[218] **viXra:1409.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 18:12:36*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman, Yifat Agat-Galili

**Comments:** 23 Pages. The paper is forthcoming in Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology

This paper discusses the impact of the Jewish-Arab conflict on overt and covert layers of therapeutic encounters that take place across boundaries between the two nationalities. We refer mainly to the prevalent case of Arab patients treated by Jewish therapists. We discuss the implications of intergroup tension, cultural differences, and status disparities on the therapeutic dynamics. Our focus is on the effect of these variables on the processes of transference and counter-transference, on perceptions and interpretations of behaviors, on sources of resistance, and on the inability of therapists to take the patients’ perspective. Side by side with the psychoanalytical approach, the article utilizes various social-psychological theories, mainly social identity theory, in deriving insights regarding tensions between the interpersonal/therapeutic dimension and the intergroup dimension. Recommendations for improving therapies in the discussed case are suggested.

**Category:** Social Science

[217] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 11:57:06*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 27 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[216] **viXra:1409.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 09:53:18*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electromagnetic waves are folds that propagate in a polarized vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[215] **viXra:1409.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-18 09:49:45*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Rapid-Formation process is formally described and applied to establish the rationality of certain strictly described Biblical scenarios.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[214] **viXra:1409.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-05 08:48:51*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This is a Biblical application of the General Grand Unification Model (GGU-model). A general description is given for a strictly interpreted GGU-model produced Genesis 1 scenario. This version includes additional Flood details and evidence that verifies the model.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[213] **viXra:1409.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 04:57:48*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A three-page letter published in Astrophysics and Space Science

This letter points out that the values of ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND, and the ‘accelerated-expansion’ of the universe are just two of the fourteen strikingly equal values of accelerations recurring in different physical situations. Alternative expressions for the cosmological red-shift, the ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND and Newton’s law of universal gravitation are also presented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[212] **viXra:1409.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 05:04:01*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page paper

This letter presents some new expressions for gravity without the big G and proposes their possible wave-theoretical-explanation. This attempt leads to some insight that: (i) We need the proportionality-constant G because we measure masses and distances in our arbitrarily-chosen units of kg. and meters; but if we measure ‘mass’ as a fraction of ‘total-mass of the universe’ M0 and measure distances as a fraction of ‘radius-of-the-universe’R0 then there is no need for the proportionality-constant G. However, large uncertainties in the M0 and R0 limit the general application of this relation presently. (ii) The strength of gravity would be different if the total-mass of the universe were different. Then this possibility is supported with the help of wave-theory. (iii) This understanding of G leads to an insight that Planck’s-length, Planck-mass and Planck’s unit of time are geometric-mean-values of astrophysical quantities like: total-mass of the universe and the smallest-possible-mass h H0 / c^2. (iv) There appears a law followed by various systems-of-matter, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe; that their ratio Mass / Radius^2 remains constant. This law seems to be more fundamental than the fundamental-forces because it is obeyed irrespective of the case, whether the system is bound by strong-force, electric-force, or gravitational-force.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[211] **viXra:1409.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 18:24:30*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. email jrj2222@aol.com

Discovering hidden relationships, relationships that may reveal the secrets of nature, is a difficult if not impossible goal. This is primarily because the models of the two worlds, the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) and the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC) have no elements in common, they are completely disjoint. Thus, relationships are hidden and finding them, may prove to be unattainable. However, attempts to identify "hidden relationships" must be based on dimensionless numbers and include constants and equations from both models. This article, by defining the dimensional and dimensionless constants within the SMPP and the SMC, illustrates the difficulty of finding relationships. Familiar ratios and a select group of ratios using Planck and Hubble constants are analyzed. The Schwarzschild black hole equation explains key relationships.
Keywords: Particle Physics, Cosmology, Dimensionless Numbers, Constants of Nature, Black Hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[210] **viXra:1409.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 06:45:21*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The general relativity might be ruled out using the Fatio-Le Sage idea with the cosmic microwave background radiation. The special relativity might be ruled out because in it the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[209] **viXra:1409.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 06:28:49*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work we found a correction of special relativity and verified the relation between inertial mass, gravitational mass and rest mass. Also we found a generalization of Newton’s law of gravitation and the Logarithmic gravitational potential responsible for the flat tendency of the rotation curves in spiral galaxies. We found the cosmological constant and the vacuum energy density in term of gravitational radius .we found spatial mass distribution of dark matter haloes and the condition appears in the circular velocity curve predicted from Navarro–Frenk–White, and the planets mass defect (sun-earth). We found new equation to Hawking radiation in term of curvature. We found the geodetic drift of the planets and the value of θ=6.67528 arc sec for the earth. Finally we explained the notion of Hypermass and Hyperscale and how it can be used to find MOND.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[208] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-28 12:04:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[207] **viXra:1409.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:16:56*

**Authors:** Víctor Márquez Pailos

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Creación filosófica

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[206] **viXra:1409.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:22:01*

**Authors:** Ana Carrasco Conde

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Resumen: Siguiendo el mito de Prometeo que aparece en el Protágoras de Platón y según el cual el don de los hombres está relacionado con el robo del fuego divino y la posterior concesión de la justicia y el pudor por parte de Zeus, se podría afirmar que lo más característico de lo humano es la capacidad técnica. La ciencia y la técnica son la base de la cultura, pero al mismo tiempo la cultura y la política son los límites de lo técnico y producen civilización. Este artículo analiza la relación hombre/técnica/tecnología a partir la tesis de Lyotard según la cual esta conjunción razón-técnica es lo menos humano y supone una amenaza a la libertad, y propone una nueva lectura que da cuenta de la relación entre el hombre y el sistema.
Palabras clave: Lyotard, Prometeo, técnica, tecnología, sistema, hombre.
Abstract: According to Prometeos myth that appears in the Protagoras of Plato, the gift of the men is related to the theft of the divine fire and the later grant of the justice and the shame becoming of Zeus, it could be affirmed that the most typical of the human thing is the capacity of technique. The science and the technique are the base of the culture, but at the same time the culture and the politics are the limits of technique, and they produce civilization. This article analyzes the relation between man/technology/technique, from Lyotard's thesis according to which this conjunction reason - technology is the least part of human thing and supposes a threat to the freedom. He proposes a new reading that realizes of the relation between the man and the system.
Keywords: Lyotard, Prometeo, technique, technology, system.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[205] **viXra:1409.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:24:18*

**Authors:** Jesús Adrián Escudero

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Artículo sobre los "Cuadernos Negros" de Heidegger.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[204] **viXra:1409.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:26:20*

**Authors:** Antonio Campillo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Creación filosófica

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[203] **viXra:1409.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:27:40*

**Authors:** Adelmo José Da Silva

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Resumen: A pesar de que Gabriel Marcel y Henri Bergson no elaboraron propiamente un sistema filosófico y tampoco declararon ser parte de ninguno, a través de sus reflexiones filosóficas podemos reconocerlos como miembros de un modo único de corriente humanista. En general es posible verificar en las ideas de estos dos filósofos una reflexión que se vuelve hacia la preocupación por la interpersonalidad y la apertura. En un momento en que hay un despertar a la necesidad de una reflexión que conduce a una forma de valoración del otro, a través de una visión humanista Bergson y Marcel son recordados como los pensadores capaces de plantear esta discusión sobre la mencionada necesidad. Para ellos, la experiencia fundamental de nuestra existencia es el encuentro del yo con el tú, especialmente cuando esta experiencia permite superar todo lo que posiblemente puede ser sinónimo de destrucción y depreciación del tú. En este sentido, el humanismo de Gabriel Marcel y Henri Bergson apela a una ética de la apertura.
Palabras clave: Apertura, humanismo, interpersonalidad.
Abstract: Although Gabriel Marcel and Henri Bergson had not developed a philosophical system, properly, nor have they declared being part of this kind of system through their philosophical reflections. We can consider them as members of a original modality of the humanistic philosophical current. We can identify in their set of ideias a reflection focused on concerns about interpersonality and an openness about these ideias. Marcel and Bergson were reminded as thinkers who were capable of stimulating the need of a reflection that leads to a way of appreciation of another through a humanistic view. To them, the fundamental experience of our existence is the encounter of the “I” with tha “you”, mainly when this experience enables the overcoming of everything that, eventualy, may be synonymous of extermination and depreciation of the “you”. In this sense, the Gabriel Marcel and Henri Bergson´s humanism calls to a ethic of openness.
Keywords: Opening, Humanism, Interpessonality.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[202] **viXra:1409.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-01 12:20:30*

**Authors:** Jaume Mensa Valls

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Resumen: Sócrates es presentado en el Cármides de Platón como un “brujo” que con unas palabras mágicas puede hacer pasar la jaqueca del joven Cármides. Examinado detenidamente el diálogo de Platón, queda claro que solo la palabra y la reflexión (el élenchos), la filosofía en definitiva, tienen este poder curativo. La “maestría Socrática”continúa operando en los diálogos platónicos y transmiten una fuerza “terapéutica” y “purificadora”, que nos ayudan a examinar nuestra propia vida. La función de los diálogos platónicos es guiar el alma del lector (psicagogía) en el camino de la filosofía. Y aquí radica precisamente su permanente actualidad.
Palabras clave: Sócrates, Platón, psicagogía, cura del alma, élenchos, Cármides.
Abstract: Socrates is presented in Plato's Charmides as a «warlock», who has the power to cure the headache of Charmides with some «magic words». Properly considered the dialogue of Plato, it is evident that only the word and the reflection (élenchos), the philosophy ultimately, is endowed with healing power. The «Socratic mastery» continues to operate in the Platonic dialogues and they convey a therapeutic power, whichhelp us to examine our own lives. The purpose of the Platonic dialogues is to guide the soul of the reader (psicagogía) in the way of philosophy. And here lies precisely its current value.
Keywords: Socrates, Plato, psicagogia, care of the soul, elenchus, Charmides.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[201] **viXra:1409.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:30:26*

**Authors:** Jesús Ezquerra Gómez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Creación filosófica

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[200] **viXra:1409.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:32:43*

**Authors:** Eduardo Maura

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Este texto amplía una intervención el primero de julio de 2014 en la jornada ¿QUÈ VOL DIR POLITITZAR-SE AVUI? DE LA POLÍTICA A LA FILOSOFIA I DE LA FILOSOFIA A LA POLÍTICA en la Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona), organizada por Sonia Arribas (UPF) en el marco del proyecto de investigación MINECO FFI2012-36339 ("Vida dañada y marcos de lo sensible").

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[199] **viXra:1409.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:34:41*

**Authors:** Mariano Rodríguez González

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Este texto recoge la conferencia inaugural del curso 2013-14 del Seminario Nietzsche Complutense, que tuvo lugar en Septiembre de 2013, con la intervención del Decano de la Facultad de Filosofía de la UCM, Rafael Orden, en la Casa del Lector del Matadero de Madrid.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[198] **viXra:1409.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:36:04*

**Authors:** José Manuel Chillón

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Resumen: La sabiduría a la que aspira profundamente el hombre es la referida al ámbito ontológico de lo necesario. Pero esa aspiración es un objetivo a largo plazo que no puede descuidar la tarea de gestión de la realidad concreta, que es siempre una realidad política, en la que se desenvuelve la acción humana. El ámbito de lo político puede ser de otra manera porque puede ser orientado o transformado por la acción del hombre. La contingencia de lo político y la libertad moral no pueden desvincularse. ¿Se podría hablar entonces de un cierto tipo de sabiduría sobre aquello que puede ser de otra manera?
Palabras clave: Sabiduría, Metafísica, polis, ciudadano, prudencia.
Abstract: The wisdom that man seeks deeply relates to what is necessary. But that aspiration is a long term goal that can not neglect the task of how to act in the concrete reality in which man is to live. A reality that is eminently political and also requires a certain knowledge. Not only the wise man is happy but the good citizen. Not only good theoretical life but civic life. What kind of wisdom is required then the political praxis? What are the hinges that join these two styles of human fulfillment?
Keywords: Knowledge, Metaphysics, polis, citizen, prudence.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[197] **viXra:1409.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:38:00*

**Authors:** Alejandro Escudero Pérez

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

Heidegger y el problema del tiempo

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[196] **viXra:1409.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:39:25*

**Authors:** Francisco León Florido

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Resumen: La concepción del saber sigue en Tomás de Aquino el esquema básico aristotélico, que formula una jerarquía en la que se subordinan las ciencias productivas a las teóricas. Partiendo de la concepción aristotélica del orden de las ciencias, Tomás de Aquino determina el papel de la metafísica y la teología en una concepción cristiana del saber.
Palabras clave: Concepción del saber, jerarquía de las ciencias, ciencias productivas, metafísica, teología, sabiduría cristiana.
Abstract: The Aquina's conception of knowledge continues the pattern set by Aristotle, where is formulated a hierarchy in which productive sciences are subordinated to theoretical sciences. Based on Aristotle's conception of the order of sciences, Aquinas point out the role of Metaphysics and Theology in a Christian conception of knowledge.
Keywords: Conception of knowledge, hierarchy of sciences, productive sciences, Metaphysics, Theology, Christian Wisdom.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[195] **viXra:1409.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:40:48*

**Authors:** Jaime Llorente

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Resumen: El objetivo principal del presente estudio es examinar el contenido de la serie de conferencias inéditas dictadas por Emmanuel Levinas entre los años 1947 y 1964 en el Collège philosophique de París, y que han visto la luz recientemente a través de la publicación de las obras completas del pensador lituano-francés. Entre la extensa variedad de cuestiones abordadas en estas intervenciones públicas, destacan por su recurrencia la reflexión acerca del fenómeno de la comunicación lingüística y la atención prestada por Levinas a las múltiples implicaciones y ramificaciones que se derivan de él. En consonancia con ello, nuestro discurso expositivo se articula en torno a cuatro ejes fundamentales: la concepción del lenguaje como elemento simbólico definido por su esencial referencia a la alteridad, la fenomenología del sonido, el fenómeno de la enseñanza oral como
acontecimiento privilegiado de la relación con el otro y la afirmación del sujeto aislado (contenida en las nociones de poder y posesión) que caracteriza a la subjetividad moderna.
Palabras clave: Levinas, alteridad, poder, lenguaje, sonido, fosforescencia.
Abstract: The main aim of the present study is to examine the contents of the series of unpublished conferences given by Emmanuel Levinas between the years 1947 and 1964 at the Collège philosophique of Paris, which have seen the light recently thanks to the publication of the Lithuanian-French thinker´s Complete Works. Among the wide diversity of matters broached in these public interventions, the reflection concerning the phenomenon of linguistic communication and the attention paid by Levinas to the multiple implications and ramifications derived from it, stand out by their recurrence. In accordance to this, our expositive discourse is articulated around four basic axles: the conception of language as a symbolic element defined by its essential reference to alterity, the phenomenology of sound, the phenomenon of oral teaching understood as privileged event of the relationship with the other, and the affirmation of the isolated subject (implicit in the notions of power and possession) that characterizes the Modern Age.
Keywords: Levinas, alterity, power, language, sound, phosphorescence.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[194] **viXra:1409.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:42:25*

**Authors:** Cristián De Bravo Delorme

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Aristóteles, Ética a Nicómaco, libro II (1103a 14-1109b 29) Traducción fenomenológica con introducción y notas.
Esta traducción forma parte de la investigación postdoctoral financiada por Becas Chile, Conicyt

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[193] **viXra:1409.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:43:37*

**Authors:** Traducción de Roberto Ranz

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Díficil democracia. Michel Henry.
Traducción de Roberto Ranz (Center for Innovation and Talent Development)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[192] **viXra:1409.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:44:53*

**Authors:** José Félix Baselga

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Reseña de "Byung-Chul Han, La agonía del Eros, traducción de Raúl Gabás, Herder, Barcelona, 2014, 79 pp. ISBN: 978-84-254-3254-5".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[191] **viXra:1409.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:46:11*

**Authors:** Antonio Lastra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Reseña de "De ruinas y horizontes. La modernidad y sus paradojas. Homenaje a Marshall Berman. Edición de Jorge E. Brenna B. y Francisco Carballo, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana/Editorial Ítaca, México, 2014, 361 pp. ISBN 978-607-28-0115-8".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[190] **viXra:1409.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:47:41*

**Authors:** Edgar Straehle

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Resumen: El siguiente texto analiza la obra El judío Süss (Jud Süß) en relación a su contexto con el fin de explorar el componente antisemita de la cinematografía nazi. Curiosamente se contempla el hecho de que esta película es un producto infrecuente, pues Goebbels no se atrevió a insistir en un tipo películas que, a excepción de la película que aquí estudiamos, no lograron atraer al público alemán. Así se constata y se explora uno de los límites del poder del totalitarismo nazi, el cual no consiguió que los espectadores desearan el tipo de cine que el gobierno deseaba para ellos.
Palabras clave: Goebbels, totalitarismo, antisemitismo, Süss, Arendt.
Abstract: This article studies in depth the movie Jew Süss (Jud Süss) in connection with its context in order to explore anti-semitism in the nazi cinematography. One can see, paradoxically, that this movie was an uncommon product, because Goebbels didn’t dare to insist in a kind of movies, which normally didn’t attract the german public, excepting the film that we are examining. That shows one of the limits of nazi totalitarianism, because the nazi government didn’t reach to convince the people to want to see this kind of movies.
Keywords: Goebbels, totalitarianism, anti-semitism, Süss, Arendt.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[189] **viXra:1409.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:49:02*

**Authors:** Valerio Rocco Lozano

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el papel jugado por algunas figuras conceptuales de Gran Hombre, en particular Orestes y Teseo, en tres obras hegelianas de la época jenense. En el marco del intento general de hallar respuestas a la compleja situación política de Alemania, Hegel cree en la necesidad de un individuo universal que, uniendo los principios del derecho y de la violencia, así como las tradiciones de Roma y Grecia, pueda sentar las bases de la fundación de un Estado moderno unificado. El artículo avanza la hipótesis de que el individuo en quien Hegel piensa, al menos en esta época, es Napoleón.
Palabras clave: Historia, derecho, violencia, fundación, héroe, Roma, Grecia.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the role played by some conceptual figures of Great Man, particularly Orestes and Theseus, in three Hegelian works of the Jena period. Within the general purpose of finding answers to the difficult political situation of Germany, Hegel believes in the necessity of a universal individual which, combining the principles of law and violence as well as the Roman and Greek traditions, would set the conditions for the foundation of a modern unified State. The paper suggests the hypothesis that Napoleon is, at least in this period, the individual Hegel is thinking of.
Keywords: History, law, violence, foundation, hero, Rome, Greece.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[188] **viXra:1409.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:50:28*

**Authors:** Miguel Ángel Rodríguez López

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Resumen: La cultura europea del siglo XVIII asiste al nacimiento de la Estética como disciplina filosófica. La observación de la naturaleza y las posibilidades cognitivas que ofrece espolean numerosas investigaciones que servirán de inspiración tanto para el terreno del arte como para el desarrollo de un pensamiento capaz de convertir la exploración estética del mundo en testimonio cultural de una época. La metáfora del viaje, y en particular la percepción de riberas, mares y océanos, nos permite ilustrar mejor ciertas estéticas de lo bello y lo sublime capaces de impulsar una escritura del yo embarcado en los elixires de su propia historia hasta su progresiva disolución.
Palabras clave: Estética, Bello, Sublime, Mar, Metáfora, Viaje, Yo, Historia.
Abstract: The European culture in the XVIII century witnesses the arrival of Aesthetics as a Philosophical subject. The observation of the nature and the cognitive possibilities that it provides, boost considerable research offering a source of inspiration not only for the Art but also in the development of a thought capable of turn the Aesthetics exploration in the world into a cultural testimony of a period. The metaphor of the journey and, in particular the perception of river banks, seas and oceans, allows us to show better some Aesthetics of the Beauty and Sublime which spur a writing of the I shipped in the elixir of its own History until its progressive dissolution.
Keywords: Aesthetics, Beauty, Sublime, Sea, Metaphor, Journey, I, History.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[187] **viXra:1409.0210 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-29 14:52:14*

**Authors:** Luis Merita Blat

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Resumen: Este artículo analiza el ensayo “Industria cultural” escrito por Adorno dentro de Dialéctica de la Ilustración, consistente en una crítica a la Ilustración entendida como engaño de masas. La introducción incluye al ensayo dentro del conjunto de dicha obra, y expone las dificultades que el gesto de plantear una crítica ideología ha de hacer frente en 1944. Tras ello, estudio las principales características de la industria cultural, a saber, la falsa identidad entre sujeto y objeto, la creación de una falsa comunidad, el control sobre los individuos y la obra de arte bajo la industria cultural. Los efectos de la industria cultural son recapitulados por el concepto de Entkunstung, que describe la cosificación del arte como una pérdida de los elementos estéticos. Finaliza mi trabajo reflexionando sobre la actualidad del diagnóstico adorniano, así como señalando los límites de la crítica social, que reside en la indignación y el coraje de los individuos.
Palabras clave: crítica a la ideología; industria cultural; mercancía; pseudo-obra de arte; desestetización.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the essay “Culture industry” (Kulturindustrie) written by Adorno in Dialectic of Enlightenment, which consists on a critique of Enlightenment understood as mass deception. The introduction includes Adorno’s essay inside the whole of Dialectic of Enlightenment, and explains the difficulties that the gesture of updating criticism of ideology faces in 1944. After that, I study the main characteristics of culture industry, namely, the false identity between subject and object, the creation of a false community, the control over individuals and the artwork under the culture industry. The effects of Culture industry are recapitulated by the concept of Enkunstung, which describes the commodification of art as the loss of aesthetic elements of art. I finalize my work reflecting on Adorno’s diagnosis actuality, and pointing out the limits of social critique, which lies on indignation and courage of individuals.
Keywords: ideology criticism; culture industry; commodity; pseudo-artwork; Entkunstung.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[186] **viXra:1409.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-28 17:33:47*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The article was initially written in Russian. The Abtract and comments and the comments ander the figures are duplicated in English

The paper deals with an influence of an external magneto-mechanical spinning object on the current of the electronic beam inside the Cathode Ray Tubes, CRT. The experiments have revealed that a variation of the angular momentum L reduces the current (I) up to 30%. The preliminary law of interaction can be shown as a dot product , where n is a unity vector of the electron flow.
There was no 100% reproduction of the phenomena. In particular, in one of the cases, relocation of the installation to a different place annihilated the phenomenon. This raises a question on the influence of the hidden factors like Geo-Pathogenic Zones, having their own angular momentum, on the effect, as well as other factors. However, in the majority of the experiments, the effect was reproduced with CRT of the oscilloscopes and the TV-set, Figs. 6,8,9. It was also noted that direction of the variation of the spinning with respect to direction of the electron flow plays a role in the phenomenon, what is shown as the dot product above.
The phenomenon can be explained as an interaction of the spins of electrons and the angular momentum of the magneto-mechanical spinning. The results of the experiments match that of earlier conducted by the author for interaction of the spinning electromagnetic fields and background gamma-quanta. The interaction of the angular momentum of the spinning field and the spins of the quanta resulted in their statistics. In particular, the clockwise spinning reduced the count rate for 20%. This relates both the phenomena.
Action of the external magneto-mechanical spinning also can affect the whole electronic system, incorporating the CRT.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[185] **viXra:1409.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 03:37:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is built on the original Dirac equation, an equation that exhibits perfect symmetry in that it is symmetric under charge conjugation (C), space (P) and time (T) reversal and any combination of these discrete symmetries. We demonstrate herein that the proposed Lorentz invariant Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations} (CSTD-Equations), while they obey (CPT) and PT-Symmetries, these equations readily violate C, P, T, CP and CT-Symmetries. Realizing this violation, namely the C-Violation, we take this golden opportunity to suggest that the Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations may help in solving the long standing riddle and mystery of the preponderance of matter over antimatter. We come to the tentative conclusion that if these CSTD-Equations are to explain the preponderance of matter over antimatter, then, photons are to be thought of as described by the flat version of this set of equations, while ordinary matter is to be explained by the positive and negatively curved spacetime versions of this same set of equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[184] **viXra:1409.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-28 00:52:19*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The relation of saving, investment, and consumption is given in this short article. We can also find out the relationship of interest rate and saving, consumption, and investment. The relation of average propensity of consumption and investment to marginal propensity of consumption and investment is also provided. This article explains why higher interest rate leads to less consumption, larger saving, and less investment. Finally, I provide support why stock market usually has more profit than bond market or bank deposit.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[183] **viXra:1409.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 15:37:45*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In view of some fairly recent comments in the literature, well-known facts concerning systems capable of achieving both positive and negative absolute temperatures are reviewed. These considerations are shown to raise serious unanswered questions concerning the widely accepted expression for the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[182] **viXra:1409.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 11:28:23*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Thank you

The increasing amount of information requires that scientists and teachers establish its rules of selection, sorting, ordering and contemporary presentation. Selection of information is determined by the individual and the demands of social development in the coming decades. Sort information defined basic human activities and developing their methodological and logical apparatus. Ordering information is based on creation and allocation of a set of systems, systematics and mnemonic rules. This ordering information should perform two functions - distribution databases and identifying errors in these databases. With regard to the educational process system reporting should take into account both the conditioned reflex and unconditioned reflex components of the process of perception and assimilation of new knowledge. Under the current understanding of information we mean the computerized representation of a few principles from which you can easily get a set of facts (Claude Adrien Helvétius, 1759).
The first part of this article is devoted to the general principles of a Spiral Approach in Education (SAE). We selected 15 scientific disciplines that form the basis of the SAE.. These subjects should be studied from 4 to 17 years, i.e. until the end of secondary school.
The second part of this article is devoted to some theoretical aspects, which can be laid down as the basis of the study of physics, chemistry and biology. We accept and justify that the basis of the science of nature are the three fundamental representations: Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry. The application of these concepts to a variety of natural objects and processes of their interaction allows us to find a number of conservation laws and selection rules for subsequent analysis. Conservation laws are the most versatile, simple and easy to understand description of many phenomena and objects of nature.
The third part of this article is devoted to the specific examples of applications of Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry to the physical, chemical and biological objects - elementary particles, nuclei of atoms, chemical elements and their ions, molecules and codons. Particular attention is drawn to the need to build a "concentrated" database for the physical, chemical and biological properties.
The fourth part of this article is devoted to the specific examples of the construction of the educational process for children from 4 to 17 years. Displaying what educational tools and how to use them in the formation of the architecture of the process of learning and education.
Key Words: Combinatory, Homology, Symmetry, Teaching Play Rope Playground Equipment.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[181] **viXra:1409.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 09:13:21*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitali

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of the principle of
the Heisenberg uncertainty over the measurement information about the state of the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[180] **viXra:1409.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 20:40:47*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper "Unified field theory" (UFT) opened a new chapter of physics. The main model of UFT is Torque Grids that unify Space, Time, Energy and Force. The configuration of invisible particles and structure of the grand universe can be logically induced. Visually, the universe can be modeled as single Torque Grids’ hierarchy. A simple UDP Java program can be used to prove the space-time-energy-force relationship predicted by the unified field theory and explain why the continents are drifting. One of the applications of UFT is to predict the nuclei topologies of each element. Physics, "knowledge of nature", is defined as a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. UFT gives a better definition of Physics: “A natural science that involves the study of motion of space-time-energy-force to explain/predict the motion, interaction and configuration of matter.”

**Category:** Classical Physics

[179] **viXra:1409.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 19:09:24*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Re-sequenced the figure numbers

This paper proposes that a nucleus has a lattice configuration. A nucleus can not be seen visually. The configuration of a nucleus is studied in theoretical models, such as lattice, NCFC, and water drop. There are a few theories study many body interactions in a nucleus, such as Ab initio calculation, BCS formalism, and SEMF. However, the precise structure of an isotope is not known. According to Unified Field Theory (UFT), a proton has the shape of an octahedron. Since the strong forces are along the axes of the octahedron of protons and neutron, the structure of ground state isotopes of any given element can be logically induced. Furthermore, only two of three axes of the octahedron nucleus possess interactive forces. Therefore, any nuclear structure has one layer only. Our results demonstrate that there is a configuration for any isotope. Mass, stability and configuration of an isotope are related. We anticipate our essay to be a starting point of new method that provides precise configuration for each isotope, theoretical mass calculation for an unknown isotope, and nuclear characteristics/stability analysis for a given configuration. For example, the best symmetrical lattice of an isotope can be selected from all possible lattices. The selected lattice for the isotope can decide the stability of the isotope.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[178] **viXra:1409.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 15:26:27*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This model shows the relation between microscopic scale and macroscopic scale and the idea of time and mass in both scales. The equations of energy time equivalence and mass time equivalence are verified. Also we found the equation of cosmic microwave background radiation temperature (CMBRT). The diagram shows the multiverse and how it can be constructed in seven loops and eleven dimensions without a big bang dogma.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[177] **viXra:1409.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 17:55:16*

**Authors:** John R. Springer

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Confirmation of HERA Experiments

Experiments performed at the HERA Ring Accelerator, Hamburg, Germany, have provided “A New View of the Proton as Seen by HERA”1 which shows that the “new” proton contains not just three quarks but a large number of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. A model is presented here which confirms this. It shows that quarks exist only as triads and anti-triads, not as single isolated quark- antiquark pairs. The triads and anti-triads (TAT) are all paired together with exception of one uud, the valence triad.
The model confirms that precisely 8 gluons exist in each uud and u- u- d- structure. However, in the pairing process, 9 gluons of negative energy are required for each TAT pair.
The model shows that although precise mass cannot be assigned to either quarks or gluons, it can be assigned to each gluon/quark pair and to each (of many) quark triads and anti-triads, which ultimately add up accurately to the proton mass.
Finally, the model has been expanded to include the structure and mass of the neutron and stable mesons. It also proposes a quark (without gluons) structure for the lower leptons. Thus, all particles found in nature may have a quark structure in this model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[176] **viXra:1409.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The hierarchy of phases with effective value of Planck constant coming as an integer multiple of the ordinary Planck constant and interpreted as dark matter is crucial in the TGD inspired model of living matter. The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant h_{eff} (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. The importance of the result is that it provides strong mathematical motivations for zero energy ontology (ZEO), causal diamonds (CDs), and hierarchy of (effective) Planck constants . Quite generally, the results apply to systems with external energy feed inducing generalized force acting in some compact degrees of freedom. Living matter represents basic example of this kind of system. Amazingly, ATP synthase enzyme contains generator with a rotating shaft: a possible TGD based interpretation is that the associated torque forces the generation of large h_{eff} phases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[175] **viXra:1409.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:31:01*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A generalization of twistor Grassmannian approach defines a very promising vision about the construction of generalized Feynman diagrams. Since particles are replaced with 3-D surfaces and since string like objects emerge naturally in TGD framework, one expects that scattering amplitudes define a generalization of twistor Grassmannian amplitudes with a generalized Yangian symmetry. The realization of this approach has been however plagued by long-standing problems. SUSY in some form seems to be strongly supported by theoretical elegance and TGD indeed suggests a good candidate for a broken SUSY realized in terms of covariantly constant right-handed neutrino and not requiring Majorana spinors. Separate conservation of baryon and lepton number imply that super-generators carry quark or lepton number. This has been the main obstacle in attempts to construct stringly amplitudes. In this article it is found that this obstacles can be overcome and that stringy approach is forced both by the TGD view about physical particles and by the cancellation of UV and IR divergences. Also the planarity restriction emerges automatically in stringy approach. Absolutely essential ingredient is that fundamental fermions can be regarded as massless on-shell fermions having non-physical helicity with propagator replaced with its inverse: this representation follows by perfoming the integration over the virtual four-momentum squared using residue calculus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[174] **viXra:1409.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:33:26*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests. TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification h_{eff} = h_{gr} at particle physics and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[173] **viXra:1409.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:35:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The earlier attempts to understand the relationship between TGD and GRT have been in terms of solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable to M^{4} ×CP_{2} instead of introducing GRT space-time as a fictive notion naturally emerging from TGD as asimplified concept replacing many-sheeted space-time. This resolves also the worries related to Equivalence Principle. TGD can be seen as a "microscopic" theory behind TGD and the understanding of the microscopic
elements becomes the main focus of theoretical and hopefully also experimental work some day.

The understanding of Kähler Dirac action has been second long term project. How can one guarantee that em charge is well-defined for the spinor modes when classical W fields are present? How to avoid large parity breaking effects due to classical Z^{0} fields? How to avoid the problems due to the fact that color rotations induce vielbein rotation of weak fields? The common answer to these questions is restriction of the modes of induced spinor field to 2-D string world sheets (and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces) such that the induced weak fields vanish. This makes string picture a part of TGD.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[172] **viXra:1409.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:37:00*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The construction of Kähler geometry of WCW ("world of classical worlds") is fundamental to TGD program. I ended up with the idea about physics as WCW geometry around 1985 and made a breakthrough around 1990, when I realized that Kähler function for WCW could correspond to Kähler action for its preferred extremals defining the analogs of Bohr orbits so that classical theory with Bohr rules would become an exact part of quantum theory and path integral would be replaced with genuine integral over WCW. The motivating construction was that for loop spaces leading to a unique Kähler geometry. The geometry for the space of 3-D objects is even more complex than that for loops and the vision still is that the geometry of WCW is unique from the mere existence of Riemann connection.

This article represents the updated version of the construction providing a solution to the problems of the previous construction. The basic formulas remain as such but the expressions for WCW super-Hamiltonians defining WCW Hamiltonians (and matrix elements of WCW metric) as their anticommutator are replaced with those following from the dynamics of the modified Dirac action.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[171] **viXra:1409.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:38:52*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Widom and Larsen (for articles see the Widom Larsen LENR Theory Portal have proposed atheory of cold fusion (LENR), which claims to predict correctly the various isotope ratios observed in cold fusion and accompanying nuclear transmutations. The ability to predict correctly the isotope ratios suggests that the model is on the right track. A further finding is that the predicted isotope ratios correspond to those appearing in Nature which suggests that LENR is perhaps more important than hot fusion in solar interior as far as nuclear abundances are considered. TGD leads to the same proposal and Lithium anomaly could be understood as one implication of LENR. The basic step of the reaction would rely on weak interactions: the proton of hydrogen atom would transform to neutron by capturing the electron and therefore would overcome the Coulomb barrier. This transformation is extremely slow unless the value of Planck constant is so large that weak bosons have Compton lengths of order atomic length scale.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[170] **viXra:1409.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:45:13*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

According to Michael Levin, concerning morphogenesis and morphostasis the basic challenge is to understand how the shape of the organism is generated and how it is preserved. The standard local approach based on belief on genetic determinism does not allow one to answer these questions satisfactorily.

The first approach to this problem relies on a self-organization paradigm in which the local dynamics of cells leads to large scale structures as self-organization patterns. In TGD framework 3-D self-organization is replaced with 4-D self-organization (the failure of strict determinism of the classical dynamics is essential motivating zero energy ontology (ZEO)). One can speak about 4-D healing: expressing it in somewhat sloppy manner, the space-time surface serving as a classical correlate for the patient is as a whole replaced with the healed one: after the 4-D healing process the organism was never ill in geometrical sense! Note that in quantal formulation one must speak of quantum superposition of space-time surfaces.

Second approach could be seen as computational. The basic idea is that the process is guided by a template of the target state and morphogenesis and healing are computational processes. What Levin calls morphogenetic fields would define this template. It is known that organisms display a kind of coordinate grid providing positional information that allows cells to "decide" about the profile of genetic expression. In TGD framework magnetic body forming coordinate grid formed from flux tubes is a natural candidate for this structure. They would also realize topological quantum computation (TQC) with basic computational operations realized at the nodes of flux tubes to which it is natural to associate some biological sub-structures.

The assumption about final goal defining a template can be argued to be too strong: much weaker principle defining a local direction of dynamics and leading automatically to the final state as something analogous to free energy minimum in thermodynamics might be enough. Unfortunately, second law is the only principle that standard physics can offer. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) provides the desired principle in TGD framework. Also the approach of WCW spinor field to the maximum of vacuum functional (or equivalently that of Kähler function) gives a goal for the dynamics after the perturbation of the organism causing "trauma". If Kähler function is classical space-time correlate for entanglement negentropy, these two views are equivalent.

TGD thus suggests an approach, which could be seen as a hybrid of approaches based on self-organization and computationalism. The magnetic body becomes the key notion and codes also for learned behaviors as TQC programs coded by the braiding of flux tubes. The replication of the magnetic body means also the replication of the programs behind behavioral patterns (often somewhat misleadingly regarded as synonymous with long term memories): both structure and function are replicated. This hypothesis survives the killer tests provided by the strange findings about planaria cut into two and developing new head or tail while retaining its learned behaviors: the findings indicate that behavioral programs are preserved although planaria develops a new brain.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[169] **viXra:1409.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:47:14*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

BICEP2 team has announced a detection of gravitational waves via the effects of gravitational waves on the spectrum on polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB). The findings - if true - have powerful implications for cosmological models. In this article the findings are discussed in the framework of TGD based cosmology in which the flatness of 3-space is interpreted in terms of quantum criticality
rather than inflation. The key role is played by gradually thickening cosmic strings carrying magnetic monopole flux, dark energy as magnetic energy and dark matter as large h_{eff} phases at cosmic strings. Very thin cosmic strings dominate the cosmology before the emergence of space-time as we know it and quantum criticality is associated with the phase transition between these two phases. Later cosmic strings serve as seeds of various cosmological structures by decaying partially to ordinary matter somewhat like inflaton fields in inflationary cosmology. Cosmic strings also explain the presence of magnetic fields in cosmos difficult to understand in standard approch. The crucial point is that - in contrast to ordinary magnetic fields - monopole fluxes do not require for their creation any currents coherent in long scales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1409.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:52:00*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discovery of negatively charged exclusion zone formed in water bounded by gel phase has led Pollack to propose the notion of gel like fourth phase of water. In this article this notion is discussed in TGD framework. The proposal is that the fourth phase corresponds to negatively charged regions - exclusion zones - with size up to 100-200 microns generated when energy is fed into the water - say as radiation, in particular solar radiation. The stoichiometry of the exclusion zone is H_{1.5}O and can be understood if every fourth proton is dark proton residing at the flux tubes of the magnetic body assignable to the exclusion zone and outside it. This leads to a model for prebiotic cell as exclusion zone. Dark protons are proposed to fork dark nuclei whose states can be grouped to groups corresponding to DNA, RNA, amino-acids, and tRNA and for which vertebrate genetic code is realized in a natural manner. The voltage associated with the system defines the analog of membrane potential, and serves as a source of metabolic energy as in the case of ordinary metabolism. The energy is liberated in a reverse phase transition in which dark protons transform to ordinary ones. Dark proton strings serve as analogs of basic biopolymers and one can imagine analog of bio-catalysis with enzymes replaced with their dark analogs. The recent discovery that metabolic cycles emerge spontaneously in absence of cell support this view.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[167] **viXra:1409.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:53:51*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A model for EEG as a communication tool of magnetic body is developed. The basic assumption is that communications from cell membrane occur by Josephson radiation inducing the analogs of cyclotron transitions: this leads to resonance conditions forcing the Josephson frequencies to be equal to cyclotron frequencies in the simplest situation. Music metaphor - in particular the metaphor "right brain sings, left brain" talks allows to further develop the earlier model. One must generalize the original assumption concerning the allowed values of magnetic field $B_{end}$ at flux tubes of the magnetic body: this generalization was forced already by the quantum model of hearing.

The model leads to a detailed identification of sub-bands of EEG in terms of cyclotron frequencies assignable to bosonic ions. One can understand the basic features of various EEG bands, why conscious experiences possible occurring during sleep are not remembered and the four stages of sleep, why beta amplitudes are low and tend to be chaotic, the origin of resonance frequencies of EEG. Also a model for how Schumann resonances could affect consciousness emerges.

Music metaphor allows to develop in more detail the earlier proposal that nerve pulse patterns defined a languages with "phonemes" having duration of .1 seconds and obeying genetic code with 6 bits. Also the right brain signs metaphor can be given a detailed quantitative content in terms of the analog of music scale associated with the resting potential.

**Category:** Mind Science

[166] **viXra:1409.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:56:37*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Negentropic entanglement for which number theoretic entropy characterized by p-adic prime is negative so that entanglement carries information, is in key role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology.

- The key feature of negentropic entanglement is that density matrix is proportional to unit matrix so that the assumption that state function reduction corresponds to the measurement of density matrix does not imply state function reduction to one-dimensional sub-space. This special kind of degenerate density matrix emerges naturally for the hierarchy h
_{eff}=nh interpreted in terms of a hierarchy of dark matter phases. I have already earlier considered explicit realizations of negentropic entanglement assuming that E is invariant under the group of unitary or orthogonal transformations (also subgroups of unitary group can be considered - say symplectic group). One can however consider much more general options and this leads to a connection with topological quantum computation (TQC). - Entanglement matrix E equal to 1/n
^{1/2}factor times unitary matrix U (as a special case orthogonal matrix O) defines a density matrix given by ρ=UU^{†}/n= Id_{n}/n, which is group invariant. One has NE respected by state function reduction if NMP is assumed. This would give huge number of negentropically entangled states providing a representation for some unitary group or its subgroup (such as symplectic group). In principle any unitary representation of any Lie group would allow representation in terms of NE. In principle any unitary representation of any Lie group would allow a representation in terms of NE. - In physics as generalized number theory vision, a natural condition is that the matrix elements of E belong to the algebraic extension of p-adic numbers used so that discreted algebraic subgroups of unitary or orthogonal group are selected. This realizes evolutionary hierarchy as a hierarchy of p-adic number fields and their algebraic extensions, and one can imagine that evolution of cognition proceeds by the generation of negentropically entangled systems with increasing algebraic dimensions and increasing dimension reflecting itself as an increase of the largest prime power dividing n and defining the p-adic prime in question.
- One fascinating implication is the ability of TGD Universe to emulate itself like Turing machine: unitary S-matrix codes for scattering amplitudes and therefore for physics and negentropically entangled subsystem could represent sub-matrix for S-matrix as rules representing "the laws of physics" in the approximation that the world corresponds to n-dimension Hilbert space. Also the limit n→ ∞ makes sense, especially so in the p-adic context where real infinity can correspond to finite number in the sense of p-adic norm. Here also dimensions n given as products of powers of infinite primes can be formally considered.

[165] **viXra:1409.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:58:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

An updated view about M^{8}-H duality is discussed. M^{8}-H duality allows to deduce M^{4}× CP_{2} via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M^{8} whereas for M^{4}× CP_{2} complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M^{4}× CP_{2} is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M^{4} and CP_{2} are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP_{2} appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M^{4}; to M^{8} and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP_{2} to to 12-D G_{2}/U(1)× U(1) having same
dimension as the the twistor space CP_{3}× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian
products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M^{8}-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M^{8} to M^{4}× CP_{2}.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[164] **viXra:1409.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

This piece of text was written as an attempt to provide a popular summary about TGD. This is of course mission impossible since TGD is something at the top of centuries of evolution which has led from Newton to standard model. This means that there is a background of highly refined conceptual thinking about Universe so that even the best computer graphics and animations fail to help. One can still try to create some inspiring impressions at least. This chapter approaches the challenge by answering the most frequently asked questions. Why TGD? How TGD could help to solve the problems of recent day theoretical physics? What are the basic princples of TGD? What are the basic guidelines in the construction of TGD?

These are examples of this kind of questions which I try to answer in using the only language that I can talk. This language is a dialect of the language used by elementary particle physicists, quantum field theorists, and other people applying modern physics. At the level of practice involves technically heavy mathematics but since it relies on very beautiful and simple basic concepts, one can do with a minimum of formulas, and reader can always to to Wikipedia if it seems that more
details are needed. I hope that reader could catch the basic principles and concepts: technical details are not important. And I almost forgot: problems! TGD itself and almost every new idea in the development of TGD has been inspired by a problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[163] **viXra:1409.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:01:53*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One manner to see TGD is as a solution of the energy problem of General Relativity in terms of sub-manifold gravity. The translations act now as translations of 8-D imbedding space M^{4}×CP_{2} rather than in space-time itself and four-momentum can be identified as Noether charge. The detailed realization of this vision however involves several conceptual delicacies. What does Equivalence Principle mean in this framework: equivalence of gravitational and inertial momenta or just Einstein's equations or their generalization? What is the precise definition of inertial and gravitational four-momenta? What does quantum classical correspondence mean and could Equivalence Principle reduce to it? p-Adic mass calculations and the notion of generalised conformal invariance provide strong constraints on the attempts to answer these questions. This article provides the most recent view about the most plausible looking answer to these questions. Twistor Grassmann approach relies on the Yangian variant of 4-D conformal symmetry generalizing in TGD framework to Yangian variants of huge conformal symmetry algebras due to the effective 2-dimensionality of light-like 3-surfaces. This suggest also a generalization of four-momentum bringing in multilocal contributions analogous to interaction energy and also this is discussed in some detail.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[162] **viXra:1409.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:03:56*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article represents a brief sketch of TGD based model of water memory and homeopathy as it is after two steps of progress. First one was due to Pollack's findings about exclusion zones of water explained in terms of fourth phase of water. Second step or progress was inspired by an anomaly claimed by Tajmar et al and known as strong gravimagnetism. The attempt to understand the claim led to
h_{eff = hgr=hem hypothesis unifying two TGD views about the notion of hierarchy of Planck constants proposed to characterize the phases of dark matter.
}

In this framework the attempt to understand homeopathy leads to additional insights about about water as living system and about prebiotic life as being based on the dark realization of genetic code realized in terms of dark proton strings which are nothing than dark variants of nuclei. Formation of exclusion zones would be formation of primitive lifeforms and primitive form of metabolism. Homeopathy could be seen as a manifestation of a fundamental form of immune system based on the recognition of invader molecules using reconnection mechanism for magnetic flux tubes and on mimicking the braiding of the magnetic bodies of invader molecules using dark variants of proteins (later proteins) and and eventually representing them symbolically in terms of dark DNA (later ordinary DNA) coding for the dark proteins. Genetic code might have geometric interpretation as coding for the 2-braiding of 3-D coordinate grids represented by magnetic flux tubes serving as the 4-D template coding not only for the structure of the organism but also its functions as spatio-temporal patterns. Protein folding would represent a behavior of protein and DNA would code also for it.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[161] **viXra:1409.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:05:54*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

t the 12-note scale could allow mapping to a closed path covering all vertices of icosahedron having 12 vertices and not intersecting itself is attractive. Also the idea that the triangles defining the faces of the icosahedron could have interpretation as 3-chords defining the notion of harmony for a given chord deserves study. The paths in question are known as Hamiltonian cycles and there are 1024 of them. There paths can be classified topologically by the numbers of triangles containing 0, 1, or 2 edges belonging to the cycle representing the scale. Each topology corresponds to particular notion of harmony and there are several topological equivalence classes.

I have also played with the idea that the 20 amino-acids could somehow correspond to the 20 triangles of icosahedron. The combination of this idea with the idea of mapping 12-tone scale to a Hamiltonian cycle at icosahedron leads to the question whether amino-acids could be assigned with a topological equivalence class of Hamiltonian cycle and whether topological characteristics could correspond to physical properties of amino-acids. It turns out that the identification of 3 basic polar amino-acids with triangles containing no edges of the scale path, 7 polar and acidic polar amino-acids with those containing 2 edges of the scale path, and 10 non-polar amino-acids with triangles containing 1 edge on the scale path would be consistent with the constraints on the Hamiltonian cycles. One could of course criticize the lumping of acidic polar and polar aminoacids to same group.

The number of DNAs coding for a given amino-acid could be also seen as such a physical property. The model for dark nucleons leads to the vertebrate genetic code with correct numbers of DNAs coding for amino-acids. It is however far from clear how to interpreted DNAs geometrically and the problem whether one cold understand genetic code geometrically remains open.

**Category:** Mind Science

[160] **viXra:1409.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:07:47*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The latest news in quantum biology is the observation by the group led by Anirban Bandyopadhyay about detection of quantum vibration in microtubule scale - their lengths vary up to 50 μm. If this observation can be replicated, one can speak about breakthrough in quantum consciousness.

The findings reported in an earlier talk of Banduopadhyay give support for the general TGD inspired view about topological quantum computation (TQC) and allow for a rather detailed model in the case of microtubules. The idea is that flux tubes form a 2-D coordinate grid consisting of parallel flux tubes in two different directions. Crossing points would be associated with tubulins and the conformational state of tubulin could define a bit coding whether the braid strands defining coordinate lines are braided or not (swap or not). In this manner any bit pattern at microtubule defines a particular TQC program. If also conformations are quantum superposed, one would have "quantum-quantum computation". It however seems that conformation change is irreversible chemical reaction so that this option is not feasible.

The TGD inspired modification of the proposal in terms of flux tube coordinate grids making possible TQC architectures with tubulin dimers defining bits defining in turn TQC program looks rather natural. Coordinate grids can be fixed on basis of the experimental findings and there are 8 of them. The interpretation is in terms of different resolutions. The grids for A and B type lattices are related by 2π twist for the second end of the basic 13-unit for microtubule. An attractive interpretation for the resonance frequencies is in terms of phase transitions between A and B type lattices. If A type lattices can be generated only in phase transitions induced by AC stimulus at resonance frequencies, one could understand their experimental absence, which is a strong objection against Penrose-Hameroff model.

TGD suggests also a generalization of the very notion of TQC to 2-braid TQC with 2-D string world sheets becoming knotted in 4-D space-time. Now qubits (or their generalizations) could correspond to states of flux tubes defining braid strands as Penrose and Hameroff seem to suggest and the emergence of MTs could be seen as an evolutionary leap due to the emergence of a new abstraction level in cognitive processing.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[159] **viXra:1409.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:15:53*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The general strategy in attempts to understand metabolism is based on the assumption that a very large class of anomalous phenomena rely on same basic mechanism. This includes life as a phenomenon, water memory and homeopathy, free energy phenomena involving over-unity phenomena related to the dissociation of water, lightning and ball lightning, anomalous effects associated with rotating magnetic systems, phenomena related to UFOs (light balls), even remote mental interactions. One must have a unified explanation for all these phenomena based on a real theory. Plasmoids are TGD inspired proposal for prebiotic lifeforms and the input from anomalies related to electrolysis of water together with TGD based proposal that sequences of dark protons define dark nuclei realizing vertebrate genetic code leads to the vision that the biochemical metabolic machinery including photosynthesis has a simple analog realized in terms of "polymers" of water molecules with one dark proton with protons bound to sequence by color bonds.

The old view about the metabolic energy quanta as energies liberated as particle "drops" to a larger space-time sheet is modified. Metabolic energy quanta are liberated when the space-time sheet at which the particles reside expands in a phase transition increasing its p-adic prime and reducing the value of Planck constant correspondingly so that the net result is that the size of the space-time sheet remains the same. This condition implies a close relationship between p-adic and dark matter hierarchies. This process is automatically coherent since all particles suffer the change simultaneously. It applies also to a situation in which particles are in magnetic field: in this case the scale of cyclotron energies changes since the strength of the magnetic field is scaled down to guarantee the conservation of magnetic flux. This transition is not cyclotron transition but liberates essentially the same energy as coherent cyclotron transition so that magnetic fields (their "motor actions") become essential players also in metabolic activities.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[158] **viXra:1409.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-19 16:21:32*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The application of the Poisson’s equation solutions in the Neumann-Seeliger paradox for an infinite universe is incorrect. Also it is incorrect to use the metric and all the equations of the Big Bang theory for distances greater than the age of the universe, i.e. outside the event horizon for any point of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[157] **viXra:1409.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 05:40:42*

**Authors:** Samit Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Purposeful Information can be represented in a hierarchical manner using basic Data originating from digitally connected sources.
Such hierarchical represented data highlights the precarious state .

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[156] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-28 02:02:41*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[155] **viXra:1409.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:23:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 729 Pages.

The book is devoted to hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants.

- Configuration space spinors indeed define a canonical example about hyper-finite factor of type II
_{1}. The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors of type II_{1}could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix. This has turned out to be the case to the extent that a general master formula for M-matrix with interactions described as a deformation of ordinary tensor product to Connes tensor products emerges. - The idea about hierarchy of Planck constants emerged from anomalies of biology and the strange finding that planetary orbits could be regarded as Bohr orbits but with a gigantic value of Planck constant. This lead to the vision that dark matter corresponds to ordinary particles but with non-standard value of Planck constant and to a generalization of the 8-D imbedding space to a book like structure with pages partially characterized by the value of Planck constant. Using the intuition provided by the inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II
_{1}one ends up to a prediction for the spectrum of Planck constants associated with> M^{4}; and CP_{2}degrees of freedom. This inspires the proposal that dark matter could be in quantum Hall like phase localized at light-like 3-surfaces with macroscopic size and behaving in many respects like black hole horizons.

[154] **viXra:1409.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 14:05:24*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. DE BROGLIE is like self-announced dictator: "on this concept of the duality of waves and corpuscles... all future development of this science will apparently have to be founded."

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). The Emeritus Dr. Cooperstock has derived the absence of energy harvesting from the gravitational waves using wave description of light, however latter MUST be seen as photon gas. Let me show this necessity in the paper. The paper explains the known result of Dr. Cooperstock, hereby defending the previous authors (which the Dr. Cooperstock criticizes). I show, that they do not contradict the Dr. Cooperstock result, but very strongly support it.
Also presented my attempt to generalize the Dr. Cooperstock result to more nonlinear, more higher precision.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[153] **viXra:1409.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-27 04:59:59*

**Authors:** Misha Mikhaylov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It was shown here that just transitive relation may be considered as closure and its presence is necessary and sufficient to order a set linearly, and it is not possible to do this by using other relation’s property – neither reflexivity nor symmetry. By interaction, it occurs due to ambiguity of their definition – it was shown earlier (ref. [3]) they have various appearances. Among them just the only transitivity is determined uniquely. At the same time the last one doesn’t exist separately from any others. Circumstances of their joint existence are clarifying in this article.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[152] **viXra:1409.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-25 08:16:29*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov

**Comments:** Pages.

By the use of condition of relativistic covariance, Dirac group theory, Clifford algebra and complete orthonormal sets of -self-frictional exponential type orbitals -SFETOs)
introduced by the author in standard convention, the Hartree-Fock (HF) theory is suggested
for multideterminantal single configuration states with any number of open shells of atoms
and molecules constructed from the Standard Model-Fermi (SM-F) particles with
and e =0 defined in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is shown that the
origin of stability of these systems is the quantum damping or self-frictional forces produced
by the SM-F particle itself. As an application, we have presented the periodic table for the
SM-F atomic elements using Pauli principle of spinless noncharged identical SM-F particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[151] **viXra:1409.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 08:02:48*

**Authors:** Moses Turkle Bility

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The main purpose of this article is to elucidate a mechanical interpretation of the gravitation phenomenon. Additionally, this article unifies Newtonian and general relativity theoretical frameworks using the wave equation, which is the mathematical framework of quantum physics. Here I propose a novel theory, “Equilibrium theory” which asserts that the universe is an infinitesimally large and continuous differential energy density structure - a compressible fluid, as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame. Equilibrium theory asserts that the universe is always at equilibrium and is composed of demarcated “compressed fluid” (i.e. matter – planets, objects) and demarcated “stretched fluid” (i.e. photon) of approximately uniform energy density along with demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density (i.e. space); thus it is accurately represented using the wave equation, which describes the nature and dynamics of non-discrete and continuous structures.
Dynamics in weak and strong gravitational field results from the energy exchange within the “compressible fluid”, resulting in the reconfiguration of the differential energy density within the “compressible fluid”, and thus termed motion. Furthermore, dynamics in strong gravitational field (gravitational dynamics) is due to the existence of demarcated surrounding space of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; this differential energy density is induced by the existence of a relatively high energy density structure (i.e matter – planet). Dynamics in weak gravitational field (dynamics in inertial reference frame) is also due to the existence of demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; thus it is equivalent to the gravitation phenomenon, albeit transient due to rapid dissipation during perturbations. Equilibrium theory provides a novel framework for elucidating the nature and dynamics of the universe using a fluid mechanical model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] **viXra:1409.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 03:57:01*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication achievable by comparison of expected interferometry patterns and found interferometry patterns

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[149] **viXra:1409.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 04:26:27*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Author pesents a mathematical partten in which Fermat and Mersenne primes can become criteria for the infinity or the strong finiteness each other.

Abstract: This paper presents that Fermat primes and Mersenne primes can separately become criteria for the infinity or the strong finiteness of primes of the form 2^x±1, which includes Fermat prime criteria for the set of Mersenne primes and its two subsets as well as Mersenne prime criteria for the set of Fermat primes and its two subsets.

**Category:** Number Theory

[148] **viXra:1409.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 05:00:01*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Anthor gives an argument for solving Landau's fourth problem from a hypothesis on the infinity of primes represented by quadratic polynomial of Mersenne primes.

Abstract: In this paper we consider the infinity of primes represented by quadratic polynomial with 4(Mp-2)^2+1, basing on a hypothesis as sufficient condition in which Fermat primes are criterion for the infinity of such primes, where Mp is Mersenne prime, and give an elementary argument for existence of infinitely many primes of the form x^2+1. As an addition, an elementary argument on the infinity of Mersenne primes is also given.

**Category:** Number Theory

[147] **viXra:1409.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 01:48:20*

**Authors:** Ton Kloks, Yue-Li Wang

**Comments:** 172 Pages. This is the text of a course on various techniques applied in algorithmic graph theory.

This is a course on advances in graph algorithms that we taught in Taiwan. The topics included are Exact algorithms, Graph classes, fixed-parameter algorithms, and graph decompositions.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[146] **viXra:1409.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 03:50:25*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 12

If the orbits of close binary stars are circular, and the light speed is NOT influenced by the speed of the stars, we have to expect that the light curves are symmetrical between moments of eclipse or even conjunction.
However, This is mostly not the case and still an ongoing debate in astronomy and called the
“O ‘Connell effect”.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, however I assume that the local light speed around the stars is gravity related for a mass related distance from the source (star) called LASOF ellipsoid, (Local Asymmetrical Oscillating vacuum Frame)
As a result the so called O ‘Connell effect can easily be explained as a logic result of additional redshift or blueshift by the local lightspeed variation.
At the same time also planets should show such lightspeed extinction effects, which is already measured but not understood by I.I.Shapiro (see “radar astronomy” edition by Evans and Hagfors, 1964).
As a consequence, Einstein’s Special relativity rules do not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[145] **viXra:1409.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 09:26:39*

**Authors:** Bambore Dawit

**Comments:** 9 Pages. we need to follow instruction in each step for detail calculations

This paper shows the non-existence of magic square of squares in order
three by investigating two new tools, the first is representing three perfect
squares in arithmetic progression by two numbers and the second is realizing
the impossibility of two similar equations for the same problem at the same
time in different ways and the variables of one is relatively less than the
other.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[144] **viXra:1409.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-22 22:22:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article surprised the author because there was no intention of addressing the theories of quarks, the nuclear weak force or the Higgs field at first. The article eventually led to pointing a way out of those Nobel Prize winning theories, though (in 1969, 1979 and 2013 respectively). And that way out gives me a deep feeling of satisfaction. The universe is awash with the peculiar subatomic particles called neutrinos. They have no electrical charge, are nearly massless (at least a million times as light as an electron), and trillions of these ghostly particles sail right through stars, planets, you, and me every second. They don't interact with the strong force which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei, nor do they interact with electromagnetic fields. To give an idea of how unreactive they are - in 2013, physicists in the USA began shooting neutrinos on a 503-mile trip from Fermilab (the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) west of Chicago to a detector in Minnesota. 150 trillion neutrinos leave Fermilab each second but only about ten interact with the detector in a whole week. Speaking of their near masslessness, physicists already know the Standard Model of particle physics (the theory of how particles and forces interact) is incomplete because it incorrectly predicts neutrinos possess no mass). Problems addressed in this article include 1) each particle is born as one of 3 flavors, or types - electron neutrino, muon neutrino or tau neutrino - but they can change flavor in a few thousandths of a second as they travel, 2) as far as scientists can tell, each neutrino is a combination of those 3 masses but they don't know which of the mixes is heaviest and which is lightest (this is the "mass ordering" problem), 3) the fundamental property of quantum systems called entanglement which means two quantum systems can become correlated in such a way that action on one system has implications for the outcome of a measurement on the other, and 4) single and double beta decay which involves neutron(s) decaying into proton(s) and emitting electron(s) plus antineutrino(s) in which, in double decay, the reaction is neutrinoless in some instances since an antineutrino is absorbed by a neutron as a neutrino (suggesting a neutrino is its own antiparticle).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[143] **viXra:1409.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-08 19:06:37*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** Pages.

We consider the relations of the energy density and its entropic density with the temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of literature [8], we obtain the energy density of the scalar field of SBH being proportional to the square of Hawking-Unruh temperature near the outside of event horizon when the distance from the film to the horizon ε and film thickness δ are constant, and its entropic density being directly proportional to the Hawking-Unruh temperature when ε and n are constant. Basing on [16], we find the equation of gravitational energy density inside SBH; derive that the gravitational energy density is proportional to the square of effective temperature far from event horizon in SBH interior, whether the gravitational fields of SBH are Coulomb-like or wave-like; and their entropic density is directly proportional to effective temperature. Basing on [20-22], we gain the HDE density being proportional to the square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, and its entropic density being directly proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. These equations are similar and have relations with each other. We suggest that these relations are interesting and significant for SBH and HDE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[142] **viXra:1409.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 21:42:59*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Requesting an unbiased review....

If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. It can be suggested that, universe may or may not be a black hole, Hubble volume can be considered as a growing and light speed rotating black hole at 99% confidence level. With this proposal galactic rotational curves, cosmic dynamic stability can be understood. By considering the ‘Stoney mass’ as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Isotropy and anisotropy of CMB can be understood. If rate of decrease in current ‘Hubble’s constant is very small and is beyond the scope of current experimental verification, then the two possible states are: a) current ‘Hubble’s constant is decreasing at a very slow rate and current universe is expanding at a very slow rate and b) at present there is no ‘observable’ cosmic expansion or acceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of 'whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past , in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy’s excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Past cosmic high temperature may be the root cause of observed super novae dimming. Like ILLUSTRIS, with advanced mathematics and computer simulation technology this model can be virtually developed for further study and analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1409.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-22 03:20:12*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in German

This paper examines the geographical description of Athens and Atlantis in Plato's dialogues Timaios and Critias. Plato described both Attika and the Athenian Acropolis essentially correct. The description of the Acropolis resembles the historical Acropolis of the Mycenaean time, but also the city of Athens of Plato's time. Plato's description of Atlantis is impossible from the geological point of view. Greek elements which appeared for the first time in the 7th century BC are included in the cultural description of Atlantis. The flood and cataclysms mentioned by Plato are based neither on Greek nor Egyptian tradition, but are based on his philosophical views.

**Category:** Archaeology

[140] **viXra:1409.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-22 03:45:29*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Polynomial time primality tests for specific classes of Proth numbers are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[139] **viXra:1409.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-10 21:42:19*

**Authors:** Ounas Meriam

**Comments:** 04 Pages.

In this paper, I will try to explain my idea about the world of the digits of numbers which is somewhat circumvented by mathematicians.

**Category:** Number Theory

[138] **viXra:1409.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 08:10:18*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication using interferometry patterns and collapse of wave fucntions, using no entangled photons as these create 'noise'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[137] **viXra:1409.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 04:22:46*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page proposal

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K., http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf 2014) leads to an insight into the nature of ‘light’; that: the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ has to be at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get coherently added a ‘particle’ gets formed. Now, in this paper it is further shown that ‘wavelengths’ and ‘frequencies’ of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. And the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave. This study leads to an interesting new possibility that: it should be possible to emulate photons at microwave frequencies; and make deterministic predictions; by establishing perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[136] **viXra:1409.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 03:37:44*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 23 Pages. the paper is in french

A presentation (1998) is made of Plouffe's Inverter, a conference in march 1998 at the Université du Québec À Montréal.

**Category:** Number Theory

[135] **viXra:1409.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-07 15:20:02*

**Authors:** X. Cao, Y. Saez, G. Pesti, L.B. Kish

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Accepted for Publication at Fluctuation and Noise Letters

In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett., 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles. This KLJN key donation solution is performed lane-by-lane by using roadside key provider equipment embedded in the pavement. A method to compute the lifetime of the KLJN key is also given. This key lifetime depends on the car density and gives an upper limit of the lifetime of the KLJN key for vehicular communication networks.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[134] **viXra:1409.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-16 00:40:53*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By differentiating the standard formula for the luminosity distance with respect to time, we find
that the equation is inconsistent with light propagation. Therefore, a new defnition of the luminosity distance is provided for an expanding Universe. From supernovae observations, using this defnition we find that the Hubble parameter is a constant of physics equal to Ho = 63.2 km/s/Mpc.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[133] **viXra:1409.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-19 09:35:56*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Depending on the outcome of the triphoton experiment now underway, it is possible that the new local realistic Markov
Random Field (MRF) models will be the only models now available to correctly predict both that experiment and Bell’s
Theorem experiments. The MRF models represent the experiments as graphs of discrete events over space-time. This
paper extends the MRF approach to continuous time, by defining a new class of realistic model, the stochastic path
model, and showing how it can be applied to ideal polaroid type polarizers in such experiments. The final section
discusses possibilities for future research, ranging from uses in other experiments or novel quantum communication
systems, to extensions involving stochastic paths in the space of functions over continuous space. As part of this, it
derives a new Boltzmann-like density operator over Fock space, which predicts the emergent statistical equilibria of
nonlinear Hamiltonian field theories, based on our previous work extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping from the
case of classical systems described by a complex state variable α to the case of classical continuous fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[132] **viXra:1409.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-18 22:22:20*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has been published by Bulletin of Society of Mathematical Services and Standards (www.ijmsea.com)

As we know there are two main paradigms concerning the origin of the Universe: the first is Big-Bang Theory, and the other is Creation paradigm. But those two main paradigms each have their problems, for instance Big Bang Theory assumes that the first explosion was triggered by chance alone, therefore it says that everything emerged out of vacuum fluctuation caused by pure statistical chance. By doing so, its proponents want to avoid the role of the Prime Mover (God). Of course there are also other propositions such as the Steady State theory or Cyclical universe, but they do not form the majority of people in the world.
On the other side, Creation Theory says that the Universe was created by God in 6x24 hours according to Genesis chapter 1, although a variation of this theory says that it is possible that God created the Universe in longer period of thousands of years or even billions of years. But such a proposition seems not supported by Biblical texts.
To overcome the weaknesses of those main paradigms, I will outline here another choice, namely that the Universe was created by Logos (Christ in His pre-existence). This is in accordance with the Prolegomena of the Gospel of John, which says that the Logos was there in the beginning (John 1:1).
I describe 3 applications of the classical wave equation according to Shpenkov, i.e. hydrogen energy states, periodic table of elements, and planetary orbit distances. For sure, Shpenkov derived many more results beside these 3 phenomena as discussed in his 3 volume books and many papers, but these 3 phenomena are selected to give clear examples of what can be done with the classical wave equation. And then I extend further the classical wave equation to fractal vibrating string.
While of course this outline is not complete, this article is written to stimulate further investigations in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1409.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-18 23:17:50*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Philosophy is the basis of all sciences, the foundation of knowledge that provides ultimate answers beyond the limits of science. Although scorned and spurned by science purists(which is partially justified by its modern errant versions), metaphysics and logic, especially, form a common ground of agreement and the tools for truth validation that is so obviously missing in theoretical analysis. We will propose a set of premises for use as a common world-view and then apply them to current science beliefs in order to demonstrate some common fallacies that commonly occur in establishment public beliefs and rational thinking. The intent is to build a solid common ground of tools and axioms based on philosophical realism and the scientific method for knowledge development by researchers.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[130] **viXra:1409.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-18 03:01:00*

**Authors:** Saenko V.I.

**Comments:** Pages. The proof should be improved because in the present form it is valid only if all non-unit G_i are prime.

A perfect cuboid, i.e., a rectangular parallelepiped having integer edges, integer face diagonals, and integer space diagonal, is proved to be non-existing.

**Category:** Number Theory

[129] **viXra:1409.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 12:55:14*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 07pages, 08 references

We propose two kinds of least action principles. The first one is defined in a periodic time, and when applied to creation and annihilation of particle pairs, leads to the formula for the de Broglie frequency. The second one is defined in a double-time’s metric, namely: the longitudinal and transverse (related to the discreteness of the space) times. If applied to a problem dealing with the fluctuations of the metric, this second principle permit us to infer a coherence time. We interpret this as the neutron decay time, where we take the fluctuation in the kinetic energy as being the difference between the mass-energy of the neutron minus the sum of the mass-energies of the proton and electron. The neutron decay time evaluated in this way, does not make any explicit reference to the weak interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[128] **viXra:1409.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 06:36:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper pertains to: http://viXra.org/abs/1409.0072

Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Foundations of Physics, has again brought attention to my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity, by means of his personal website, providing me thereby with the opportunity to address his most recent comments, particularly on black holes. Black hole universes are either asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved, by definition, and so there can be no universe containing multiple black holes. All alleged big bang universes are not asymptotically anything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[127] **viXra:1409.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 13:32:05*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Most physicists claim no superluminal communication between two seperate points in space is possible in any manner. This claim is based on the no communication theory and on special relativity stating all communication methods are subluminal. This paper discusses theoretical 'holes' in no communication theorem and proposes an experiment that may check the validity of the no-communication theorem under special conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[126] **viXra:1409.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 15:02:54*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Appendix A, appendix to the paper "Non spin based quantum information transmission methods"

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1409.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-20 21:39:58*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Work in progress.

This brief note points out that classical Maxwell equations on fractal distributions can accommodate fractional magnetic charges. Although these fractional objects are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization in Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[124] **viXra:1409.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 21:58:47*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The construction of certain numbers with ruler and compass

Conference in french in Montréal in 1998 about the construction of arctan(1/2)/Pi and other numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[123] **viXra:1409.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 22:06:27*

**Authors:** GuangSan Yu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The thus far momentum conservation law the Were by testify, In fact only is the laws of motion of newton third, and the is object simpleness and beeline the momentum conservation of the afoul. involve the thus far of the, the all momentum conservation law experiment all is. but, it be deemed to the is classical, and were extend to all any matter system. in complicated matter system, for instance, if interaction the at object, its inner matter forminged the opposite turn, at here whether still conform the momentum conservation? have never the study that to register in such. can authenticate, in this kind of circumstance, the total beeline momenta of the substance system, would vary the occurrence, it will diminish. so here momentum is not conservation. therefore, the momentum conservation law not is an universe compliant, the law of any matter system, in some complicated substance system, it is not exactitude.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[122] **viXra:1409.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 23:41:24*

**Authors:** GuangSan Yu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In Rotation dynamics of the classical mechanics, there is a serious error, namely the notion of the force moment. Via the arm of force that vary the force moment, can vary the dimension of the force, this is wrong. But Rotation dynamics and whole theory system, is to regard the notion of this kind of force moment as the foundation, moreover establish create. Thereupon, the hitherto of thereinto the Rotation dynamics, abound the multifarious mistake. In complete of the Rotation dynamics of the inertia locomotion, the notion of the force moment is meaningless. That with force moment extraordinary resemble react, that is
other concept Inertia-torque. Inertia-torque is mass and arm of force product at object or particle. Similar in this way through correction after, the Rotation dynamics will have the grand change. And thereupon we can also achieve, versus physics several celebrated conservation law of the exceed. The world science will have a grand advancement.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[121] **viXra:1409.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 21:18:37*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Newton third law is wrong! Moreover the momentum also is not conservation, so a kind of new space propeller nope don't may, that is the momentum engine.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[120] **viXra:1409.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 22:20:51*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

For the sake of the rotation dynamics, made the rotation dynamics experiment. Get the Inertia-torque
concept, of the rotation dynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[119] **viXra:1409.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 22:07:50*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Moment of inertia is wrong. In it of formula deduce process, have serious I = mr 2 mistake. This is the can testify.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[118] **viXra:1409.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 15:25:04*

**Authors:** Abdeldjalil AISSA-EL-BEY

**Comments:** 149 Pages. French

Sparse representations are representations that account for most or all information of a signal with a linear combination of a small number of elementary signals called atoms. Often, the atoms are chosen from a so called over-complete dictionary. Formally, an over-complete dictionary is a collection of atoms such that the number of atoms exceeds the dimension of the signal space, so that any signal can be represented by more than one combination of different atoms.
Sparseness is one of the reasons for the extensive use of popular transforms such as the Discrete Fourier Transform, the wavelet transform and the Singular Value Decomposition. The aim of these transforms is often to reveal certain structures of a signal and to represent these structures using a compact and sparse representation. Sparse representations have therefore increasingly become recognized as providing extremely high performance for applications as diverse as: noise reduction, compression, feature extraction, pattern classification and blind source separation. Sparse representation ideas also build the foundations of wavelet denoising and methods in pattern classification, such as in the Support Vector Machine and the Relevance Vector Machine, where sparsity can be directly related to learnability of an estimator.
The technique of finding a representation with a small number of significant coefficients is often referred to as Sparse Coding. Decoding merely requires the summation of the relevant atoms, appropriately weighted. However, unlike a transform coder with its invertible transform, the generation of the sparse representation with an over-complete dictionary is non-trivial. Indeed, the general problem of finding a representation with the smallest number of atoms from an arbitrary dictionary has been shown to be NP-hard. This has led to considerable effort being put into the development of many sub-optimal schemes. These include algorithms that iteratively build up the signal approximation one coefficient at a time, e.g. Matching Pursuit, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, and those that process all the coefficients simultaneously, e.g. Basis Pursuit, Basis Pursuit De-Noising and the Focal Underdetermined System Solver family of algorithms.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[117] **viXra:1409.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-27 18:53:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the elementary differences between energy and mass. When we consider the famous Einstein's equation: E = mc^2 , these two concepts might look the same with the only difference of a constant of proportionality, c^2 . However when we explore these two concepts more carefully we discover that they differ in several fundamental aspects. The paper also explains the meaning of negative energy
or time-travel energy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[116] **viXra:1409.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 07:17:05*

**Authors:** Jianwen Huang, Shouquan Chen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Let $\{X_n,n\geq1\}$ be an independent and
identically distributed random sequence with common distribution $F$ obeying the lognormal distribution. In this paper, we obtain the exact uniform convergence rate of the distribution of maxima to its extreme value limit under power normalization.

**Category:** Statistics

[115] **viXra:1409.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 10:18:55*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper it has been tried to propose a hypothesis for Universe life cycle from its birth to death along with a cyclic view into its rebirth referring to the concept of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, Spiral Structure of Galaxies and Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles. It has been tried to inherit the behaviour of Big Bang in consensus with the proposals of Steady State Cosmology within the vicinity of all modern ongoing researches. It also provides a unified approach for various force interactions of particles through the intrinsic behaviours of Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles. The inverse relation between mass of particle and rate of change of cross section of spiral arms gives us a distinct view of gravitational interactions. Also the orientation of the curl of spiral differentiate the electromagnetic interaction when has revolution and electroweak interaction when has rotational curl. Strong interaction can be described through the phase differences of particles with charge not in multiple of ½. This paper also describes the process for formation off composite particles and the atomic structure through various dynamics of interactions by spiral structured particles.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[114] **viXra:1409.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 10:33:17*

**Authors:** Jianwen Huang, Shouquan Chen, Jiaojiao Liu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we derive the extreme value
distributions of independent identically distributed random
variables with mixed distributions of two and finite components,
which include generalized logistic, asymmetric Laplace and
asymmetric normal distributions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[113] **viXra:1409.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 09:28:44*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Nardozza

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By means of a computer, all the possible homogeneous compact generalised triangulations made up of a small number of 3-simplexes (from 1 to 3) have been classified in homology classes. The analysis shows that, with a small number of simplexes, it is already possible to build quite a large number of separate topological spaces.

**Category:** Topology

[112] **viXra:1409.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 03:51:03*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This preprint was accepted for publication by Physicsal Review B. The author was forced by Prof. Klaus Fabricius to withdraw the paper from both Physical Review B and the arXiv preprint server. The author is still thinking that the paper is correct.

We present a quantum Monte Carlo study for the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain coupled to Einstein phonons. By investigating the behavior of the correlation length we find the critical exponent to depend on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. Hence, these systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon coupling.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[111] **viXra:1409.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-12 22:35:43*

**Authors:** Reinhard Frischbier

**Comments:** an 8th page has been added with an appendix

Since the proof given by Wang Qiu-Dong on Dirichlet's assertion
is based on the successive approximations objections to assumptions
of the global solution of this problem have to be raised.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[110] **viXra:1409.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 15:02:25*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

So far, the order completion method for solving PDEs, introduced in 1990, can solve by far the most general linear and nonlinear systems of PDEs, with possible initial and/or boundary data. Examples of solving various PDEs with the order completion method are presented. Some of such PDEs do not have global solutions by any other known methods, or are even proved not to have such global solutions. The presentation next aims to be as summary, and in fact, sketchy as possible, even if by that it may create some difficulty. However, nowadays, being subjected to an ever growing ``information overload", that approach may turn out to be not the worst among two bad alternatives. Details can be found in [1], while on the other hand, alternative longer "short presentations" are in [6-8].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[109] **viXra:1409.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 10:24:34*

**Authors:** Jianwen Huang, Shouquan Chen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Motivated by Finner et al. (2008), the
asymptotic behavior of the probability density function (pdf) and
the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the generalized
exponential and Maxwell distributions are studied. Specially, we
consider the asymptotic behavior of the ratio of the pdfs (cdfs) of
the generalized exponential and Student's $t$-distributions (likewise
for the Maxwell and Student's $t$-distributions) as the degrees of
freedom parameter approach infinity in an appropriate way. As by
products, Mills' ratios for the generalized exponential and Maxwell
distributions are gained. Moreover, we illustrate some examples to
indicate the application of our results in extreme value theory.

**Category:** Statistics

[108] **viXra:1409.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 07:31:22*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is most disconcerting that the Standard Model of particle physics defines, as fundamental a quantity as the electric charge, only conventionally and arbitrarily. We look into the nature of this conventionality
and try to find an underlying structure to it. This brings in the Higgs field in a non-trivial manner, which points as to how the above arbitrariness and conventionality may be avoided.
Next, the same is demonstrated as actually being part of the intrinsic mathematical structure of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[107] **viXra:1409.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-30 09:30:08*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 172 Pages. Spanish

El libro "Teoría de campo relativista" expone de forma clara las técnicas físico-matamáticas usadas en el estudio de los campos clásicos relativistas. Este libro cumple una función pedagógica, estando dirigido a aquellos, que teniendo un conocimiento básico de electromagnetismo y relatividad, quieran profundizar en los aspectos formales de la teoría de campo. Índice Introducción 1.- Geometría diferencial 2.- Formulación lagrangiana de la teoría de campos 3.- Campo electromagnético 4.- Campo gravitatorio 5.- Teoría de campo unificado de Weyl Apéndice 1 Apéndice 2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[106] **viXra:1409.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-08 06:32:44*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electric and magnetic forces would be transmitted through a polarization of the vacuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[105] **viXra:1409.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-16 01:44:20*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The dynamics experiment indicated, the Newton third law is wrong. So where is it been mistakes? The demand deepest analysis in action and reaction, it of meaning and it of principle. The result is to make person feelings shock, it is really wrong that Newton third law!

**Category:** Classical Physics

[104] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 09:08:55*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four page letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for thewave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that: (i) either the real wavelengths and frequencies of the ‘waves’ of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; or (ii) the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelengths and frequencies of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. Therefore, (i) if the wavelength of the wave measured by us is ‘distance’ between two successive formations of ‘particles’ then the frequency of the actual wave may be much higher; or (ii) if the wavelength measured by us is wavelength of the actual wave, then the formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ may be at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave.. If we can establish perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’, then it may be possible to make deterministic prediction of detection of ‘photons’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[103] **viXra:1409.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-14 08:55:20*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The study of the chromatic number and vertex coverings of graphs has opened many avenues of research. In this paper we combine these two concepts in a ratio, to investigate the domination effect of the chromatic number, of the subgaph induced by a vertex covering of a graph G (called the cover graph of G), on the original chromatic number of G, where large number of vertices are involved. This is referred to as the chromatic-cover domination. If this chromatic-cover ratio is a function of n, the order of graphs belonging to a class of graph, then we discuss its horizontal asymptotic behavior and attach the graphs average degree to the Riemann integral of this ratio, thus associating chromatic-cover area with classes of graphs. We found that the chromatic-cover domination had a strongest effect on complete graph, while this chromatic-cover domination had zero effect on star graphs. We show that the chromatic-cover asymptote of all classes of graphs belong to the interval [0,1], and conjecture that complete graphs are the only class of graphs having chromatic-cover asymptote of 1 and that they also have the largest area . We construct a class of graphs, using known classes of graph where vertices are replaced with cliques on q vertices, thus generating sequences which converges to the chromatic-cover asymptote of known classes of graphs. We use a particular sequence to construct a Farey chromatic-cover sequence which is a subsequence of the famous Farey sequence.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[102] **viXra:1409.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 21:45:39*

**Authors:** Denis A. Semyonov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Deoxycitidine in solution exists as two tautomers one of which is an “uncanonical” imino one. The latter can dominate with such derivatives as 5-methyl, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-formylcytosine. The imino tautomer potentially is able to form a hoosteen GC base pair. To detect such pair, it is suggested to use 1H15N NMR. Formation of GC-Hoogsteen base pair with imino tautomer of cytosine can be a reason for epigenetic effects of 5-methyl- and , 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[101] **viXra:1409.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 15:43:12*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 16 Pages. talk in Ottawa 1997.

A talk given in Ottawa in 1997 about the computation of pi in binary.

**Category:** Number Theory

[100] **viXra:1409.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 16:06:52*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 96 Pages.

This is my collection of mathematical constants evaluated to many digits.
The document was given a copy to the gutenberg project in 1996.

**Category:** Number Theory

[99] **viXra:1409.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 19:09:25*

**Authors:** Doug Jensen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This paper redefines imaginary numbers, and then introduces spin (a new field of mathematical physics).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[98] **viXra:1409.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 16:13:26*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A list of the first 498 Bernoulli Numbers.
This text was published in 1996 and donated to the Gutenberg Project.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1409.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 16:14:18*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

A list of the first 1000 Euler Numbers.
This text was published in 1996 and donated to the Gutenberg Project.

**Category:** Number Theory

[96] **viXra:1409.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 16:14:58*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

A list of the first 1000 Fibonacci Numbers.
This text was published in 1996 and donated to the Gutenberg Project.

**Category:** Number Theory

[95] **viXra:1409.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 12:25:36*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Arguments in favor of existence of Green's functions for all linear equations are analyzed. In case of equation for electromagnetic field, these arguments have been widely used through formal considerations according to which electromagnetic field equations are nothing but some non-covariant scalar equations. We criticize these considerations and show that justification of applying the method of Green's functions to equations of classical electrodynamics are invalid. Straightforward calculations are presented which show that in case of dipole radiation the method gives incorrect results.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[94] **viXra:1409.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 12:42:17*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Along with presently the believed black holes that are expected to be formed by gravitational collapse of a massive star, there may exist primordial evolving black holes. By absorbing the hidden vacuum energy primordial evolving black holes become massive. Planck mass can be considered as the basic mass of any black hole and can be called as the baby Planckion. Very high temperature of the baby Planckion is the heat source for the evolving black hole’s or evolving Planckion’s decreasing temperature. Considering the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole, general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. Considering cosmic black hole’s light speed rotation and galactic revolution, observed galactic rotational curves can be understood. In the past, decreasing high cosmic black hole temperature forced hydrogen atom to emit increasing photon energy resulting in the observed redshift. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of past high cosmic black hole temperature. As cosmic time passes, decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature makes hydrogen atom to emit increased quanta of energy causing the future redshift. In future, with reference to laboratory hydrogen atom, decreasing current cosmic temperature and measured rate of increase in emitted photon energy - true rate of future cosmic expansion can be understood. With reference to the decreasing current Hubble constant and decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature, true rate of future cosmic expansion can also be understood. Foundations of Quantum mechanics and General theory of relativity may be reviewed in this unified way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[93] **viXra:1409.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 14:48:21*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 24 Pages. bitmaps from hypercard stack

Conference given in Vancouver in 1995 at Simon Fraser University.
keywords : generating function, GFUN, Encyclopedia of integer sequences, sequence, rational polynomial

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1409.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 10:10:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages. vitalik.kayukov@mail.ru

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
information model of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral in the ways of extreme informational entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1409.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 03:44:58*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for specific classes of numbers of the form k3^n+2 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1409.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-13 10:46:52*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Conference in Montréal and Vancouver 1995-1996

A survey of Integer Relations algorithms such as LLL or PSLQ, some examples are given. A method to get the algebraic generating function from a finite series is given.

**Category:** Number Theory

[89] **viXra:1409.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 21:22:49*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A computation experiment was conducted on mass ratio of fundamental particles. A series of method are explained.The interest is on the methodology used. The goal was to verify that no simple answer exist yet.

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1409.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 21:25:41*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This is a talk made in Montréal in 1992.

En physique on modélise le comportement des gaz, du cristal
de glace et du ferromagnétisme par l'étude de l'empilement
d'objets sur le plan Z*Z, ou dans l'espace. On tente
d'expliquer surtout les phénomènes de transition de phase.
Ce qui intéresse les physiciens c'est le comportement du
système lorsque la température T tend vers Tc, une température
à laquelle se fait la transition entre deux états. Si on a une
formule explicite on peut simuler pour de grandes valeurs.
On compte, en prenant modèle sur les partitions ordinaires.
L'énergie d'interaction des molécules entre elles étant
comptée comme une "arête" entre 2 sommets i et j du plan Z*Z.
L'interaction se mesure alors avec 2 variables qu'on somme sur
toutes les positions possibles. On cherche donc la limite
quand N tend vers l'infini. (N grand : beaucoup de molécules).

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1409.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 14:37:20*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We derive the electro-osmotic velocity profile in a micro-channel using a recently corrected charge density distribution within an electrolytic solution. Previous distribution did not take care of charge conservation principle while solving Poisson-Boltzmann equation and needed modification, hence the velocity profile also needs modification that we do here. Helmholtz-Smoluchowskii velocity scale is redefined, which accommodates Debye length parameter in it, unlike old definition.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[86] **viXra:1409.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 22:03:23*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe, François Bergeron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We outline an approach for the computation of a good can-
didate for the generating function of a power series for which
only the first few coefficients are known. More precisely, if the
derivative, the logarithmic derivative, the reversion, or another
transformation of a given power series (even with polynomial
coefficients) appears to admit a rational generating function,
we compute the generating function of the original series by
applying the inverse of those transformations to the rational
generating function found.

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1409.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 10:29:19*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe, Jean-Paul Allouche, André Arnold, Srecko Brlek, Jean Berstel, William Jockusch, Bruce E. Sagan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in 1992

We study a sequence, c, which encodes the lengths of blocks in the Thue-Morse
sequence. In particular, we show that the generating function for c is a simple
product.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1409.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-13 10:50:09*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe, David Bailey, Peter Borwein

**Comments:** 13 Pages. a better copy

We give algorithms for the computation of the d-th digit of certain transcendental
numbers in various bases. These algorithms can be easily implemented (multiple
precision arithmetic is not needed), require virtually no memory, and feature run
times that scale nearly linearly with the order of the digit desired. They make
it feasible to compute, for example, the billionth binary digit of log (2) or π on a
modest work station in a few hours run time.

**Category:** Number Theory

[83] **viXra:1409.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 10:33:03*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe, David H. Bailey

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Published in 1996

The advent of inexpensive, high-performance computers and new efficient algorithms
have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other
words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real
or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants
of mathematics.
These techniques will be illustrated by discussing the recognition of Euler sum constants,
and also the discovery of new formulas for π and other constants, formulas that
permit individual digits to be extracted from their expansions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[82] **viXra:1409.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 10:34:44*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe, David Bailey, Jon Borwein, Peter Borwein

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Published in 1997

This article gives a brief history of the analysis and computation of the mathematical
constant π = 3.14159 . . ., including a number of the formulas that have been used to
compute π through the ages. Recent developments in this area are then discussed in
some detail, including the recent computation of π to over six billion decimal digits using
high-order convergent algorithms, and a newly discovered scheme that permits arbitrary
individual hexadecimal digits of π to be computed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1409.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 06:18:51*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Relationship for kinetic energy derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation ( fictional by Maxwell and up to now was not derived).Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.
Kaufmann's experiment, Fizeau's experiment, Harres's Experiment, Kirchner, Perry, Chaffee experiments are reviewed.
Three objections to modern physics:
1. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
2.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[80] **viXra:1409.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 03:42:31*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for specific classes of numbers of the form k3^n-2 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1409.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-21 06:09:23*

**Authors:** Klinkerman R.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article is devoted to clarification and addition of ideas, stated in author’s
“Great Center”, supposing a management of biological life to a great extent from the
center of Earth [1].
Keywords: zero vibrations, particles, gravitation, complex photons, Center,
creation, organisms, philosophy.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[78] **viXra:1409.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 02:16:49*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Language is not English. Refers to works of John A. Gowan

Where we from, where we go? or how we are travel back to future looking only to past. New Theory of everything or Super Relativity, Final Theory. Gravity is the most powerful force in the Universe. New dimensions in our present past virtual reality and new dimensions in our Universe. Real Origin of all "electromagnetics forces". Quantum theory. Real Geometry of Space-time in our Universe. There is not Big-Bang and/or Big-Crunch, only Black Holes. What is Black Hole? What is the function of Black Holes? New entities named alpha and beta, origin of everything. New vectors for Physic, new velocities and accelerations. Final Model: two entities and one Force. Our Universe is 12-D: 8 spatial dimensions and 4 time. The most important 2 time dimensions. Antigravity is possible. Inertial and gravitational mass is the same. Origin of mass. Travels to Star is possible. Travel in Time is Theoretical possible. Parallel Universes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1409.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 02:42:51*

**Authors:** Komarov Vladimir

**Comments:** 20 Pages. The results of research reported at conferences:European Conference on Research in Chemistry Education 2014 “New Trends in Research-based Chemistry Education”, International Conference on 21st Century Education 2014

Increasing the amount of information in all 15 areas of knowledge base requires from teachers to establish its rules of selection , sorting, ordering, ways of presenting and tools of presentation. Selection of information is determined by the individual and the demands of social development in the coming decades . Sort information defined basic human activities and developing their methodological and logical apparatus . Ordering information is based on creation and allocation of a set of mnemonic devices and rules. Form submission of information should be based on systematic. A feature of such systematic should not only function " restore order " in the already known information field (along with the correction of false information ) , but the predictive function. In addition, the taxonomy should not be formed by creating a formal spreadsheets and databases and based on the general laws of nature - concept of the symmetry , Homology, conservation laws involving combinatorics , which has repeatedly "used " by Nature as a search for optimal mutational paths of evolution , selection, adaptation and adjustment . Reporting tools should be used as a conditioned reflex and unconditioned reflex students activity.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[76] **viXra:1409.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 02:55:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Some novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored recently. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations allowed for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. In this work we analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. A generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra, involving polyvector-valued coordinates and momenta operators, furnishes a realization of an extended Poincare algebra in $C$-spaces. In addition to the Planck constant $\hbar$, one finds that the commutator of the Clifford scalar components of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra requires the introduction of a $dimensionless$ parameter which is expressed in terms of the ratio of two length scales : the Planck and Hubble scales. We finalize by discussing the concept of ``photons", null intervals, effective temporal variables and the addition/subtraction laws of generalized velocities in $C$-space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[75] **viXra:1409.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 13:03:50*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe, Greg Fee

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article gives a direct formula for the computation of B (n) using the asymptotic
formula

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1409.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 13:05:32*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Conference in Florence in 1993

Nous décrivons ici une méthode expérimentale permettant de calculer de bons candidats pour
une forme close de fonctions génératrices à partir des premiers termes d’une suite de nombres
rationnels.

**Category:** Number Theory

[73] **viXra:1409.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 13:07:48*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 550 Pages. Master thesis 1992

master thesis of 1992, université du québec à Montréal. The thesis served as a template for the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences in 1995 by Neil Sloane and Simon Plouffe

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1409.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 13:10:25*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Article of November 1996

A method for computing the n'th decimal digit of Pi in O(n^3log(n)^3) in time and
with very little memory is presented here.

**Category:** Number Theory

[71] **viXra:1409.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 13:12:12*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I present here a collection of formulas inspired from the Ramanujan Notebooks.
These formulas were found using an experimental method based on three widely
available symbolic computation programs: PARI-Gp, Maple and Mathematica. A new
formula is presented for Zeta(5)
Une collection de formules inspirées des Notebooks de S. Ramanujan, elles ont
toutes été trouvées par des méthodes expérimentales. Ces programmes de calcul
symbolique sont largement disponibles (Pari-GP, Maple, Mathematica). Une
nouvelle formule pour Zeta(5) est présentée.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1409.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 13:14:44*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A series of formula is presented that are all inspired by the Ramanujan Notebooks [6]. One of
them appears in the notebooks II which is for Zeta(3).
That formula inspired others that appeared in 1998, 2006 and 2009 on the author’s website and
later in literature [1][2][3]. New formulas for and the Catalan constant are presented along
with a surprising series of approximations. A new set of identities is given for Eisenstein series.
All of the formulas are conjectural since they were found experimentally. A new method is
presented for the computation of the partition function.
Une série de formules utilisant l’exponentielle est présentée. Ces résultats reprennent ceux
apparaissant en 1998, 2006 et 2009 sur [1][2][3]. Elles sont toutes inspirées des Notebooks de
Ramanujan tels que Zeta(3).
Une nouvelle série pour Zeta(3) et la constante de Catalan sont présentés ainsi qu’une série
d’approximations surprenantes. Une série d’identités nouvelles sont présentées concernant les
séries d’Eisenstein. Toutes les formules présentées sont des conjectures, elles ont toutes été
trouvées expérimentalement. Une nouvelle méthode est présentée pour le calcul des partages
d’un entier.

**Category:** Number Theory

[69] **viXra:1409.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 10:00:26*

**Authors:** Hanno Essén, Lars Hörnfeldt

**Comments:** 1 Page. Abstracts of contributed papers, 11th international conference on general relativity and gravitation, Stockholm, Sweden, abstract no 1:12 (supplementary volume), July 6-12 1986

The curvature tensor and scalar is computed for n up to 6 with the computer algebra system STENSOR. From that new empircal material, formulae for any n are deduced. For the special case of a sphere they coincide with wellknown results.

**Category:** Geometry

[68] **viXra:1409.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 11:10:16*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness test for numbers of the form (3^p-1)/2 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[67] **viXra:1409.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-25 14:37:06*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Pay satisfaction and pay fairness are of vital concern to employees, employers, and hence the entire economic structure. Although the importance of fairness to compensation decisions is widely acknowledged, the research examining how fairness perception relates to components of pay is relatively scarce. Here, I model a dyadic employer-employee interaction as a two-person game in which an allocator (an employer) divides a monetary amount (a workplace net profit) between herself and a recipient (an employee). Assuming self-interested players, I propose a level-of-aspiration model, according to which players’ pay satisfaction is proportional to their actual payoffs relative to their aspired payoffs. Solving for the points of equality between the players’ levels of pay satisfaction, yields two “harmony” points, depending on the assumption made about the recipient's aspirations. Assuming that the recipient aspires for 50% of the total amount, the predicted harmony allocation is (2/3,1/3) for the allocator and recipient, respectively. On the other hand, assuming that the recipient aspires to receive the same amount as the allocator, the predicted harmony allocation is (φ, 1-φ), where φ≈0.62 is the famous Golden Ratio.
For a dyadic employer-employee interaction, the above solution prescribes that a fair salary is any percentage of the net profit between ≈33% to ≈38%, with strong preference for the upper limit, which in addition to yielding higher pay and pay satisfaction, is also aesthetically pleasing. Tests using field data on attitudinal pay fairness, actual pay data, and allocation behavior in experimental ultimatum bargaining, lend strong support to the proposed model.

**Category:** Social Science

[66] **viXra:1409.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 03:52:26*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This is third manuscript for the article.

If every positive integer is able to be operated to 1 by the set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture, then begin with 1, we can get all positive integers by operations on the contrary of the set operational rule for infinite many times. In this article, we will apply the mathematical induction with the help of certain operations by each other’s- opposed operational rules to prove that the Collatz conjecture is tenable.

**Category:** Number Theory

[65] **viXra:1409.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-11 04:04:19*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This is third manuscript for the article.

In this article, we first have proven a lemma of EP+FV≠2M. Successively have proven the Beal’s conjecture by mathematical analyses with the aid of the lemma, such that enable the Beal’s conjecture holds water.

**Category:** Number Theory

[64] **viXra:1409.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-10 07:09:16*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

I extend my thanks to Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, for making more widely known my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, by means of his personal website, and for providing me thereby with the opportunity to address the subject matter - supported by extensive references to primary sources for further information - in relation to his many comments, by means of this dedicated paper. The extensive mathematical appendices herein are not prerequisite to understanding the text.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1409.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 14:26:01*

**Authors:** Panos Sakkos, Dimitrios Kotsakos, Ioannis Katakis, Dimitrios Gunopoulos

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present a Software Keyboard for smart touchscreen de- vices that learns its owner’s unique dictionary in order to produce personalized typing predictions. The learning pro- cess is accelerated by analysing user’s past typed communi- cation. Moreover, personal temporal user behaviour is cap- tured and exploited in the prediction engine. Computational and storage issues are addressed by dynamically forgetting words that the user no longer types. A prototype implemen- tation is available at Google Play Store.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[62] **viXra:1409.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-07 15:05:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, we unify the weak and strong interactions inside protons with the strong gravitational interactions in active galactic nuclei i.e. we unify particle physics with cosmology. Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that outside the strong fields the gluons behave as photons. Due to the leaking internal structure of protons and the changing distances between the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, there appear the virtual dark-matter structures with different sizes which mimic the internal structure of protons and the characteristic motions of the entangled part of the Einstein spacetime inside it. The characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime cause that there appear characteristic distribution and advection of the mass inside the nuclei of active galaxies. The core of proton consists of the condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is the black hole with respect of the weak interactions) surrounded by the torus/charge composed of the carriers of gluons. There as well appear loops composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. On the other hand, a nucleus of active galaxy consists of gravitational black hole surrounded by accretion disc and of much bigger opaque torus of neutral gas and dust. Here, due to the characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime, the advection is the transport mechanism of the mass of a nucleus of active galaxy by the moving entangled part of the Einstein spacetime. There as well appear the two relativistic jets which direction overlaps with the axis of the opaque torus. For their creation are responsible the two baryonic-plasma loops with parallel spins and opposite internal helicities. They appear on the Schwarzschild surface of the gravitational black hole. The obtained results are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[61] **viXra:1409.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 00:52:06*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Compositeness criteria for specific classes of numbers of the form b^n-b+1 and b^n+b-1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1409.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-09 05:04:05*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition.
This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.
An important point to remember –
Einstein’s General Relativity gives a geometrical description of space-time and gravitation. The “Digital String Theory” section, speaking of the Mobius loop etc, doesn’t contradict that description but complements it since the Mobius and Klein bottle belong to a branch of geometry called topology or “rubber-sheet geometry”. String theory has been called “a little piece of the 21st century that dropped into the 20th century” (it’s the 21st century now, so it’s time for string theory to become more than a self-consistent theory and to blossom into the wondrous thing it was destined to be). Combining it with electronics and the above topology into “Digital String Theory” might possibly present an accuracy to description of space-time which simply wasn’t available when Albert Einstein lived (although one of the first papers on topology was mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler's 1736 paper on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, the digital age was only approx. a decade old when Einstein died).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] **viXra:1409.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 03:45:11*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present a method for computing some numbers bit by bit using only a ruler and compass,
and illustrate it by applying it to arctan(X)/π. The method is a spigot algorithm and can be applied to
numbers that are constructible over the unit circle and the ellipse. The method is precise enough to
produce about 20 bits of a number, that is, 6 decimal digits in a matter of minutes. This is surprising,
since we do no actual calculations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[58] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 22:57:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[57] **viXra:1409.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 10:09:16*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Electric charges are usually treated almost like physical entities. They are assumed to exist in association with electrons and protons and could be transferred from one matter-body to another along with these fundamental particles. Similar electric charges are believed to repel each other and dissimilar electric charges are believed to attract each other. These widely believed assumptions, in contemporary physics, have no logical basis. This article briefly explains nature, structure and mechanism of interaction of electric charges, as given in an alternative concept. Although they differ from currently accepted beliefs, they are based on consistent reasoning, initiated from a single assumption on existence of matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1409.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 04:02:38*

**Authors:** F. Ben Adda

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 8 Figures, it completes the previous paper viXra: 1406.0015

In this paper, a geometrical interpretation of light diffraction is given using an infinity of fluctuating geodesics for the small scale (the quantum scale) that represent paths of least time in an homogeneous space. Without using the wave theory, we provide a geometrical explanation of the deviation of light's overall direction from rectilinear when light encounters edges, apertures and screens.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[55] **viXra:1409.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 04:22:54*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually
in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from
the kinematical origin and it is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We
derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov effect and transition
radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The
last application of our method is the Thomas precession by uniform acceleration which can
play the crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1409.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-08 16:17:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is concerned with my second theory on massive photons. The main difference between these two theories is the way kinetic energy and total energy are defined. Because it is difficult to decide which theory is the correct one without solid experimental evidence to discard the incorrect one, we must take both theories into account for the time being.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1409.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-23 12:30:09*

**Authors:** Misha Mikhaylov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Usually itemizing relations’ properties those of them are always pointed out – some appearance of reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity. Also it is not so clear whether they are introduced artificially – i.e. axiomatically, rather for the sake of convenience or it may be done due to inartificial reasons. At the same time an origin of them is not so clear – whether they appear chaotically and independently on each other or there should be rigorous association between them. It is shown here that request of relation’s reversibility leads to these properties’ presence or absence. Often symmetry appearances are defined by using of ambiguous way. In fact, anti-symmetry is not direct negation for symmetry – there is also something that may be called as asymmetry or it may be something else. To avoid it here there was found the unified method of their definition. The same thing may be told about reflexivity and it was shown that just the only intransitivity may be represented as direct negation of transitivity.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[52] **viXra:1409.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 03:28:17*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 11 Pages. an ascii version of a drawing of Pi by Yves Chiricota is given

A conference on Bernoulli numbers, a result is given on the Agoh‐Giuga conjecture, it has been verified up to n=49999. Also a formula on the sum of the fractional part of Bernoulli numbers and a sample session to the Inverter (Plouffe's Inverter) from a Maple session and results.

**Category:** Number Theory

[51] **viXra:1409.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-08 12:19:39*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 288 Pages.

In this book, the authors define several new types of soft neutrosophic algebraic structures over neutrosophic algebraic structures and we study their generalizations. These soft neutrosophic algebraic structures are basically parameterized collections of neutrosophic sub-algebraic structures of the neutrosophic algebraic structure. An important feature of this book is that the authors introduce the soft neutrosophic group ring, soft neutrosophic semigroup ring with its generalization, and soft mixed neutrosophic N-algebraic structure over neutrosophic group ring, then the neutrosophic semigroup ring and mixed neutrosophic N-algebraic structure respectively.

**Category:** Algebra

[50] **viXra:1409.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 01:30:00*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A simple, but important observation, relevant both to mathematics and physics

The integral of the delta-function is 1, but when does '1' have to be interpreted as an integral of the delta-function? In order to make an interpretation of the volumes of figures of different dimensions more homogeneous, we follow a line of thought that leads us "back" to the original physical arguments from which the concept of delta-function arose.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[49] **viXra:1409.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-25 23:17:00*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Some results and a question added.

Let $\pi(n)$ denote the prime-counting function and let

%

$$f(n)=\left|\left\lfloor\log n-\lfloor\log n\rfloor-0.1\right\rfloor\right|\left\lfloor\frac{\left\lfloor n/\lfloor\log n-1\rfloor\right\rfloor\lfloor\log n-1\rfloor}{n}\right\rfloor\text{.}$$

%

In this paper we prove that if $n$ is an integer $\ge 60184$ and $f(n)=0$, then $\pi(n)$ does not divide $n$. We also show that if $n\ge 60184$ and $\pi(n)$ divides $n$, then $f(n)=1$. In addition, we prove that if $n\ge 60184$ and $n/\pi(n)$ is an integer, then $n$ is a multiple of $\lfloor\log n-1\rfloor$ located in the interval $[e^{\lfloor\log n-1\rfloor+1},e^{\lfloor\log n-1\rfloor+1.1}]$. This allows us to show that if $c$ is any fixed integer $\ge 12$, then in the interval $[e^c,e^{c+0.1}]$ there is always an integer $n$ such that $\pi(n)$ divides $n$.

Let $S$ denote the sequence of integers generated by the function $d(n)=n/\pi(n)$ (where $n\in\mathbb{Z}$ and $n>1$) and let $S_k$ denote the $k$th term of sequence $S$. Here we ask the question whether there are infinitely many positive integers $k$ such that $S_k=S_{k+1}$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1409.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-27 09:29:29*

**Authors:** L. Martino, F. Leisen, J. Corander

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms and Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods (a.k.a., particle filters) are well-known Monte Carlo methodologies, widely used in different fields for Bayesian inference and stochastic optimization. The Multiple Try Metropolis (MTM) algorithm is an extension of the standard Metropolis- Hastings (MH) algorithm in which the next state of the chain is chosen among a set of candidates, according to certain weights. The Particle MH (PMH) algorithm is another advanced MCMC technique specifically designed for scenarios where the multidimensional target density can be easily factorized as multiplication of conditional densities. PMH combines jointly SMC and MCMC approaches. Both, MTM and PMH, have been widely studied and applied in literature. PMH variants have been often applied for the joint purpose of tracking dynamic variables and tuning constant parameters in a state space model. Furthermore, PMH can be also considered as an alternative particle smoothing method. In this work, we investigate connections, similarities and differences among MTM schemes and PMH methods. This study allows the design of novel efficient schemes for filtering and smoothing purposes in state space models. More specially, one of them, called Particle Multiple Try Metropolis (P-MTM), obtains very promising results in different numerical simulations.

**Category:** Statistics

[47] **viXra:1409.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-11 06:55:05*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

It is possible to derive a model from a set of well selected first principles. After a series of extensions of this foundation the model shows many similarities with what we know from observing reality.
The first principles formulate a skeleton relational structure that is mathematically known as an orthocomplemented weakly modular lattice. It can be considered as part of a recipe for modular construction. When starting from this foundation it is mathematically inescapable evident that this model confines to a quaternionic space-progression model that proceeds with model-wide progression steps through an ordered sequence of sub-models that each represent a static status quo of the whole model.
This base model is a hybrid construct that consists of a sub model that treats all discrete objects and a continuum based sub model that embeds the discrete objects. The discrete part of the model keeps its data in an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space. The continuum part stores its data in a corresponding non-separable Hilbert space.
An extra mechanism that controls the coherence and the scheduling of dynamics applies the recurrent embedding of the discrete objects into appropriate continuums.
Despite the fact that the target of the model is planned to reach a level in which it shows many features and phenomena that we know from observing reality, this model is not claimed to be a model of physics. The reason for this restriction is that many of its aspects cannot be observed and will never become observable. Physicists tend to deny completely or largely deduced models.
The deduced model appears to own built-in restrictions that guard against uncontrolled growth of the complexity of the model.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[46] **viXra:1409.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 15:17:09*

**Authors:** Serge Miatovich

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Physical matter has certain apparent information content. We explore here the amount and the role of this information content. The method of doing so will minimize the role of presently known laws of physics, in order to explore the effects of information content alone, and thus avoid potentially isomorphic conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1409.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 11:22:05*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 2562 Pages.

Conjectured formulas of the OEIS by Simon Plouffe as of Sept 6. 2014
There are 45691 unique sequence and more than 148403 expressions.
Score = log(# of terms)*(length of sequence in charaters)/(length of the formula in
characters).

**Category:** Number Theory

[44] **viXra:1409.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 12:30:57*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This paper is the quest of a lifetime that will never be noticed.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a single solution to both the Klein-Gordon & Dirac equations that expresses both the QM and the classical aspects of particles. It is found that this can be done, but only in the context of a system that has an initial event (T = 0) and is expanding at c, thus it is consistent with a big bang representation of the universe. The equations are defined in geometric algebraic, and the KGD equation will be considered a single equation factorable into linear products of the two linear Dirac expressions, with a solution defined analogously to path integrals. The solution has botha Gaussian shaped amplitude, (classical), and phase, (QM) components satisfying the quadratic KG equation, and the linear Dirac expression. The equation differentials are not restricted to representing the normal QM operator replacement of p and E, applicable to the linear equation, but have a broader context in operating on the more complex function with amplitude and phase factors. The solutions represent the particle at a single event, thus the standard view of the solution being a probability amplitude field over spacetime is not applicable, but an alternate observational field is illustrated that demonstrates the connection of the solutions to the observed wave characteristics. The phase factors are as usual cyclic, but the amplitude factors exist only in the context of the entire interval. The amplitude factor of the solution is proportional to mass and thus should offer insight into particle mass ratios.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[43] **viXra:1409.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 20:38:08*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Considering the subject of black hole cosmology as a key branch of the quantum gravity, many fundamental issues of theoretical and observational cosmology can be understood.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[42] **viXra:1409.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 03:30:49*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 12 Pages. based of works done in 1974-1979 by Simon Plouffe

Analysis is made of the reflection of sunlight in a cup of coffee and how to obtain the same with congruences and prime numbers.
Congruences, light rays, primitive roots, trigonometric sums, hypocycloids, epicycloids, binary expansion, nary
expansion of 1/p.

**Category:** Number Theory

[41] **viXra:1409.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 03:40:55*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A series of formulas are presented that permits the computation of the n'th term using
the author customized
bootstrap method. That method is a variant of what is described in [GKP].
The { } denotes the nearest integer function and [ ] the floor function. They were
found in 1993. Annnnnn refers to either [Sloane] or [Sloane,Plouffe].

**Category:** Number Theory

[40] **viXra:1409.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 16:58:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the theory on the rest mass of the photon. The equations for
the energy of the photon are developed. The theory predicts an equation for the “massive” photoelectric effect similar to the Einstein's original photoelectric effect. This new theory predicts that the value of the black hole's cutoff radius is a function of the frequency of the photons generated inside the black hole. This means that the black hole's event horizon is not a spherical surface but a three-dimensional shell. Because this formulation is not a gravity theory but a theory on massive photons, it cannot predict
exactly the same Schwarzchild radius as general relativity. Despite of not being a gravity theory, this theory predicts that, should the equivalent mass of the photon equal its rest mass, the black hole cutoff radius would be equal to the Schwarzchild radius. I am convinced that the full potential of this formulation will be shown when it is used in conjunction with the Proca equations, the standard model and quantum gravity theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1409.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 14:07:24*

**Authors:** Victor Vaguine

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is recognized that foundational science is the key for the development of applied science and technology. In the final analysis, foundational science is the driving force for the progress and transformation of mankind. As a "compass", four Pointers are proposed to validate any particular direction in foundational science research. The Pointers are: P1 (Philosophy and Mindset), P2 (Mankind as an Emerging Intelligence), P3 (The Principle of Fine Tuning), and P4 (The General Copernican Principle). The Pointers are subjected to a verification test in four specific foundational situations: fundamental nature of quantum laws, unification of fundamental forces, the string theory, and the multiverse theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1409.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-01 08:54:57*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we redefine the infinitesimals by using axiomatic method.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[37] **viXra:1409.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 12:27:35*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 145 Pages. Published by Education Publishing, USA. Copyright 2015 by Marius Coman.

This book brings together sixty-two articles regarding primes submitted by the author to the preprint scientific database Vixra, papers on squares of primes, semiprimes, twin primes, sequences of primes, ways to write primes, special classes of composites, formulas for generating large primes, formulas for generating different duplets and triplets of primes, generalizations of the twin primes and de Polignac’s conjectures, generalizations of Cunningham chains, Smarandache generalized Fermat numbers, and on many other issues very much related with the study of primes. Finally, in the last eight from these collected papers, I defined a new function, the MC function, and showed some of its possible applications: for instance, I conjectured that for any pair of twin primes (p, p + 2) there exist a positive integer n of the form 15 + 18*k such that the value of Smarandache function for n is equal to p and the value of MC function for n is equal to p+2 and I also made a Diophantine analysis of few Smarandache types sequences using the MC function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1409.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 09:20:35*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper shows in a rigorous description, how nature is produced only from Euclidean Geometry , and that is not needed any attempt ion to establish any Philosophy or axioms as these of theories. All physical laws such as Momentum Newton`s second law of gravity, Maxwell`s equations of fields, conservation laws, Spring from geometry logic and are common to, the Large and Short scale distances without any exclusion principles or assumptions. Existing of everything follows the only one conservation law, that of Virtual work and not any logical starting point . [STPL] line (cylinder) is a geometrical mechanism , the only passage (mould = Tensor) from, Common Circle of Space , Anti-Space (which is a Plane) to Particles (reflected evanescent waves) with real part (s) and imaginary part (± v.i) and without any assumption , that reflected waves have an unknown phase shift . Reflected wave is equal to the incident wave (the real part to the real place and the imaginary part to the imaginary place with all incident properties (spin) included) , i.e. different properties create distinct kinds of waves as these are the Fermions and Quarks of scalar magnitudes with ½ spin and Bosons of vector magnitudes with 1 spin. In Common circle circumference, the components of light waves interfere with each other to produce a ,Color , Spectrum because of Birefringence, a property of the (Centripetal) stress material with more than two indices, n, of refraction. [Retardation is the phase difference between the two light vectors through the material at different velocities (fast, slow) and determines color Bands and as Retardation and stress (σ) go up then the colors cycle through a more or less repeating Pattern and the Intensity of the colors diminishes] . In Common Circle of equilibrium Space Anti-Space with different angular velocity vector, v = w r, in the absence of applied Torques produces the Color Spectrum which is, the < Color Forces > → Gluon Red, Gluon Green, Gluon Blue and velocity of light on the circumference. Planck`s length Lp in Einstein's theory of General Relativity is approximately implicated to the properties of physical Spaces instead that of Lp = e i.( - 5π / 2).10 = 8,906.10 35 m which is based on the three natural constants ,e, i, π , only . Lame`s stress ellipsoid represent Cauchy stress quadric of the Stress State at a point . Mohr circle can be applied to any symmetric 2x2 or 3x3 Tensor matrix and is graphically (geometrically) representing Cauchy stress Tensor. [STPL] line can be applied to any 3x3 symmetric Tensor (which are Spaces , Anti-Spaces and Sub-Spaces) and is graphically representing the passage (mould = Tensor 6x3) from , Common Circle of the Gravity Cave, in Lg = 3,969.10 62 m = 2r (a Plane) to Particles in Planck`s Cave Lp , with Velocities (v = wr) that of light ,c, tending to zero . For rotations in caves Lc > Lg then exist Velocities (vc = wr)
faster than that of light ,c, [vc > c ] tending to ∞. The hidden pattern of universe is ,STPL- line,
which is off the Spaces and connect them ( maintain , conserve , and support all universe ) ,
so , it is the Navel string of galaxies.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[35] **viXra:1409.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 03:51:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make two conjectures based on the observation of an interesting relation between the squares of primes and the number 96.

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1409.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 03:54:54*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two page priliminary note

In a paper titled: Explanation of the anomalous Doppler observations in Pioneer-10 and 11 Renshaw, C. (Aerospace Conference, 1999, Proceedings IEEE, Vol-2) finds that: “The value of the anomalous shift is shown to equal the difference between the calculated values for Newtonian and Special Relativistic Doppler expressions. The anomalous signals seem to indicate a preference for the Newtonian values.” This value of anomalous acceleration (8.0 x 10-8 cm/s2) is now known to equal H0 c, the value of accelerated expansion of the universe. It implies that if we use Newtonian formula for Doppler shift, then there is a possibility of vanishing the ‘accelerated expansion’ of the universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1409.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 04:18:22*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula N = (p^4 – 2*p^2 + m)/(m – 1), where p is an odd prime and m is a positive integer greater than 1, seems to generate easily primes or products of very few primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1409.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-06 05:25:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make four conjectures starting from the observation of the following recurrent relations: (((p*q – p)*2 – p)*2 – p)...), respectively (((p*q – q)*2 – q)*2 – q)...), where p, q are distinct odd primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1409.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-05 16:10:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make few statements on the infinity of few sequences or types of duplets and triplets of primes which, though could appear heterogenous, are all based on the observation of the prime factors of absolute Fermat pseudoprimes, Carmichael numbers, or of relative Fermat pseudoprimes to base two, Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1409.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 08:13:18*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** English version pages 1-13, Russian one – pages 13-25. Practically the same as the V2, additionally a simple experiment for measurement of the clocks’ tick rate dependence on gravity potential is suggested – see modified “Conclusion” section.

n a number of our arXiv papers it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental set “Information”. The conception enables to suggest a reasonable physical (“informational”) model that is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer (more correct – some analogue of a [huge] number of mutually weakly connected automata). The conjecture, in turn, allows introducing in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures (e.g., particles) and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model yet now makes clearer a number of basic problems in physics; and, besides, enables to put forward rather reasonable model of the gravity force. In this paper more detailed and corrected version of the model is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1409.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-02 06:40:47*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The fluid equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term - hence describing viscous flow. Due to specific of NS equations they could be transformed into full/partial inhomogeneous parabolic differential equations: differential equations in respect of space variables and the full differential equation in respect of time variable and time dependent inhomogeneous part. Velocity and outer forces densities components were expressed in form of curl for obtaining solutions satisfying continuity condition specifying divergence of velocities equality to zero. Finally, solution in 3D space for any shaped boundary was expressed in terms of 3D Green function and inverse Laplace transform accordantly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[28] **viXra:1409.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-05 04:39:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A single-page note

In a paper titled: Explanation for the observed wave/particle duality of light (Tank, H. K. viXra:1402.0153), it was explained that: “At the frequencies of light, generation and filtering of purely monochromatic light of one Hertz bandwidth is technically not yet possible; so there has been quite a wide band of electromagnetic waves involved in the experiments performed so far. And since this wide band of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the points, the ‘wave-packets’ get formed; which the detectors detect as ‘particles’. If the electromagnetic waves were always in the form of waves as well as particles, then even at radio frequencies we must observe ‘particles’ of radio-waves in addition to the ‘waves’ observed on oscilloscopes.” Then in a paper titled: What needs to be known about the collapse of quantum-mechanical wave-function (Tank, H. K. viXra:1407.0139) it was explained that de Broglie’s wave actually describes the ‘envelope-variations’ of superimposition of a wide band of the actual waves; and when there is a relative velocity between the source of light and observer, the width of the band also either shrinks or expands. And as was described in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation’ of super-novae light-curves” (Tank, H. K. viXra:1407.0144 ) , shrinking of bandwidth means ‘time-dilation’. From these papers we find that at the frequencies of light, there are two factors affecting the Doppler-shift, namely classical Doppler-shift plus time-dilation. Whereas in the case of low-frequency electromagnetic waves, since they can be produced or filtered as narrow-band as single Hertz, only the formula for classical Doppler-shift is expected to be applicable. And there is a supportive evidence also for the above prediction; as reported in a paper attempting to explain the Pioneer anomaly, titled: (----- ) it was concluded that the observations seem to favor applicability of classical formula for Doppler-shift, rather than the Relativistic one.
Detailed paper will follow soon.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[27] **viXra:1409.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 17:56:13*

**Authors:** Bambore Dawit

**Comments:** 9 Pages. the proof is short cut, there are instructions and results

This paper shows the non-existence of perfect cuboid by using two tools, the
first is representing Pythagoras triplets by two numbers and the second is realizing
the impossibility of two similar equations for the same problem at the same time in
different ways and the variables of one is relatively less than the other. When we
express all Pythagoras triplets in perfect cuboid problem and rearrange it we can
get a single equation that can express perfect cuboid. Unfortunately perfect cuboid
has more than two similar equations that can express it and contradict one another.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1409.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-08 06:07:09*

**Authors:** Marc Meurens

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As measured in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, the intra-temporal decrease of the gravitation constant G reveals the quantum relativity according to which the time unit represents the local density of quantum energy causing the expansion as well as the gravitation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1409.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 13:59:38*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Simple meshes such as the cube, tetrahedron, and tripod frequently appear in the literature to illustrate the concept of subdivision. The formulas for the volume, centroid, and inertia of the sets bounded by subdivision surfaces have only recently been derived. We specify simple meshes and state the moments of degree 0 and 1 defined by the corresponding limit surfaces. We consider the subdivision schemes Doo-Sabin, Loop, and Loop with sharp creases.

In case of Doo-Sabin, the moment of degree 2 is also available for certain simple meshes. The inertia is computed and visualized with respect to the centroid.

[24] **viXra:1409.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-04 16:08:16*

**Authors:** Joel M williams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The current concept of the nuclei of the isotopes of an element is that they all have the same number of protons and only differ by the number of included neutrons. This paper proposes an alternate model for the nucleus: the nucleotope. This model of nuclei has the number of protons and neutrons not differing from one another by more than a single unit. The outward nuclear charge is determined by the number of included β- particles. The model is applied to the elements of the periodic table, particularly addressing tritium and why elements above lead are unstable α-particle emitters.

----------The reader is cautioned that Royal Society "Open Science" has deemed this paper unfit for inquiring eyes. The complete lone review states that "The proposed model is in conflict with more than half a century of basic nuclear and atomic data (magic numbers, charge measurements of ions, nuclear mass measurements, fragmentation, to name a few) and all data supporting the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix of the standard model of particle physics."

----------It is faulty reasoning to assert that data supporting one model automatically excludes all other models. Adherents of the standard model would not want any new and significantly different model in the literature. In an "open science" world, ALL conceivable models would be aired!

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23] **viXra:1409.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 04:36:31*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Paul Amoros, Al Bacconnier

**Comments:** Main article = 9 pages, mathematical demonstration = 73 pages

Eintein’s General Relativity does not explain recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark
energy or accelerating universe. A thorough examination of the Einstein Field Equations (EFE)
highlights four inconsistencies. Solving these inconsistencies and bringing closer the EFE to
the Higgs mechanism fully explains the mass and gravity phenomena. The main interest of this
study is to propose a formula of mass in 4D, m=f(x,y,z,t), that solves several basic enigmas
fully demonstrated with mathematics but still not explained with logic and good sense, such as
“How spacetime can be curved by mass?”, or ‘What is the nature of the gravitational force?”, or
“What is the mechanism of conversion of mass into energy (E =mc2)?”. This paper also solves
the main enigmas of astrophysics and leads to interesting explanations of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1409.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-03 20:31:57*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Under Review since July 2014

Do events in a person’s life or in this world happen because they are pre-determined to do so under the Law of Universal Causality? Or does free-will have some role to play in it? More generally stated, “Is it Determinism or Free-Will that governs the occurrence of an event?”
In Religion and Mythology, the doctrine of Determinism is embodied in an equivalent idea called Destiny, which may be defined as a pre-ordained, inescapable, inevitable event. An accident, on the other hand, is a purely random and unpredictable event. Religion holds that there are no such things as accidents and that every event is infused with Divine purpose. Paradoxically, Religion (Christianity, in particular) also presupposes Man’s capacity for Free-Will, which is in direct contradiction to the idea of Destiny. How can Free-Will be truly free, if everything is already determined?
Science too, is in a similar muddle on the Problem of Free-Will, because it is still unsure whether the Universe runs on a deterministic or indeterministic basis.
After exploring the opinions gathered from diverse fragments of human knowledge (Philosophy, Physics, Neuroscience, Literature, Religion), two novel mathematical proposals are forwarded that fits both Determinism and Free-Will into a single, indivisible philosophical paradigm.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1409.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 02:09:40*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Trilateration is the name given to the Algorithm used in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to localize the position of a Transmitter/Receiver station (also called a Blind Node) in a 2D plane, using the positional knowledge of three non-linearly placed Anchor Nodes. For instance, it may be desired to locate the whereabouts of a mobile phone (Blind Node) lying somewhere within the range of three radio signal transmitting towers (Anchor Nodes). There are various Trilateration Algorithms in the literature that achieve this end using among other methods, linear algebra.
This paper is a direct spin off from prior work by the same author, titled “A Mathematical Treatise on Polychronous Wavefront Computation and its Applications into Modeling Neurosensory Systems”. The Geometric Algorithm developed there was originally intended to localize the position of a special class of neurons called Coincidence Detectors in the Central Neural Field. A general outline of how the same methodology can be adapted for the purpose of Trilateration, is presented here.

**Category:** Geometry

[20] **viXra:1409.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 03:08:03*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I’ve been doing some more thinking about the miraculous improvement in my friend Karen’s (name changed for privacy) health. This improvement – a less cautious person might even call it a cure – is a real puzzle … but a good one. The surgery she had 6 years ago, and all the chemotherapy and CT scans she’s received, have obviously been absolutely essential. I saw a TV program about Professor Ted Kaptchuk’s work with the placebo effect a few nights ago (his experiments with patients show that placebos have beneficial effects even when the placebo is known to be such) and am wondering if this twist in the placebo effect could be involved. In Karen’s case, the placebo wouldn’t be a pill or other treatment but I think it might possibly be the way she thinks. When diagnosed with a CT scan, the doctor made the seriousness of her condition very clear and said she needed emergency surgery. Karen’s mind was clear at the time and she understood everything he said. But she was really calm because she had the unmistakeable feeling that everything would be fine, even if treatment lasted years. This wasn’t just wishful thinking on Karen’s part because, in her late 40s, she had the same feeling over and over telling her that her 50s would be an extremely difficult time for her health (Karen never mentioned this to anyone before because she had enough problems without being labelled a crazy woman who believes in ESP and precognition). But I think the Theory of Everything and Einstein’s Unified Field provide a rational explanation (both of her drastic improvement and supposed precognition) if they aren’t limited to mathematics but embrace all reality, and unify everything in space and time (including Karen’s beautiful, unconventional mind) into one thing.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[19] **viXra:1409.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-22 13:27:22*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

For most purposes in physics the concept of mass particles and photons are treated as though they are completely separate and distinct entities having little connection accept through collision interactions. This paper explores the concept of a mass particle being viewed as a pair of trapped photons in a mass-less box demonstrating proper relativistic dynamics, Lorentz covariance, and gravitational properties. The mechanism of trapping of the photons in the particle is not herein defined; however the lack of sufficient spin to properly constitute a photon would be a containment factor. Although this presentation is primarily focused on electrons, presumably it would be applicable to any particle with primary constituents consisting of particles that travel at light speed along null vectors. This illustrates the concept of the equivalence of mass and energy, and why mass velocity cannot exceed the speed of light.
It is asserted and illustrated; that the gravitational effect on particles and photons can be can be effectuated by a simple gradient in the speed of light. This allows the assertion that gravitation is a local alteration of c generated by the presence of matter and could be a QFT effect.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[18] **viXra:1409.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-03 12:04:38*

**Authors:** Ikonomis Ilias

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0

There are several versions and continuous discussion of the so-called Gibbs paradox. In this paper we are not trying to prove one more time that there is no paradox or that there is one, but to prove that similarity of different gases, or otherwise gases than slightly differ, leads to the violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[17] **viXra:1409.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 10:11:00*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. this new version does not contain all the development which the outhor made in the idea since the last version because this is found in other papers

In this paper , a new and very simple cosmological model is introduced . It is shown how the model can explain some observations including Habble's law and dark energy and affect our understanding of some concepts .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1409.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 11:41:23*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 12 Pages; 5 Tables; 21 References

In a previous series of papers relating to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA), we have exclusively studied orbital motion without spin. In the present paper we apply CGA to any self-rotating material body, i.e., an axially spinning massive object, which itself may be locally seen as a gravito-rotational source because it is capable of generating the gravito-rotational (field) acceleration, which seems to be unknown to previously existing theories of gravity. The consequences of such an acceleration are very interesting, particularly for Compact Stellar Objects. Independently of the equation of state, it is found that the critical and maximum internal magnetic field strength of a stable neutron star cannot exceed the value of 3x10^18 G .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[15] **viXra:1409.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 11:03:27*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Mihai

**Comments:** 47 Pages. ISBN 973-657-736-8, SITECH Publisher, Craiova, Romania

The book ”The theory of the three-phase electric multipole” represents the generalization of the electric quadripole theory to the three-phase electric circuits, wants to maintain both the definitions and formulae obtained in the theory of the electric quadripole, but in another mathematical symbolism adapted to the three-phase electric circuits with or without neutral wire.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1409.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-15 15:30:35*

**Authors:** Ellida M. Khazen

**Comments:** Pages. The paper is being publuished in Cogent Mathematics (2016), 2:1134031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311835.2015.1134031

The problem of filtering of unobservable components x(t) of a multidimensional continuous diffusion Markov process z(t)=(x(t),y(t)), given the observations of the (multidimensional) process y(t) taken at discrete consecutive times with small time steps, is analytically investigated. On the base of that investigation the new algorithms for simulation of unobservable components, x(t), and the new algorithms of nonlinear filtering with the use of sequential Monte Carlo methods, or particle filters, are developed and suggested. The analytical investigation of observed quadratic variations is also developed. The new closed form analytical formulae are obtained, which characterize dispersions of deviations of the observed quadratic variations and the accuracy of some estimates for x(t). As an illustrative example, estimation of volatility (for the problems of financial mathematics) is considered. The obtained new algorithms extend the range of applications of sequential Monte Carlo methods, or particle filters, beyond the hidden Markov models and improve their performance.

**Category:** Statistics

[13] **viXra:1409.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 06:49:37*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** Short Communication Article in English and 4 pages

By using the principle of relativity (first postulate), together with new defined nature of the universal speed (our second postulate) and homogeneity of time-space (our third postulate), we derive the most general transformation equation of relativity in one dimensional space. According to our new second postulate, the universal (not limited) speed c in Armenian Special Theory of Relativity is not the actual speed of light but it is the speed of time which is the same in all inertial systems. Our third postulate: the homogeneity of time-space is necessary to furnish linear transformation equations. We also state that there is no need to postulate the isotropy of space. Our article is the accumulation of all efforts from physicists to fix the Lorentz transformation equations and build correct and more general transformation equations of relativity, which obey the rules of logic and fundamental group laws, without internal philosophical and physical inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1409.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 04:18:54*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The physical behavior of elementary particles, massive and energetic, in force fields is studied in this paper. In particular let us consider the gravitational field and the electrostatic field and relative to the electrostatic field, as already it was done for the gravitational field, we demonstrate the theoretical validity of an electrostatic perturbation due to the motion of an electric charge into the electrostatic field generated by a pole charge. This electrostatic perturbation, on a pair with the gravitational perturbation, has characteristics of continuity differently from electromagnetic radiation, emitted by accelerated charges, free or constrained in complex structures, that instead has quantum characteristics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1409.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 18:19:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Poeme intr-un rand insotite de imagini sugestive.

**Category:** Linguistics

[10] **viXra:1409.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 18:21:52*

**Authors:** Amalia Mia Pop

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Aceste “poezii cu dedicaţie precisă” sunt versuri ocazionale dedicate şi adresate lui Florentin Smarandache, sub formă de felicitări (“floricitări”) cu ocazia sărbătorilor de Florii (“Florinalii”), colectate din arhiva scriitorului de Amalia Mia Pop şi ilustrate cu fotografii din arhiva SCŞ AdSumus sau din Internet.
Texte poetice de Eugen Evu, Gh. Niculescu, Mircea Monu, George Anca, Marinela Preoteasa, Nicolae Maroga Enceanu, Janet Nică, George Roca, Mari Neagu.

**Category:** Linguistics

[9] **viXra:1409.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 18:28:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Versuri si imagini sugestive.

**Category:** Linguistics

[8] **viXra:1409.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 19:44:29*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 300 Pages.

Note:
•This photo-album includes about 280 folklore images gathered from Internet or received by mail.
•The images are contradictory in a lower percent (soft paradoxism), or in a higher percent (hard paradoxism).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[7] **viXra:1409.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 21:05:29*

**Authors:** Taiki Takahashi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

OBJECTIVE: No study to date compared degrees of inequity aversion in economic decision-making in the ultimatum game between non-addictive and addictive reinforcers. The comparison is potentially important in neuroeconomics and reinforcement learning theory of addiction. METHODS: We compared the degrees of inequity aversion in the ultimatum game between money and cigarettes in habitual smokers. RESULTS Smokers avoided inequity in the ultimatum game more dramatically for money than for cigarettes; i.e., there was a "domain effect" in decision-making in the ultimatum game. CONCLUSIONS: Reward-processing neural activities in the brain for non-addictive and addictive reinforcers may be distinct and the insula activation due to cue-induced craving may conflict with unfair offer-induced insula activation. Future studies in neuroeconomics of addiction should employ game-theoretic decision tasks for elucidating reinforcement learning processes in dopaminergic neural circuits.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[6] **viXra:1409.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-20 00:20:20*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A figure added

Standard mathematics involves such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity and standard division. This mathematics is usually treated as fundamental while finite mathematics is treated as inferior. Standard mathematics has foundational problems (as follows, for example, from G\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems) but it is usually believed that this is less important than the fact that it describes many experimental data with high accuracy. We argue that the situation is the opposite: standard mathematics is only a degenerate case of finite one in the formal limit when the characteristic of the ring or field used in finite mathematics goes to infinity. Therefore foundational problems in standard mathematics are not fundamental.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[5] **viXra:1409.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 02:56:46*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness test for numbers of the form (10^n-1)/9 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1409.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted for Bell Labs Prize Competition July 11, 2014

It is well known that electron spin is quantized, and is measured to be either spin up or spin down in a magnetic field, as was first demonstrated in the classic Stern-Gerlach experiment almost 100 years ago. However, it is also believed that a quantum spin may be indeterminate until it is measured, being in a quantum superposition of the two quantum states. On the contrary, I propose (based on a locally realistic spin-quantized picture of quantum waves) that an electron quantum state is always either spin up or spin down, but is never in a superposition of the two. This concept should be directly testable using a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment, similar to that presented in standard quantum textbooks, but apparently never carried out experimentally. This experiment should be straightforward using modern atomic beam laboratory equipment. If successful, this could lead to a serious review of quantum foundations, as well as a new set of practical applications. In particular, a binary storage or logic element based on quantum spin should continue to work down to the atomic scale. This should enable computer memories with orders of magnitude greater density than those based on conventional magnetic memories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1409.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 10:02:24*

**Authors:** Liu Ran

**Comments:** 1 Page.

传统数论中的无穷大是没有上界的，也就是没有最大，只有更大。无穷大是自相矛盾的。

**Category:** Number Theory

[2] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 04:52:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1409.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 08:40:33*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Aug. 11, 2014

In recent years, quantum computing has promised a revolution in computing performance, based on massive parallelism enabled by many entangled qubits. Josephson junction integrated circuits have emerged as the key technology to implement such a universal digital quantum computer. Indeed, prior experiments have demonstrated simple Josephson qubit configurations with quantized energy levels and long coherence times, which are a necessary prerequisite for a practical quantum computer. However, these quantized states do not directly prove the presence of entanglement or macroscopic superposition, which are essential for the superior speed of such a digital quantum computer. On the contrary, an alternative realistic foundation for quantum mechanics has recently been proposed, with coherent transitions between quantized states, but without entanglement. A new experiment is proposed that may test whether superconducting quantum circuits can exhibit quantized states without macroscopic entanglement or superposition. Specifically, a flux qubit (a bi-stable SQUID) may be configured with a resonant input line for excitation and a single-flux quantum output line for simultaneous direct measurement of quantized energy and flux states, which are incompatible measurements in standard quantum theory. Such an observation could undermine the assumptions of superposition and entanglement, bringing into question the foundation and the ultimate performance of a universal digital quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics