaves as non-gravitating empty volume so to the virtual objects composed of entangled neutrino-antineutrino pairs that appear in the ground state of the Einstein spacetime, we can apply the Kasner metric as well. The zeros in the first semi-symmetric Kasner solution (0, 0, 1) we interpret as the virtual fermion-antifermion pairs whereas the 1 as virtual charge. The second semi-symmetric Kasner solution (2/3, 2/3, -1/3) we interpret as virtual torus/charge that changes its size. The new interpretation of the Einstein formula E = mcc leads to conclusion that Nature using the virtual objects, i.e. the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, “copies” the virtual objects in bigger scales so there appear the virtual and real cores of baryons, electrons and new cosmology. In such phase transitions appear the spinors applied in the Quantum Physics. The Kasner solutions define many properties of the spinors. We can partially unify the gravity and quantum physics via the Kasner solutions. The basic mathematical method applied in Quantum Physics, i.e. the action of some orthogonal groups on column vector that leads to the spin representations, is some generalization of action of matrix of rotation of a circle around the z-axis on circle on xy plane defined parametrically and written as a column – such action leads to the parametric equations for torus. The symmetrical decays of virtual multi-loops lead to the Chaos Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[169] **viXra:1309.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 13:27:04*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As the Global Consciousness Project at Princeton University (NJ, USA) progresses with
positive results it gives an idea of hypothesis on existence of a new yet to be discovered type of
long-distance physical particle interaction, via the “space area entanglement”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1309.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 14:23:59*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 438 Pages.

In last years the author and other scientists have published a lot of new concepts, ideas, and innovations in aerospace, science, and technology. These ideas promise the revolutions in aerospace, technology and human life.
In aerospace these include the new method of flight - AB levitation. This method allows humanity to flight as bird, riches a very high speeds and free flight to space; the electrostatic ramjet and beam space propulsions; electrostatic magsail; high speed solar sail; a transfer of electricity in long distance at space; the space thermonuclear propulsion, the new electrostatic engine which can be used as driver for space launcher and accelerator of space ships, as an engine in new electrostatic high speed train; etc.
In technology these include the new mini-thermonuclear reactor, utilization of high altitude wind energy, protection from tsunami, control of local and global weather, converting of deserts and polar Earth regions in 'evergreen' gardens, high altitude gas pipeline, and so on.
In human science there include electronic immortality of people.
New ideas in space/aviation may be useful for flights in space and in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel.
The author summarizes some revolutionary concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[167] **viXra:1309.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 14:33:27*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Richard Cathcart

**Comments:** 500 Pages.

In recent years of the 21st Century the authors of this book and other scientists as well, have instigated and described many new macro-projects, USA and other countries patented concepts, speculative Macro-engineering ideas, and other general innovations in technology and environment change. These all hold the enticing promise for a true revolution in the lives of humans everywhere in the Solar System.
Here, the authors include and review new methods for travel in outer space, promising means to increase the safety of aviation, comfortable permanent settlements on the Moon and Mars, as well as for Earth’s hazardous polar regions, control of local and global weather conditions, new methods of irrigation “without water”, conversion of cold and hot deserts and Earth’s non-twin polar regions to 'evergreen' gardens, protection against forecasted hurricane storm surge waves and inundations, unpredictable tsunami, and other weather-related floods, cheap protection of cities against nuclear warheads and aviation bombs, magnetic aircraft, channels for free traveling in outer space, thermonuclear reactors, wind power stations, along with many others.
Here we succinctly summarize some of these revolutionary macro-projects, concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, technical students, and the world public. We do seek future attention from the general public, other macro-engineers, inventors, as well as scientists of all persuasions for these presented innovations. And, naturally, we fervently hope the popular news media, various governments and the large international aerospace and other engineering-focused corporations will, as well, increase their respective observation, R&D activity in the technologies for living and the surrounding human environment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[166] **viXra:1309.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 14:57:43*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 519 Pages.

In recent years of the 21st Century the author of this book and other scientists as well, have instigated and described many new ideas, researches, theories, macro-projects, USA and other countries patented concepts, speculative macro-engineering ideas, projects and other general innovations in technology and environment change. These all hold the enticing promise for a true revolution in the lives of humans everywhere in the Solar System.
Here, the author includes and reviews new methods for converting of any matter into energy, getting of super strong materials, for travel in outer space without space suit, magnetic space launchers, magnetic space towers, motionless satellites and suspended structures, comfortable permanent settlements for cities and Earth’s hazardous polar regions, control of local and global weather conditions, wireless transfer of electricity to long distance, Magnetic guns, magnetic launchers, new (magnetic, electrostatic, electronic gas) space towers, space elevators and space climbers, suppression forest fires without water, aerial gas pipelines, production of fresh water from sea water, thermonuclear reactors, along with many others.
Author succinctly summarizes some of these revolutionary macro-projects, concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, technical students, and the world public. Every Chapter has three main sections: At first section the author describes the new idea in an easily comprehensible way acceptable for the general public (no equations), the second section contains the scientific proof of the innovation acceptable for technical students, engineers and scientists, and the third section contains the applications of innovation.
Author does seek future attention from the general public, other macro-engineers, inventors, as well as scientists of all persuasions for these presented innovations. And, naturally, he fervently hopes the popular news media, various governments and the large international aerospace and other engineering-focused corporations will, as well, increase their respective observation, R&D activity in the technologies for living and the surrounding human environment.
Key words: femtotechnology, energy, nucler energy, aerospace, non-rocket space launch and flight, environment.
519

**Category:** Classical Physics

[165] **viXra:1309.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-12 09:44:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The considerations that have led to the design of the Hilbert Book Model are described. Some aspects of the design are treated as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[164] **viXra:1309.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-28 18:31:00*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 130 Pages.

Бессмертие - это голубая, вековая, самая большая мечта и самое большое желание любого человека. Человек мало думает об этом пока молод, здоров и полон сил. Но когда он болен неизлечимой болезнью или стар, то у него нет большего желания и стремления как пожить еще, всеми силами оттянуть свой конец. И какой бы рай, какие бы блага на том свете не сулила нам религия, подавляющее большинство людей стремятся пробыть как можно дольше здесь на Земле, насладиться жизнью.
В книге покaзaно (см. список в концe), что с точки зрeния компьютeрныx нaук чeловeк eсть биологичeский логичeский прибор для обрaботки информaции. Нaшa головa - xрaнилищe информaции, взглядов, привычeк, пaмяти и прогрaмм, нaкоплeнныx и вырaботaнныx чeловeком в тeчeнии eго жизни. Нaш мозг - логичeский прибор, пeрeрaбaтывaющий эту информaцию. Глaзa, уши, кожa и другиe оргaны чувств - дaтчики информaции об окружaющeм мирe, a руки и ноги - исполнитeльныe оргaны прикaзов нaшeго мозгa.
Отсюдa срaзу слeдуeт вывод, что eсли мы нaучимся соxрaнять информaцию, нaкоплeнную и вырaботaнную чeловeком в тeчeнии eго жизни, зaписaв ee нa болee стойкиe носитeли (нaпримeр, чипы), то соxрaним eго кaк личность (душу) вeчно. Если жe снaбдим eго дaтчикaми приeмa, нe подвeргaeмой цeнзурe информaции, то позволим eму свободно рaзвивaться кaк личности. А eсли снaбдим eго исполнитeльными оргaнaми, то он получит возможность aктивно воздeйствовaть нa внeшний мир (жить вeчно).
Рaсчeтaми покaзaно, что компьютeрнaя тexникa рaзвивaeтся столь стрeмитeльно, что ужe в ближaйшиe 15-30 лeт мощность и пaмять малогабаритных супeркомпьютeров срaвняeтся с мощностью и пaмятью чeловeчeского мозгa, a зaтeм достигнeт и прeвзойдeт мощность мозгов всeго чeловeчeствa.
В книге покaзaно, что проблeмa бeссмeртия можeт быть рeшeнa кaрдинaльно только зaмeной биологичeской оболочки чeловeкa нa искусствeнную.
Тaкой бeссмeртный чeловeк из чипов и свeрxпрочныx мaтeриaлов (или Е-сущeство, кaк он нaзвaн в книге), будeт имeть огромныe прeимущeствa пeрeд биологичeскими людьми. Он нe будeт нуждaться в пищe, жилищe, воздуxe, снe, отдыxe, экологичeски чистой окружaющeй срeдe, сможeт путeшeствовaть в космосe, по дну окeaнов бeз скaфaндров, сможeт мeнять свой облик (внeшность), облaдaть огромной силой, видeть сквозь стeны, общaться нa огромныx рaсстоянияx, в доли сeкунды прeобрeтaть (пeрeзaписывaть в свой мозг) любыe знaния. Умствeнныe eго способности возрaстут в миллионы рaз. Он получит возможность внeтeлeсного пeрeмeщeния (путeшeствий путeм тeлeпортaции) нa гигaнскиe рaсстояния (нaпримeр, нa другиe плaнeты) со свeтовой скоростью путeм пeрeдaчи лaзeрным лучом xрaнящeйся в eго мозгу информaции в aрeндовaнноe тeло нa другой плaнeтe.
Это нe будут жeлeзныe нeуклюжиe роботы, кaк иx изобрaжaют в кино. Искусствeнный чeловeк сможeт выбирaть по своeму жeлaнию своe лицо, фигуру пeрвыx крaсaвцeв (крaсaвиц), имeть нeжную aтлaсную кожу, рaзмножaться (копировaть сeбя) нeогрaничeнно, минуя дeтство, отрочeство и процeсс обучeния.
Болee того, тaкой искусствeнный чeловeк будeт нeуничтожaeм любым оружиeм, ибо свою копию или информaцию своeго мозгa, он можeт xрaнить отдeльно и оживить сeбя в зaдaнный момeнт врeмeни.
В книге предлагается новый подход к перезаписи информации человеческого мозга в электронные чипы, который позволяет смоделировать душу человека и обеспечить его бессмертие в настоящее время, не вторгаясь в человеческий мозг и не сокращая его земную жизнь.
В дaнном Сборникe собрaны нeкоторыe стaтьи, интeрвью aвторa, посвящeнныe вопросaм бeссмeртия чeловeкa, будущeго чeловeчeствa, опубликовaнныe в 1994 - 2005 гг. и дисскуссии в пeчaти, вызвaнныe появлeниeм этиx стaтeй, а тaкжe публикaции по мaтeриaлaм aвторa и отклики в широкой прeссe, посвящeнныe тeмe бeссмeртия и элeктронной цивилизaции:
В сборник помeщeны оригинaльныe основныe стaтьи aвторa. Многочислeнныe публикaции, появившиeся в пeчaти, прeдстaвляют, кaк прaвило, пeрeрaботaнныe и урeзaнныe рeдaкторaми вaриaнты или искaжeнныe идeи и мысли aвторa, удобныe для критики оппонeнтом.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[163] **viXra:1309.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-28 19:21:08*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

A. Bolonkin was born in (Russia). When he was young, he had National and World records in aviation modelling and was awarded with gold and silver medals. He graduated with awards from Aviation Collage, Faculty of Aviation Engines, (B.S.)(USSR); Kazan Aviation Institute, Faculty of Aircraft Design, (M.S.); Kiev University, Faculty of Mathematics, (M.S.); Moscow Aviation Institute, Rocket Department, dissertation "Optimal Trajectories of Multistate Rockets" (Ph.D., Dr.Sci.); Leningrad Politechnic University, Aerospace Enginering Department, dissertation "New Methods of Optimization and their Applications" (Post-Doctoral Degree in the former USSR).
He worked in Soviet aviation, rocket and Space industries and lectured in main Soviet University about 15 years. In particularty, in Kiev Aircraft State Design Bureau headed by O. Antonov, Bolonkin took part in design of aircraft AN-8 through AN-225 (Enginer-Senior Engineer-Chairman of Department); in Rocket engine Construction Bureau headed by Academician V.P.Glushko, Bolonkin was Chairman of Reliability Department and took part in design of rocket engines for main strategic rockets of the USSR; in TsAGI (central Aero-Hydrodynamic Research Institute) A. Bolonkin was a scientific researcher.
He lectured as a professor and worked as a Project Director in Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow Aviation Technological Institute, Bauman Highest Technical University, Technological Institute, He contacted with Construction Bureaus of Tupolev, Yakovlev, Mikoyan, Ilushin, Sykhoy, with all main aviation, rocket and space research and design Centers of the USSR. He had many awards in the Soviet Union.
In 1972 professor Bolonkin was arrested the Soviet Secret Police (KGB) because he read forbidden political literature about freedom and democracy and listen in "Voice of America". More 15 years KGB tortures him into special prisons, concentration camps, and exile in Siberia. This period his life is described in this book.
In 1988, Alexander Bolonkin arrived as a political refuge in the USA and became American citizen in 1994. He worked as a mathematician in Sherson Lehman Hutton (American Express), N.Y., (Research, computation, programming, Optimal portfolio of securities), a Senior Researcher in Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University; two years as a Senior Research Associate in Wright Laboratory, Flight Dynamic Directorate (Dayton, Ohio), (it is the main Laboratory of the USA Air Force with over 20,000 scientists); as a professor in New Jersey Institute of Technology, Computer and Information Department. He worked as an expert of Association Engineers and Scientists in N.Y.C. (Estimation of new ideas, projects, patents. Consulting).
He worked two years as a Senior Research Associate in the NASA (Dryden Flight Research Center) in California, Edwards and two years as Senior Researcher in Eglin USA Air Force Base (Florida). Now Dr. Bolonkin lectures in New Jersey Institute of Technology.
For last four years alone, A. Bolonkin published more 35 scientific articles and books in the USA and a lot of articles in Russia-American press about scientific problems. He took part in three World Space Congress (1992, 1994, 1996), in World Aviation Congress (Los-Angeles, 1998, 1999) and more tens National Scientific Conferences in the USA. In particularly, he published monograph "Development of Soviet pocket engines for Strategic Missiles", Delphic Ass., USA, 1991, 133 p., and large Chapter "Aviation, motor, and Space Designs" in book "Development Technology in the Soviet Union", pp.32-80, Delphic Ass., USA, 1990; book “Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight”, by A. Bolonkin, Elsevier, 2006, 488 ps.; chapters: Space Towers, Cable Anti-Gravitator, Electrostatic Levitation and Artificial Gravity in collection “Macro Engineering: A Challenge for the Future”, edited by V. Badesky, R.B. Cathcart and R.D. Schuilling, Springer, 2006; book “New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace and Technology”, by A. Bolonkin, Nova, 2007; book "Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization", Lulu, 3-rd Edition, “Macro-Projects: Environment and Technologies”, NOVA, 2008 and others.
Alexander Bolonkin is the author of more 170 scientific articles and books and 17 inventions.
B. Kruglyak, Ph.D.

**Category:** Social Science

[162] **viXra:1309.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-28 20:04:35*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 71 Pages. 71 pgs, Russian

В этой небольшой заметке я хочу коротко
рассказать об удивительном человеке -
Александре Александровиче Болонкине, его
сложной и трудной судьбе как ученого и защитника
прав обездоленных.
Родился он на Урале в г. Пермь и уже в детстве и
юности проявил недужие способности. Начиная с
4-го класса: школа, авиатехникум, авиационный
институт, аспирантура МАИ - а это 16 лет! - всегда
был первым в своем потоке, имел только
отличные оценки. В детстве увлекался
авиамоделизмом, установил несколько
Всесоюзных рекордов, превышал и Мировые
достижения. За что был награжден серебряной и золотой медалями. В период учебы в институте постоянно награждался грамотами, премиями за научные разработки и был (студент!) отмечен в Приказе Министра Высшего Образования СССР. Защитил кандидатскую и докторскую диссертации работал ведущим инженером в авиационном Опытно-конструкторском бюро Олега Антонова и начальником отдела надежности в ракетном бюро академика В.П. Глушко. Рассчитанные им АНы возили миллионы пассажиров, а ракетные двигатели поднимали спутники и космические корабли. Казалось, человек достиг всего, и осталось только наслаждаться жизнью.
Но получив доступ к сверхсекретной информации (у него был высший допуск - особо секретно - государственной важности) Александр стал понимать, что режим, которому он, подобно всем советским людям, служит, совсем не то, за что он себя выдает. Лицемерие и ложь пропитали все верха, железный занавес отгородил советский народ от всего мира и весь режим держится на обмане.
В это время (конец 60-х годов) в стране началось диссидентское движение. Академик А.Д. Сахаров, ряд ученых и писателей открыто потребовали демократизации советского общества, соблюдения прав человека, прекращения репрессий. Диссиденты очень нуждались в множительной технике, которая находилась под строгим учетом КГБ. К Александру обратились за помощью и он изобретает простой множительный аппарат. Этот аппарат мог изготовить любой из подручных средств. Сам он лично сделал 8 таких аппаратов и раздал диссидентским группам. Только его группа на одном из таких аппаратов отпечатала более 150 тысяч страниц диссидентской литературы, включая произведения Сахарова, Солженицына, Роберта Конквиста "Великий террор", подпольные журналы: "Хроника", "Демократ", "Луч Свободы", "Вече" и др. Выпускали они и собственный журнал "Свободная Мысль". Печатали статьи Болонкина, посвященные исследованиям уровня жизни в СССР и западных странах, выполнению (точнее провалам) пятилетних планов. Некоторые экземпляры его журнала и статей, попали за границу и были переопубликованы. Когда сотрудники КГБ стали находить при обысках у диссидентов не 1-2 копии, отпечатанные на машинке, а сотни экземпляров запрещенных изданий, ЦК КПСС забило тревогу. КГБ был дан строгий приказ: во что бы то ни стало найти "злоумышленников". А тут в июне 1972 года в связи с десятилетием повышения цен группой Болонкина в 8-ми районах Москвы были распространены 3500 листовок, отпечатанных на неизвестных КГБ аппаратах. Всесоюзное КГБ было поставлено на ноги. В сентябре 1972 года А. Болонкин и его группа были арестованы.
Следствие вел тогда никому неизвестный рядовой следователь московского КГБ Анатолий Трофимов. Болонкину вынесли приговор: 4 года концлагерей строго режима и два года ссылки, пообещав, что это только начало и он никогда не выйдет их тюрьмы. Слово свое они сдержали, вышел он только через 15 лет, в конце 1987г в начале перестройки. После его осуждения в 1974г по его делу было специальное постановление ЦК КПСС "Об усилении идеологической работы в МВТУ имени Баумана" (где он преподавал), а Трофимов быстро пошел в гору, став начальником следственного отдела по Москве и Московской области, и упрятал за решетку сотни диссидентов, включая таких известных правозащитников как С.Ковалев, Н.Щеранский, К.Любарский и многие другие.
Невозможно описать каким постоянным истязаниям, пыткам, издевательствам, избиениям, подвергался Александр Болонкин во время заключения. Более 3-х лет его продержали во внутрилагерной тюрьме особого режима и свыше 400 суток (больше года!) практически раздетого в холодном карцере с обледенелыми стенами на 400 граммах черного хлеба и воде. Требовали одно - раскайся. Его имя стало известно за границей, о нем неоднократно передали радиостанции "Голос Америки" и "Свобода". Он был на учете в Амнисти Интернейшинал, в его защиту выступали академик Сахаров и видные ученые мира.
После освобождения Александр сразу же был выдворен за границу. У него отобрали жилье, лишили имущества, заставили заплатить 4000 долларов выкупа.
Поселился он в США. Четыре года работал в Главных лабораториях Военно-Воздушных Сил США в Дейтоне (Огайо), Эглин (Флорида) и двa годa в НАСА (NASA, DFRC, Калифорния) над важнейшими оборонными проектами США. Выступал на Международных Космических Конгрессах (1992,1994,1996, 2002 гг), двa рaзa нa Всeмирныx Авиaционныx Конгрессах (1998, 1999гг.) и много раз на Обще-американских научных конференциях в США. Вот некоторые темы его выступлений: Ядерный ракетный двигатель для космических аппаратов, Способ извлечения энергии в космосе из солнечного ветра. Он автор знаменитых книг: "Безракетные запуски и полеты в космос" (Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.), "Новые концепции, идеи и инновации в аэроспейс, технологии и науке о человечестве" (New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Life", NOVA, 2007, 300 pgs), "Человеческое бессмертие и электронная цивилизация" (Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization, Lulu, 2007). Он также автор более 170 научных работ и книг и 17 изобретений, многие из которых засекречены.
Александр Болонкин является членом Совета директоров «Международного Космического Агенства» (International Space Agency) и председателем секции «Космические полеты».
Не отказывается он и от общественных обязанностей. Бывшие политзэки в 1990 году избрали его президентом «Международной Ассоциации бывших советских политзаключенных и жертв коммунистического режима». Под его руководством Ассоциация превратилась из маленькой американской группы, которая в начале насчитывала 25 человек в огромную организацию, имеющую более 30 тысяч членов, главным образом за счет присоединения Ассоциаций репрессированных России, Украины, Белоруссии, Прибалтики и др. стран. Ассоциация решительно выступает за права жертв коммунизма, против коммунистов всех мастей, требует «Нюренберг-2» над руководством КПСС, КГБ-НКВД за уничтожение 60 миллионов советских людей, справедливой компенсации жертвам коммунистического произвола. Она выступила против присвоения нынешними российскими властями высшего воинского звания генерал - полковника палачу диссидентов Анатолию Трофимову и назначения его замдиректора нового Российского КГБ-ФСБ. Не забывает о Болонкине и Трофимов. В конце 1995 года автомобиль Болонкина был взорван. Сам он чудом избежал смерти.
Российская газета "Известия" с иронией писала по поводу Болонкина и Трофимова: "Наша страна щедро делится талантами с Америкой: ненужное сплавляет за океан, нужное сохраняет".
Мне бы хотелось пожелать успеха этому выдающемуся ученому и правозащитнику, у которого коммунистические лагеря и тюрьмы отняли 15 лет творческой жизни. Более подробную информацию желающие могут найти в книге "Русские в Америке", в статье В. Левина "Две жизни Александра Болонкина", журнал "Вестник" №№13-14, 1993г., либо в предлагаемой небольшой автобиографической повести "Записки политзаключенного".
Д.т.н. Борис Крукляк

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[161] **viXra:1309.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-30 08:23:03*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 87 Pages. This revision further develops renormalization in sections 14 and 15 and shows how the infinite renormalization constants now become equal to unity.

We demonstrate how the application of Higgs field theory to spin ½ fermions in a manner analogous to its application to spin 0 scalars enables fermion masses to be constructed entirely from a self-energy arising from gauge fields and “revealed” in the Dirac Lagrangian in a fully renormalizable manner with no “bare” aspect. When the observed fermions are taken to be Higgs fields based on expansion about the vacuum, it is found that the Dirac Lagrangian naturally produces an “anomalous” aspect for their magnetic moments. This enables us to deduce the gauge fields which underlie the self-energies for the three charged leptons on an entirely empirical basis, and then use this data to predict the impact of a time-dependent magnetic field on the lepton g-factors. We predict that a time-dependent magnetic field impacts the g-factor of the heaver mu and especially tau leptons much more substantially than it does the g-factor of the electron, and quantify how this should be detectable well within experimental ranges. We also show how this construction of fermion masses out of gauge fields permits these masses to remain invariant at all renormalization scales, wherein the variability of a fermion mass under renormalization is entirely equivalent to, and may be fully absorbed by, a gauge transformation of the vector potentials from which the fermion self-energies arise. As a result, the infinite constants ordinarily used for renormalization become finite and equal to unity. Finally, the time and space dependencies of the electric and magnetic fields in Maxwell’s equations are revealed to be embedded into Dirac’s equation as a result of Heisenberg commutations. This develops multiple venues for further confirming Higgs Field Theory in the fermion sector, all of which appear to be new.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[160] **viXra:1309.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-29 04:07:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[159] **viXra:1309.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-27 18:25:59*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 picture, 1 illustration

Since the fusion model of stars and the Big Bang are obsolete, matter creation still needs to be explained and have a location in the universe. Birthing galaxies create matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[158] **viXra:1309.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-10 06:26:13*

**Authors:** K.Blackburn Jones

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

ABSTRACT
Evolution, the working-out of animal ancestry, has largely been overlooked in the search to understand consciousness and dreaming. And, although both consciousness and dreaming have had their fair share of attention and experimentation they remain relatively unexplained.
Dreaming and consciousness are usually described as phenomena. I want to bring them both closer to the real world as we know it. My desire is not to argue with academics but to urge them to investigate evolution further than has been done to-date. The one way to do this it seems, is to go back, perhaps billions of years, to try to imagine being a simple cellular mass, itching (for want of a better word), to survive. This exposition can only make an attempt to describe the progress of evolution. It contains simple conjecture arrived at through a mixture of common sense and logic. It will attempt to demonstrate why, and when, during the process of evolution these two phenomena/adaptations, plus other necessary adaptations, emerged; the probably order of each emergence; and posit their survival advantages.

**Category:** Mind Science

[157] **viXra:1309.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-27 10:07:09*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Newton's understanding of solar system opened a new era of human civilization. Accordingly, the understanding of galaxies will stimulate a new period of human social harmony. Galaxies are the most independent components of the universe. A massive Hubble Space Telescope photos survey reveals that the diversity of galaxies in the early universe was as varied as the many galaxy types seen today. In 2001, I proposed the rational model of galaxy structure. Now in this paper I present a preliminary rational structure theory. The mathematical background needed is no more than the preliminary results of traditional college courses of complex functions and partial differential equations. Its application to barred galaxies is discussed. If the application is successful then three simple and important examples of its testification are, the structural simulation of barred galaxy light distribution with rational structure, the simulation of spiral arms with the Darwin curves of rational structure, and the simulation of observational galaxy kinematics (e.g., rotation curves) with the New Universal Gravity dictated by the rational structure and the principle of force line conservation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[156] **viXra:1309.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-29 08:04:31*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We discuss two theoretical arguments strongly suggesting that the continuum limit of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) leads to fractal geometry. The first argument stems from the Path Integral formulation of QFT, whereas the second one is an inevitable consequence of the Renormalization Group (RG).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[155] **viXra:1309.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-26 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short paper it is given to you a derivation of the Complete Doppler effect formula in the framework of Galilean Relativity, and such a formalism is compared with that of Special Relativity (SR). Then, it is shown how useful this enhanced Galilean Relativity can be. An example of a proton-antiproton computation is provided as exercise, and finally, it is proved that time dilation isn't necessary for explaining some phenomena, as the time of light of cosmic ray muons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[154] **viXra:1309.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-26 06:48:43*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. No comments

In the paper [1] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in the General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the EMT. The concept of the EMT is a new physical interpretation of GR, where the curvature of space-time has been replaced by the EMT. In this paper we consider the concept of the EMT in GR but in the aspect of the clocks and rods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[153] **viXra:1309.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-03 10:52:46*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract. A new, more exact than that recently be published, ( Apeiron, Vol. 18, No 2 (2011)), the formula for Shadow-Gravity force, for any distances between fundamental sub-particles, including very short ones, when gravitation becomes strong, is developed. Basic problems because of which old Fatio-Lesage's idea of gravitation has not been recognized are discussed. Expression and numerical data for the strong gravitation are given. Beginning from distances 10^-35 m the gravitation force becomes in 40 times larger than its usual macroscopic value and in 10^41 times larger for the distance ~10^-54 m. Numerical evaluations of the fations gas energy density (5.0445x10^109 J/m3), of gravitational cross-section of the electron (3.2827x10^-69 m2), and basic parameters of the shadow gravity are made. It is shown that a usual substance absorbs hypothetical fations very weakly. The absorption probability is ~10^-42.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[152] **viXra:1309.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-01 05:56:42*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that the position-momentum commutator is a diagonal matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[151] **viXra:1309.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-25 14:52:44*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Keywords: Doppler Effect, Matter light duality, speed greater than light, Positron, Blind Pairs

In the paper with title “matter light duality and speed greater than light” we demonstrated that there exists a duality of matter and light. As per a of theorem in that paper, a photon can be represented by one particle going below the speed of light and another particle above the speed of light. In this article we conjecture that every photon is composed of an electron with speed less than light and an electron with speed greater than light (positron as per the matter-duality paper). We validate this prediction with the equations and further conjecture that all the frequency shifts of photons are due to Doppler Effect of the source. Then we take a case of zero energy vacuum where we show that the vacuum is composed of pair of electrons with first electron approaching speed of light from below c and the second electron from above c. We further demonstrate that the speed of an electron out of electron pair with respect to the other electron is infinite. We call them as "blind pairs" because one cannot see the other.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[150] **viXra:1309.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-25 14:54:33*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Keywords: Matter light duality, speed greater than light, Zero energy non-zero momentum

In the article with title “Matter-light duality and speed greater than light” [1], we formulated energy and momentum equations for particles with speed greater than light. In this article we see a special case of it where the energy becomes zero and momentum is non-zero for a particle (we named them as ZEN particles). These particles have infinite speed and thus exist only for an instance of time, being omnipresent at that time. These particles when present in any system can take away or add momentum without taking away or adding energy to the system. When these take away momentum, they lead to conversion of kinetic energy to mass. When these particles add momentum they lead to conversion of mass to kinetic energy. We conjecture that these particles form space component of space time and also the binding force in the atom nucleus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[149] **viXra:1309.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-17 17:13:36*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we demonstrate duality between matter and light. Through mathematical derivation we show that every fundamental matter particle with non-zero rest mass can be represented by a pair of photons. The photons in the representation are not normal photons but a special kind of continuously generating and annihilating virtual photons, whose wave functions super impose to give the wave function of the non-zero rest mass particle and the representation is in agreement with the spin of the particle. We use this duality to derive De Broglie wavelength. We show that a moving matter wave has two frequency components, one of it is with De-Broglie wavelength h/P and the other one is with wavelength hc/E. We also correct the De-Broglie wavelength for v = 0 where we show that there is only one frequency component for v = 0 with wavelength hc/E. Later in the paper we derive that every photon can be represented by a non-zero rest mass particle pair, one going below the speed of light and the other going above the speed of light.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[148] **viXra:1309.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-27 23:55:34*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. Published in Physics Essays, Vol. 27(2): 198-203, June 2014. Post-print available at http://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/622-3-radwan-m-kassir-on-special-relativity-root-cause-of-the-problems-with-lorentz-transformation.html

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation is shown to be merely a set of restricted equations stemmed from the Galileo transformation applied to a particular conversion reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of the relative motion between the inertial reference frames. Consequently, the Lorentz transformation is shown to be restricted to time and longitudinal space coordinate values different from zero. The deduction of the time dilation and length contraction becomes unfeasible under such restrictions. It follows that the Lorentz transformation possesses no other effects than mathematically expressing the speed of light postulate in the relative motion direction; that is, the coordinate of the tip point of a light ray traveling in the direction of the relative motion, given by x=ct in the “stationary” frame, is transformed to x'=ct' with respect to the “traveling” frame, with c being the light speed in empty space. Furthermore, the application of the Lorentz transformation to events having restricted coordinates is shown to result in mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[147] **viXra:1309.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-24 15:32:36*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The mass of each up-type quark, like the mass of the electron, is simply related to the Planck Mass. Since the quarks of each generation are symmetrically arranged about prominent mass levels in the Planck Model, the mass of each down-type quark may be calculated. The quark masses of the model are 2.18 MeV (up), 4.89 MeV (down), 96.1 MeV (strange), 1.27 GeV (charm), 4.28 GeV (bottom) and 174 GeV (top). The model explains why in generations 2 and 3 the up-type quark is heavier than its down-type partner.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[146] **viXra:1309.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-24 17:37:04*

**Authors:** V. N. Matveev, O. V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A possible cause of the finiteness of the velocity of tangible objects is demonstrated without reference to the provisions of the special theory of relativity. A condition is formulated on the basis of which the assumption of the movement of tangible objects at any prescribed velocities proves to be self-contradictory in instances when the prescribed velocities of the objects exceed a certain value. This condition consists of the presence of interaction signals and carrier particles in material bodies that are propagated at a velocity greater than any prescribed velocity of the material bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[145] **viXra:1309.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-24 04:14:10*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Also posted at my profile on www.researchgate.net

The Unified Field Theory should take into account (in addition to electromagnetic and gravitational fields) a biological field too. This is my opinion about the biofield (in two parts, emphasizing the first paragraph of part 2). Even though Einstein said one of the most important aspects of science is imagination, some impatient people will regard this article as fantasy because it does not express its conclusions as equations (which is only one aspect of maths - however, the article is built on the equations of others). Keywords –
String Theory ×
Gravitational Waves ×
Unified theories ×
Brain ×
Electromagnetic Fields ×
Genetic Engineering ×
einstein ×
Biofield ×
hyperspace ×
Surgery ×
Star Trek ×
Resurrection ×
Global financial crisis ×
space-time colonies ×
Bill Gates ×
Time magazine ×
Scientific American ×
3D printers ×
band-gap technology ×
"Tamara Science"

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[144] **viXra:1309.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 17:02:27*

**Authors:** Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The present article discuses the problems of new Unitary Quantum Theory in its applications to the different aspects of the reality. There are spectacular examples of such applications.
There are also other ideas. For example, at «New Relativistic Paradoxes and Open Questions», by Florentin Smarandache, shows several paradoxes, inconsistencies, contradictions, and anomalies in the Theory of Relativity. According to the Smarandache, not all physical laws are the same in all inertial reference frames, and he gives several counter-examples. He also supports superluminal speeds, and he considers that the speed of light in vacuum is variable depending on the moving reference frame. The author explains that the red shift and blue shift are not entirely due to the Doppler Effect, but also to the medium composition (i.e. its physical elements, fields, density, heterogeneity, properties, etc.). Professor Smarandache considers that the space is not curved and the light near massive cosmic bodies bends not because of the gravity only as the General Theory of Relativity asserts (Gravitational Lensing), but because of the Medium Lensing. In order to make the distinction between clock and time, he suggests a first experiment with a different clock type for the GPS clocks, for proving that the resulted dilation and contraction factors are different from those obtained with the cesium atomic clock; and a second experiment with different medium compositions for proving that different degrees of red shifts/blu shifts would result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[143] **viXra:1309.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 17:08:03*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 359 Pages.

This photo-album includes about 350 folklore images gathered from Internet or received by e-mail.
The images are contradictory -- in a lower percent (soft paradoxism), or in a higher percent (hard paradoxism).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[142] **viXra:1309.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 18:06:29*

**Authors:** Wenliang Jin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this short comment, by giving two numerical counterexamples directly
contrary to the phase matching condition presented by Long \emph{et al.}, I show that Grover's conclusion that his algorithm can be extended to the case when the two phase inversions are replaced by arbitrary phases (Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 80}, 4329--4332, 1998) in a sense is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[141] **viXra:1309.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 20:43:15*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The vortex theory of electromagnetism shows that the concept of magnetic monopoles is inconsistent with the fundamental character of the magnetic field. This is because the magnetic field is a vortex-like field without any sources. Therefore, magnetic monopoles do not exist.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[140] **viXra:1309.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-23 14:12:48*

**Authors:** Antony Ryan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Kissing Numbers (1) appear to be the product of dimension number and the dimension’s simplex vertex number for 0-3 Euclidean spatial dimensions, but depart from the linear product of dimension and dimension+1 relationship at 4-dimensions and above increasing away from this exponentially. For 0-8 dimensions there is a Coxeter Number root system type relationship. The author proposes a very simple relationship which satisfies both aforementioned patterns, but extends from dimension 0 infinitely upwards. The conjecture is seen to satisfy the non-root system 24-dimensions and leads to prediction. The simplex nature of this work may be utilised in Quantum Gravity theories similar to Causal Dynamical Triangulation.

**Category:** Geometry

[139] **viXra:1309.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 07:35:51*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Laymen need to understand that the Big Bang is officially false, and any theory that is based on Big Bang is also false regardless of all the propaganda in the media and its state sponsorship in the school system. The Big Bang has been falsified by the Huge LQG, which stands for the “Huge Large Quasar Group”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[138] **viXra:1309.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 08:23:22*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. No Comments

Once the famous French mathematician Lagrange remarked that as long as algebra and geometry are not inter linked,one can not expect good results. Keeping this in mind, the author has attempted to establish an interesting classical Euclidean theorem by applying the algebra of matrices.

**Category:** Geometry

[137] **viXra:1309.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-04 05:41:08*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Proof must now be complete.

English mathematics Professor, Sir Andrew John Wiles of the University of Cambridge finally and conclusively proved in 1995 Fermat's Last Theorem which had for 358 years notoriously resisted all gallant and spirited efforts to prove it even by three of the greatest mathematicians of all time -- such as Euler, Laplace and Gauss. Sir Professor Andrew Wiles's proof employs very advanced mathematical tools and methods that were not at all available in the known World during Fermat's days. Given that Fermat claimed to have had the `truly marvellous' proof, this fact that the proof only came after $358$ years of repeated failures by many notable mathematicians and that the proof came from mathematical tools and methods which are far ahead of Fermat's time, this has led many to doubt that Fermat actually did possess the `truly marvellous' proof which he claimed to have had. In this short reading, via elementary arithmetic methods, we demonstrate conclusively that Fermat's Last Theorem actually yields to our efforts to prove it. This proof is so elementary that anyone with a modicum of mathematical prowess in Fermat's days and in the intervening 358 years could have discovered this very proof. This brings us to the tentative conclusion that Fermat might very well have had the `truly marvellous' proof which he claimed to have had and his `truly marvellous' proof may very well have made use of elementary arithmetic methods.

**Category:** Number Theory

[136] **viXra:1309.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-22 16:07:26*

**Authors:** V.N. Matveev, O.V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 21 pages, 1 figure

The special theory of relativity is simulated in this article based on the simplest examples of the movement of barges, shuttles, and boats in an aquatic environment. Relativistic time and the relativistic effects of Einstein’s special theory of relativity – Lorentz contraction, time dilation, relativistic Doppler effects, the Skobeltsyn-Bell effect, and the relativistic addition of velocities – are simulated using elementary methods of classical physics. Lorentz transformations are obtained. Means for simulating four-dimensional space-time are shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[135] **viXra:1309.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 13:36:38*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 12 Pages. V2

Einstein’s relativity ideas have not yet exhausted their applications to elucidate the physical realities of the universe and will be demonstrated to have been instrumental in the origin of the cosmic inflationary epoch for which there is still no clear explanation. The biggest problem in cosmology is our current ignorance about what preceded time 0 of our cosmological history. Moreover all published concepts about how a universe or universes could originate are highly speculative and simplistic. For this reason this paper is one of a series dealing with the micro and macro scale realities of the universe which aim to eventually lead to a proper and self-explanatory concept of the origin of our universe right from whatever could have preceded time 0. Pending this new concept we agree with the generally accepted occurrence of the Planck epoch followed by a grand unification epoch up to 10x -36 s to be immediately followed by the inflationary epoch. Minkowski’s reputed space/time statement that space and time being separate entities was doomed could evolve towards the realization that energy, matter, and gravitation might all together constitute an independent integrated reality of its own which encompasses the basis of consciousness in all its expressions. Such an integrated reality, intimately linked to the mechanism which created our universe, could, we are quite confident, help us to eventually understand the scientific basis of what constitutes metaphysics. Anticipating this possibility we show how Einstein relativity is still alive in the new concept, we report here, of the inflationary epoch believed to have occurred sometime at 10x -36 s after the appearance of the initial energy mass which would produce the universe. The initial pure energy, soon after time 0 with c as average velocity, should have an infinitely contracted space-time and would, in the presence of, first, a small fraction of massive hadron particles, inevitably begin inflating cataclysmically and exponentially. The successive formation of another small fraction of leptons like electrons, positrons and others would accentuate this inflation. We show that Einstein’s special relativity theory and the second law of thermodynamics, also called the law of increased entropy, satisfactorily explain the exponential inflationary epoch.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[134] **viXra:1309.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 11:47:18*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

Water worlds in stellar metamorphosis are stars that are completely covered in water on top of their solid surfaces. These objects are quite common in old galaxies such as the Milky Way. We can call them blue dwarf stars, as they have high clouds of methane and hydrogen which prevent the water ocean interior from evaporation into interstellar space.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[133] **viXra:1309.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 11:44:04*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 diagram, 3 references

In stellar metamorphosis humanities’ closest star is the Earth itself. Explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[132] **viXra:1309.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-22 15:16:09*

**Authors:** Piotr Beling

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents an analysis of complexity of a bridge double dummy problem. Values of both, a state-space (search-space) complexity and a game tree complexity have been estimated.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[131] **viXra:1309.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-22 02:11:49*

**Authors:** Parvaneh Ravadgar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This study compares some fundamental concepts in the fields of crystallography and
quantum mechanics. Edge dislocations in a single crystal behave as fermions if they repel each
other and behave as bosons if they attract each other. The bosonic and fermionic characteristics
of edge dislocations enable it to study some fundamental properties of soliton supersymmetry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[130] **viXra:1309.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-21 06:31:59*

**Authors:** Vitaliy Voytik

**Comments:** 12 Pages. in Russian

The article proposes and checked invariant equations for proper kinematic properties of rigid frame. From these conditions follow the equation of motion of its proper tetrad and equations of inverse kinematics problem, i.e., the differential equations that solve the problem of recovering the motion parameters of a rigid frame of reference for known his proper acceleration and angular velocity. In particular, we show that if moving reference frame have original Thomas precession, then she a relatively new lab frame will have a combination of two rotations: a new proper Thomas precession and Wigner rotation, which together give the original frequency of the Thomas precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1309.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-29 15:16:28*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sketch of some aspects of the Hilbert Book Model

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[128] **viXra:1309.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-28 23:17:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 132 Pages.

Prime numbers have always fascinated mankind. For mathematicians, they are a kind of “black sheep” of the family of integers by their constant refusal to let themselves to be disciplined, ordered and understood. But we have at hand a powerful tool, insufficiently investigated yet, which can help us in understanding them: Fermat pseudoprimes. Exceptions to Fermat’s “little” Theorem, these numbers seem to be more malleable than primes, more willing to let themselves to be ordered than them, and their depth study will surely shed light on many properties of the primes. I titled the book this way to show how many new and exciting things one can say more about this class of numbers, but, beside the two hundred conjectures (listed in the Part one of this book) and the one hundred and fifty open problems (listed in the Part four of this book), promised in the title, there are many other observations about Fermat pseudoprimes and generic formulas of subsets of Carmichael numbers and Poulet numbers contained in this book. All the articles in this book of collected papers use well-known notions of number theory, with only two exceptions, namely one article in which I defined a new concept, id est “a set of Smarandache-Coman divisors of order k of a composite integer n with m prime factors” and one article in which I have showed several applications of this concept in the study of Fermat pseudoprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1309.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-21 00:14:40*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, the symmetric character of the conductivity tensor for linear heterogeneous anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis and linear algebra for Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this statement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[126] **viXra:1309.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-20 03:04:59*

**Authors:** Edmundas Jauniskis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An analysis of available literature (1), related to non-affluent hydroelectric power plant, has revealed that the main difficulty of installation of this technique is a low flow speed of the majority of plain rivers.
So, I offer my own invention that will allow changing the current situation and to increase a flow speed of every river that could be exploited for the aim to generate electric power more efficiently.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[125] **viXra:1309.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-19 14:45:55*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper was rejected by arXiv within 19 minutes

A correct theory of quantum gravity cannot ignore the zero point vacuum energy because it has to be cut off at the Planck energy, leading to a preferred reference system in which this energy is at rest, with a violation of Lorentz invariance at high energies. In approaching and crossing the event horizon at the velocity of light in the preferred reference system, an elliptic differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over a transluminal Euler-Tricomi equation into a hyperbolic differential equation where there is no such equilibrium, with all matter disintegrating into gamma rays without the loss of information and violation of unitarity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[124] **viXra:1309.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-19 10:13:47*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 37 Pages. De – Constructing De Marrais Series

The late Robert Marrais wrote of 3 distinct aspects of Sedenion Space: one belonging to the E8 x E8 Super – Symmetry of the embattled Super String Theory, one belonging to Icosahedral Rotation Groups or H3, and a third belonging to O. V. Lyashko. In addition, this paper discusses methods to classify and to categorize the Sedenions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[123] **viXra:1309.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-16 18:32:35*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrections per Armak's feed backs.

A constant one-way light speed is essential for the Theory of Relativity. This detailed study examines two postulates of Special Relativity and concludes that the claim of “constant one-way speed of light” contradicts itself. The equations of Special Relativity are foundations of many physics theories. The findings on controversial Relativity postulates shake the foundation of these theories. Fortunately, equations similar to Special Relativity equations can be derived, assuming that two-way light speed is constant, without the use of Special Relativity Postulates. These new equations provide a better foundation that is compatible with the correct existing physics theories. There is no threat of invalidating all existing physics theories, only incorrect ones. Instead, we can take a new look at some fundamental questions shared among physicists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[122] **viXra:1309.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 23:10:24*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 22 Pages. The article that inspired me to write “Tamara Science” is "Is the Universe Leaking Energy?" by Tamara M. Davis, a Ph.D. at the University of Queensland’s School of Mathematics and Physics (in Brisbane, Australia).

These are the thoughts that popped into my head while reading a certain article. The paragraphs are copied and pasted – sometimes with important or merely minor alterations – from my writings since 2009 (paperbacks I’ve written, my contributions at ResearchGate, articles I’ve written for vixra.org or saved on my computer). The article that inspired me to write “Tamara Science” is "Is the Universe Leaking Energy?" by Tamara M. Davis, a Ph.D. at the University of Queensland’s School of Mathematics and Physics (in Brisbane, Australia).
Topics addressed in this article (in concentrated, nontechnical form) are –
Is the Universe Leaking Energy?;
Unifying Gravity With the Other Forces (Includes Photon & Graviton Mass);
Digital String Theory;
Poincare + Cosmic Strings, Wormholes and Hologram;
Steady State Universe, Big Bang Subuniverses and DNA’s Double Helix;
Newtonian / Einsteinian Space-Time Warping;
Cosmic Rays, Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays & Today’s Speed of Light;
Electronic Infinity;
Interstellar and Intergalactic Travel;
c^2 and the Atomic Nucleus (continuing 1st paragraph’s shorthand);
Dark Energy and Fractal Geometry;
5th-dimensional Hyperspace and Time Travel to Past and Future;
Dark Matter;
Neil Armstrong in Perpetual Motion;
Law of Conservation, Origin of Life, and Humanity-God Partnership;
Star Trek replicator & transporter, Earth as Paradise + Money Free Zone That Colonizes Cosmos, Geocentric Cosmos (not physically);
Band-Gap Implants in the Brain;
Cosmic Expansion, Accelerating Expansion, and Deleted Expansion;
Variable Speed of Light;
Springy Rubber Balloon of G and EM;
Billions of Years in the Past, Trillions of Millennia in the Future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[121] **viXra:1309.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-19 02:59:29*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. English and russian texts

There has been the structure of photon identified and the structure and form of stable existence of excited atom described. There have been causes for probabilistic description of an excited atom lifetime determined and the nature of cosmic radiation disclosed along with the reasons for the impossibility of identifying its sources.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[120] **viXra:1309.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 15:21:32*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This one-page brief has a single focus: the violation of common physical space by the spdf orbitals as they “collectively” accommodate electrons around a nucleus.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[119] **viXra:1309.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-21 05:15:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The string/M theory, cosmology, General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics are the approximate descriptions of Nature so there appear many incorrect assumptions and wrong interpretations. Here we pointed the limitations for the basic method applied in the Quantum Physics associated with the action of orthogonal groups on column vector representing a spinor. Such action leads to the spin representations. Spinor can represent the half-integral spin of a quantum loop in a pair that returns to original position after 720 degree rotation. It is characteristic for the zero-helicity vector particles. This property, the theory of spinors itself, the classification of the Clifford algebras and the double-covers/spin-groups that are the Lie groups, suggest that succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field can be in existence and it is the foundations of the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory. In the last theory there as well appear the scalar condensates and the imaginary part of Nature that appear in the classification of the Clifford algebras. The succeeding phase transitions radically simplify the basic mainstream theories via elimination of the approximations and free parameters. The classification of the Clifford algebras and the succeeding phase transitions prove that Nature on its lowest level is superluminal, classical and non-relativistic. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, theory of spinors, Clifford algebras and Lie algebra, we can show how the only inertial-masses/volumes lead to the Principle of Equivalence. It is the Higgs mechanism. On the other hand, the Principle of Equivalence and the confinement forced by the Mexican-hat mechanism lead to the scalar condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. Unification of the 7 different interactions is possible only via the theory of succeeding phase transitions of the non-gravitating Higgs field and via the atom-like structure of baryons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[118] **viXra:1309.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 10:12:07*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 100 Pages.

25 contributors; by country:
From Australia: George Roca;
From Germany: Bernd Hutschenreuther;
From India: B. Venkateswara Rao;
From Moldova: Svetlana Garabaji;
From Romania: Cătălin Barbu, Adrian Botez, Gavrilă Calefariu, Eugen Evu, Valeriu Iovan, Liviu Florian Jianu, Tudor Muşatescu, Ioan Marinescu-Puiu, Gheorghe Niculescu, Tudor Păroiu, Ion Pătraşcu, Alexandru Podea, Andrei Radu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Ion Soare, Mircea Eugen Şelariu;
From Serbia: Ioan Baba;
From USA: Cristian Petru Bălan, Tom Deicker, Vavila Popovici, Florentin Smarandache.

**Category:** Linguistics

[117] **viXra:1309.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 03:38:18*

**Authors:** Ningombam Bupenda Meitei

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The notion of logical thought has been discussed since time known to rational mind but the notion of illogical thought be possible is rarely thought and in this paper, there is an attempt made to understand the notion of illogical thought by asking whether illogical thought be possible or not, and if it is not , why it is not and if it is yes , then how can it be. The paper comprises of two parts i,e. (i)Illogical thought is impossible . Why it is so? – Early Wittgenstein’s reply and (ii) Illogical thought is possible. How can it be? -Criticism to Early Wittgenstein.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[116] **viXra:1309.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 03:57:55*

**Authors:** Ningombam Bupenda Meitei

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Ludwig Wittgenstein in his later days’ Philosophical Investigations which has come as a criticism to his own prior work namely Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus , discusses about the relevance of the context in which a word has been used in order to understand the meaning of the word rather than going by the notion of an Ideal Language in the form of a fixed meaning picture theory of a name being labelled against an ostensive body or object in which there is one-to-one correspondence between the simple and the name which is advocated in Tractatus.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[115] **viXra:1309.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 04:25:24*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. English and Russian texts

At extremely low temperatures liquid helium contains atoms in which electron and nucleus are arranged on the same straight line and both electrons are from the same side of the nucleus. The existence of such atoms allows for gaining a simple, eye-minded understanding of all amazing properties of superfluid helium.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[114] **viXra:1309.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 16:04:54*

**Authors:** Xiao Hu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We summarize the Storkey Learning Rules for the Hopfield Model, and evaluate performance relative to other learning rules. Hopfield Models are normally used for auto-association, and Storkey Learning Rules have been found to have good balance between local learning and capacity. In this paper we outline different learning rules and summarise capacity results. Hopfield networks are related to Boltzmann Machines: they are the same as fully visible Boltzmann Machines in the zero temperature limit. Perhaps renewed interest in Boltzmann machines will produce renewed interest in Hopfield learning rules?

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[113] **viXra:1309.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 18:52:12*

**Authors:** Mohammad Reza Faraji, Xiaojun Qi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Face recognition (FR) is a challenging task in biometrics due
to various illuminations, poses, and possible noises. In this
paper, we propose to apply a novel neutrosophic set (NS)-
based preprocesssing method to simultaneously remove noise
and enhance facial features in original face images.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[112] **viXra:1309.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 19:01:02*

**Authors:** Pinaki Majumdar, S. K. Samanta

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we have introduced the notion of distance between two single valued
neutrosophic sets and studied its properties. We have also defined several similarity measures between
them and investigated their characteristics. A measure of entropy of a single valued neutrosophic set has
also been introduced.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[111] **viXra:1309.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-18 03:34:29*

**Authors:** Ningombam Bupenda Meitei

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article is non-expository in nature in which the proposed thesis is “Artistic imagination needs more understanding than scientific imagination.” which could also be reframed as ‘understanding needed for artistic imagination is more than understanding needed for scientific imagination’ and the claim to the proposition is to be supported by Neo-Kantian philosopher of science and advocate of symbolism Ernst Cassirer’s An Essay on Man with a special reference to Art (IX) and Science (XI) in the book and other arguments with examples. The premise of the debate requires the definition or meaning of imagination or what does imagination refer to if it could have a point of reference but in a passage of searching its definition, a historical problem is encountered as the word ‘imagination’ etymologically derived from Latin word imaginatio is used by Aristotle as phantasia in Greek forming fantasy ,but an usual exchange between imagination and fancy has been re-thought and later, it is considered that imagination is not imaging in terms of mental pictures totally and not also merely fantasizing per se but rather could be creating, imagining neither in a logical rational nor irrational way but ‘a’ rational manner which is where it is difficult to demarcate the boundary of definition for imagination and the definition has been made more complex in modern days in philosophy of mind and neurological sciences due to the notion of neurological dynamics of imagination also.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[110] **viXra:1309.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 14:00:47*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

ThePrimate® is an HPW [High Power Web] platform which allows dynamic classification of digital resources from european databases - including those coming from Europeana - the easy retrieval of data, reuse of items and methods based on enhanced tools, a deeper layer of attached information. The platform is strictly connected to Filamento®, an original IoT [Internet of Things] framework, determining a lattice of precisely identifiable talking objects in the real environment, related as digital items in a Network of networks (NNs). The structure of graph is founded on the keys of “affinity” and “proximity”, it is modifiable according to singular needs and reusable to many different issues. The circulation of resources among the users is reinforced by an original economic paradigm based on a virtual currency, determining self- sustaining.

**Category:** Social Science

[109] **viXra:1309.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 14:03:42*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Crypta Manent ‘013 aims to create a hybrid virtual-reality, immersive, and scenographic exhibition-space/path, representing a Catacomb of the Ancient Rome, installed inside a modern, itinerant museum. The resulting environment is dynamically connected to big open dataset [LOD], specific for the archeological Built Heritage, enriched with correlated media resources, aiming to process them in quasi-real time, through urgent computation algorithms, and live reproducing different path and archeo-environment live. The resulting experience touches every sense and stimuli [visual, acoustic, tactile, olfactory, cognitive and learning], coming to the "immersive" experiment, since a so called "tech-capsule" is installed reproducing in stereoscopic, immersive performance a real underground walkway, assisted by wearable devices. The dynamics of data streams coming from the set of Big Open Data, leads up to the experience to “5 dimensions”.

**Category:** Archaeology

[108] **viXra:1309.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 14:06:36*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Tillage is an urban district plantation located inside the city for growing high-quality fruits and vegetables through the use of modern technology (hydroponics, aeroponic, aquaponic, using LED or infrared lamps). Tillage is not a traditional agricultural plantation placed on the outskirts of the city or in the countryside: in TillAge®, the process of cultivation takes place according to the model of the so-called "vertical farm", ie. takes place according to the model of the so-called "vertical farm", ie. using/building structures traditionally used for residential, commercial or business scopes. Depending on the case uses, TillAge® modules (TillA-Module®) can be placed on the roofs of buildings, such as shopping centers or supermarkets. A TillAge® plantation can be realized in ad hoc "buildings" (plant- scrapers), or through the recovery of abandoned buildings TillAge® is the concrete and responsible solution to a dangerously growing trend: the inability, in the short term, to supply of food and water the entire world population.

**Category:** Social Science

[107] **viXra:1309.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 14:08:26*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Filamento® is an original engine, currently under patent procedure on behalf of the inventors of ThePrimate®, devoted to link and reference the places of cultural heritage, through a logic- physical lattice of points traced both in the real world and virtual, self-transmitting position and poly-dimensional open data through the Internet, thus building a “talking-” or “smart- objects" grid.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[106] **viXra:1309.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 14:11:20*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Jovenal J.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

[DRAFT #Ø]. The present theoretical discussion for the establishment of a so called "New Community in a New Town” was architectural prototyped on the political writings published between 24~25 May and 13 June 20051. Among the others, bio-ethical principles are used. They transfer the typical elements of biological ecosystems, the exaptation phenomena, and biological-genetic evolutionary mechanisms and strategies, to the scope of new social networks and human organizations.
In today’s review, the original expression of "Communism" has been replaced by the new word "Community”. Although the new "Community" concept yet includes the principle of fairness, this theoretical paper sets out only general rules and laws, without identifying practical requirements, to be dealt with in a separate document.

**Category:** Social Science

[105] **viXra:1309.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 14:14:44*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Jovenal J.

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

A partire dai nostri studi denominati “ThePrimate® - HPW and NNs Ecosystem based on DDC+ classi- fication oriented to singularities” [DOI.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.689881, (2012)], e “An approach to Filamento” [DOI.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.714984, (2012)], e da “Æurosphere number zerØ” [J. Jove- nal, DOI.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.722894, (2005, r.2013)], siamo pervenuti ad un progetto eseguibile per l’adempimento del modello originale della Æurosphere (2005), denominato Æurosphere Ecological, una struttura partecipativa complessa, altamente accessibile, inserita nel tessuto della società civile per raccoglierne le istanze sulla base dei criteri del cd. connectivism, praticabile in tempi rapidi e a costi contenuti, capace di ridurre il distacco tra le organizzazioni governative, politiche ed istituzionali ed i cittadini, ed in grado di aumentare esponenzialmente e in modo variabile/dinamico il reperimento di istanze cd. “marginali” o “invisibili”. Tali istanze [bisogni, necessità, proposte, petizioni, recall, etx.] vengono fatte emergere accrescendone il grado fattoriale di moltiplicazione e adesione da parte di una massa critica di individui e organizzazioni. Il sistema Æurosphere Ecological garantisce un elevato tasso creativo da parte dei membri di una cosiddetta e.democracy, attraverso l’invito alla creazione di modelli- soluzioni originali, immediatamente applicabili alle politiche e alle attività legislative dei governi e dei partiti politici, secondo processi di modeling e analisi quantitativa che rendono le proposte e le leggi che ne scaturiscono altamente leggibili, comprensibili, quantificabili anche in termini comparativi tra distret- ti geografici e geopolitici distanti, e su periodicità long-run.

**Category:** Social Science

[104] **viXra:1309.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 10:05:33*

**Authors:** Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

There are three types of Smarandache Algebraic Structures:
1.A Smarandache Strong Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has a proper subset P with a stronger structure.
2.A Smarandache Weak Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has a proper subset P with a weaker structure.
3.A Smarandache Strong-Weak Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has two proper subsets: P with a stronger structure, and Q with a weaker structure.
By proper subset of a set S, one understands a subset P of S, different from the empty set, from the original set S, and from the idempotent elements if any.
Having two structures {u} and {v} defined by the same operations, one says that structure {u} is stronger than structure {v}, i.e. {u} > {v}, if the operations of {u} satisfy more axioms than the operations of {v}.
Each one of the first two structure types is then generalized from a 2-level (the sets P ⊂ S and their corresponding strong structure {w1}>{w0}, respectively their weak structure {w1}<{w0}) to an n-level (the sets Pn-1 ⊂ Pn-2 ⊂ … ⊂ P2 ⊂ P1 ⊂ S and their corresponding strong structure {wn-1} > {wn-2} > … > {w2} > {w1} > {w0}, or respectively their weak structure {wn-1} < {wn-2} < … < {w2} < {w1} < {w0}). Similarly for the third structure type, whose generalization is a combination of the previous two structures at the n-level.
A Smarandache Weak BE-Algebra X is a BE-algebra in which there exists a proper subset Q such that 1 belongs to Q, |Q| ≥ 2, and Q is a CI-algebra.
And a Smarandache Strong CI-Algebra X is a CI-algebra X in which there exists a proper subset Q such that 1 belongs to Q, |Q| ≥ 2, and Q is a BE-algebra.
The book elaborates a recollection of the BE/CI-algebras, then introduces these last two particular structures and studies their properties.

**Category:** Algebra

[103] **viXra:1309.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 10:10:51*

**Authors:** Ate Nieuwenhuis

**Comments:** 31 Pages. 6 black-and-white figures

This document provides translations of two important but neglected articles of Bruno de Finetti, Problemi di "optimum" and Problemi di "optimum" vincolato. The articles deal with the theory of simultaneously maximising a number of functions. A major field of application is economic theory, which through the assumption of rational, maximising behaviour of all participants defines a set of interdependent maximum problems as its model of the world.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[102] **viXra:1309.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 10:26:47*

**Authors:** Ate Nieuwenhuis

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 4 tables, 6 color figures

This paper tries to rekindle the revolution in economic theory that Von Neumann and Morgenstern intended to unleash, but that was smothered by Nash. The assumption of rational, maximising behaviour by the participants in a social exchange economy leads to a set of interdependent maximum problems. The appropriate treatment of this kind of problem is provided by the theory of simultaneous maximisation, systematically studied for the first time by Bruno de Finetti. Cooperative game theory is a branch of simultaneous maximisation. Non-cooperative game theory errs in deriving the first-order conditions and yields conflicting outcomes for equivalent problems; a prime example is the Cournot equilibrium's differing from the Bertrand equilibrium. The analysis implies that large parts of positive economics must be revised, that normative economics is impossible, and that a stronger assumption is needed for economics to make determinate predictions of how money makes the world go round.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[101] **viXra:1309.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 10:26:07*

**Authors:** J.P. Baugher

**Comments:** Pages.

In spite of the widespread fanfare of the 1998 discovery of a positive accelerating expansion and the subsequent need for a “Dark Energy” placeholder in physics, the one geometric component that seems to share a relationship, the Cosmological Constant, has become shrouded in even more questions by it. After a century of concentrated efforts, the mounting lack of forthcoming answers has “driven” the NSF/ NASA/DOE Dark Energy Task Force to consider whether general relativity is “incorrect”. In keeping with this reluctant but forced skepticism we subject an early competitor to general relativity, Gunnar Nordstr¨oms version of the Poisson equation, to a more stringent definition utilizing an asymmetric property of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
We derive from this property a new metric Laplacian definition for flatness that in perturbed spherical symmetry form greatly resembles the Schwarzschild solution. However, this metric version would seem capable of uniting gravity with QFT by utilizing the widely considered equivalence of the Cosmological Constant with a proposed large value vacuum energy density but at the expense of differential topology and our understanding of tensors in general. A much larger penalty though seems to be that it results in a geometrical counterpoint to the physical explanations for general relativity, QFT and energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1309.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 10:54:11*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This paper examines a point of intersection between the work of the late Robert de Marrais and Vedic Physics. Specifically, de Marrais discussed the concept of Lissajous Figures in relation to Sedenions and his 42 Assessors, in his first paper about Box Kites. Later, John Baez took up a related subject, the problem of epicycloids, apparently without having read the work of de Marrais. This paper examines this intersection between leading - edge mathematical physics and Vedic Physics in order to further illuminate the higher algebras - the Octonions, Sedenions and Trigintaduonions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[99] **viXra:1309.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 08:04:01*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. jag8@cornell.edu

Fundamentally, the dimensionality of spacetime is a matter of energy conservation: three dimensions are sufficient to establish an entropic domain in which the basic thermodynamic requirements necessary to conserve the energy of free forms of electromagnetic energy (light, EM radiation, etc.) are present; likewise, four dimensions are necessary to meet the conservation requirements of bound forms of electromagnetic energy (mass/matter).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[98] **viXra:1309.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 09:01:32*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 260 Pages.

The authors have constructed subset semirings using rings of both finite and infinite order. Thus, using finite rings we construct infinite number of finite semirings, both commutative as well as non-commutative, which is the main advantage of using this algebraic structure. For finite distribute lattices alone contribute for finite semirings.

**Category:** Algebra

[97] **viXra:1309.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 15:52:30*

**Authors:** L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 4 Pages. submitted for publication

A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit-guessing is found to converge towards 0.5 - i.e., the perfect security level - when ideal conditions are approached.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[96] **viXra:1309.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 17:03:26*

**Authors:** Hoa Van Nguyen

**Comments:** Main text : 18 pages , 23 figures . Appendices : 10 pages , 15 figures

This is a theory on the extended electron in the constant magnetic field .
Parts I and II calculate the net magnetic forces produced on the electron when it moves parallel and normally to the magnetic field . Part III explores the mechanism of radiation of the extended electron in constant magnetic field : the characteristic features of the cyclotron radiation .
Conclusion : this extended model of the electron provides a new way to explore its electric charge , its spin and radiation in external electric and magnetic fields .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[95] **viXra:1309.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 02:44:54*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

Further mathematical evidences of the unviability of the special relativity’s constancy of the speed of light postulate are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1309.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 03:17:36*

**Authors:** Rushchak Ekaterina, Chentsova Ekaterina, Lebedev Vladimir, Yadrin Alexander

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The article was presented in conference of North West Academy of Public Administration

This arcicle has a theoretical description of intellectual capital. Russian authors shows some specifics country's human capital and it's correlation with nation welfare. The article could be interesting for reseachers of questions of economy.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[93] **viXra:1309.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 09:11:51*

**Authors:** Evgeniy Grechnikov, Ricardo Vieira Godoy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we study the linear distributed asymptotic consensus problem for a network of dynamic agents whose communication network is modeled by a randomly switching graph. A finite state Markov process dominates each topology corresponding to a state of the process. We address both the cases where the dynamics of the agents is expressed in continuous and discrete time. As long as the consensus matrices are doubly stochastic, convergence to average consensus can be shown to be achieved in the mean square and almost sure sense. A necessary and sufficient condition is the graph resulted from the union of graphs corresponding to the states of the Markov process contains a spanning tree.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[92] **viXra:1309.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 10:15:00*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 3 references, 1 diagram

Since it is well established that mainstream scientists do not understand the universe we must start examining their root assumptions. One of these root assumptions is that mass causes spacetime warping which is gravitation. Alternatives are exercised in this paper as all scientists on the Earth already know spacetime warping is bogus. We cannot let the dark matter believers and Big Bang Creationists drag humanity into another dark age.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[91] **viXra:1309.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-15 20:24:42*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

If one is willing to express the Wien’s displacement constant in terms of the electric charge and the Boltzmann constant, then the Planck’s quantum and discrete nature of energy can be understood. By considering the universal gas constant, 110 years of a great historical puzzle can be addressed and understood in terms of ‘ n moles’ concept where n=1,2,3,..

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[90] **viXra:1309.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 02:47:13*

**Authors:** DING Jian, HU Xiuqin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In allusion to the high-speed electronic energy convergence phenomena, according to the relevant electromagnetic theory as well as the mass-energy and kinetic energy equation of Einstein's special relativity, the study concluded that a moving electronic charge would follow along with its static mass synchronously to be lost. Since an electron can be further broken down, then there should be a kind of more fundamental particles to compose, which can be referred to as "electro-base particles". It should be the electro-ultimate particles whose charge-mass ratio is equal to that of electronic physical constants. A corollary is that all photons radiating from the electrons in a storage ring are composed of the electro-base particles. Then based on de Broglie's matter wave concept, it is pointed out that the high-speed particles' energy convergence effect should be the primary factor in causing spectral redshift. Finally, using HLS 800MeV electron storage ring as an example, we have calculated the moving speed of electrons, and estimated the approximate ranges of the wavelength and static mass. And further, by the aid of a well known experimental fact in the industry but it seems to have been neglected, based on the Law of Energy Conservation, in allusion to the radiated photon whose characteristic wavelength is 2.427 (nm), we have calculated the moving speed and static mass, as well as the deflection radius in the magnetic field. Moreover, to verify whether the above arguments are set up, this paper introduces a method about measuring the wavelength value of electrons in a storage ring.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[89] **viXra:1309.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-15 14:26:20*

**Authors:** Rushchak Ekaterina

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The article published in PsyNews magazine of Saint Petersburg State University

This article shows differet aspects about perception TV advs between men and women in age since 18 till 25.

**Category:** Social Science

[88] **viXra:1309.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-15 11:36:27*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In arXiv 1307.3536 Buttazzo, Degrassi, Giardino, Giudice, Sala, Salvio, and Strumia assume a Standard Model Higgs with a single 125.66 GeV Mass State and a Standard Model Tquark with a single 173.35 GeV Mass State and conclude that Our Universe is MetaStable with a possibility that its current ElectroWeak Vacuum could decay at any time (although its probable lifetime is at least around 10^400 years). However, the LHC has seen possible indications of at least two other Higgs Mass States (around 200 GeV and 250 GeV, with small cross sections about 20% of that of single SM Higgs) that are NOT in the MetaStable Vacuum Region. For the LHC to produce enough data beyond the 25/fb now available in 2013 to show whether or not the 200 GeV and 250 GeV Higgs Mass States are real, the upgrade of the long shutdown and the 2016 run data are necessary. Only the LHC 2016 Data can answer the question: Is Our Universe MetaStable?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[87] **viXra:1309.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-15 06:32:39*

**Authors:** Zhicheng Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents a new framework for the maths development which is called maths differance. There are three typical maths differance: proof, axiom and shift, which is corresponding to three kinds of new maths roughly: the fluid maths, the model maths and the novel maths.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[86] **viXra:1309.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-14 18:47:03*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. published: Proc. IEEE Vol. 101, No. 9, pp. 1895-1899

Does information have mass? This question has been asked many times and there are many answers even on the Internet, including on Yahoo Answers. Usually the answer is “no”. Attempts have been made to assess the physical mass of information by estimating the mass of electrons feeding the power-guzzling computers and devices making up the Internet, the result being around 50 gram. Other efforts to calculate the mass of information have assumed that each electron involved in signal transfer carries one bit of information, which makes the corresponding mass to be about 10^–5 gram. The difference between the two mass estimates is partially caused by the low energy efficiency of computers.
We address the fundamental question of minimum mass related to a bit of information from the angles of quantum physics and special relativity. Our results indicate that there are different answers depending on the physical situation, and sometimes the mass can even be negative. We tend to be skeptical about the earlier mass estimations, mentioned above, because our results indicate that the electron’s mass does not play a role in any one of them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[85] **viXra:1309.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-13 08:45:43*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Sketch (in Dutch) of some aspects of the Hilbert Book Model

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[84] **viXra:1309.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-10 08:06:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is information destroyed in a black hole? This question is debated in Leonard Susskind's recent book: "The Black Hole War" (Little, Brown, and Co., 2008). From the overview of the "Tetrahedron Model" and Noether's principle of the conservation of symmetry, it appears that information should be destroyed in a black hole. There are several reasons to think so (contrary to the conclusions of Susskind's book). First, on the premise that the universe begins as light, devolves to matter, and finally evolves and resolves to light again, conserving the original perfect symmetry of free electromagnetic energy, information must be destroyed in any physical process which returns matter (and the information which matter contains) to light (because information is an asymmetric state of energy). Such final symmetry-restoring (conserving) reactions and processes include: 1) (actual) matter-antimatter annihilations due to the electromagnetic force; 2) (hypothetical) proton decay due to the strong and weak nuclear forces; 3) (theoretical) "evaporation" of black holes due to "Hawking radiation" (gravitational force); 4) (possible) "Big Crunch" gravitational collapse of the cosmos. (See: "Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] **viXra:1309.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-13 21:55:05*

**Authors:** Donald Reed

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In the last three decades, the confluence of two streams of research have resulted in some of the most heretofore unknown, innovative, energy-transformative and possible paradigm-shifting developments in the history of science and technology. These are due to both the fruits of the nano-science revolution and those stemming from ultra-cold matter applications as exemplified by the Bose-Einstein condensate. Through examining a wealth of research from each of these areas, some of surprisingly serendipitous nature, this paper will attempt to show that many of the discoveries that have been made in these arenas, point to possible new understanding of the quantum engine that underpins physical reality, and its relationship to electromagnetism and gravitation at both microscopic and large-scale regimes of nature. It is hoped that ultimately this new knowledge will subsequently also guide us in achieving the coveted goal in our quest to harvest energy from the quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[82] **viXra:1309.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-13 12:53:11*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This a translation of “Световой луч круговой поляризации несет удвоенный момент импульса” http://www.mai.ru/science/trudy/published.php?ID=34422 (2003). JMO made an inquiry about the translation.

A calculation is presented of absorption of a circularly polarized electromagnetic beam without an azimuth phase structure in a dielectric. The calculation shows that such a beam carries the double angular momentum as compared with predictions of the modern electrodynamics, which are used by experimenters. This angular momentum is consists of two equal parts, orbital and spin. A classical spin tensor of electromagnetic waves is used in the paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[81] **viXra:1309.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-13 10:02:28*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Color photos and 1 diagram

The British media once blamed two drunken pub crawlers for creating the annual crop circles which appear in the fields of south England, primarily around Wiltshire and the ancient henges, such as Stone Henge. Some posit UFO’s, some report balls of white light, even media companies have been known to inscribe fake crop circles. This paper presents the Vedic Science perspective on how Crop Circles are formed, theoretically from any other location in the Universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[80] **viXra:1309.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-14 21:55:02*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The following article briefly lays out a plausible alternative to the P=NP problem, and defines a general physical approach to the computational physics involved. It makes a conjecture that the underlying differences between quantum systems and classical mechanics can be bridged by a newer and novel mathematical parameter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[79] **viXra:1309.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 22:43:36*

**Authors:** Jinhua Fei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article，we use the large sieve and the prime number theorem in the arithmetical progression, we gives a nontrivial estimates for the exponential sums with arbitrary bounded coefficients.

**Category:** Number Theory

[78] **viXra:1309.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 10:02:25*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Constructive feedback is welcome.

Starting from three equal but unknown energy / mass fermions (Q), each carrying a unit positive or negative elementary charge, the electromagnetic potential energy of their attraction (Epot) has been utilized to forge them into proton: Q+, Q-, Q+ (Epot) → q+: q-: q+ (p). This study employs the equal assimilation of the attractive energy by the three Primary or the starting fermions to convert them by compression into the Forged fermions (q) which constitute the proton. The value of the mass / energy deduced for the Primary fermions (Q = 204 e), equivalent to the mass or energy of 204 electrons, strongly supports my earlier suggestion for the candidacy of the well-familiar Muons (207 e) for forging them into protons. The present report also examines the viability of a triangular structure for proton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[77] **viXra:1309.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 08:37:18*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Pound-Rebka experiment is a famous experiment to test the theory of general relativity and is taken as paradigm for probing that Einstein's relativity is true. In this experiment there are two Doppler effects involved, namely the gravitational Doppler effect predicted by GR (General Relativity) and the inertial Doppler effect predicted by SR (Special Relativity). Each kind of effect is modelled by its own equations. In this experiment, the aim was to balance both effects in order to attain a null effective Doopler effect, so electromagnetic frequency resulted to yield the same measured value as the original emitted frequency. That implied that if photons were emitted from the top of the tower towards the ground detector, the gravitational Doppler effect would be a Doppler blue shitf, it is to say, a frequency increase. But, if those photons were emitted fron the ground towards the top of the tower, the detector sited in that top would measure a lower frequency for the same gravitacional Doppler effect. In order to achieve the relative inertial movement required by SR, the emission source of photons was placed in the center of a loudspeaker cone, so by vibrating the speaker cone the source moved with varying speed, thus creating varying Doppler shifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1309.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-24 09:05:18*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

Jose Acacio de Barros discusses as follows
[{Jose Acacio de Barros,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 50}, 1828 (2011)}].
Nagata claims to derive
inconsistencies from quantum mechanics
[{K. Nagata,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 48}, 3532 (2009)}].
Jose Acacio de Barros considers that the inconsistencies do not come
from quantum mechanics, but from extra assumptions
about the reality of observables.
Here we discuss the fact that
there is a contradiction within the quantum theory.
We discuss the fact that only one expected value in a spin-1/2 pure state
$\langle\sigma_x\rangle$ rules out
the reality of the observable.
We do not accept extra assumptions
about the reality of observables.
We use the actually measured results of quantum measurements (raw data).
We use a single Pauli observable.
We stress that we can use the quantum theory even if we give up
the axiomatic system for the quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1309.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-14 01:54:15*

**Authors:** Ilias J. Tyrovolas

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Is presented at Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium PIERS 2013 in Taipei,25-28 March

When electrons are accelerated they are forced to jump from a lower to a higher energy level (stimulation). In the phenomenon of fluorescence, for any absorbed photon a new one of lower energy is emitted. It appears as if photons are electrons fragments. In alternating current (A.C.) because metal’s free electrons oscillate fast there is huge acceleration so that released photons. Energy is quantized because each photon is composed of a natural number of pieces. Frequency expresses the photon mass or size. Varying size is the reason for many observable effects.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[74] **viXra:1309.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-17 07:29:05*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 22 Pages. 22

Quantum FFF theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Higgs but energetic oscillating particles (126 GeV), oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer monopole Photons and Graviton information in bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local speed of light. As a consequence there are no attraction forces on propeller shaped Fermions. Only the sum of the different kinds of monopole impulses combined with opposing Higgs impulses from all directions on real spinning Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe, even for gravity, called “Double LeSage gravity” or better: “Quantum FFF gravity”. These ideas are based on several simple table top experiments leading to the design for real 3D shaped sub quantum particles which should be responsible for the monopole/Higgs forces and Fermions and give solutions for anomalies like Ball Lightning, micro Comets and Silicon globule channelling by Quantum Knots..

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1309.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 05:06:43*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Comments are most welcome and sort for.

This is the second installment in a four part series, the aim of the work being to introduce absolute motion into Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR). Herein, we depart from the traditional case where one twin stays put while the other rockets into space, we consider the case of identically accelerated twins. Both twins depart at uniform relativistic speeds in opposite directions for a round trip from the Earth on their 21th birthday destined into space to some distant constellation that is a distance L_0 in the rest frame of the Earth. A proper application of Einstein's STR tells us that the Earth bound observers will conclude that on the day of reunion, both twins must both have aged the same albeit their clocks (which where initially synchronized with that of the Earth bound observers) will have registered a duration less than that registered by the Earth bound observers. In the traditional twin paradox, it is argued that the stay at home twin will have aged more than the traveling twin and the asymmetry is attributed to the fact that the traveling twin's frame of reference is not an inertial reference frame during the periods of acceleration and deceleration making it ``illegal" for the traveling twin to use the STR in their frame, thus ``resolving" the paradox. This same argument does not hold in the case considered here as both twins will undergo identical experiences where each twin sees the other as the one that is in motion. This means, each twin must conclude that the other twin is the one that is younger. They will conclude that their ages must be numerically different, thus disagreeing with the Earth bound observers that their ages are the same. This leads us to a true paradox that throws Einstein's Philosophy of Relativity into complete disarray.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1309.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-11 09:22:51*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

În acest volum, fiecare poem este compus din versuri independente. Dar o legătură subtilă între versuri transcende. Aşadar, ‘poeme’ cu ‘poeme într-un vers’ [sau meta-poeme].
Cartea putea fi structurată şi diferit, ca un simplu volum de poeme într-un vers. Stilul volumului este eliptic. Lipsa verbelor (sau puţinătatea lor) dând impresia de stagnare, de Timp Oprit, unde Sentimentele au Ingheţat… sau de Poeme-Tablouri Pictate, ori Desene Onirice… Totul este ca o listă nesfârşită de observaţii naturale şi simţăminte. Metaforele şi personificările se succed la infinit.
În această lirică e-atâta singurătate pastorală, linişte profundă şi pesimism: totu-i alb şi pustiu, de o tristeţe neţărmurită.
[Autorul]

**Category:** Linguistics

[71] **viXra:1309.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-11 11:41:14*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 2 related graphics

The “Axis of Evil” and related controversy surrounding the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has focused on the quadrupole and octopole and their rotations. This paper shows how, from the perspective of Vedic Physics, scientists have misinterpreted data on the quadrupole and this had led to the controversy surrounding the CMB, which, by the way, is actually the e logarithm of 2.718…the state of the Substratum of invisible “black hole” matter in the Thaamic state. Thus, another prop under the Big Bang Theory goes bust. Can scientists continue to sustain belief in this putative theory much longer?

**Category:** Astrophysics

[70] **viXra:1309.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-21 04:00:25*

**Authors:** Ilias J. Tyrovolas

**Comments:** Pages. Is presented at the Conference:"Frontiers in Water Biophysics 2017" Erice,Sicily,Italy

Water molecules are dipoles positioned and oriented joined by hydrogen bonds. When water is heated this structure collapses (increasing entropy). After the water is recooled to a lower temperature the structure is not reconstructed immediately but needed some time. Time is not always available inside a freezer because the cooling process is fast. Entropy reduction curves function of temperature S=f(T) appear retardation (lagging) relative to entropy growth curves. The water after was heated and recooled at the starting temperature, has more entropy than before it was heated. That means that molecules have now the same kinetic energy, but thermal motion before heating was more oriented by the structure mentioned above. Recooling random collisions are more possible leading to faster temperature reduction.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[69] **viXra:1309.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-11 08:02:59*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article is a brief review of the book "Supermathematics. Bases", Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 2nd edition, 2012, which represents a new field of research with many applications, initiated by Professor Mircea Eugen Şelariu. His work is unique in the world scientific literature, because it combines centric mathematics with eccentric mathematics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[68] **viXra:1309.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-04 17:00:29*

**Authors:** John Neville

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The relation of color charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of P.A.M. Dirac.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[67] **viXra:1309.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-08 12:29:33*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 27 Pages, 2 Figures, 4 References

In this article we study the concept of pq-functions which should regard as an extension of prior work relating to pq-radial functions. Here, our main aim is to generalize this concept to the field of complex numbers. As direct consequences, new kind of (partial) differential equations, polynomials, series and integrals are derived, and
Joukowski function is generalized.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[66] **viXra:1309.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 20:41:51*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Preprint for submittal to JCMNS for ICCF18 Proceedings

Prediction of nuclear products by cold fusion events either for metal-deuterium system (Pd-D) and metal-protium system (Ni-H)is made by the TSC theory. The nucleon halo model of intermediate excited states is applied for final state inetractions. For metal-D system cold fusion, 23.8 MeV per He-4 generation with BOLEP and minor alpha peaks is predicted. For metal-H system, He-3 and D products with 7-2 MeV per event with very weak secondary gamma and neutron emission is predicted. Comparisons with experimental claims are discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[65] **viXra:1309.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 20:24:28*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mamoni Dhar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study fuzzy soft matrix based on reference function.Firstly, we define some new operations such as fuzzy soft complement matrix and trace of fuzzy soft matrix based on reference function.Then, we introduced some related properties, and some examples are given. Lastly, we define a new fuzzy soft matrix decision method based on reference function.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[64] **viXra:1309.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 21:01:13*

**Authors:** A. Takahashi, A. Kitamura, R. Seto, Y. Fujita, H. Sakoh, Y. Miyoshi, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, T. Murota, T. Tahara

**Comments:** 5 Pages. preprint of submittal to JCMNS for ICCF18 Proceedings

Cu-Ni nano-composite samples showed no excess heat nor meaningfully visible D(H)-loading at room temprature. At elevated temperatures more than 250 deg C, anomalous excess heat lasted for weeks was observed with very large integrated heat as 800 eV per Ni-atom and 600 eV per H-sorption/desorption. Cu0.08Ni0.36/ZrO2 samples gave 10 fold larger excess heat than pure-Ni/ZrO2 samples and 4 fold larger than Cu0.21Ni0.21/ZrO2 samples. Anomalous endothermic effect with abrupt D(H)-desorption was repeatedly observed for pretreatment runs.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[63] **viXra:1309.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 09:33:33*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 21 Pages. 13 figures

Climatology occupies the intersection of science policy and public understanding of science. In such a prominent position, the wide spectrum of climate opinions is remarkable. Society has achieved a paradigm in which global warming subscribers and non-subscribers are largely segregated by political affiliation. Since science is non-political, only a misunderstanding of the science can facilitate such a segregation. In the first section we analyze a recent study by Cook \emph{et al.} finding overwhelming scientific endorsement for the greenhouse theory of anthropogenic global warming (AGW). We find the popular reporting on Cook's result is not accurate. The aim of the following section is to clarify the science behind the most popular climate arguments and introduce the reader to some evidence that is not widely publicized. Even the astute non-climatologist should come away from this report with an enhanced understanding of relevant issues in modern climate science.

**Category:** Climate Research

[62] **viXra:1309.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-12 05:13:24*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Correcte typo at equation (1): Comments on this paper are most welcome and sort for.

This is the first instalment in a four part series, the aim of the work being to introduce absolute motion into Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR). In the traditional treatment of Einstein's famous twin paradox, it is argued that the stay at home twin will age more than the ``travelling" twin and the asymmetry is attributed to the fact that the travelling twin's reference system is not an inertial reference system during the periods of acceleration and deceleration thus making it ``illegal" for the ``travelling" twin to use the STR in their reference system, hence ``resolving" the paradox altogether. From within the domains, confines and provinces of Einstein's STR, we argue without considering the accelerations and decelerations, where we show that, indeed, it is the ``travelling" twin that is younger at the point of reunion. This brings us to a point of admission that there is indeed a twin who really does the travelling and another that does t
he staying at home. Hidden within the labyrinth of its seemingly coherent and consistent structure and fabric, does Einstein's STR imply absolute motion -- we ask? This is the question that we leave hanging in the mind of the reader. In the next reading, we propose a new version of the twin paradox, where the scenario is truly symmetric from either of the twin's reference systems -- we have coined this, the ``Symmetric Twin Paradox (STP)". This version (STP) unearths an irretrievable contradiction hidden at the deepest and subtle level of Einstein's STR. It is shown that Einstein's STR is unable to resolve this irretrievable contradiction, even if the accelerations and decelerations are taken into. Not even Einstein's General Theory of Relativity can be brought to the rescue in the case of the STP. In our third instalment, we shall setforth a new version of the STR where absolute motion is permitted. This version solves the symmetric twin paradox and any known paradox of relativity. Lastly, we apply this new STR where absolute motion is permitted to experimental efforts that have been made to measure absolute motion. Most well trained physicists tend to ignore completely, readings purporting to go against Einstein's STR. We would like to persuade our reader to make a brief stop and consider for a minute, what we have to say in our four part series of readings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:1309.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-13 00:31:00*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 5 cartoons with description required the article fis a retrospective report.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[60] **viXra:1309.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 22:46:39*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Max Abraham (as a prominent advocate of the concept in 1903) thought that the electron mass
was entirely of electromagnetic origin. This idea has since then been rejected in the framework of
the present understanding in particle physics, wherein, how the mass (the so called bare mass)
of electron arises, is still a mystery. As to the statement in the title of the paper
(if not in all the details of his model in 1903),
here we show that actually Abraham was right afterall!
This, we show through a consistent study of the Standard Model (SM), where the group
${SU(3)_{c}} \otimes {SU(2)_{L}} \otimes {U(1)_{Y}}$
is spontaniously broken through the Higgs mechanism to the
group ${SU(3)_{c}} \otimes {U(1)_{em}}$ .
It is shown that the electromagnetism obtained thereby in the SM, as a matter of self-consistency,
generates the mass of the electron ( and that of the other leptons and quarks )
through Yukawa coupling. Thus Yukawa coupling is induced by $U(1)_{em}$ in the SM.
Hence all the masses of the fermions (including the electron) in the SM,
are fully electromgnnetic in origin.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:1309.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 01:54:10*

**Authors:** Jinhua Fei

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article, we employ the large sieve and the prime number theorem in the arithmetical progression, we obtain a nontrivial estimate for the exponential sums with arbitrary bounded coefficients.

**Category:** Number Theory

[58] **viXra:1309.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 11:36:24*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Study of combinatorial spaces and smarandache multispaces.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[57] **viXra:1309.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 11:39:24*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

This report survey the smarandache system, labeling graphs and others in the classical graph theory.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[56] **viXra:1309.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 11:41:53*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

Combinatorial structures underlying things, Topology of Combinatorial Manifold, and Differentiationon Combinatorial Manifold are the topics of this paper.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[55] **viXra:1309.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 11:46:30*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

An axiom is said smarandachely denied (S-denied)
if in the same space the axiom behaves differently,
i.e., validated and Invalided, or only invalidated
but in at least two distinct ways.
And a Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n≧2.
This paper studies them.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[54] **viXra:1309.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 11:48:05*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

I will prescribe limitation on following topics and
mainly concentrate on myself works for combinatorially differential
geometry, particularly, the combinatorial counterpart in recent years.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[53] **viXra:1309.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 11:49:41*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Applications of Voltage Assignament
to Principal Fiber Bundles.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[52] **viXra:1309.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 12:01:40*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We study the Smarandache Systems with Labeled Topological Graphs.
A rule R in a mathematical system (Sigma; R) is said to be Smarandachely denied if it behaves in at least two different ways within the same set Sigma, i.e. validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways.
A Smarandache system (Sigma;R) is a system that has at least one smarandachely denied rule R.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[51] **viXra:1309.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:21:19*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A question about how non-planar Feynman diagrams could be represented in twistor Grassmannian approach inspired a re-reading of the recent article by recent article by Nima Arkani-Hamed et al. This inspired the conjecture that non-planar twistor diagrams correspond to non-planar Feynman diagrams and a concrete proposal for realizing the earlier proposal that the contribution of non-planar diagrams could be calculated by transforming them to planar ones by using the procedure applied in knot theories to eliminate crossings by reducing the knot diagram with crossing to a combination of two diagrams for which the crossing is replaced with reconnection.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] **viXra:1309.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:26:21*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The original motivation of this work was related to Platonic solids. The playing with Einstein's equations and the attempts to interpret them physically forced the return to an old interpretational problem of TGD. TGD allows enormous vacuum degeneracy for Kähler action but the vacuum extremals are not gravitational vacua. Could this mean that TGD forces to modify Einstein's equations? Could space-time surfaces carrying energy and momentum in GRT framework be vacua in TGD context? Of course, also in GRT context cosmological constant means just this and an experimental fact, is that cosmological constant is non-vanishing albeit extremely small.

Trying to understand what is involved led to the realization that the hypothesis that preferred extremals correspond to the solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with cosmological constant is too restricted in the case of vacuum extremals and also in the case of standard cosmologies imbedded as vacuum extremals. What one must achieve is the vanishing of the divergence of energy momentum tensor of Kähler action expressing the local conservation of energy momentum currents. The most general analog of Einstein's equations and Equivalence Principle would be just this condition giving in GRT framework rise to the Einstein-Maxwell equations with cosmological constant. The vanishing or light-likeness of Kähler current guarantees the vanishing of the divergence for the known extremals.

One can however wonder whether it could be possible to find some general ansätze allowing to satisfy this condition. This kind of ansätze can be indeed found and can be written as kG+∑ Λ_{i}P_{i}=T, where Λ_{i} are cosmological "constants" and P_{i} are mutually orthogonal projectors such that each projector contribution has a vanishing divergence. One can interpret the projector contribution in terms of topologically condensed matter, whose energy momentum tensor the projectors code in the representation kG=-∑Λ_{i}P_{i}+T. Therefore Einstein's equations with cosmological constant are generalized. This generalization is not possible in General Relativity, where Einstein's equations follow from a variational principle. This kind of ansätze can be indeed found and involve the analogs of cosmological constant, which are however not genuine constants anymore. Therefore Einstein's equations with cosmological constant are generalized. This generalization is not possible in General Relativity, where Einstein's equations follow from a variational principle.

The suggested quaternionic preferred extremals and preferred extremals involving Hamilton-Jacobi structure could be identified as different families characterized by the little group of particles involved and assignable to time-like/light-like local direction. One should prove that this ansatz works also for all vacuum extremals. This progress - if it really is progress - provides a more refined view about how TGD Universe differs from the Universe according to General Relativity and leads also to a model for how the cosmic honeycomb structure with basic unit cells having size scale 10^{8} ly could be modelled in TGD framework.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:1309.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:29:15*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The idea that that icosahedral structures assignable to water clusters could define a geometric representation of some kind of code is very intriguing. Genetic code is of course the code that comes first in mind. The observation that the number of faces of tetrahedron (icosahedron) is 4 (20) raises the question whether genetic code might have a geometric representation. In TGD framework also a second code emerges: I have christened it memetic code. Also memetic code could have a geometric realization. Another purely TGD-based notion is that of dark DNA allowing to assign the states of dark protons with DNA,RNA, tRNA and amino-acids and to predict correctly the numbers of DNA codons coding for a given amino-acid in vertebrate genetic code. A further element is the possibility of strong gravitation in TGD Universe meaning that space-time geometry and topology can be highly non-trivial even in condensed matter length scales. These ingredients allow to imagine geometric representations of genetic and memetic code.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[48] **viXra:1309.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:30:57*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

This work has been inspired by two books. The first book "On intelligence" is by Jeff Hawkins. The second book "Consciousness: the science of subjectivity" is by Antti Revonsuo.

Jeff Hawkins has developed a highly interesting and inspiring vision about neo-cortex, one of the few serious attempts to build a unified view about what brain does and how it does it. Since key ideas of Hawkins have quantum analogs in TGD framework, there is high motivation for developing a quantum variant of this vision. The vision of Hawkins is very general in the sense that all parts of neo-cortex would run the same fundamental algorithm, which is essentially checking whether the sensory input can be interpreted in terms of standard mental images stored as memories. This process occurs at several abstraction levels and involve massive feedback. If it succeeds at all these levels the sensory input is fully understood.

TGD suggests a generalization of this process. Quantum jump defining moment of consciousness would be the fundamental algorithm realized in all scales defining an abstraction hierarchy. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) would be the variational principle driving this process and in optimal case lead to an experience of understanding at all levels of the scale hierarchy realized in terms of generation of negentropic entanglement. The analogy of NMP with second law suggests strongly thermodynamical analogy and p-adic thermodynamics used in particle mass calculations might be also seen as effective thermodynamics assignable to NMP.

In the following I will first discuss the ideas of Hawkins and then summarize some relevant aspects of quantum TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness briefly in the hope that this could make representation comprehensible for the reader having no background in TGD (I hope I have achieved this). The representation involves some new elements: reduction of the old idea about motor action as time reversal of sensory perception to the anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO); interaction free measurement for photons and photons as a non-destructive reading mechanism of memories and future plans (time reversed memories) represented 4-dimensionally as negentropically entangled states approximately invariant under quantum jumps (this resolves a basic objection against identifying quantum jump as moment of consciousness) leading to the identification of analogs of imagination and internal speech as fundamental elements of cognition; and a more detailed quantum model for association and abstraction processes.

I will also compare various theories and philosophies of consciousness with TGD approach following the beautifully organized representation of Revonsuo. Also anomalies of consciousness are briefly discussed. My hope is that this comparison would make explicit that TGD based ontology of consciousness indeed circumvents the difficulties against monistic and dualistic approaches and also survives the basic objections that I have been able to invent hitherto.

**Category:** Mind Science

[47] **viXra:1309.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:33:10*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

TGD approach leads to a prediction that biophotons result when dark photons with large value of effective Planck constant and large wavelength transform to ordinary photons with same energy. The collaboration with Lian Sidorov stimulated a more detailed look for what biophotons are. Also the recent progress in understanding the implications of basic vision behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness erved as an additional motivation for a complementary treatment.

- The anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO) allows to understand basic aspects of sensory and cognitive processing in brain without ever mentioning brain. Sensory perception - motor action cycle with motor action allowing interpretation as time reversed sensory perception reflects directly the fact that state function reductions occur alternately to the two opposite boundaries of causal diamond (which itself or rather, quantum superposition of CDs, changes in the process).
- Also the abstraction and de-abstraction processes in various scales which are essential for the neural processing emerge already at the level of quantum jump. The formation of associations is one aspect of abstraction since it combines different manners to experience the same object. Negentropic entanglement of two or more mental images (CDs) gives rise to rules in which superposed n-particle states correspond to instances of the rule. Tensor product formation generating negentropic entanglement between new mental images and earlier ones generates longer sequences of memory mental images and gives rise to negentropy gain generating experience of understanding, recognition, something which has positive emotional coloring. Quantum superposition of perceptively equivalent zero energy states in given resolution gives rise to averaging. Increasing the abstraction level means poorer resolution so that the insignificant details are not perceived.
- Various memory representations should be approximately invariant under the sequence of quantum jumps. Negentropic entanglement gives rise to this kind of stabilization. The assumption that self model is a negentropically entangled system which does not change in state function reduction, leads to a problem. If the conscious information about this kind of subself corresponds to change of negentropy in quantum jump, it seems impossible to get this information. Quite generally, if moment of consciousness corresponds to quantum jump and thus change, how it is possible to carry conscious information about quantum state? Interaction free measurement however allows to circumvent the problem: non-destructive reading of memories and future plans becomes possible in arbitrary good approximation.
This memory reading mechanism can be formulated for both photons and photons and these two reading mechanisms could correspond to visual memories as imagination and auditory memories as internal speech. Therefore dark photons decaying to biophotons could be crucial element of imagination and the notion bio-phonon could also make sense and even follow as a prediction. This would also suggest a correlation of biophoton emission with EEG for which there is a considerable evidence. The observation that biophotons seem to be associated only with the right hemisphere suggests that at least some parts of right hemisphere prefer dark photons and are thus specialized to visual imagination: spatial relationships are the speciality of the right hemisphere. Some parts of left hemisphere at least might prefer dark phonons: left hemisphere is indeed the verbal hemisphere specialized to linear linguistic cognition.

[46] **viXra:1309.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:34:59*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A considerable progress has occurred in the understanding of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology during the first half of 2013. The new picture allows also much better understanding of quantum biology. The work during the first half of 2013 has allowed to develop in detail several ideas about the role of the magnetic body. Magnetic flux tubes serve as correlates for the formation of quantum coherence and directed attention. The phase transitions changing the value of h_{eff} leading to a change of flux tube length and the reconnections of the flux tubes play a key role in bio-catalysis. The dark photons propagating along MEs parallel to the flux tubes make possible resonant interactions between the entities at their ends and the proposed view about sensory, memory, and cognitive representations relies on hypothesis that the braiding of flux tubes defines negentropically entangled systems representing information which is read consciously and non-destructively in good approximation by using interaction free quantum measurements. Dark photons transform to ordinary photons in energy conserving manner and biophotons are identified as outcome of this process.

With this background one return to the old question "What is the exact mechanism of homeopathic healing?". I have considered already earlier answers to this question but they have not been completely convincing. It turns out that one manages to add the missing piece to the puzzle by making the simple question "What is the molecular cause of illness and how homeopathic remedy eliminates it?". Amusingly, I could have identified this piece for years ago but for some reason did not pose the correct question.

The resulting model of homeopathic healing is amazingly simple and at the same time a universal model of bio-catalysis. The entity mimicking the invader molecules "steals" its cyclotron frequencies by varying the thickness of magnetic flux tube and thus magnetic field strength and cyclotron frequency until reconnection with the molecule's magnetic body becomes possible and fusion to single quantum coherent system occurs. In TGD inspired theory of consciousness this process corresponds to directed attention and conscious recognition of the presence of the invader molecule. After this the mimicking entity freezes the thickness of the flux tubes in question becoming thus capable of mimicking the invader molecule and attach to the receptors of the invader molecule and steal the attention of the host organism and induce healing.

The results summarized in the book "Applied Biophysics of Activated Water" of Vysotskii et al provide a test bench for the proposal and allow to formulate it in a more detailed manner. The basic message of the book is that the activation process yields water with anomalous physical properties including water memory and having highly non-trivial - in general positive - effects on living matter. The identification of activated water as ordered water appearing in cell interior is proposed.

This and the general features of the activation process inspire the question whether the analog of the activation process might have taken place during pre-biotic evolution and generated ordered water making DNA stable. Molecular mimicry making possibly immune system would have emerged at the same step and meant also the emergence of symbolic representations. Also the pairs formed by receptor molecules and molecules attaching to them would have emerged at this crucial step when dark matter enters the game. One of they key questions is whether it is dark water molecule clusters or dark DNA that performs the mimicry of various molecules. The results of the book lend support for the model based on dark DNA.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[45] **viXra:1309.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:36:40*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In TGD framework one can argue that hypnosis represents an example about the fact that brain is not "private property": hypnotist uses the biological body and brain of the subject as instrument. Therefore remote mental interaction is in question. This idea generalizes: if one accepts self hierarchy, one can assign to any kind of higher level structure - family, organization, species, .... - a higher level self and magnetic body carrying dark matter, and these magnetic bodies can use lower level magnetic bodies as their instruments to realize their intentions. Biological bodies would be an important level in the hierarchy, which would continue down to cellular, molecular, and perhaps to even lower levels.

This view challenges the prevailing views about brain as a sole seat of consciousness and the assumption that conscious entities assigned with brains are completely isolated. Given magnetic body can use several biological bodies although one can assign to it the one providing the sensory input - at least during wake-up state. Note however that it is easy to produce illusion that some foreign object is part of biological body.

For more than decade ago I proposed a model for so called bicamerality based on the notion of semitrance. In semitrance the brain of subject becomes partially entangled with a higher level self - in this case the self of family or more general social group uses the biological body of member for its purposes. Higher level self gives its commands and advice interpreted by the bicameral as "God's voice". The consciousness of schizophrenic might be basically bicameral. Also hypnotic state and dream consciousness are candidates for bicameral consciousness.

In this article I develop essentially this idea but using as input the recent understanding of about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and end up with a proposal for a detailed mechanism for how the magnetic body hijacks some parts of the brain of the subject: prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are argued to be the most plausible targets of hijacking. Also a mechanism explaining how the sensory hallucinations and motor actions are induced by hypnotist by inhibiting a halting mechanism preventing imagined motor actions to become real and sensory imagination to become "qualiafied".

**Category:** Mind Science

[44] **viXra:1309.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:38:18*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The idea of "remote metabolism" (or quantum credit card, as I have also called it) emerged more than a decade ago - and zero energy ontology (ZEO) provides the justification for it. The idea is that the system needing energy sends negative energy to a system able to receive the negative energy and make a transition to a lower energy state. This kind of mechanism would be ideal for biology, where rapid reactions to a changing environment are essential for survival. Originally this article was intended to summarize a more detailed model of remote metabolism but the article expanded to a considerably more detailed view about TGD inspired biology than the earlier vision.

It is shown that the basic notions of the theory of Ling about cell metabolism inspired by various anomalies have natural counterparts in TGD based model relying on the notion of magnetic body. Remote metabolism can be considered as a universal metabolic mechanism with magnetic body of ATP, or system containing it, carrying the metabolic energy required by the biological user. In particular, the role of ATP is discussed in Ling's theory and from the point of view of TGD-inspired theory of consciousness.

It is easy to imagine new technologies relying on negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past and ZEO justifies these speculations. Remote metabolism could make possible a new kind of energy technology. The discoveries of Tesla made more than a century ago plus various free energy anomalies provide excellent material for developing these ideas, and one ends up with a concrete proposal for how dark photons and dark matter could be produced in capacitor-like systems analogous to cell membranes and acting as Josephson junctions and how energy could be extracted from "large" magnetic bodies.

The model identifies Josephson frequency with the subharmonic of the frequency characterizing the periodicity of a periodic voltage perturbation assumed to correspond to cyclotron frequency in biological applications. Together with quantization conditions for charge and effective Planck constant it leads to precise quantitative predictions for capacitor-like systems acting as dark capacitors. Also a relationship between the magnetic field at the magnetic body of the system and the voltage of the capacitor-like Josephson junction emerges.

The predictions allow new quantitative insights about biological evolution as emergence of Josephson junctions realized as capacitor-like systems both at the level of cell, DNA and proteins, and brain. h_{eff} can be related to Josephson frequency and cyclotron frequency and thus to measurable parameters. h_{eff} serves as a kind of intelligence quotient and its maximization requires the maximization of both the voltage and area of the membrane-like capacitor system involved. This is what has happened during evolution. Indeed, the internal cell membranes, cortical layers and DNA double strand in chromosomes are strongly folded, and the value of membrane electric field is roughly twice the value of the electric field for which di-electric breakdown occurs in air. Even 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance frequency can be understood in the framework of the model.

The claimed properties of Tesla's "cold electricity" strongly suggest interpretation in terms of dark matter in TGD sense. This leads to a proposal that a transition to dark phase occurs when the value of voltage equals the rest mass of charged particle involved. This criterion generalizes to the case of cell membrane and relates the values of h_{eff}, p-adic prime p, and threshold potential for various charged particles to each other. The idea that nerve pulse corresponds to the breakdown of super-conductivity as a transition from dark to ordinary phase receives additional support. The resulting picture conforms surprisingly well with the earlier speculations involving dark matter and p-adically scaled variants of weak and color interactions in biologically relevant length scales. An extremely simple mechanism producing ATP involving only the kicking of two protonic Cooper pairs through the cell membrane by Josephson photon as a basic step is proposed. Also the proposal that neutrino Cooper pairs could be highly relevant not only for cognition and but also metabolism finds support.

**Category:** Mind Science

[43] **viXra:1309.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:39:48*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The article "Possible detection of tachyon monopoles in photographic emulsions" by Keith Fredericks describes in detail very interesting observations by him and also by many other researchers about strange tracks in photographic emulsions induced by various (probably) non-biological mechanisms and also by the exposure to human hands (touching by fingertips) as in the experiments of Fredericks. That the photographic emulsion itself consists of organic matter (say gelatin) might be of significance as also the fact that practically all experimental arrangements involve di-electric breakdown (nerve pulses in the experiments of Fredericks). For particle physicist it is very difficult to accept the proposed interpretation as particle tracks and even more difficult to agree with the identification of particles as tachyonic magnetic monopoles. A more natural interpretation seems to be as "photographs" of pre-existing structures - either completely standard but not well-understood or reflecting new physics associated with the living matter. In TGD framework the identification as images of magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter and associated with the emulsion - less probably with the source - is natural and the images would be very much analogous to those obtained by Peter Gariaev's group by illuminating DNA sample with visible light.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[42] **viXra:1309.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 06:42:01*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The article by Tim Adamo titled "Twistor actions for gauge theory and gravity" considers the formulation of N=4 SUSY gauge theory directly in twistor space instead of Minkowski space. The author is able to deduce MHV formalism, tree level amplitudes, and planar loop amplitudes from action in twistor space. Also local operators and null polygonal Wilson loops can be expressed twistorially. This approach is applied also to general relativity: one of the challenges is to deduce MHV amplitudes for Einstein gravity. The reading of the article inspired a fresh look on twistors and a possible answer to several questions (I have written two chapters about twistors and TGD giving a view about development of ideas).

Both M^{4} and CP_{2} are highly unique in that they allow twistor structure and in TGD one can overcome the fundamental "googly" problem of the standard twistor program preventing twistorialization in general space-time metric by lifting twistorialization to the level of the imbedding space containg M^{4} as a Cartesian factor. Also CP_{2} allows twistor space identifiable as flag manifold SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) as the self-duality of Weyl tensor indeed suggests. This provides an additional "must" in favor of sub-manifold gravity in M^{4}× CP_{2}. Both octonionic interpretation of M^{8} and triality possible in dimension 8 play a crucial role in the proposed twistorialization of H=M^{4}× CP_{2}. It also turns out that M^{4}× CP_{2} allows a natural twistorialization respecting Cartesian product: this is far from obvious since it means that one considers space-like geodesics of H with light-like M^{4} projection as basic objects. p-Adic mass calculations however require tachyonic ground states and in generalized Feynman diagrams fermions propagate as massless particles in M^{4} sense. Furthermore, light-like H-geodesics lead to non-compact candidates for the twistor space of H. Hence the twistor space would be 12-dimensional manifold CP_{3}× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1).

Generalisation of 2-D conformal invariance extending to infinite-D variant of Yangian symmetry; light-like 3-surfaces as basic objects of TGD Universe and as generalised light-like geodesics; light-likeness condition for momentum generalized to the infinite-dimensional context via super-conformal algebras. These are the facts inspiring the question whether also the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) could allow twistorialization. It turns out that center of mass degrees of freedom (imbedding space) allow natural twistorialization: twistor space for M^{4}× CP_{2} serves as moduli space for choice of quantization axes in Super Virasoro conditions. Contrary to the original optimistic expectations it turns out that although the analog of incidence relations holds true for Kac-Moody algebra, twistorialization in vibrational degrees of freedom does not look like a good idea since incidence relations force an effective reduction of vibrational degrees of freedom to four. The Grassmannian formalism for scattering amplitudes generalizes practically as such for generalized Feynman diagrams. The Grassmannian formalism for scattering amplitudes generalizes for generalized Feynman diagrams: the basic modification is due to the presence of CP_{2} twistorialization required by color invariance and the fact that 4-fermion vertex -rather than 3-boson vertex- and its super counterparts define now the fundamental vertices.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:1309.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-18 20:57:07*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In Hall Effect first found by Edwin Hall in 1897, Plus Hall Effect has been measured that is not explained with electron movement only. As a method to explain this effect, a concept of positive hall has been introduced but it has an obvious physical error. Thus, this researcher proposes a new theory from a viewpoint that distribution of conductive electrons is varied by Lorentz Force with isotope separation equation used in nuclear physics and in atom unit volume within solid and results in difference of level to generate Hall voltage.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[40] **viXra:1309.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-08 22:21:39*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper “Beyond Einstein’s Relativity” [1] on contradictory Relativity postulates brings us back to the starting point a century back. Instead of dealing with the aether theory, this paper proposes a new Unified Field Theory that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The ideal Torque Grids have same size and String movement cycle is the same as the Grid size in all directions. When Torque Grids have different sizes, the Torque Grids have size distortions. When Torque String movement speeds are different between two opposite directions, the Torque Grids have charge distortion. Both size and charge distortion can be measured by energy. The charge distortion can be measured by electronic charge in addition to the energy. The Gravity interactions and Strong interactions are related to Torque Grids’ size distortions. The electron-magnetic interactions and weak interactions are related to charge distortions. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation and explains why the electron is stable. The electron has single Torque Grid distortion on its shell and is in resonance with its wavelength. Therefore, electron is stable and electronic field is formed. Strong force and weak force are result of two additional main resonance wave forms on the shell of the electron. Finally, the paper unified the four fundamental fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] **viXra:1309.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-13 08:27:44*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

What is the theoretical explanation for fine structure? What is the mechanism behind relativity? These questions have bothered numerous physicists for a very long time. Atom Model and Relativity explains the mechanism behind fine structure, hyperfine structure, energy levels and relativity based on ToEbi. The result is a new atom model.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[38] **viXra:1309.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 03:25:31*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Mind-body biophysics

This work updates Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 41:1 (1996) 39-42, The production of
Frӧhlich and Bose-Einstein coherent states in in vitro paracrystalline oligomers using phase control
laser interferometry. Delineating the framework for a fundamental model of long-range coherence in
biological systems is said to rely on principles beyond parameters addressed by current physical
science. Just as phenomena of quantum mechanics lay beyond tools of classical Newtonian mechanics
we must now enter a 3rd regime of unified field, UF mechanics. In this paper we present a battery of
nine empirical protocols for manipulating long-range coherence in complex self-organized living
systems (SOLS) in a manner surmounting the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum uncertainty
(space-quantization) thereby allowing empirical access to underlying coherent biophysical principles
driving self-organization. Interestingly, while the UF is not indicative of a 5th fundamental force in the
usual phenomenal sense of quantal transfer during field interactions; it does however provide an
inherent ‘force of coherence’ in an energyless ontological sense by a process called ‘topological
switching’ of higher dimensional (HD) brane dynamics. It is this putative inherent property that
produces long-range coherence and leads to the possibility of its direct experimental mediation.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[37] **viXra:1309.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 03:29:50*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Life principle teleology

The Cognitive model Mind = Brain is grossly incorrect. The alternative chosen is an extended form of
Eccles-Cartesian interactive dualism with a physically real Cartesian res cogitans - "mind stuff" (that does not violate
the laws of thermodynamics or conservation of energy) that interacts with res extensa - "body stuff". We equate the
required 'life principle' with the unified field of physics or if preferred the ubiquitous spirit of God represented as the
3rd regime in the progression Classical - Quantum - Unified Field Mechanics. This noetic paradigm is empirically
testable. We now have 14 experimental protocols to falsify the model. We will discuss details of the physical
cosmology of the unified theory creating an ‘Empirical Metaphysics’ by integrating science and theology and outline
the empirical tests. We believe the ancient mind-body problem has now been summarily solved.

**Category:** Mind Science

[36] **viXra:1309.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-16 18:26:30*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrections per Armak's feed backs

A constant one-way light speed is essential for the Theory of Relativity. This detailed study examines two postulates of Special Relativity and concludes that the claim of "constant one-way speed of light" contradicts itself. The equations of Special Relativity are foundations of many physics theories. The findings on controversial Relativity postulates shake the foundation of these theories. Fortunately, equations similar to Special Relativity equations can be derived, assuming that two-way light speed is constant, without the use of Special Relativity Postulates. These new equations provide a better foundation that is compatible with the correct existing physics theories. There is no threat of invalidating all existing physics theories, only incorrect ones. Instead, we can take a new look at some fundamental questions shared among physicists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1309.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-08 14:09:56*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We propose a new model of the interaction between photons and electrons. During this interaction, the photon’s direction of movement does not change. The electron’s velocity along the photon’s direction of movement is close to c/2 in order to allow the interaction to proceed. During the photon and electron energy exchange process, when an electron’s speed is less than 0.7071c and greater than 0.5c, the photon will lose energy while the electron will gain energy; when an electron’s speed is more than 0.7071c, the photon will gain energy while the electron loses energy. Three physical experiments are proposed. In the first experiment, the electron speed is set to 0.6c and a red-shift is expected to occur. In the second experiment, the electron speed is set to 0.8c and a blue-shift is expected to occur. In the third experiment, the electron speed is set to 0.7071c or 0.4c. The theory predicts that there won’t be a photon wavelength change.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1309.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 20:07:53*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[33] **viXra:1309.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-31 00:25:28*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The principle, which says “the state of low energy is stable”, is one of the fundamental principles of Physics, and it has its influences on across all the fields of Physics. In this article, we will reveal that this principle is an incomplete. It is stable at a low energy state in the case of positive mass (energy), whereas, it is stable at a high energy state in the case of negative mass (energy). Due to this, “the problem of transition to minus infinite energy level” does not occur, therefore negative energy and positive energy can coexist. Moreover, we will show that negative energy provides an explanation for dark matter and dark energy, which are the biggest issues posed to cosmology at the present. We demonstrate the ratio between matter, dark matter and dark energy through this model, and computer simulation shows that this assumption is appropriate. ΛCDM model expects that the ratio of matter and dark matter will be constant, but this model suggests that as the universe expands, the gravitational effect of matter vs. dark matter differs. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the change of the ratio (Ω_d/Ω_m).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1309.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-04 16:58:42*

**Authors:** John Neville

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The relation of colour charge to electric charge for the fundamental particles is derived from the work of Dirac.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31] **viXra:1309.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-07 09:13:05*

**Authors:** Jozef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A phenomenological model developed independently of most of the recent theoretical concepts is presented, the process of its development is described, its affinity with the quark model is shown, and its properties and some of their consequences are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:1309.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-07 11:50:47*

**Authors:** Pabitra Kumar Maji

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we study the concept of neutrosophic set of
Smarandache. We have introduced this concept in soft sets and de¯ned
neutrosophic soft set. Some de¯nitions and operations have been intro-
duced on neutrosophic soft set. Some properties of this concept have been
established.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[29] **viXra:1309.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-07 11:52:42*

**Authors:** Pabitra Kumar Maji

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The decision making problems in an imprecise environment
has found paramount importance in recent years. Here we consider an
object recognition problem in an imprecise environment. The recognition
strategy is based on multiobserver input parameter data set.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[28] **viXra:1309.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 20:36:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we present a short history of logics: from particular cases of 2-symbol or numerical
valued logic to the general case of n-symbol or numerical valued logic. We show generalizations
of 2-valued Boolean logic to fuzzy logic, also from the Kleene’s and Lukasiewicz’ 3-symbol
valued logics or Belnap’s 4-symbol valued logic to the most general n-symbol or numerical
valued refined neutrosophic logic. Two classes of neutrosophic norm (n-norm) and neutrosophic
conorm (n-conorm) are defined. Examples of applications of neutrosophic logic to physics are
listed in the last section.
Similar generalizations can be done for n-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Set, and respectively n-
Valued Refined Neutrosopjhic Probability.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[27] **viXra:1309.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 21:38:31*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 246 Pages.

When the subsets of a loop are taken they also form only a subset groupoid and not a subset loop.
Thus the concept of subset interval loop is not there, and they only form a subset interval groupoid.
Subset matrix interval groupoid S using the loops Ln(m) has no S-Cauchy elements.

**Category:** Algebra

[26] **viXra:1309.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 21:41:06*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 207 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce the notion of subset non associative semirings. It is pertinent to keep on record that study of non associative semirings is meager and books on this topic are still rare. Some open problems are suggested in this book.

**Category:** Algebra

[25] **viXra:1309.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 22:07:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

Cugetări ale autorului inspirate din folclor, lecturi diverse, sau originale.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[24] **viXra:1309.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 22:10:35*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

The MechanoPaint that illustrates the slides, except the covers, is made with an automatic computer program.
The program draws and paints according to the parameters given by the user.
You can choose geometric figures (like rectangles, tetronimos, polyominoes, circles, etc.) as automatic drawings, and the colors you like to fill into them.
The images and colorings are done randomly. The program randomly calculates the coordinates for the points (x, y) where to start drawing, and randomly picks up the lengths and widths, or radii of the geometric figures.
You can over-draw and over-paint many times on the same electronic canvas.
It is a Mechanic Art, or Automatic Art.
The accompanying reflections, meditations, and paradoxes are about science and life.
[The Author]
--------------------------------------------------
This album of MechanoPaint is made with a computer program. The program draws and paints according to the parameters given by the user.
The text contains reflections about science and life, as well as two Smarandache paradoxes in literature (All is possible, the impossible too… and Nothing is perfect, not even the perfect), and in science four quantum Smarandache paradoxes, such as:
•Our visible world is composed of a totality of invisible particles;
•Large matter, which is at some degree under the determinist principle, is formed by a totality of elementary particles, which are under indeterminacy principle;
•Stable matter is formed by unstable elementary particles (elementary particles decay when free);
•Long-time-living matter is formed by very short-time-living elementary particles;
and their corresponding Sorites paradox versions.
[Education Publisher]

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[23] **viXra:1309.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 22:13:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 109 Pages.

Imagini sexy si muzică de pe Internet, aforisme si prezentare de catre autor. Derulare automată in format PPS.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22] **viXra:1309.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 06:51:45*

**Authors:** Zhicheng Yu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

When I study some basic geometry,sometimes double lines are at the same place,how to show it in the picture?How about a minus line?When I study a little algebraic geometry,specially the algebraic curve,I find that is just the divisor.The set is a better stage for the divisor and I call it S-divisor.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[21] **viXra:1309.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 06:53:59*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 8 pages

Nuclei of stable atoms feature stable statically equilibrium configurations of their nucleons. A nucleus magnetic field consists of separate nucleonic magnetic clusters. A stable nucleus charge number Z is equal to the number of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus. Electrons of a stable non-excited atom are located on axial lines of nucleonic magnetic clusters of the nucleus and form a statically equilibrium system. “Electron shell” of a non-excited atom can take various forms depending on ambient temperature.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20] **viXra:1309.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-05 04:13:20*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

To find generic formulas for Poulet numbers (beside, of course, the formula that defines them) was for long time one of my targets; I maybe found such a formula for Poulet numbers with two prime factors, involving the multiples of the number 30, that also is rising an interesting question about primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1309.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 21:27:50*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Roxana Bujack, Gerik Scheuermann

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Proc. of the Third SICE Symposium on Computational Intelligence, August 30, 2013, Osaka University, Osaka, pp. 91-95.

Exactly 125 years ago G. Peano introduced the modern concept of vectors
in his 1888 book "Geometric Calculus - According to the Ausdehnungslehre (Theory of
Extension) of H. Grassmann". Unknown to Peano, the young British mathematician
W. K. Clifford (1846-1879) in his 1878 work "Applications of Grassmann's Extensive
Algebra" had already 10 years earlier perfected Grassmann's algebra to the modern
concept of geometric algebras, including the measurement of lengths (areas and volumes)
and angles (between arbitrary subspaces). This leads currently to new ideal methods for
vector field computations in geometric algebra, of which several recent exemplary results
will be introduced.

**Category:** Algebra

[18] **viXra:1309.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 09:37:29*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This is the third part of a slide presentation on the hierarchy of objects in the Hilbert Book Model. The HBM is strictly based on quantum logic. It uses a sequence of these logic systems in order to create a dynamic model. In order to establish coherence between the members of the sequence a correlation vehicle is used that maps the atomic propositions onto the base vectors of a Hilbert space. This leads to unprecedented insight in the undercrofts of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1309.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 09:39:05*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This is the fourth part of a slide presentation on the hierarchy of objects in the Hilbert Book Model. The HBM is strictly based on quantum logic. It uses a sequence of these logic systems in order to create a dynamic model. In order to establish coherence between the members of the sequence a correlation vehicle is used that maps the atomic propositions onto the base vectors of a Hilbert space. This leads to unprecedented insight in the undercrofts of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1309.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 10:25:44*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Two Pages

Dr. Einstein’s fundamental career error in physics was incorrectly using the correct idea that the speed of light in his Special Theory of Relativity is constant and extending that to the faulty idea that the speed of light can also be equated to the relative speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1309.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 11:54:54*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Physica A 165 (1990) 399-419

The full structure of the Standard Model may be recovered from the universal approach to chaos via period-doubling bifurcations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1309.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-30 04:12:53*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts. Send you a new version of the paper that has been deleted 29.01.2014

It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[13] **viXra:1309.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-30 06:58:58*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Relative to universal logic, it is demonstrated how useful it is to utilize general logic-systems to investigate finite consequences operators (operations). Among many other examples relative to the lattice of finite consequence operators, a general characterization for the lattice-theoretic supremum for a nonempty collection of finite consequence operators is given. Further, it is shown that for any denumerable language there is a rather simple collection of finite consequence operators and for a propositional language, three simple modifications to the finitary rule of inference that demonstrate that the lattice of finite consequence operators is not meet-complete.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[12] **viXra:1309.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-06 02:26:18*

**Authors:** Zhen Liu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Using the method for equation reconstruction of prime sequence, this paper gives the proof that there is at least one prime between positive integers n2 and (n+1)2.The sum and number formulae of primes between any two positive integers are also given out.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11] **viXra:1309.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-11 18:58:05*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to PSTJ journal

This paper discusses shortly a Source-Sink model of galaxies and its implication to the observed quantization of galactic redshift. As shown elsewhere, the Newton law and Maxwell electro-magnetic equations can be described by the Source-Sink model too. In this paper I shortly review the Source-Sink model of galaxies which can be interpreted further in the context of superfluid matter as described by Gross- Pitaevskii equation. And because it can be shown that radial Gross-Pitaevskii equation can yield ring soliton-like solutions, therefore I submit a hypothesis that the universe may likely have a center in the form of ring soliton-like. This hypothesis requires further observation in order to verify or refute.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:1309.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-03 21:32:08*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Existing theories are unable to build nuclear structures from the strong interaction upwards. This limitation applies to quantum chromodynamics, binding energies, the shell model, liquid-drop model, and the semi-empirical mass formula. This paper solves part of this problem, starting from a non-local hidden variable (NLHV) design solution. The Cordus theory for the synchronous interaction (strong force is used to predict that protons and neutrons may form different types of bonds, with different stability. Specifically the synchronous interaction is found to be able to assemble particules in- and out-of-phase (cis- and trans-phasic respectively). We identify the role of the neutrons in nuclear bonding, and how the proton and neutron are bonded, and the advantages to both in doing so. In contrast to conventional models of the nucleus, the Cordus theory predicts that protons in stable nuclei are not bound directly together, nor in an amorphous collection (liquid drop), nor as shells, but rather through neutrons as intermediaries. The neutrons provide a set of discrete forces that are complementary to those of the proton, and it is the resulting synchronicity of discrete forces that creates the stable bonding within the nucleus, and has nothing to do with charge per se. Falsifiable predictions are identified. The internal structures of the hydrogen nuclides are derived. The work is significant in that it provides underpinning principles for explaining nuclear bonding and the nuclides. The implications are that nucleus structure is not a simple assembly of points, nor a packing of spheres, but an assembly of rod-like structures into three-dimensional chains of protons and neutrons, hence nuclear polymer.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9] **viXra:1309.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 03:24:58*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 31 Pages. First paper of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe".

This paper represents the first essay belonging to the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Main physico-mathematical fundamentals of the Theory of Reference Frames concerning kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and electromagnetic aspects of the physical reality, already introduced in previous papers, are presented here methodically. We demonstrate the importance for observer of reference frame in order to understand and to describe a physical event; we use new definitions of space, time, simultaneity and introduce the new concept of electrodynamic mass. We demonstrate besides an important relation between time and mass and a new expression for the relativistic mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1309.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 14:10:22*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It was proposed new gauge invariant Lagrangian, where the gauge field interact with the charged electromagnetic fields. Gauge invariance was archived by replacing of particle mass with new one invariant of the field $F_{\mu\nu}F^{\mu\nu}$ multiplied with calibration constant $\alpha_g$. It was shown that new proposed Lagrangian generates similar Dirac and electromagnetic field equations. Solution of Dirac equations for a free no massless particle answers to the 'question of the age' why free particle deal in experiments like a de Broil wave. Resulting wave functions of the new proposed Lagrangian will describe quantized list of bespinor particles of different masses. Finally, it was shown that renormalization of the new proposed Lagrangian is similar to QED in case similarity of new proposed Lagrangian to classic QED.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7] **viXra:1309.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-03 07:41:38*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The number 30 is important to me because I always believed in the utility of classification of primes in primes of the form 30k + 1, 30k + 7, 30k + 11, 30k + 13, 30k + 17, 30k + 19, 30k + 23 and 30k + 29 (which may be interpreted as well as primes of the form 30h – 29, 30h – 23, 30h – 19, 30h – 17, 30h – 13, 30h – 11, 30h – 7 and 30h – 1). The following conjecture involves the multiples of the number 30 and is based on the study of Carmichael numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[6] **viXra:1309.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-09 11:09:45*

**Authors:** Soumya Marasakatla, Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Water immersion skin wrinkling has long been used as a test for sympathetic nerve function. However, the cause of underlying mechanism remained elusive. In this article, we theoretically investigate a possible cause of the phenomenon by taking into consideration various properties of sweating. The pressure exerted by the surface tension of sweat droplets counterbalances the secretory pressure of sweat glands at the pore. When a hand is immersed in water, sweat droplets easily merge with the water, causing the pressure to drop at the pore. Our calculations, using earlier measurements of secretory pressure, show that the water pressure at the sweat pore will be less than the secretory pressure of sweat glands when the hand is immersed at a shallow depth. The resulting pressure imbalance enables the sweat to flow freely into the water. We believe that there will be an initial vasodilation to feed the excess generation of sweat. Sweat flow continues as long as there is blood flow to the hand. To prevent excessive loss of sweat from the body and to maintain homeostasis, sympathetic nerves trigger vasoconstriction to reduce the blood flow to the hand. The overlying skin wrinkles due to loss of volume under the skin. It is possible that denerved fingers remain in the vasodilation state during immersion due to a lack of sympathetic nerve function.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[5] **viXra:1309.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-02 07:31:32*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I was studying the Fermat pseudoprimes in function of the remainder of the division by different numbers, when I noticed that the study of the remainders of the division by 28 seems to be very interesting. Starting from this, I discovered a method to easily find subsequences of Poulet numbers. I understand through “finding subsequences of Poulet numbers” finding such numbers that share a non-trivial property, i.e. not a sequence defined like: “Poulet numbers divisible by 7”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1309.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-23 12:10:05*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The General Grand Unification (GGU) Model solves a problem personally presented to this author, in 1979, by John A. Wheeler. It answers the question "Is physics legislated by cosmogony?" It is a cosmogony that yields a "Theory of Everything" for any descriptive cosmology. Further, it satisfies certain basic requirements. It shows that "the basic structure is something deeper than geometry and particles (a 'pregeometry')." It answers "the greatest question on the books of Physics. How did our universe come into being? And of what is it made? That is, "of what is the substance out of which the universe made?" "But, is it really imaginable that the deeper structure of physics should govern how the universe is made? Is it not more reasonable to believe the converse, that the requirement that the universe should come into being should govern the structure of physics?" Thus, how the universe comes into being should be distinct from the physical laws the processes satisfy. It also must satisfy the "observer-participator" principle. That is, we not only observe but we change the behavior of the universe through our physical activities. The GGU-model satisfies all of the requirements and, besides its secular interpretation, has two rather philosophic interpretations as well. It is shown how a predicted ultra-logic-system is directly related to the generation of a developmental and hyper-developmental paradigm, which, via GGU-model processes, represent a universe's physical and physical-like events. Such mathematical modeling includes the process of refining the general language used to interpret the symbols.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1309.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-07 19:38:06*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. necessary re statement of how holography is included in this document due to its connection with the space-time perhaps pertinent to the Hoph mapping

Hopf mapping from 2 dimensions (QM) to 3 dimensions (CM) are examined in terms of a formalism started by Feynman which has linkage to the (CM) equations of motion have linkage to the Serret - Frenet form (for Differential equations). We argue that in doing so we may then link QM representations of qubits to a solved version of the rotating rod problem. Furthermore since a ‘generic’ solid body rotation equivalent to the rotating rod problem has linkage to GW generation, as given by Lightman et. al. it is a way to tie qubits (Quantum information) to GW generation. We then make observations as to what the results mean in terms of QM initial states and the power of GW production from early universe conditions

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1309.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-02 05:33:45*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The existence of the waves proves the existence of the special relativity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1309.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-01 03:46:28*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), as a part of the Standard Model of particle physics, is
the most successful theory of the strong interaction at present.
However, as shown by the author, it predicts a colour dependence of the electric charge
of the quarks. This colour dependence is consistent with all that we know of QCD for three
colours and for arbitrary number of colours; except that it brings about a direct conflict with the
experimentally well-known coulomb interaction of the electric charges of quarks and leptons.
This leads directly to QCD predicting "naked" colour interaction in electrodynamics
at large distances. This is completely unacceptable and is thus a major crisis for QCD.
Note that this crisis cannot be swept aside, as the issue of the "naked" colour
is as fundamenatal a prediction of QCD as that of the asymptotic freedom was.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics