[93] **viXra:1206.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-01 00:39:37*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is the beginning of an attempt at rewriting the book "Categories and Sheaves" by Kashiwara and Schapira without using Grothendieck's universes axiom.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[92] **viXra:1206.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-29 09:00:58*

**Authors:** X. Q. Huang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We investigate the nature of the superconducting current from the Maxwell's displacement current.
We argue that the conduction current density term of the Maxwell's equations is physically untrue, and it should be eliminated from the equations. Essentially, both the superconducting current and conduction current are originated from the Maxwell's displacement current characterizing
the changes of electric field with time or space.
Therefore, there are no electrons tunnel through the insulating layer of the Josephson junction.
It is shown that the conventional static magnetic field is, in fact, the static electric field of the intrinsic electron-ion electric dipoles in the materials. The new paradigm naturally leads to unification of magnetic and electrical
phenomena, while at the same time realizing the perfect symmetry of the Maxwell's equations. Moreover, it is well confirmed that the Dirac's
magnetic monopole is indeed the well-known electron. This research is expected to shed light on the high-temperature superconductivity.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[91] **viXra:1206.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-24 18:28:15*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

It is shown that classical general relativity can be obtained as the limit of fully quantum mechanical vacuum made up of a dense assembly of positive and negative Planck mass particles in equal numbers, each of them occupying a Planck length volume. The positive and negative Planck masses can be viewed as mini black and white holes. Using Heisenberg’s dictionary to translate classical mechanical quantities into corresponding quantum quantities, the solution of the Boltzmann equation for this positive negative Planck mass assembly leads to the quantum mechanics of the positive and negative Planck mass particles. There then, the positive and negative Planck masses can be described by two superfluids, each one with a phonon-roton spectrum. General relativity emerges at large scales in regions with a difference between positive and negative masses, with a rippling of space-time near the Planck length. Following ‘tHooft’s conjecture that the solution of quantum gravity is connected to a deterministic interpretation of quantum mechanics, it is proposed that the universe is separated through an event horizon to a parallel universe, by 1099cm-3 Planck length Einstein-Rosen bridges kept open by the negative Planck masses, with time and space interchanged. The observable universe carries the particle nature of matter, while the hidden parallel universe its wave nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[90] **viXra:1206.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-28 01:24:05*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. submitted to Foundations of Physics

Clifford-space Gravity is revisited and new results are found. A derivation of the proper expressions for the connections (with $torsion$) in Clifford spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented. The introduction of hyper-determinants of hyper-matrices are instrumental in the derivation of the $ C$-space generalized gravitational field equations from a variational principle and based on the extension of the Einstein-Hilbert-Cartan action. We conclude by pointing out the relations of Clifford space gravity to Lanczos-Lovelock-Cartan higher curvature gravity with torsion and extended gravitational theories based on $ f ( R ), f ( R_{\mu \nu} ), ... $ actions, for polynomial-valued functions. Introducing nonmetricity furnishes higher curvature extensions of metric affine theories of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[89] **viXra:1206.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-27 13:27:40*

**Authors:** William Rowan Hamilton

**Comments:** 65 Pages.

A paper of Sir Hamilton originally published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1834. Edited by David R. Wilkins.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[88] **viXra:1206.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-26 07:52:04*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 17 Pages. On English

The article describes the methodological features of energodynamics as a theory
generalizing the methods of equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics to
nonthermal forms of energy and nonthermal engines.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[87] **viXra:1206.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-26 10:33:32*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation, find new electronic force’s solution. The force is only found by the gravity equation. Therefore the force is connected by the gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1206.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-26 12:24:07*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is shown that a Planck mass plasma composed of a dense assembly of positive and negative Planck mass particles can explain the ~102 GeV standard model mass by the positive gravitational interaction energy of a positive with a negative vortex resonance energy at 1013 GeV, replacing the Higgs spin 0 boson with a spin 2 graviton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[85] **viXra:1206.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-26 15:32:20*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 17 Pages, 9 Figures

ABSTRACT
The success of quantum theory shows that the Universe is much more complicated than most have supposed. How did our universe get started? What is energy? What is gravity? The late Richard Feynman in Volume 1 of his “Lectures on Physics” said that no one had come up with the machinery of either energy or gravity. However the machinery of both has been presented by the author in recent issues of this viXar archive and other publications. For the machinery of the expansion of the universe, a complete spatial condensation theory, with no free parameters, has been under development for the past 25 years. In that development, one important contact has been made with quantum theory; the expansion theory predicts exactly the same value of vacuum energy as quantum theory, a factor of 10123 greater than Einstein’s mass energy, Mc2. The new concepts, such as a fourth spatial dimension, and our ordinary space of three spatial dimensions as the surface of a four-dimensional ball, indicate that there are even more complexities needed to accomplish unification with quantum theory. Present physics uses a symmetric time and yet we know that from our subjective concepts of past-present-future that there is also an “Arrow” of time. This conundrum was solved by two different productions of space operating under two different times. Our universe started under the first radiation-dominated era with the arrow of time producing four-dimensional space. Then as radiation cooled and four-dimensional space continued, geometric production of our three-dimensional space with symmetric time increased in the matter-dominated era. Some additional plots of important parameters are presented as well as a new agreement with measurements of passive separation of galaxies. But in general the aim of this paper is to alert the reader to the background vision of a greater epi-universe as the source of quantum interaction with the present mass of matter and the vision of how our universe came to be.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1206.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-26 17:22:16*

**Authors:** Kenneth Sandale

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

For a point charge in a uniform external electric field the laws of classical electromagnetism are currently thought to imply an infinite self-force acting on the charge, in the opposite direction of the external force. This is a physically bizarre situation. We show here that this is not actually implied by the laws of classicall electromagnetism. The problem with the standard approach turns out to be that it incorrectly tacitly assumes that the self-force is generated by acceleration induced by the external field when in reality the self-force is generated by acceleration induced by the sum of the external field and the self-force field itself.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[83] **viXra:1206.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-27 02:43:10*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

abstract
While Einstein's theory of gravity is made for cosmic dimensions and recent theories of gravitation for regions of about a Planck
length, in this paper an ansatz is made for a medium range between the two extreme orders of magnitude. It is designed as a gauge theory for the fourth fundamental force of nature in
accordance with the existing gauge theories for the other three forces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1206.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-27 02:50:54*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Three claims are justified: (a) The rules of quantum statistics are irrelevant for the ingoing particles of scattering processes. (b) They must be confined to systems that are interacting or have interacted with one another in the past, as for instance the outgoing particles of a scattering process. In these cases the results of quantum statistics are valid, but only as empirical rules and not as fundamental principles. The usual deduction of quantum statistics in quantum field theory, especially by the canonical formalism is not acceptable. (c) The results of quantum statistics can be understood as a special case of nonlocal
phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1206.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-10 09:09:33*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We investigate CP violation in a theoretical framework in which field theory appears only
as an approximate description. In particular, the breaking of the time reversal symmetry
does not rely on a Kobayashi-Maskawa phase. We show how our approach allows to obtain
the correct value of the CP asymmetry not only for the decays of K mesons, but also
for the D mesons. In the case of B mesons, there is not yet a precise measurement, and
our computation results in a prediction compatible with the current experimental bounds.
Within the same theoretical framework, we also obtain the correct value of the baryon
asymmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[80] **viXra:1206.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-21 02:04:39*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

We investigate the most general phase space of configurations, consisting of the collection
of all possible ways of assigning elementary attributes, “energies”, to elementary positions,
“cells”. We discuss how this space defines a “universe” with a structure that can be approximately
described by a quantum-relativistic physical scenario in three space dimensions. In
particular, we discuss how the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty and the bound on the speed of light
arise, and what kind of mechanics rules on this space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1206.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-26 03:53:33*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We discuss the continuum field theory
limit of the physical scenario described in
Ref.[1], the universe arising from the
interpretation of the most general collection of logical codes in terms
of distributions of units of energy along units of space.
This limit leads in a natural way to string theory as the theory which
allows to perturbatively parametrize the geometric structures in
terms of propagating particles and fields. We discuss some general
properties of the spectrum, masses and couplings, the existence of
the strong force, with particular attention to the excited states, and
the implications for the physics of high energy colliders.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[78] **viXra:1206.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-25 19:25:31*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein field equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. Recently McMonigal,Lewis and
O´Byrne presented an important analysis for the Alcubierre warp
drive:A warp drive ship at superluminal speeds in interstellar
space would trap in the warp bubble all the particles and
radiations the ship encounters in its pathway and these trapped
bodies would achieve immense energies due to the bubble
superluminal speed.As far the ship goes by in interstellar space,
more and more particles and radiations are trapped in the bubble
generating in front of it a blanket with extremely large amounts
of positive energy. The physical consequences of having this
blanket of positive energies with enormous magnitudes in front of
the negative energy of the warp bubble are still unknown. When the
ship finishes the trip it stops suddenly releasing in a highly
energetic burst all the trapped particles and radiations contained
in the blanket damaging severely the destination point. In this
work,we reproduce the same analysis for the Natario warp drive
however using different mathematical arguments more accessible to
beginners or intermediate students and we arrived exactly to the
same conclusions. While in a long-term future some of the physical
problems associated to the warp drive science(negative
energy,Horizons) seems to have solutions(better shape functions
for the negative energy problem and a theory that encompasses both
General Relativity and non local quantum entanglements of Quantum
Mechanics for the Horizons problem) and we discuss these solutions
in our work,the analysis of McMonigal,Lewis and O´Byrne although
entirely correct do not have a foreseeable solution and remains
the most serious obstacle against the warp drive as a physical
reality

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1206.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-28 22:24:39*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Typographical correction has been carried out.

The author had published a paper on the solutions for the twin primes conjecture in an international mathematics journal in 2003. This paper, which consists of 2 parts that are each self-contained, presents some approaches to the twin primes problem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[76] **viXra:1206.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-14 15:40:42*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The author had published a paper on the solutions for the twin primes conjecture in an international mathematics journal in 2003. This paper, which consists of 5 parts that are each self-contained, presents strong arguments which support the validity of the twin primes conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:1206.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-24 10:46:43*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Black holes are favourite objects for so many different groups of people to discuss. Many physicists discuss them quite seriously, while their possible existence must bring great joy to writers of science fiction. However, what is the theoretical background for their existence and what precisely is meant by the term ‘black hole’?

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1206.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-24 14:14:23*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Navier-Stokes differential equations describe the motion of fluids which are incompressible. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations misbehave very badly although they are relatively simple-looking. The solutions could wind up being extremely unstable even with nice, smooth, reasonably harmless initial conditions. A mathematical understanding of the outrageous behaviour of these equations would dramatically alter the field of fluid mechanics. This paper describes why the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are not solvable, i.e., the equations cannot be used to model turbulence, which is a three-dimensional phenomenon.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[73] **viXra:1206.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-28 22:43:30*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper highlights an evident inherent inconsistency or arbitrariness in the axiomatic method in mathematics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[72] **viXra:1206.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-24 14:58:43*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The cosmic Big Bang was long believed to be associated with a decelerating expansion of the universe, until recent observations of distant supernovae indicated accelerating expansion that requires dark energy, which is still not fully understood. It is proposed here that cosmic acceleration may be an illusion caused by gradually increasing rest mass, which produces an additional contribution to the apparent cosmological red shift. A novel simple model is presented that illustrates this effect without dark energy, whereby there is a smooth transition from an early universe of massless particles to the present universe of massive particles, stars, and galaxies, mediated by the decreasing gravitational potential of the expanding universe. Implications of this model for the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1206.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-15 09:03:48*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU

**Comments:** 30 Pages. The idea that a time-varying magnetic field may create a gradient was emphasized through writing the total time derivative of the magnetic field in terms of the Jacobian matrix.

The purpose of this article is to point out that Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, believed by the majority of scientists a fundamental theory of physics, is in fact built on an unsupported assumption and on a faulty method of theoretical investigation. The result is that the whole theory cannot be considered reliable, nor its conclusions accurate descriptions of reality. In this work it is called into question whether radio waves (and light) travelling in vacuum, are indeed composed of mutually inducing electric and magnetic fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[70] **viXra:1206.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-22 14:04:10*

**Authors:** Igor V. Limar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One of the most prospective directions of study of C.G. Jung’s synchronicity phenomenon
is reviewed considering the latest achievements of modern science. The attention is
focused mainly on the quantum entanglement and related phenomena – quantum
coherence and quantum superposition. It is shown that the quantum non-locality capable
of solving the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox represents one of the most adequate
physical mechanisms in terms of conformity with the Jung’s synchronicity hypothesis. An
attempt is made on psychophysiological substantiation of synchronicity within the context
of molecular biology. An original concept is proposed, stating that biological molecules
involved in cell division during mitosis and meiosis, particularly DNA may be considered
material carriers of consciousness. This assumption may be formulated on the basis of
phenomenology of Jung’s analytical psychology.

**Category:** Mind Science

[69] **viXra:1206.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-23 03:33:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This enhanced paper proves in a simple way, with no mathematics, that there is no black hole or close black hole binary system in Nova Scorpii, contrary to the published claims of Schmidt et al. (2002). It also proves that the concept of the black hole violates the physical principles of General Relativity and is therefore invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1206.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-29 01:39:57*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published: Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Physics and Space Science Volume 12 Issue 4 Version 1.0 June 2012

This paper proves in a simple way, with minimal mathematics, that there is no black hole or close black hole binary system in Nova Scorpii, contrary to the published claims of Schmidt et al. (2002). It also consequently proves that the concept of the black hole violates the physical principles of General Relativity and is therefore invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[67] **viXra:1206.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-21 23:46:51*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a very short summary for the layperson that tries to condense more than 30 years of my research into how the universe works into approx. 1,000 words. Remember that it does not attempt to reveal all the science and mathematics I’ve used in those 30 years. It merely lays out the final conclusions, which I hope you’ll find interesting and self-consistent (though I won’t be surprised if no-one ever takes it seriously). The summary was inspired by the speculation that Large Hadron Collider scientists will announce the discovery of the Higgs during the International Conference on High Energy Physics, which takes place in Melbourne, Australia, July 4 to 11.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1206.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-22 02:10:33*

**Authors:** Shachter Mourici

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper an entirely new approach is used to solve the old problem known as "The Unified Theory of Electrical Machines" Instead of solving an electric circuit with time dependent resistors and coils. I spent a lot of time in finding the appropriate coordinate system in which the problem becomes very simple. Instead of mathematical reasoning with innumerous number of mathematical equation I used pictorial reasoning
This Unified Theory of Electrical Machines is the shortest and therefore can be used to teach student the principles of electrical machines in a one semester course
The systematic procedure introduced in this paper is not limited to machine theory and can be applied in many physic and engineering problems.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[65] **viXra:1206.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-20 20:51:44*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We report here our experimental findings of new nonlocal biological effect measured objectively and quantitatively under blind conditions. The method used includes the steps of providing two parts of quantum-entangled medium, applying one part to a biological system such as a human, contacting the other part with a desired substance such as a medication, and detecting change of a biological parameter with a detecting device. Using this method, we have found that after consumption by a test subject of one part of the quantum entangled water, the subject’s heart rate was non-locally increased under blind conditions by adding to the second part of the quantum-entangled water an over-the-counter medication Primatene which contains the heart stimulant ephedrine. The said increase of heart rate is measurable with a heart rate monitor, statistically significant and consistently reproducible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[64] **viXra:1206.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-27 04:16:46*

**Authors:** Korn Rakpradit

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

Bernhard Riemann has written down a very mysterious work “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” since 1859. This paper of Riemann tried to show some functional equations related to prime numbers without proof. Let us investigate those functional equations together about how and where they came from. And at the same time let us find out whether or not the Riemann Zeta Function ζ(s)=2^s (π)^(s-1)sin(π s/2 )Г(1-s)ζ(1-s) really has zeroes at negative even integers (-2, -4 , -6 …), which are called the trivial zeroes, and the nontrivial zeroes of Riemann Zeta Function which are in the critical strip (0<ℜ(s)<1) lie on the critical line (ℜ(s) = 1/2) (or the nontrivial zeroes of Riemann Zeta Function are complex numbers of the form (1/2+∝i)).Step by step, you will not believe your eyes to see that Riemann has made such unbelievable mistakes in his work. Finally, you can easily find out that there are no trivial and nontrivial zeroes of Riemann zeta function at all.

**Category:** Number Theory

[63] **viXra:1206.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-01 11:50:55*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 21 Pages. The last section (discussion) and the list of references have been considerably extended.

In explaining such phenomena as the redshift and even the fact that we can see stars and planets, the effect of wave packet spreading (WPS) of the photon wave function is not taken into account. Probably the main reason is a belief that WPS is not important since a considerable WPS would blur the images more than what is seen. However, WPS is an inevitable consequence of quantum theory and moreover this effect is also known in classical electrodynamics. So it is not sufficient to just say that a considerable WPS is excluded by observations. One should try to estimate the importance of WPS and to understand whether our intuition is correct or not. We explicitly demonstrate that a standard relativistic quantum-mechanical calculation shows that
spreading in the direction perpendicular to the photon momentum is very important and cannot be neglected. Hence the physics of the above phenomena is not well understood yet. Possible approaches for solving the problem are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[62] **viXra:1206.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-20 06:41:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Tudor Păroiu

**Comments:** 130 Pages.

Oare omenirea chiar a ajuns la limita insensibilităţii sale unde este doar raţiune, unde sensibilul şi-a pierdut definitiv valoarea lui existenţială? Dacă este aşa înseamnă că Albert Camus are dreptate “singura soluţie logică este sinuciderea”. Ca să fugim de tenebrele morţii, de coşmarurile pe care noi înşine ni le propunem în numele ei avem cîteva soluţii printre care evident sinuciderea, sau de ce nu optimismul spectacolului vieţii. Sinuciderea este un

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[61] **viXra:1206.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-15 14:09:10*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

We demonstrate how the baryons which constitute the vast preponderance of the material universe are no more and no less than Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles, with quarks and gluons confined, and only mesons permitted to net flux in and out. The confinement of color in Yang-Mills theory is fundamentally and inextricably tied to the absence of magnetic monopoles in Abelian Gauge theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[60] **viXra:1206.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-26 14:59:59*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

• ABSTRACT: We give and interpretation of the Riemann Xi-function as the quotient of two functional determinants of an Hermitian Hamiltonian . To get the potential of this Hamiltonian we use the WKB method to approximate and evaluate the spectral Theta function over the Riemann zeros on the critical strip . Using the WKB method we manage to get the potential inside the Hamiltonian , also we evaluate the functional determinant by means of Zeta regularization, we discuss the similarity of our method to the method applied to get the Zeros of the Selberg Zeta function. In this paper and for simplicity we use units so
• Keywords: = Riemann Hypothesis, Functional determinant, WKB semiclassical
Approximation , Trace formula ,Bolte’s law, Quantum chaos.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[59] **viXra:1206.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-19 16:55:35*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 73 Pages.

According to the official and prevailing cosmology, the Universe is expanding; galaxies (not all…) are mutually getting farther and the farther they are,
the higher their speeds are and their redshifts are. The law by which all this happens is Hubble’s Law (Edwin Hubble, lawyer, astronomer and
astrophysicist, 1889-1953).
Any exception?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1206.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-19 05:04:29*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work I will study the Dirac Gamma matrices in Majorana basis
and Majorana spinors. A Fourier like transform is
defined with Gamma matrices, defining a momentum space for
Majorana spinors. It is shown that the Wheeler propagator has
asymptotic states with well defined momentum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[57] **viXra:1206.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-19 05:22:29*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

It is well known that physics explains natural phenomena using mathematics, But what happens if we derive from a good physical experiment a wrong mathematical equation, use it for more than 100 years without knowing it is wrong. In this paper I develop again the equation of energy conversion in a general electrical machine and prove that the equations we use are wrong. One of Professor Einstein statements was that the laws of physics are the same for every observer so I made the electrical equation of the machine to look like the mechanical equation. What I found was astonishing and is valid for all other area in physics. It is found that in general any constant in physic can be represented by a superposition of time and phase dependent sinusoidal function. So may be what we think about speed of light and other physical constant is entirely wrong. In the last part of this issue, I use the consequences of that article to create a virtual universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[56] **viXra:1206.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-05 04:47:27*

**Authors:** Hosein Nasrolahpour

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this review, we present some fundamental classical and quantum phenomena in view of time fractional formalism. Time fractional formalism is a very useful tool in describing systems with memory and delay. We hope that this study can provide a deeper understanding of the physical interpretations of fractional derivative.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[55] **viXra:1206.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-18 09:07:47*

**Authors:** Patrick Linker

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The fifth force is a hypothetical force, which is introduced as a hypothetical additional force, e.g. to describe deviations from gravitational force. Moreover, it is possible, to explain the baryon asymmetry in the universe, an unsolved problem of particle physics, with a hypothetical fifth force. This research shows, how the concept of a fifth force and its quantization can be used as a model for baryon asymmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1206.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-17 09:39:41*

**Authors:** Jeffrey J Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Accretion disks via gravity, magnetism or electricity do not exist. They are simply failed hypothesis used to explain away the formation of planets, exo-planets and stars which have no observational or theoretical basis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[53] **viXra:1206.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-17 11:40:38*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Readers are requested to read the other papers on FaTe String Theory written by me. These papers are available online. Google keyword- "shreyak chakraborty FaTe"

We prove the existence of loop vectors associated with dilaton field around D-branes.
This analysis leads to the derivation of an important brane function.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[52] **viXra:1206.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-24 23:05:11*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 pages, re do of paper to accomodate great work by Stoica about removing GR singularity problem in cosmology

In Dice 2010 Sumati Surya brought up a weaker Quantum sum rule as a biproduct of a quantum invariant measure space. Our question is, does it make sense to have disjoint sets to give us quantum conditions for a measure at the origin of the big bang? We argue that the answer is no, which has implications as to quantum measures and causal set structure. What is called equation (1) in the text requires a length, and interval, none of which holds at a point in space-time.singularity. Planck’s length, if it exists, is a natural way to get about the ‘bad effects’ of a cosmic singularity at the beginning of space-time evolution, but if a new development is to believed, namely by Stoica in the article, about removing the cosmic singularity as a break down point in relativity, there is nothing which forbids space-time from collapsing to a point. If that happens, the cautions as to no disjoint intervals at a point, raise the questions as to the appropriateness of Surya’s quantum measure with full force. However, if we have to have Planck’s length, then the existence of quantum vector measures cannot be challenged and equation (1) holds. The existence of well defined equation (1) rests upon if a minimum Planck’s length is essential in the cosntruction of cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[51] **viXra:1206.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-16 06:34:37*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 Pages. submitted to Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys.

A rigorous construction of Clifford-space Gravity is presented which is compatible with
the Clifford algebraic structure and permits the derivation of the expressions for the connections with $torsion$ in Clifford spaces ( $C$-spaces). The $ C$-space generalized gravitational field equations are derived from a variational principle based on the extension of the Einstein-Hilbert-Cartan action. We continue by arguing how Lanczos-Lovelock-Cartan higher curvature gravity with torsion can be embedded into gravity in Clifford spaces and suggest how this might also occur for extended gravitational theories based on $ f ( R ), f ( R_{\mu \nu} ), ... $ actions, for polynomial-valued functions. In essence, the Lanczcos-Lovelock-Cartan curvature tensors appear as Ricci-like traces of certain components of the $ C$-space curvatures. Torsional gravity is related to higher-order corrections of the bosonic string-effective action. In the torsionless case, black-strings and black-brane metric solutions in higher dimensions $ D > 4 $ play an important role in finding specific examples of solutions to Lanczos-Lovelock gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] **viXra:1206.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-19 11:02:40*

**Authors:** Don Reed

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With the announcement of the recent successful production of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of photons (2010), a circle has been completed which started in 1925 with the vision of Albert Einstein and Sateyendra Nath Bose - a sustained macroscopic condensed state of matter where all atoms are in the same lowest quantum state. The creation of an all-optical BEC, involving a surprisingly straightforward "tabletop" method, amenable now even to amateur researchers, which bypasses the normally requisite laser/evaporative cooling equipment and ultra-high vacuum chambers necessary for the production of the standard delicate atomic BEC, elevates this phenomenon to a new level well beyond its current perception as mere laboratory curiosity. Accordingly, this development certainly heralds the eventual incorporation of atomic and photon BECs as standard operating components of energy-efficient mechanical, optical and electrical systems, implying novel ingeneious engineering protocols amenable to all the tools of of non-linear and quantum optics. Pointing towards such a promising technological future are the suggestion that a photon BEC could serve as a new high-energy ultra-violet (UV) laser photon source, as well as the recent unprecedented implementation of a closed-loop atom circuit (toroidal atomic BEC - 2011) demonstrating precise control of superfluid current flow, forecasting the coveted development of an atomic SQUID. Perhaps, more significantly, the new highly robust and manageable optical BEC will allow heretofore unfathomable precise probing of the atomic and nano-levels of nature, affording novel high-quality testing procedures for the major foundations of quantum mechanics itself. Such a primary advancement, providing a clearer glimpse into the microscopic realms, may present us as never before with an unprecedented view of the quantum engine that underpins physical reality itself and help place the contextual nature of entanglement and quantum coherence on a firmer foundation(see also companion paper vixra:1112.0068). Thus further progress in achieving mastery over the precise flexible manipulation of exotic BEC states could demonstrate that quantum contextuality might be an unsusupected over-arching archetypal principle in nature, leading to new insight in regards to the interpretation of quantum mechanics at all levels of nature. Moreover, it will be shown that this concealed and hence heretofore unsuspected contextual aspect of natural laws, as exemplified by the dynamics underlying BEC structure, could be brought to bear to account for physical anomalies inexplicable using current paradigms, such as the claimed energy yields from low-energy nuclear reactions(as represented by the process of so-called "cold fusion", directly related to recent commercial advancements in this field - the Andrea Rossi E-Cat, for example), making this phenomenon more tractable and rendered less controversial.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[49] **viXra:1206.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-16 19:18:45*

**Authors:** Roger Schlafly

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to 2012 FQXi Essay Contest

Much of modern theoretical physics assumes that the true nature of reality is mathematics. This is a great mistake. The assumption underlies most of the paradoxes of quantum mechanics, and has no empirical justification. Accepting that the assumption is wrong will allow physics and mathematics to progress as distinct disciplines.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1206.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-06 04:01:44*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Originally published in 'General Science Journal'

An all-encompassing universal medium, made of ‘real’ matter particles, fills entire space outside ‘basic 3D matter-particles’. It is homogeneous, isotropic and self-stabilizing multiple-entity. Because of its inherent compression, it squeezes all ‘basic 3D matter-particles’ by direct contact. This all-around push action on basic 3D matter-particles by universal medium is ‘gravitation’. Strength of gravitation is proportional to the extent of universal medium, away from the point of action. Extent of universal medium on outer-sides of two basic 3D matter-particles is always more (with correspondingly higher gravitation) than extent of universal medium in between them (with correspondingly lower gravitation). Greater pushes from outer-sides and lower pushes from in between, compel basic 3D matter-particles to move towards each other. Cause of this motion appears as ‘attraction’ between basic 3D matter-particles. This phenomenon is interpreted as ‘gravitational attraction’ between them. ‘Gravitational attraction’ is a minor by-product of separate gravitational push-actions on each of basic 3D matter-particles. Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies is the resultant of gravitational attractions between their constituent basic 3D matter-particles. It is the differences in extents of universal medium on either side of constituent basic 3D matter-particles that produce gravitational attraction between two macro bodies, rather than shadow-effects on each other.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[47] **viXra:1206.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-18 06:20:37*

**Authors:** Xiuqing Huang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we try to construct the famous Schrodinger equation of quantum mechanics in a very simple manner. It is shown that, even though the mathematical procedure of the construction may be correct, it is evident that the establishment of the Schrodinger equation is unreasonable in physics. We point out the application of the Schrodinger equation, in fact, will lead to the transformation of the studied system into an arbitrary variable pseudo physical system. This finding may help to uncover the nature of the nonlocality and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. It is inevitable that the use of the Schrodinger equation will violate the law of conservation of energy. Hence, we argue that the Schrodinger equation is unsuitable to be applied to any physical systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[46] **viXra:1206.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-11 20:13:02*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Re do of document due to Abhay Ashtekar criticisms

This document is due to reviewing an article by Maydanyuk and Olkhovsky, of a Nova Science conpendium as of “ The big bang, theory assumptions and Problems”, as of 2012, which uses the Wheeler De Witt equation as an evolution equation assuming a closed universe. Having the value of k, not as the closed universe, but nearly zero of a nearly flat universe, which leads to serious problems of interpretation of what initial conditions are. These problems of interpretations of initial conditions tie in with difficulties in using QM as an initial driver of inflation. And argue in favor of using a different procedure as far as forming a wave function of the universe initially. The author wishes to thank Abhay Ashtekar for his well thought out criticism but asserts that limitations in space-time geometry largely due to when Planck's constant is formed from semi classical reasoning , ie. Maxwells equations involving a closed boundary regime, in the boundary regime between Octonionic Geometry and quantum flat space non Octonionic geometry is a datum which Abhay Ashtekar may wish to take into consideration in carrying through his analysis

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:1206.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-14 03:15:35*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Jiang is a Chinese mathematician proponent of fringe scientific theories who works mostly in fierld of number theory.He disproved the Riemann hypothesis(1998),proved Fermat last theorem(1991) before Andrew Wiles(1994),proved the twin prime conjecture and Goldbach conjecture(1996),and proved alost all prime problems in prime distribution using Jiang function.China does not need epoch-making achievement . n the Great all of the peo[le in March 5,2002 He zuoxiu academician at the nine session of the five CPPCC meeting:Jiang study is pseudoscience

**Category:** Number Theory

[44] **viXra:1206.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-13 15:45:11*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Will be heavily edited in the next few days

What is the physical nature of gravitinos? As asked before, this question was the template of how to introduce Machian Physics as a way to link gravitinos in the electro weak era and gravitons as of the present. What we wish to do now is to ask how a flaw in the Higgs equation as brought up by Comway shows a branch off from orthodox quantum physics, leading to, with the Machs principle application done earlier a way to embed the beginning of the universe as a semi classical super structure of which QM is sub set of. We argue that this will necessitate a review of the Higgs equation of state for reasons stated in the manuscript. We also finally review a proprosal for another form of mass formation mechanism as a replacement for the Higgs mass as introduced by Glinka and Beckwith, 2012, with commentary as to how suitable it may be to get a gravitino mass in fidelity to the Machian proposal introduced by Beckwith previously, to get linkage between electroweak era gravitinos and present day gravitons

**Category:** Astrophysics

[43] **viXra:1206.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-29 15:28:19*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We develop theory leading to an ability to catalog types of elementary particles. The resulting catalog provides for known interaction-mediating bosons, non-traditional interaction-carrying bosons, and fermions. Some ratios of numbers of instances of various types of particles are 1:6:24:48. Potentially, the actual ratios of densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, dark energy are 1:5:18 and do not depend on time, even though interpretations of data provide ratios that vary with the age of the universe. Potentially there is another type of stuff. Here, 5=6-1, 18=24-6, and there could be 24=48-24 units of the other type of stuff.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[42] **viXra:1206.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-15 04:29:08*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Due to structure of three-dimensional matter-particles and apparent interaction between them free macro bodies have a natural tendency to gradually reshape themselves to perfect spheres in 3D space. Sub-structured macro bodies tend to increase their existence into most number of spatial dimensions. Contrary to this tendency of macro bodies, pure (unstructured) matter-particles tend to reduce their existence into minimum number of spatial dimensions. This contradictory behaviour of matter (in its pure state and in sub-structured state) can be shown as the basis of all physical phenomena in nature, including creation, sustenance, (apparent) interactions and eventual destruction of macro bodies.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[41] **viXra:1206.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-01 14:11:19*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A conceptual theory is developed for the processes of photon emission and absorption, in a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design called the Cordus theory. The theory predicts different mechanisms for the discrete fields of the photon and electron, and uses this to explain the characteristics of the evanescent and electric fields, and the origin of the fine structure constant. It then shows how electron bonding constraints require the electron to emit its excess energy, and how the photon is created and emerges from the electron. Emission is thus an escapement mechanism whereby matter particules that are over-prescribed in position can get rid of that energy, and the details of this are explained. The results show excellent qualitative agreement with classical electromagnetic wave theory and quantum mechanics, many features of which can be recovered. The theory shows the ontological power of NLHV solutions at the foundational level.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[40] **viXra:1206.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-11 20:41:04*

**Authors:** Muhammad Adeel Ajaib

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Rashba spin orbit interaction is a well studied effect in condensed matter physics and has important applications in spintronics. The Standard Model Extension (SME) includes a CPT-even term with the coefficient H_{\mu \nu} which leads to the Rashba interaction term. From the limit available on the coefficient H_{\mu \nu} in the SME we derive a limit on the Rashba coupling constant for Lorentz violation. In condensed matter physics the Rashba term is understood as resulting from an asymmetry in the confining potential at the interface of two different types of semiconductors. Based on this interpretation we suggest that a possible way of inducing the H_{\mu \nu} term in the SME is with an asymmetry in the potential that confines us to 3 spatial dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[39] **viXra:1206.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-12 01:17:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 93 Pages.

„Aventuri chineze” este o carte despre o conferinţă ştiinţifică din Taiwan (în oraşul sudic Kaohsiung), între 4-11 noiembrie 2011, plus un tur ştiintific desfăşurat în perioada 11 decembrie 2011 – 6 ianuarie 2012 în patru oraşe din China: Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, şi Hangzhou.
Stilul lapidar, fotografic (la propriu şi la figurat) din celelalte jurnale şi memorii turistice se menţine.

**Category:** Social Science

[38] **viXra:1206.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-11 04:21:17*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Victor Vladareanu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this article one proposes several numerical examples for applying the extension set to 2D- and 3D-spaces. While rectangular and prism geometrical figures can easily be decomposed from 2D and 3D into 1D linear problems, similarly for the circle and the sphere, it is not possible in general to do the same for other geometrical figures.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[37] **viXra:1206.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-11 02:53:55*

**Authors:** T Sreekanth Rao, B Prathyusha, P Nagarjuna Reddy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Journal of Information and Communication Technologies - http://www.jict.co.uk/volume-2-issue-6-june-2012

Digital signal processors plays an important role in fine tuning the sound system using Equalizers to overcome the acoustic problems. In digital communication, Graphical equalization techniques strengthen the successful provision of high speed and reliable data transmission over dispersive channels. The mentioned paper describes the development of equalizer for the digital signal processing (DSP) kit DSK C6713. Programming was done in ‘C’ language and compilation using code composer studio (CCS) integrated development environment using LabVIEW (Laboratory virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) as front end. Different Sliders are designed for different frequency bands, the performance of the Equalizer is observed by altering the gain of the frequencies in the specific bands while playing an audio signal.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[36] **viXra:1206.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-10 14:46:51*

**Authors:** Hope He, Jin He

**Comments:** 3 Figures, 7 Pages

Humans have recognized the natural entity of galaxies for over ninety years. Dr. He initiated the concept of rational structure and applied it to the study of galaxy structure in 2001. The main reason is that galaxy arms trace their way on the galaxy disk plane elegantly so that the ratio of stellar density on the left side of the route to the one on the right is constant along the way. This is comparable to the elegant principle of natural selection. From now on, we call galaxy arms 'Darwin spirals' or 'Darwin curves' instead of calling them 'iso-ratio curves' or 'proportion curves'. If Dr. He's study is proved to be truth, then galaxy arms must be the disturbance to rational structure. The disturbance generates dust and gas which nurture human lives. This might be a clue to the important issue of life origin.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[35] **viXra:1206.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 04:43:27*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 167 Pages.

Author’s traveling memories to various international scientific conferences.

**Category:** Social Science

[34] **viXra:1206.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 04:45:30*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 170 Pages.

Author's tourist traveling and attendance of various scientific international conferences and seminars as invited speaker: at University of Berkeley, University of Texas at Austin, Pima Community College, NASA Langley Research Center, Fusion international conferences, etc.

**Category:** Social Science

[33] **viXra:1206.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 04:47:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 190 Pages.

Author's attendance of various scientific international conferences and seminars as invited speaker: at NATO Advance Study Institute in Albena (Bulgaria), Fusion 2005 International Conference in Philadelphia (USA), Marcus Evans European Conference on Sensors’ Fusion in Barcelona (Spain), and tourist visiting and documenting about Aztec and Maya pyramids near Ciudad de Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula.

**Category:** Social Science

[32] **viXra:1206.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 04:49:54*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 260 Pages.

Traveling memories and author’s participation to some international conferences of applied mathematics to USA, Brazil, Italy, Greece, Peru, Bolivia.

**Category:** Social Science

[31] **viXra:1206.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 05:03:12*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 221 Pages.

This volume, in a series of six volumes, includes author’s traveling memories from various international conferences of applied mathematics where he presented papers or from many institutions where he was invited speaker about his scientific research, such as the Air Force Institute of Technology in Dayton (Ohio), Air Force Research Lab in Rome – New York State, Paris (COGIS International Conference, 2009), as well as cultural visits to Stanwix Fort, Niagara Falls, Alaska, Yellowstone, New Mexico, his native town Bălceşti (Romania), and Jamaica.

**Category:** Social Science

[30] **viXra:1206.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 05:05:45*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 124 Pages.

This is a memory book by the author who was as invited speaker at Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics from Pushchino near Moscow, where he talked about neutrosophic logic/set/probability (which are generalizations of fuzzy logic/set and respectively imprecise probability) and their applications.
He met many Russian scientists such as Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova, Boris Levin, Victor Pantcheliouga, Simon Shnoll, Valeri Kolombet, Tatiana Zencenko, Victor Morozov, etc. and doctoral students.
Besides his scientific activity the author visited and wrote about Russian museums, culture, history and politics, palaces and exhibitions of arts in Moscow and Sankt Petersburg.

**Category:** Social Science

[29] **viXra:1206.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 05:08:32*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

The author describes his traveling to Indonesia as invited speaker at STIKI University in Malang and at Kristen Satya Wacana University in Salatiga on Neutrosophic Logic/Set (generalizations of fuzzy logic and respectively fuzzy set) and their applications to finance, business, situation analysis, economics, and also on Dezert-Smarandache Theory applied to medicine, military, robotics.
The book contains photos and descriptions of museums, churches, Hindu and Buddhist temples, mosques and cathedrals that the author visited.

**Category:** Social Science

[28] **viXra:1206.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 05:12:15*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 89 Pages.

This book describes author's travel to India at Jadavpur University in Kolkata as invited speaker on neutrosophic logic/set (generalizations of fuzzy logic and respectively fuzzy set) and their applications to finance, business, situation analysis, economics. Also the book contains descriptions of museums, Hindu and Sikh temples, mosques, cathedrals, meetings with Indian University Professors and researchers in Delhi, Agra and Kolkata.

**Category:** Social Science

[27] **viXra:1206.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 05:23:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 94 Pages.

Author’s experience as professor of mathematics, teaching in French language, at the Sidi El Hassan Lyoussi College in Sefrou, Morocco, between 1982-1984. His traveling around and relationships with other professors from various nationalities, together with his involvement in training and selecting the Moroccan student team for the 1983 International Olympiad of Mathematics held in Paris, France.

**Category:** Social Science

[26] **viXra:1206.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-09 09:13:06*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper will demonstrate a diagonal argument by listing all non-empty finite ordinals in a table according to their ε order using their subset representation, meaning {0,1,2…n-1} is listed for the ordinal n. Next, the axiom of choice is applied to all of these ordinals and selects the maximal element. This selection process forms a diagonal which satisfies the axiom of infinity, hence, the diagonal is a limit ordinal. However, it will also be shown for the nth choice made by the choice function, the diagonal is the successor ordinal number n = {0,1,2…n-1} and this is true for all n. So, at the n+1 choice, the diagonal is the ordinal n+1 and so on. Therefore, based on all the actions of the choice function, it is provable from ZFC on one hand that this diagonal cannot ever be anything other than a successor ordinal and on the other hand, the diagonal is a limit ordinal.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[25] **viXra:1206.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-08 06:03:52*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 102 Pages.

De ce fotojurnal?
Fiindcă suprafaţa pozelor se-ntinde aproape la
jumătate sau mai mult din întreg volumul! Răsfoitorii
acestei cărţi măcar vor privi ilustraţiile colorate din
CentroAmerica, iar pe lȃngă imagini vor citi cel puţin cȃteva
rȃnduri edificatoare...
Fiindcă nimeni astăzi nu mai are timp!
De ce instantaneu?
Pentru că jurnalul e scris la primă mȃnă, pe locul
vizitat, cu idei scurte ca nişte blitz-uri, cu economie de
cuvinte – în această lume în care vremea trece rapid.
Memorialistică fără retuşări.
Viaţă brută.
Fraze scurte şi simple, fără multe verbe…
Vizitez din mers...
Fotografiez din mers...
Mănânc din mers...
Trăiesc din mers...
Grăbit, instantaneu, mereu nemulţumit, mereu
căutând...
Pura Vida (am întȃlnit şi sintagma Vida Pura)
înseamnă viaţă pură în societătile hispanice, iar iar popular
expresia semnifică: ‚traiul foarte bun’.

**Category:** Social Science

[24] **viXra:1206.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-07 15:07:57*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a set of equations, as well as further derivations and calculations, to present dark matter in an alternative cosmology. The alternative is: The Universe did not start with the Big Bang, but is a recalculated Double Torus Universe of dark energy and dark matter. The calculations within this framework show a dark matter-particle, which has the shape of a smallest possible Double Torus, and has a constant diameter of R ≈ 0.712 x 10^-22 [m] at where it exists. At this length the lowest acceleration for Newton gravity becomes a dark matter-acceleration; the Newton force then changes into a lowest dark matter force. This paper shows both forces are embedded in a united ‘new dark energy force’. In the transition of Newton gravity to dark matter gravity, the new dark energy force has a value of 10^-116 kg^4s^2. Accordingly another calculation reveals this force is a ‘force to recalculate space-time itself’. Further calculations also enable to mark dark matter mass with a value of ≈ 2.8 keV/c^2. Again accordingly the dark matter-density (in kg/m) is ≈ 71 gram per 1 million-km (≈1/149 the distance to the sun, or more than three times the distance from Earth to Moon). The dark energy force uses extra time-arrows from an under-laying time-domain of conventional space-time’. This directly gives evidence to the perception gravity is not fundamental. In general this paper relates dark matter mass, new dark energy force and the level where Newton gravity and dark matter meet each other; specifically in that level space-time is recalculated. Moreover an alternative perception of the Higgs-field is given, related to this recalculation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[23] **viXra:1206.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-07 11:47:49*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The astrophysics literature tries to make a case for the existence of a supermassive black hole at the center of Milky Way, in the location of the radio source Sagittarius A*. We think that, with arguments of the very same nature, the evidence points quite to the contrary. While the observational data on the orbits of the starry objects around Sagittarius A*, being of a projective character, are entirely reliable, their physical explanation uses quite a particular type of Newtonian forces, namely those with magnitude depending exclusively on the distance between bodies. To begin with, this limitation assumes a priori that the bodies connected by such forces are special material points, viz. space positions endowed with mass. At space scales such as that of the galactic center region in discussion, this assumption is not realistic, and therefore, implicitly, such particular forces are themselves not quite realistic. Still using Newtonian forces in argument, strongly suggested by observational data as a matter of fact, one should allow, on such an occasion, their full generality. This means that we only need to assume that they are central forces with no other further constraints. Within the framework of the Newtonian theory of forces this freedom has important theoretical consequences discussed in the present work. Among these the chief one, from astrophysical point of view, is that the presence of a supermassive black hole in the center of Milky Way might not be a sustainable assumption. An alternative is presented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22] **viXra:1206.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-07 08:44:08*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A new interpretation of the basic vector of the free Fock space (FFS) and the FFS is proposed. The approximations to various equations with additional parameters, for n-point information (n-pi), are also considered in the case of non-polynomial nonlinearities.
Key words: basic, generating and state vectors, local and global, Cuntz relations, perturbation and closure principles, homotopy analysis method, Axiom of Choice, consilience.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[21] **viXra:1206.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-07 03:50:33*

**Authors:** Vladimir Godovalov

**Comments:** 109 Pages. Russian version

Nature does not create anything extra. Mathematics as a part of Nature obeys the same law. If figurate numbers exist in nature, it means there is reason for their existence. In fact they represent a key to many solutions and serve as a foundation in Powers Fields Theory.
The theory opens a new chapter in mathematics, which studies interaction of monomials n^m in homogenous areas called the powers fields. More precisely, these areas consist of consecutive and interconnected values organized in rows by their common attribute – the exponent m itself. The theory is based on Monomial Decomposition Theorem which firstly leads to structural organization of said areas, secondly, settles the powers field’s basic equations and finally allows the areas elements be expressed as figurative and factorial polynomials. Because of that the nature of equation a^x+b^y=c^z becomes a not complicated subject to systematic analysis enabling the theory to reveal in detail its matter.
Technically the analysis falls in two ways. It begins with analysis of the powers field’s properties, the first of which actually states the Fermat’s conjecture. Being in fact not an independent problem by itself, Fermat’s conjecture is a technique applied in studying of the powers fields. Other powers field’s property, currently unknown to modern mathematics, is based on the genus-structural properties of figurative polynomials and therefore carries the same name. And finally, performing the most extensive study, the Beal’s conjecture ends analysis by searching solutions to the equations as well as determines among them cases with common prime factor.
In addition to studying the powers fields as a main objective, the theory introduces several innovative methods along with new functions and definitions. Also, the paper includes Composite Numbers Theorem, the proven results of which are well known in modern mathematics formulas of factoring sum/difference of n-powers.
The theory not only does discover many links within modern mathematics, it also raises a set of new questions in more specific areas of the theory and one of them for example is Phantom problem. The emergence of Powers Fields Theory not only fills a gap in Number Theory, but also sheds light on many related issues.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1206.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-08 03:03:16*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The author publishes his Four Baxter Relativity Postulates and Four Conclusions in support of his published papers disproving Special Relativity and its Incorrect derivatives such as predicted time slowing down due to uniform relative motion, etc., and leading to the incorrect derivation of E = MC^2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1206.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-02 05:24:14*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 20 Pages. FINAL ( I hope) edits for the Hadronic press. Attempted to make a camera ready PDF and word document for them

The Machs principle as unveiled in this paper is really a statement as to information conservation, with gravitons and gravitinos being information carriers.This Mach’s principle application has tremendous implications as far as if quantum mechanics is essential to formation of information in early universe physics In addition, we review Gryzinski’s inelastic scattering results which have close fidelity to a normally quantum result of inelastic scattering in atomic hydrogen calculations and suggest that forming Planck’s parameter we set as h bar (t), in this document could also be due to semiclassical processes, initially, leaving open the possibility quantum processes, initially are not mandatory in terms of formation of initial formulation of constants put into the Machian relations used in this paper.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[18] **viXra:1206.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-06 11:36:24*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the special relativity theory, the acceleration about the accelerated matter that has the initial velocity in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system and the other acceleration about the accelerated matter that has not the initial velocity in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system are same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1206.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-06 08:33:46*

**Authors:** Xiong Wang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new simple and compact approach to hydrodynamic is presented using
the formalism of geometric algebra (GA).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[16] **viXra:1206.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-04 08:46:39*

**Authors:** Victor V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. English and Russian

Measurements Miller (1905-1925) on the interferometer Michelson-type (MI) have discovered on the basis of effects of 2^{nd}-order non-zero interference fringe shift, indicating the anisotropy of the speed of light in the light-bearing area of MI. Such evidence about aether is of great concern y autor SRT. In 1926 in his article "My theory and experiments of Miller", Einstein said that in these experiments "should be hidden bug", because otherwise, the SRT not valid. Further he suggests, that the reason might be the in defects of the low stiffness and big of heaviness of interferometer Miller (~2 tons). To check the results Miller's on the based comments of autor SRT, Michelson, Pease and Pearson (1927-1929) built even more heavier MI (~ 3.2 tons) with a more rigid construction of the turntable. But first they began to receive the results con-firming measurements of Miller's.

One of them (Pease) remarked change in sign of the harmonic band shift when change the direction of rotation of MI. Aggregate harmonic shift of the fringe in the "forward" and "reverse" rotation them MI has receiving as if "zero". Pease calls it a "differential shift" and published (1930) as evidence of "negatively" experiences at MI. Until now, this "evidence" in serie of the evidence absence of reactions from the aether.

On the basis my of the experimental of professionalism, I will explain in this article, what is not Miller, but Michelson, Pease and Pearson faced with of the hardware-methodical by effect a heavy instrument. Without examining this effect, they published it as a confirmation of speculation autor SRT about the quality experiments Miller's. Based on their experiments of the 1960^{s}, I found out the reason for changing the sign of the shift of the fringe in MI. This article is for those who and today considers a non-zero shift of the fringe in MI related to the methodic measurement on interferometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1206.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-05 10:52:56*

**Authors:** Radha F. Gupta, Poom Kumam

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper investigates the consensus problem in almost sure sense for uncertain multi-agent systems with noises and fixed topology. By
combining the tools of stochastic analysis, algebraic graph theory, and matrix theory, we analyze the convergence of a class of
distributed stochastic type non-linear protocols. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[14] **viXra:1206.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-07 15:21:04*

**Authors:** Hassan Mohammed Eweidah

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A new theory in the field of number theory. For hundreds of years mathematicians could not reach a general formula for the prime numbers. But Now my discovery gives 4 general formulas produce all odd numbers except multiples of 3 and the prime numbers and by developing it, it will produce one formula gives all odd numbers except the prime numbers. Therefore this new theory would solve the problem of the difficulty in reaching the prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13] **viXra:1206.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-04 09:36:03*

**Authors:** Fang Chen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this work, we continue to @@ present some interesting problems in the Transylvanian Hungarian Mathematical Competition held in 2012.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12] **viXra:1206.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-04 23:37:54*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Dr. Cai Wen defined in his 1983 paper:
- the distance formula between a point x0 and a one-dimensional (1D) interval ;
- and the dependence function which gives the degree of dependence of a point with respect to
a pair of included 1D-intervals.
His paper inspired us to generalize the Extension Set to two-dimensions, i.e. in plane of real
numbers R2 where one has a rectangle (instead of a segment of line), determined by two
arbitrary points A(a1, a2) and B(b1, b2). And similarly in R3, where one has a prism determined by
two arbitrary points A(a1, a2, a3) and B(b1, b2, b3). We geometrically define the linear and nonlinear
distance between a point and the 2D- and 3D-extension set and the dependent function
for a nest of two included 2D- and 3D-extension sets. Linearly and non-linearly attraction point
principles towards the optimal point are presented as well.
The same procedure can be then used considering, instead of a rectangle, any bounded 2Dsurface
and similarly any bounded 3D-solid, and any bounded n-D-body in Rn.
These generalizations are very important since the Extension Set is generalized from onedimension
to 2, 3 and even n-dimensions, therefore more classes of applications will result in
consequence.
Introduction.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[11] **viXra:1206.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-03 17:49:47*

**Authors:** Jeffrey J. Wolynski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Dark matter and energy are simply celestial objects that are solids, liquids and gases. We can show this by recalculating the mass of the Sun using Newton’s equations for gravitational force in reference to movement of the tides on Earth. We can also show this by recalculating the density of the Sun based off its moment of inertia for a spherical body and its long period global harmonic oscillations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:1206.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-04 07:13:45*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter (P.E)

**Comments:** Five pages

The author publishes his two Baxter Relativity Postulates and Conclusion in support of his published papers disproving Special Relativity and its Incorrect derivatives such as predicted time slowing down due to uniform relative motion, etc., and leading to the incorrect derivation of E = MC^2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1206.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-03 11:47:30*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih;Tayssir.M.Al Mahdi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 1 figure

Modified Reissner-Nordstrom solution to Einstein's field equation for static charged spherical black hole is used in microscopic scale by redefine the potential. In addition, circular orbits and horizons obtained. The obtainable model characterized the boundaries of micro-Particle scale. Casimir force is generalized and computed without reference to zero point energies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1206.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-02 04:13:28*

**Authors:** Ren Shiquan

**Comments:** 24 Pages. this is the bachelor thesis of Mr. Ren Shiquan in 2010.

We give a review on the classification of complex semi-simple Lie algebras, according to our study process.

**Category:** Algebra

[7] **viXra:1206.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-02 13:19:37*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The solution of geodesic equation for Schwarzschild’s metric is used to estimate the precession of perihelion of the planets with aid of the critical photon orbit‘s radius and Schwarzschild’s radius. We introduced new equation of outer planets.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[6] **viXra:1206.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-02 18:41:06*

**Authors:** J.C.Valks

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Baxter is wrong.

In this document we analyze the thought experiment proposed by
Baxter. Baxter's conclusion is that his thought experiment shows a
contradiction and that therefore relativity is wrong. However, we shall show that
there is no contradiction and that eventually Baxter has misinterpreted
relativity.
As Baxter in his thought experiment makes use of the relativistic
light-clock, we start with an analysis of the relativistic light-clock. The
relativistic light-clock eventually implies relations between time-intervals, but also
between distances, where a distinction is made between parallel distances
and orthogonal distances, with respect to the velocity of the moving
distance. Correct implementation of the relativistic light-clock shows that
Baxter's thought experiment does not lead to contradictions. Baxter's
contradiction is based on misinterpretation of relativity by Baxter
himself, i.e. he has not shown any contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1206.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-02 21:56:55*

**Authors:** Xiong Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper discuss the longstanding problems of fractional calculus such as too
many definitions while lacking physical or geometrical meanings, and try to extend fractional
calculus to any dimension. First, some different definitions of fractional derivatives, such as the
Riemann-Liouville derivative, the Caputo derivative, Kolwankar's local derivative and Jumarie's modified
Riemann-Liouville derivative, are discussed and conclude that the very reason for introducing
fractional derivative is to study nondifferentiable functions. Then, a concise and essentially local
definition of fractional derivative for one dimension function is introduced and its geometrical
interpretation is given. Based on this simple definition, the fractional calculus is extended to
any dimension and the \emph{Fractional Geometric Calculus} is proposed. Geometric algebra provided
an powerful mathematical framework in which the most advanced concepts modern physic, such
as quantum mechanics, relativity, electromagnetism, etc., can be expressed in this framework
graciously. At the other hand, recent developments in nonlinear science and complex system
suggest that scaling, fractal structures, and nondifferentiable functions occur much more
naturally and abundantly in formulations of physical theories. In this paper, the extended
framework namely the Fractional Geometric Calculus is proposed naturally, which aims
to give a unifying language for mathematics, physics and science of complexity of the 21st century.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[4] **viXra:1206.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-03 04:26:36*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that in spatially non-uniform systems there is a special category of processes which lead to opposite changes of properties in its parts. These processes give to system not additive properties doing them capable to internal
movement and evolution. Thereby the physical substantiation of the dialectic law of the unity and conflict of opposites is given.
(Показано, что в пространственно неоднородных системах существует особая категория процессов, которая вызывает противоположные изменения свойств
в её частях. Эти процессы придают системе неаддитивные свойства, делающие их способными к внутреннему движению и эволюции. Тем самым предложено физическое обоснование диалектического закона единства и борьбы противоположностей).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[3] **viXra:1206.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-08 12:30:38*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 11 Pages. clarifications inserted and new approach to scattering

This paper proposes a method for the axiomatic quantization of field theories defined by a Lagrangian of the form L(ϕ, ∇ϕ, ∂tϕ) , where ϕ is a mathematical vector field typically made up of scalars, covariant vectors, tensors and so on. It reviews basic challenges in the axiomatic formulation of quantum field theory, in quantizing “soliton models” which arise in grand unification and in phenomenological nuclear physics, and unresolved issues regarding mass normalization and the radius of the electron. It proposes a new fundamental theorem (conjecture) for spectra and bound states of bosonic field theories, exploiting the Glauber-Sudarshan P representation, and suggests how this might later be extended to solve the problem of choice (ill-definedness) in the S matrix in traditional formulations of quantum theory. The Appendix provides an extension of the P representation to perform quantization into the four dimensional Fock-Hilbert space as in the formalism of Streater and Wightman, a formalism which may possibly imply dynamics which are credible but different from the canonical version of quantum field theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1206.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-03 08:15:22*

**Authors:** Azzam AlMosallami

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The name, COMALOGY is derived from CO which means CONSCIOUSNESS and MA, which means MATTER. Therefore, COMALOGY is a theory that studies the relationship between consciousness and matter as a result of the unification between Quantum theory (Copenhagen school) and Einstein's relativity theory (General and Special) in concepts, principles, and laws. The Comalogical theory considers consciousness as primary and matter as
secondary and that consciousness creates matter, not vice versa.
Comalogy agrees with the concepts, principles and laws of Quantum theory
(Copenhagen school), and changes its abstractions, to descriptive,imaginative, and cognizable data. Also, Comalogy refuses the concepts of determinism, causality, and continuity in the laws of nature, and affirms that the material world is controlled by the concepts of non-determinism, uncausality, and discontinuity. Also, our theory refuses the objective existence of phenomena, in that it considers the observer is directly involved in the formation of phenomena as in the Copenhagen school.
The concepts, principles, and laws of Quantum theory is applied to the micro world of the atom, whereas the macro is controlled by the laws of classical physics. This creates a contradiction in nature. In our theory (Comalogy) we unify the concepts, principles and laws which control the macro world with those of the micro world.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[1] **viXra:1206.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-12 08:17:15*

**Authors:** J. Bajnok

**Comments:** 5 pages, 5 figures

The present study seeks to demonstrate that the true change in the frequency of atomic clocks depending on their velocity leads to conclusive evidence that the principle of relativity and relativity theory can no longer be accepted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology