[269] **viXra:1511.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 20:55:26*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Published in Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras, pp. 1-16, Online First: 02 Nov. 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s00006-015-0620-3..

So far quaternion Fourier transforms have been mainly defined over
$\mathbb{R}^2$ as signal domain space. But it seems natural to define
a quaternion Fourier transform for quaternion valued signals over quaternion
domains. This quaternion domain Fourier transform (QDFT)
transforms quaternion valued signals (for example electromagnetic scalarvector
potentials, color data, space-time data, etc.) defined over a quaternion
domain (space-time or other 4D domains) from a quaternion
position space to a quaternion frequency space. The QDFT uses the
full potential provided by hypercomplex algebra in higher dimensions
and may moreover be useful for solving quaternion partial differential
equations or functional equations, and in crystallographic texture analysis.
We define the QDFT and analyze its main properties, including
quaternion dilation, modulation and shift properties, Plancherel and
Parseval identities, covariance under orthogonal transformations, transformations
of coordinate polynomials and differential operator polynomials,
transformations of derivative and Dirac derivative operators, as
well as signal width related to band width uncertainty relationships.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[268] **viXra:1511.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 21:26:08*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Peace Reports of the International Christian University Peace Research Institute, Vol. 10, No. 2, Oct. 2015, pp. 9-11, 1 figure.

Japan has a worldwide reputation as high technology nation. This is especially true for sustainable energy technology. Sustainable and renewable energy is carbon-neutral, climate protecting, the actual fuel is either cost-free (essentially forms of solar energy and geothermal energy) or substantially cheaper than fossil fuel and unlimited in supply. Only investments into facilities for converting renewable energy to electricity and heat and their maintenance are required. Regarding geothermal energy, Japan is located on the edges of four tectonic plates and is ranked third world wide in volcanic activity. Its underground is very hot. Regarding wind power, a Japan Wind Power Association (industry) study of May 2014 [11] states that by 2050 Japan may develop up to 75 GW of wind power capacity from currently only 2.789 GW. Moreover, the development of sufficient sustainable domestic renewable energy sources, has the undeniable potential to ease international relations, calm tensions, and eliminate a key motivation for armed conflict in the 21st century. The choice is between an ever more expensive import of fossil fuel or that we begin today to invest into our own energy potentials, building a new supply infrastructure, thereby permanently reducing energy import dependence. Finally, as much as Renewable Energy can secure the peace of Japan, renewable energy related Overseas Development Aid can also contribute to economic stability and peace in developing countries.

**Category:** Social Science

[267] **viXra:1511.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 15:06:02*

**Authors:** Michael W Brace

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Comments: mwaynebrace@aol.com

This paper negates the principles of earlier gravitational theory(s) by which the constant of gravitation G has been deduced in terms of being a fundamental force in the universe. Demonstrable anomalous gravitational effects, reproducible in the laboratory, are discussed in context with other fundamental forces. It is shown that the theory does include features which can explain observed gravitational mechanics on both a macro-scale, micro-scale and sub-atomic scale, as well as anti-gravitational effects. The action points to vacuum energy fluctuations arising from graviton density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[266] **viXra:1511.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 13:27:56*

**Authors:** Meric ERASLAN

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The aim of this study to investigate the level of psychological well being in Physical education and sport department student. Total 306 students joined who Gazi University School of Physical Education and Sports College students in this study. For researches data collection Psychological Well-Being Scale were used. The data obtained by the SPSS 17.0 software for statistical analysis, frequency analysis, independent t test and One Way ANOVA was used. At the end of the study, were found that women's psychological well-being is significantly more higher than the male participants to be significantly (p <0.05). It found that participants psychological well being levels do not statistically significant as licensed sport make sitution (p> 0.05). In addition to psychological state of the participants according to age groups it was found that no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05).
Keywords: Sports, psychological well being, age, gender

**Category:** Social Science

[265] **viXra:1511.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 13:29:31*

**Authors:** Berrin GÜNER

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The term ‘‘Recreation’’ is defined as people’s participating in some kind of activities in their free time of their own accords to gain their body and soul health which are destroyed in time because of some reasons ( Koçyiğit& Yıldız 2014). And there is an increase in free time duration out of work so people can participate in recreation activities more and more. There creation activities which are originally free time activities affect the lives of people positively. Recreation activities which are mostly physical body activities affect the human health positively from many aspects. However there are many factors which prevent people participating in recreation activities. Especially women have trouble when they want to take part in recreationactivities .Theycan’ttakepart in recreationactivities as theywishcomfortably in this social structure. In this paper it is aimed to evaluate the problems of women releated to not being able to participate in recreation activities.
Keywords: Woman, freetime, recreation

**Category:** Social Science

[264] **viXra:1511.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 13:30:45*

**Authors:** Mesut HEKİM

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Boxing athletes warming and information on habits determination, besides aimed to investigate on heating and cooling habits sports in this research. A total of 49 male boxers participated in the study. Consisting of 19 questions questionnaire was used as data collection. SPSS 22.0 software was used for data analysis. Frequency and chi-square analyzes were used. At the end of the study it was determined that warm-up high levels before training and competition in boxer. Similarly, the athletes have been found often make cool exercise. The knowledge about the heating and cooling operation is determined to be high in athletes. Only sport-specific warm-up and stretching exercises / stretching has been found to have low level. In addition, determined that the warming habits not influence the year to deal with sports in athletes.
Keywords: Sport, sports warm-up, cooling down

**Category:** Social Science

[263] **viXra:1511.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 13:32:18*

**Authors:** Servet REYHAN

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The aim of this study to evaluate the size of violent football fans in Turkey, the factors influencing the severity fans as well. It has been reached on the issue as priority in the survey research. According to the relevant literature, football violence, the size of the crowd violence, factors affecting crowd violence, some topics have been created in the form of research on the subject. When the research findings assessment, it found that the media, the attitude of the referees, the club manager attitudes and discourses, rival supporters, team's poor play and a variety of socio-demographic factors influencing the football fans violence in Turkey. The aggressive behavior of their fans were found to be verbal aggressive behavior commonly. It was determined that a high level of involvement in the crime fans.
Keywords: Sports, football, fan violence

**Category:** Social Science

[262] **viXra:1511.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 13:34:08*

**Authors:** Umut SEZER, Arıkan EKTİRİCİ, Ayşe Feray ÖZBAL, Kadir ATLI

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The aim of this study is to investigate sportsmanship behaviors of secondary school students in terms of different variables. The study was conducted on 424 female, 429 male total 853 secondary school students.
“Sportspersonship Behavior Scale in Physical Education Course” which is developed by Koç (2015) is used as data collection tool. T-test and ANOVA were used in the data analyses. As a result of the analysis significant difference was found between groups according to gender, grade level, mother’s education level, father’s
education level, academic achievement level, physical education and sports teacher’s gender, the occasion of viewing the sports competition from the bleacher variables (p<.05).
Keywords: Fair-Play, Sportsmanship, Behavior, Physical Education, Sports

**Category:** Social Science

[261] **viXra:1511.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 13:35:41*

**Authors:** Vedat ULUIŞIK, Kadir PEPE

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to examine stress and aggression levels of high school students in sport making sitution. Totally 365 students, taking education at different education institution in Burdur city center, participated to study. “Stress at Working Life” scale developed by Odabaşı (2006) was used to identify students’ stress levels. “Aggression Scale” developed by Buss and Perry (1992) was used to identify students’ aggression levels. SPSS 22.0 for Windows program was used in statistical analysis of data obtained from research. In the end of research, it was established that students’ aggression level is represented significant difference as their, participation type of sport and interested sport type (p<0,05). It was established that students’ stress level is represented significant difference as their, interested sport type (p<0,05). It was found that participation type of sport does not affect students’ stress level (p>0,05). As a result, it may be said that participation to sport in high school students have affects on stress and aggression level.
Keywords: High school students, sport, stress, aggression

**Category:** Social Science

[260] **viXra:1511.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 08:18:12*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

Peer review is a huge problem in 21st century physics. This common charade is discussed in the essay below.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[259] **viXra:1511.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 08:16:07*

Чему равна скорость тахиона?

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

Among physicists-relativists is almost unanimously accepted that the provisions to the special theory is applicable to objects moving faster than light. However, in this case the theory leads to absurd conclusions.

В среде физиков-релятивистов практически единодушно принято, что положения специальной теории применимы к объектам, движущимся быстрее света. Однако в этом случае теория приводит к абсурдным выводам.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[258] **viXra:1511.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 03:49:19*

**Authors:** Valentino Giudice

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Those are the results of an online survey 275 people took part in about the perceived importance of one’s own physical look and the reason for it.
92% of people consider their physical look at least somewhat important and about 44% of those consider it as really important.
The reasons are many and can vary a lot from person to person.
Self-confidence, with feeling comfortable and self-worth, is one of the most common ones. Other reasons are often referred to society and judgment from other people and they include getting some sort of advantage, having a better love or sex life, or not being seen in a negative way (which also relates to self-confidence).
In some cases, the reason is just personal (the subject likes looking good). But even among those cases, lots of times there are also extrinsic motivations.

**Category:** Mind Science

[257] **viXra:1511.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 03:56:09*

Парадоксы квантовой суперпозиции в макромире.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 18 Pages. rus

Quantum superposition from a formal point of view, is not a complicated concept. But from a logical point of view and from the standpoint of common sense it cannot find an explanation without the use of the concepts of "miracle" and "magic". Quantum mechanics says its mathematical apparatus is universal and can be extended to the phenomena of the macrocosm. Although the phenomenon of superposition in everyday reality can be explained to quite acceptable and logical way, without the paradoxical results, however, such an explanation of the phenomenon and their application on the macrocosm has another side: casts doubt on the notion of superposition.

Квантовая суперпозиция с формальной точки зрения не является сложным понятием. Но с логической точки зрения и с позиций здравого смысла она не может найти объяснения без использования понятий «чудо» и «магия». Квантовая механика утверждает, что ее аппарат является универсальным и может быть распространен на явления макромира. Хотя явления обыденной реальности и могут быть объяснены вполне приемлемым и логичным образом, без получения парадоксальных результатов, вместе с тем такое объяснение и распространение явления на макромир имеет и другую сторону: ставит под сомнение само понятие суперпозиции.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[256] **viXra:1511.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 07:16:19*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 12 pages, 12 figures

Particles with masses of 2.1, 2.9 and 5.2 TeV, hints of which have been seen at the LHC, have been shown by Motl to be consistent with a left-right-symmetric extension of the Standard Model with a right-handed Higgs VEV of about 7.7 TeV. The hypothetical right-handed sector is shown to duplicate the left-handed sector in a sublime arrangement on the mass/energy levels of the Planck Model. The quarks are arranged in relation to both left and right-handed VEVs. Physics at TeV-scale is shown to be analogous to that on stellar mass scales by way of the 10D/4D correspondence.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[255] **viXra:1511.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 16:42:41*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Are certain variants that do not meet the EOC Guideline be included in the grand unification scheme? Can these certain variants have applications to the physical sciences even if they are not important to GRS?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[254] **viXra:1511.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 18:02:29*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Based on fractal landscapes of various waves, and fifteen kinds of waves caused by four fundamental interactions (forces), this paper discusses nuclear (force) waves (strong interaction wave and weak interaction wave) and related problems; such as: application of fractal method, properties of nuclear waves, certainty-uncertainty principles, conservation of parity and nonconservation of parity, a revision toGödel's incompleteness theorem, partial and temporary unified theory of four fundamental interactions so far, partial and temporary unified theory of nuclear (force) waves so far, and partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far.
Key words: Nuclear force, strong interaction, weak interaction, nuclear (force) wave, strong interaction wave, weak interaction wave, fractal, certainty-uncertainty principles, conservation of parity and nonconservation of parity, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, partial and temporary unified theory so far

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[253] **viXra:1511.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 19:38:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Modern physics is based on The Big-Bang,
Michelson-Morley experiment, and Kaluza-Klein higher
dimensions.

Think about how much stuff is related to and or based on those three.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[252] **viXra:1511.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 02:51:28*

Нужна ли сингулярность Черной дыре и общей теории относительности?

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 25 Pages. rus

Prediction of a singularity has found in general relativity a significant problems. Arises the question of the incompleteness of the theory, or even about its fallibility. How is realistic the phenomenon of singularity? It is shown that black holes can be described without invoking the concept of singularity - of the point with an infinitely small radius and infinite density.

Предсказание сингулярности обнаружило в общей теории относительности существенные проблемы. Ставится вопрос о неполноте теории или даже о её ошибочности. Насколько сингулярность реалистичное явление? Показано, что черные дыры могут быть описаны без привлечения понятия сингулярности как точки с бесконечно малым радиусом и с бесконечно большой плотностью.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[251] **viXra:1511.0284 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 05:06:42*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show how particle physics via the Chaos Theory leads to the cosmological dark-matter structures and mental solitons. Moreover, the interactions of the cosmological dark-matter structures with baryonic matter via weak interactions of leptons, lead to the untypical motions of stars in galaxies and to other cosmological structures such as AGN composed of a torus and a central-condensate/modified-black-hole or solar system. Most important in the Chaos Theory (ChT) is to understand physical meaning of a logistic map for the baryons - it concerns the black-body spectrum and the ratio of the masses of charged kaon and pion. Such logistic map leads to the first Feigenbaum constant related to the period-doubling bifurcations that in a limit lead to the onset of chaos. In the period-doubling bifurcations for proton there appear the orbits of period-4 and higher periods. We show that the orbits of period-4 follow from the structure of baryons and that they lead to the Titius-Bode law for the nuclear strong interactions. Calculated here on base of the structure of proton the first Feigenbaum constant is 4.6692033 and it is close to the mathematical value 4.6692016…

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[250] **viXra:1511.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 03:13:01*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 1 Page. In Russian

Celestial body emits field proportionally to it's surface area

**Category:** Classical Physics

[249] **viXra:1511.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 13:28:51*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In French.

The paper concerns the streographic projection or mapping. Its proprieties are described.

**Category:** Geophysics

[248] **viXra:1511.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 13:27:17*

Парадоксы кривой вращения галактики Млечный Путь

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. rus

It is considered that the rotation's curve of stars of the Milky Way under the influence of dark matter different from Keplerian rotation curve. However, the hypothesis of dark matter does not resolve the contradictions of the observed rotation curve. From the observed rotation curve of the galaxy sleeves may not have such a form.

Принято считать, что кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути под влиянием темной материи имеет вид, отличающийся от кеплеровской кривой вращения. Однако, гипотеза о темной материи не устраняет противоречий наблюдаемой кривой вращения. С наблюдаемой кривой вращения рукава галактики не могут иметь такой формы.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[247] **viXra:1511.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 06:38:39*

Макро-интерференция удивительный эксперимент Дёмина

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. rus

Is described experiment by Demin on the interference of small diameter metal balls. The experimental results can be interpreted with a certain probability as the occurrence of the interference pattern at the fall of the balls through the two slits. This interpretation rejects the interpretation of the superposition of quantum particles as their simultaneous presence in two states or in two points of space at the one and the same time. The superposition principle implies that on the double-slit experiment quantum particle passes through both slits simultaneously. Experiment with the balls within the validity shows that for the appearance of the interference pattern the superposition is not necessary, because impossible to assume that the ball passes through the two slits simultaneously. In addition, it is can be verified.

Рассмотрен эксперимент Дёмина С.В. по наблюдению интерференции металлических шариков небольшого диаметра. Результаты эксперимента можно интерпретировать с определённой вероятностью как возникновение интерференционной картины при падении шариков через две щели. Такая интерпретация отвергает трактовку суперпозиции квантовых частиц как их одновременное нахождение в двух состояниях или в двух точках пространства одновременно. Принцип суперпозиции предполагает, что в двухщелевом эксперименте квантовая частица проходит через обе щели одновременно. Эксперимент с шариками в пределах достоверности показывает, что для появления интерференционной картины в физически реализующейся суперпозиции нет необходимости, поскольку невозможно предположить, что шарик проходит через две щели одновременно. К тому же это можно проверить.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[246] **viXra:1511.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 07:26:34*

**Authors:** Michael C. Berg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Posting this here for safekeeping, Thank You

The unique frequency of the vibration between quarks is explored as possibly storing large amounts of information, with possible applications in future quantum computers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[245] **viXra:1511.0278 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-02 04:30:38*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

ENERGY IS VIBRATIONS

If you squashed an atom down flat (no more empty space) the vibe would have to leave.

Think of a truck load of guitar strings, they would not be able to vibrate. It would be an inert lump of strings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[244] **viXra:1511.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 01:59:59*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Glue or stickiness is a large scale group process. Nothing like that could be happening at a quantum
level. Whatever is going on has to be happening between only one or two fundamental particles.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[243] **viXra:1511.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 03:04:18*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There is a particle field made of individual yet connected particles completely filling space.

The field is NOT fixed in space, it moves-along-with / is-held-in-place-by the largest mass in
proximity.

It's something like the way gravity works, relative strength due to size and proximity.

It's all made from the same particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[242] **viXra:1511.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-28 13:07:15*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In French.

This paper gives a rappel of the theory of Pizzetti-Somigliana for the determination of a geoid. It is the first part of an investigation to use the approch of A. Ardalan for the calcul of a regional géoid of high resolution to determine a tunisian geoid.

**Category:** Geophysics

[241] **viXra:1511.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-28 14:28:14*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus

Almost all physicists-relativists believe that the provisions of the special theory of relativity can be extended to superluminal phenomena. However is overlooked that the theory was formulated on the basis of the invariant speed of light, leading to its maximality. Nothing can travel faster than light. Using superluminal signals in the special theory of relativity leads to the paradoxes, to the mutually exclusive and false predictions. Reinterpretation principle and the tachyon mechanics based on it create new paradoxes, instead of their solving.

Практически все физики-релятивисты считают, что положения специальной теории относительности могут быть распространены на сверхсветовые явления. При этом упускается из виду, что теория была сформулирована на основе инварианта скорости света, ведущего к её предельности. Использование сверхсветовых сигналов в специальной теории относительности приводит её к парадоксам, взаимоисключающим и ложным предсказаниям. Принцип реинтерпретации и основанная на нём тахионная механика вместо решения этих парадоксов создают новые.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[240] **viXra:1511.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-28 12:17:21*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. rus

Special Relativity leads to contradictory predictions for superluminal signals and violate causality. It's shown in Minkowski's dynamic diagrams: the reinterpretation principle is paradoxical, its conclusions are nonphysical. Special relativity cannot be used for analysis of superluminal motions.

Специальная теория относительности в области сверхсветовых скоростей приводит к противоречивым предсказаниям и нарушению причинности. С данной работе подвергнут критическому анализу главный инструмент специальной относительности для сверхсветовых сигналов – принцип реинтерпретации. На примере динамических диаграмм Минковского показана его противоречивость, его антилогичные, не физические выводы. Специальная теория относительности неприменима к сверхсветовым движениям.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[239] **viXra:1511.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-28 06:51:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that many Poulet numbers P having a prime factor q of the form 30*n + 23, where n positive integer, can be written as P = m*(q^2 – q) + q^2, where m positive integer, and I conjecture that any Poulet number P having 23 as a prime factor can be written as P = 506*m + 529, where m positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[238] **viXra:1511.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-28 04:58:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

An international team of physicists has published ground-breaking research on the decay of subatomic particles called kaons -- which could change how scientists understand the formation of the universe. [9]
CERN scientists just completed one of the most exciting upgrades on the Large Hadron Collider—the Di-Jet Calorimeter (DCal). [8]
As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[237] **viXra:1511.0267 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-24 12:42:26*

**Authors:** Józef Radomański

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Paravectors just like integers have a ring structure. By introducing an integrated product we get geometric properties which make paravectors similar to vectors. The concepts of parallelism, perpendicularity and the angle are conceptually similar to vector counterparts, known from the Euclidean geometry. Paravectors meet the idea
of parallelogram law, Pythagorean theorem and many other properties well-known to everyone from school.

**Category:** Algebra

[236] **viXra:1511.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 07:56:51*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The docx version of this paper http://www.e-physics.eu/TheReverseBra_ketMethod.docx contains free accessible formulas.

Hilbert spaces can store discrete quaternions and quaternionic continuums in the eigenspaces of operators that reside in these Hilbert spaces. The reverse bra-ket method can create natural parameter spaces from quaternionic number systems and can relate pairs of functions and their parameter spaces with eigenspaces and eigenvectors of corresponding operators that reside in non-separable Hilbert spaces. This also works for separable Hilbert spaces and the defining functions relate the separable Hilbert space with its non-separable companion. The method links Hilbert space technology with function technology, differential technology and integral technology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[235] **viXra:1511.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 07:35:14*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus

Могла ли галактика Млечный Путь приобрести нынешний вид с кеплеровской кривой вращения? Или наблюдаемый вид галактики однозначно определён действием темной материи? В работе показано, что ни кеплеровская, ни наблюдаемая кривые вращения не могли сформировать нынешний вид галактики. Гипотеза о темной материи, таким образом, не способна объяснить формирование (поддержание формы) галактических рукавов наблюдаемой ныне кривой вращения.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[234] **viXra:1511.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 07:52:51*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. rus

Космологическая черная дыра, предсказываемая общей теорией относительности, явление уникальное. Загадочная сингулярность и горизонт, пройти через который можно только по направлению к её центру. Из цепких смертельных объятий гравитационного монстра вырваться невозможно. А если всё-таки попробовать?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[233] **viXra:1511.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 08:39:09*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper adds supplementary information to my previous paper Detecting The Detector[1] and should be read in conjunction with it. It lists additional examples of animals which may be using a detector-detecting sense, permitting straightforward verification experiments in readily accessible environments.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[232] **viXra:1511.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 04:22:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to PrespaceTime Journal. Your comments are welcome

Traditionally it has been argued that due to the electric neutrality of the universe on large scales, the only relevant interaction in cosmology should be gravitation. However, the behavior of electromagnetic fields on astrophysical and cosmological scales is still far from clear, the most evident example being the unknown origin of magnetic fields observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. Therefore, in the present paper I will explore how cosmological magnetic fields can play some roles in the form of extended electromagnetism, Newtonian version of Raychaudhury equation, and also extended covariant Navier-Stokes equation. Then this may be viewed as a way to generalize Navier-Stokes systems on Cantor Sets. Further investigation can be recommended

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[231] **viXra:1511.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 04:37:32*

**Authors:** Clifford E Chafin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Hydrodynamics of gases in the classical domain are examined from the perspective that the gas has a well-defined wavefunction description at all times. Specifically, the internal energy and volume exclusion of decorrelated vortex structures are included so that quantum corrections and modifications to Navier-Stokes behavior can be derived. This leads to a small deviation in rigid body rotation for a cylindrically bound gas and the internal energy changes associated with vorticity give deviations in the Reynolds’ transport theorem. Some macroscopic observable features arising from this include variations in the specific heat, an anisotropic correction to thermal conductivity and a variation in optical scattering as a function of the declination from the axis of local vorticity. The improvements in magneto-optical traps suggests some interesting experiments to be done in higher temperature regimes where they are not usually employed. It is argued that the finite lifetime of observed vortices in ultracold bosonic gases is only apparent and these volume excluding structures persist in generating angular momentum and pressure in the cloud in a non-imageable form.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[230] **viXra:1511.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 06:04:19*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I say that my 6 most important ideas are: (1) Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. (2) The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. (3) The Koide formula is essential for understanding the foundations of physics. (4) Lestone’s heuristic string theory is essential for understanding the foundations of physics. (5) String theorists need the physical analogue of Mochizuki’s IUT. (6) Fernández-Rañada’s idea that there exists an anomalous gravitational redshift everywhere in the universe can, together with Milgrom’s MOND, explain dark matter. Will the preceding 6 ideas lead to a unified theory of mathematics, theoretical physics, and theoretical computer science? My 3 main empirically testable predictions are the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, the Space Roar Profile Prediction, and the 64 Particles Hypothesis — let us assume that all 3 predictions are wrong — in that case, I am down but not out. According to Lestone’s heuristic string theory, a lepton consists of 3 vibrating strings at the Planck scale. Let us assume that a massive boson consists of 1 vibrating string, while a quark consists of 9 vibrating strings. Is there a MOST PROFOUND occurrence of Euler’s constant in monstrous moonshine? CONJECTURE: There exists a string formula for monstrous moonshine involving an important occurrence of Euler’s constant γ. The formula might have the form pi = exp( (a(1) * γ^1) + ((-1) *a(2) * γ^(1+48)) + … ((-1)^(n-1) * a(n) * γ^(1 + (n-1) * 48)) + … ), where each a(n) is a positive rational number that can be calculated using the monster group and the 6 pariah groups. The number 48 might represent two copies of the Leech lattice — one for matter and one for antimatter; however, the number 48 might need to be replaced by some other number, such as 12, 24, or 72 — or, perhaps the whole idea is wrong. This brief communication offers various speculations on the foundations of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[229] **viXra:1511.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 11:02:39*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Can Yang-Mills (YM) Kaluza-Klein (KK) correspondence drive the Future of Particle Physics? Although it is generally known that YM-KK theories define equivalence on principle fiber bundles; specific conditions for equating their Lagrangians have not been rigorously specified. Since the origin of KK Theory virtually all corresponding extensions of the Standard Model (SM) rely on a profusion of additional dimensionality (XD); a conundrum that clearly can only be resolved experimentally. In contrast to ongoing QED violation and CERN LHC SUSY XD experiments, this work explores a radical new low energy-tabletop Unified Field Mechanical (UFM) approach surmounting uncertainty.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[228] **viXra:1511.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 12:17:16*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus (русский)

Minkowski's diagrams considered an obvious way to demonstrate the essence of special relativity, and are used to prove their truth. In the literature, these diagrams have static view - drawings. In this paper shown by means of the Internet the dynamic, animated diagram in which all the processes run in real time.

Диаграммы Минковского считаются наглядным способом демонстрации сущности специальной относительности и используются для доказательства её истинности. В литературе эти диаграммы имеют статический вид – рисунки. В данной работе средствами интернета показана динамическая, анимированная диаграмма, на которой все процессы происходят как в реальном времени.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[227] **viXra:1511.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 07:03:25*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The surface of Earth is a location of one of colonies the bogoneposlushnykh of individuals of the Universe!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[226] **viXra:1511.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 08:13:16*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The critical analysis of the postulates laid in the basis of the Maxwell’s electromagnetic
theory of light is given, also it is opened them inadequacy. It is drawn a conclusion
about an indispensability of construction not electromagnetic theory of light which are
not leaning postulates

**Category:** Classical Physics

[225] **viXra:1511.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 04:31:56*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 129 Pages. It is my graduate thesis(numerical version) submitted in October 1986 to obtain the Diploma of "Ingénieur Civil Géographe", ENSG, IGN France. In French.

The investigation concerns the combination of Doppler data and terrestrial classical
observations for the adjustment of geodetic networks and the determination of
the 7 parameters (translation, rotation and scale) between terrestrial geodetic and
Doppler networks.
Models of adjustment are presented. They are part of two groups : 1- a combined
adjustment, 2- a commun adjustment. Bursa-Wolf’s model and Molodensky
formulas are used to determine the parameters.
Systematic errors in orientation and scale of geodetic terrestrial networks are studied.

**Category:** Geophysics

[224] **viXra:1511.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-30 10:58:50*

**Authors:** Laszlo Varadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The permanent magnet generator is a special transformer that contains a ferrite magnet. It converts the static magnetic field of the permanent magnet to time-varying magnetic field, thereby producing electric energy without moving parts. Due to their compact size and long service time, permanent magnet generators may replace the energy sources known currently.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[223] **viXra:1511.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 05:43:57*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The French-Swiss Professor in inductive philosophy Richard Avenarius (Paris, 1843- Zurich, 1896) and also the father of empirio-criticism together with Ernst Mach, is one of the most underrated and misunderstood philosophers ever. Nevertheless, influenced by the most innovative proposals of his times of transition between the idealistic/rationalist legacies and the new materialistic/scientific interpretation of the reality – i.e, by cultural evolutionism, linguistics, biomechanics, entropy/energy theories and, above all, by the newborn experimental psychology -, he produced a complete and innovative system of philosophy, aiming at investigate the laws of knowledge. Chunks of his original ideas can be found not only in theories of mind/brain after him - such as Gestalt, phenomenalism, behaviourism, functionalism and cybernetics, autopoiesis, dynamical systems theory, embedded/embodied approaches – but also in current neuroscientific approaches – nervous transduction, electric spikes, neural code, multisensory integration, free-energy principle -.
Our aim is to provide the first chronological English summary of his masterpiece, the German-written “Kritik”, thus giving the possibility to the (almost) totally unaware English speakers to appreciate such a neglected and innovative thinker.
The two books of the “Kritik der reinen Erfahrung” (Critique of Pure Experience), published respectively in 1888 and 1890, comprise a prologue and three parts, divided in 1040 short paragraphs. Each quoted paragraph will be put in bracket [ ]. In order to avoid Avenarius’ technicalities, we will use a simplified idiom. If he were alive today, I would have not agreed with such an oversimplification: indeed, the neologisms he used were partly necessary for the denomination of new phenomena, but partly resulted from the extreme care he took to prevent all possible changes as well in physiological as in psychological theories. We however hope he will forgive us: a better comprehension of his theory will make him a favour.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[222] **viXra:1511.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 09:49:10*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 6 pages - The thirteenth paper based on reality

It is proposed that force is finite and remains completely used at any given instant. So, distance between bodies is not arbitrary, and the interactions in many-body systems can be interpreted in a simple way by taking that force exists between immediate neighbours only, forming chains. The nature of interactions and force-constants in different types of many-body systems are explained in this paper. This has much significance in condensed matter physics, which deals with many-body systems made up of atoms.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[221] **viXra:1511.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 09:53:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9]
Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[220] **viXra:1511.0248 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-26 11:12:52*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We consider the theoretical basis of the Taylor vortex. The proposed mathematical model allows to build a structure of the flow between the cylinders, where arise regularly alternating vortices. \\ Рассматривается теоретическое обоснование вихря Тейлора. Предлагаемая математическая модель позволяет построить структуру течения между цилиндрами, где возникают правильно чередующиеся вихри с правым и левым вращением и с осями, параллельными направлению окружной скорости вращающегося цилиндра.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[219] **viXra:1511.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 15:13:28*

**Authors:** Sinisa Bubonja

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Removed an entire sentence from section 1, corrected typos, results unchanged.

We are interested in finding sums of some divergent series using the general method for summing divergent series discovered in our previous work and symbolic mathematical computation program Mathematica. We make a comparison to other five summation methods implemented in Mathematica and show that our method is the stronger method than methods of Abel, Borel, Cesaro, Dirichlet and Euler.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[218] **viXra:1511.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 07:46:15*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 93 Pages. In French.

It is a course of numerical analysis and applied mathematics for the students of the geomatic and topography option of the ESAT School, Tunis, Tunisia.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[217] **viXra:1511.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 16:21:26*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper solves the problem of the right scalene triangle through a general sequential solution. A simplified solution is also presented.

**Category:** Geometry

[216] **viXra:1511.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:09:13*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 185 (11) 1225 ± 1227 (2015)

It is shown that the gravitational and inertial masses of a photon or indeed of any body are equal. Motion past and free fall onto a center of gravitational attraction are considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[215] **viXra:1511.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:44:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Stevens

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Speed C= Distance/time=0

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[214] **viXra:1511.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:59:50*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Stevens

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Speed=C= DISTANCE/TIME=0

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[213] **viXra:1511.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-01 04:04:10*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of general relativity, many others would look back on its history and achievements, so I will write mine focusing on the problems of general relativity and their solutions. Since its publication, general theory of relativity has been numerously challenged but time-tested in the process through numerous experiments. However, the possibility and demand for revised general relativity is also coming to the fore. This arises from its own problem of general relativity or is required from newly found observations. In my eyes, currently, there are three big problems with respect to general relativity. 1) Problems of integration with quantum mechanics and the case of a very big curvature in space-time. 2) The theory includes the existence of singularity, which denies the application of general relativity itself, as a solution for field equation. 3) Rising of the problems of dark energy and dark matter. I would investigate these problems in reverse order and propose my ideas to work them out or solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[212] **viXra:1511.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 01:47:12*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 10 Pages. No comment

In the paper, relation of logarithmic integral (li) function to the metric of nondecelerative universe model is discussed. It opens the coupling of mathematic prime number theory and macroworld. Up-to-now there has been just a relation between zeros distribution of the zeta function, theory of random matrix and distribution of energy levels in quantum chaotic systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[211] **viXra:1511.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 02:01:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has shed light into scientifically explaining the aspect that ‘One’s Good Nature Is One’s Real Wealth’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[210] **viXra:1511.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 03:03:17*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The power spectral formula of the radiation of an electron moving in a rotating
dielectric disc is derived. We suppose the index of refraction is constant during the
rotation. This is in accord with the Fermi dielectric rotating disc for the determination
of the light polarization gyration. While the well-known Cherenkov effect, transition
effect, the Cherenkov-synchrotron effect due to the motion of particles in magnetic field
are experimentally confirmed, the new phenomenon - the radiation due to a charge
motion in rotating dielectric medium and the Cherenkov-synchrotron radiation due to the
superluminal motion of particle in the rotating dielectric medium is still in the state of
the preparation of experiment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[209] **viXra:1511.0236 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-27 10:37:18*

**Authors:** M. A. Thomas

**Comments:** 35 Pages. Available as Preprint Id: Hal-01232022v5

The subject of fine tuning in physics is a long contentious issue especially now as it has hitched a ride on the Multiverse bandwagon. The maths of quadratic forms are predominately featured and relate the physics parameters G h c, which in turn are weighted during the Planck Era(s) determined by relative Planck time clocking. This simplifies the search to these three values as being the important apparent fine-tuned parameters (quasi fine tuning) for determining the gravitational build structures restricted to SM-4D type Universes. Two gravitational coupling constants (dimensionless) are prescribed within the Ghc complex. Both describe the relative rigidity of gravitational physics in the low energy build of our Universe (General Relativity toward endpoint neutron star, black hole formation). A Master vacuum field symmetry relation (Yang-Mills) is presented using both gravitational coupling constants in their respective degenerate domains (electron to neutron) which shows a relative rigid coherent field of parameters from the Codata set showing the interdependency of these values with each other, particularly G,h,c and particle masses. If this is correct then quasi fine-tuning is a symmetry operation. A consensus example aligns the mass-energy value of the charged pi-meson to 139.58066 MeV (in the near flat space) or in the curved metric to 140.05050 MeV. The interdependency of values demands that the gravitational constant’s empirical value to be 6.67354236 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2 using Codata 2014 values. The Yang-Mills relation has a perfect symmetry (hidden) due to the inclusion of the very weak gravitational charge (Zxx). This is then the weak gravity unification incorporated into the Standard Model. If the Yang-Mills symmetry relation is true then a double copy pion field permeates the observable Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[208] **viXra:1511.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 11:35:56*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Make sure your explanation or debunk really is an explanation or debunk.

Or you are only doing the equivalent of calling a ghost...

"Spooky Action at a Distance"

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[207] **viXra:1511.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 08:31:11*

**Authors:** S.S.Vilkovskii

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The English text with Russian translation

Possibility of formation of a stationary de Broglie wave by the coordinated interaction of periodic processes in elementary particles is considered. It is shown, the length of a wave of an elementary particle corresponds to a half of length of a wave of a low-frequency bending-around total wave of high-frequency processes of a particle and
its environment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[206] **viXra:1511.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 05:31:30*

**Authors:** V. Elvira, L. Martino, D. Luengo, M. F. Bugallo

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Importance Sampling methods are broadly used to approximate posterior distributions or some of their moments. In its
standard approach, samples are drawn from a single proposal distribution and weighted properly. However, since the performance depends on the mismatch between the targeted and the proposal distributions, several proposal densities are often employed for the generation of samples. Under this Multiple Importance Sampling (MIS) scenario, many works have addressed the selection or adaptation of the proposal distributions, interpreting the sampling and the weighting steps in different ways. In this paper, we establish a general framework for sampling and weighting procedures when more than one proposal is available. The most relevant MIS schemes in the literature are encompassed within the new framework, and, moreover novel valid schemes appear naturally. All the MIS schemes are compared and ranked in terms of the variance of the associated estimators. Finally, we provide illustrative examples which reveal that, even with a good choice of the proposal densities, a careful interpretation of the sampling and weighting procedures can make a significant difference in the performance of the method.

**Category:** Statistics

[205] **viXra:1511.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-28 11:33:59*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Here we explore the structure of DC and the flow of electromagnetic energy in a wire. We show that the flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading inside the wire along a spiral. For a constant current value the density of spiral trajectory decreases with decreasing remaining load resistivity.

**Category:** Geophysics

[204] **viXra:1511.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 18:21:59*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 36 Pages. beamer.cls. Talks at the 5th Workshop FLASY2015, Manzanillo, Mexico, Jun. 29 - Jul. 2, 2015, and at the XI Workshop of the Division of Gravitation and Mathematical Physics (DGFM SMF),), Guanajuato, Mexico, Nov. 16-20, 2015

We study the discrete symmetries (P,C and T) on the kinematical level within the extended Poincare Group. On the basis of the Silagadze research, we investigate the question of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the classical level, and in the secondary-quantization scheme. We study the physical contents within several bases: light-front formulation, helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples. We analize problems in construction of the neutral particles in the the
(1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation, the (1,0)+(0,1) and the (1/2,1/2) representations of the Lorentz Group. As well known, the photon has the quantum numbers 1-, so the (1,0)+(0,1) representation of the Lorentz group is relevant to its description. We have ambiguities in the definitions of the corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical consequences. It appears that the answers are connected with the helicity basis properties, and commutations/anticommutations of the corresponding operators, C, P, T, and C^2, P^2, (CP)^2 properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[203] **viXra:1511.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 22:19:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist, for any p prime, p greater than or equal to 7, an infinity of positive integers n such that the number n*p^2 – n*p + p – 2 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[202] **viXra:1511.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 03:22:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a certain scheme in which
one can establish Relativistic Connection Of Transformations Between Standard
Prime Metric [29], [30] And/ Or Reverse Prime Metric Within Some Selected
Domains Of Complementable Bounds [22].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[201] **viXra:1511.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 22:21:31*

**Authors:** Hitesh Jain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We obtained two interesting congruence relations related to Wilson’s theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[200] **viXra:1511.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 05:22:41*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Clay Mathematics Institute, “The prime number theorem determines the average distribution of the primes. The Riemann hypothesis tells us about the deviation from the average. Formulated in Riemann's 1859 paper, it asserts that all the 'non-obvious' zeros of the zeta function are complex numbers with real part 1/2.” Furthermore, if you can write out a valid mathematical proof of the Riemann hypothesis and get it published in a refereed mathematical journal then the Clay Mathematics Institute will, after due deliberation, give you a prize of one million U.S. dollars. The Riemann hypothesis has a generalization to Dirichlet L-functions, among others. What might the Riemann hypothesis and medical predictions have in common? Experience suggests that both are difficult. It might be that accurate prediction of outcomes is mathematically and empirically intractable in almost all interesting cases. Stephen Wolfram’s Principle of Computational Equivalence states that “Almost all processes that are not obviously simple can be viewed as computations of equivalent sophistication.” This brief communication offers two conjectures concerning the generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dirichlet L-functions. In addition to medical doctors and number theory, this brief communication makes reference to Abraham Lincoln and a set of dogs with cardinality one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[199] **viXra:1511.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-05 16:57:21*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Added Section 6 (cut sets) and removed the inconclusive Appendix B.

A terrace form assigns an integer altitude to each point of a finite two-dimensional square grid
such that the maximum altitude difference between a point and its four neighbors is one.
It is 2-way monotonic if the sign of this altitude difference is zero or one for steps to the East or steps
to the South. We provide tables for the number of 2-way monotonic terrace forms as a function of grid size
and maximum altitude difference, and point at the equivalence to the number of 3-colorings of the grid.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[198] **viXra:1511.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 10:09:23*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In French.

Cette étude permettra d'analyser les fondements d'un réseau géodésique de base ou primordial et de comparer les déformations que subit le réseau en des points séparés par de longues distances.

**Category:** Geophysics

[197] **viXra:1511.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-29 14:56:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A collision of two very big pieces of space leads to the initial conditions for the inflation field and next to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal inflation field (i.e. of the superluminal Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons) so there appear different scales. Due to the inflation, there appear two boundaries of our Cosmos that cause that the basic physical constants are invariant. The fourth phase transition of the Higgs field, described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, leads to the cosmological structures (protoworlds) which appeared in our Cosmos after the inflation. Evolution of the protoworlds leads to the dark matter, dark energy, and expanding universes - the three components of a universe consist of the components of the luminal Einstein spacetime that appeared during the inflation (the components are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The inflows of the dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic matter cause the exits of the universes from their black-hole state. To describe correctly dynamics of an expanding universe, we must know that the speed of light in “vacuum” c, is the speed in relation to source or in relation to a last-interaction object/detector - it follows from the superluminal quantum entanglement. Such cosmological dynamics shows that the Universe is 21.614 Gyr old but we can see only the last period 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr of evolution of the galaxies. Moreover, the last period is the time distance, not the spatial distance that is equal to about 4.971 Gyr only. Among many other things, we calculated the abundances of the dark matter, dark energy and the baryonic matter, Hubble constant, number of CMB photons, we described the origin of the large-scale structure of the Universe, the anisotropy power for the CMB radiation, and the standard ruler in cosmology, we calculated as well the ratio of B-modes to E-modes and abundance of helium and hydrogen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[196] **viXra:1511.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 04:11:56*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 276 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[195] **viXra:1511.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 23:07:57*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The mass of the Sun is reduced due to the radiation of the Sun, which causes that the planets are getting further away from the Sun. According to theoretical derivation, the rate that the planet is getting further away from the Sun equals the rate of solar mass reduction. Currently the rate that the Earth is getting further away from the Sun equals 1.02m per century, for Mercury it equals to 0.40m per century, and for Pluto it equals 40.32m per century.
Key words: Sun, planet, Earth, rate, get further away from

**Category:** Astrophysics

[194] **viXra:1511.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 01:51:30*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 86 Pages. in French, with an index.

A course of mathematical cartography and transformations between geodetic systems, given to the students of Geomatic department of the ESAT school, the first semester of 2015.

**Category:** Geophysics

[193] **viXra:1511.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 03:45:24*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages.

Prime numbers are infinite since the time when Euclid gave his one of the most beautiful proof of this fact! Prime number theorem (PNT) reestablishes this fact and further it also gives estimate about the count of primes less than or equal to x. PNT states that as x tends to infinity the count of primes up to x tends to x divided by the natural logarithm of x. Twin primes are those primes p for which p+2 is also a prime number. The well known twin prime conjecture (TPC) states that twin primes are (also) infinite. Related to twin primes further conjectures that can be made by extending the thought along the line of TPC, are as follows: Prime numbers p for which p+2n is also prime are (also) infinite for all n, where n = 1(TPC), 2, 3, …, k, …. In this paper we provide a simple argument in support of all twin prime conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[192] **viXra:1511.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 15:16:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

According to establishment astronomy globular clusters are older than open clusters. This is based on false reasoning rooted in the myth called "Big Bang" which determines the stars' ages based on how much metal they have absorbed. Four rational explanations are provided as to why globular clusters are younger than open clusters.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[191] **viXra:1511.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-19 00:57:17*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 16 Pages. A revised version published in Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letters, 14, 444-452 (2017)

The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory. As a consequence, coordinate wave functions of photons emitted by stars have cosmic sizes. This results in a paradox because predictions of the theory contradict observations. The reason of the paradox and its resolution are
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[190] **viXra:1511.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 13:03:29*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 15 Pages; 1 Table; 17 References

The main conceptual foundation of previous work on the Combined Gravitational Action is briefly surveyed. Next, we derive a general expression for the CGA-effective (radial) potential energy in order to investigate the behavior and shape of the orbits of a test-body during its orbital motion inside the vicinity of the principal gravitational source. And as direct consequences, two expressions for the concepts of gravitational momentum and dynamic gravitational force are derived. Starting from the concept of the combined gravitational potential energy and using only the familiar tools of Newtonian mechanics, the classical Binet's orbital equation is combgravactionalized and its physico-mathematical expression is exactly identical to that already found in the context of general relativity theory, which enables us to calculate, among other things, the secular perigee precession of the Moon; the secular perihelion advance of the planets and the angular deflection of light ray passing near a massive object.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[189] **viXra:1511.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 11:56:40*

**Authors:** Bolonkin Alexander

**Comments:** 283 Pages. That is only link to PhD dissertation (283 ps).

Abstract (in Russian). Абстракт
Это скан докторской диссертации Александра Болонкина НОВЫЕ МЕТОДЫ ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ и ИХ ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ В ЗАДАЧАХ ДИНАМИКИ УПРАВЛЯЕМЫХ СИСТЕМ, защищенной в 1971г , содержащий принципиально новый подход к задачам оптимизации и некоторые применения нового метода. Часть диссертации изложена в кратком конспекте лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем" (Болонкин А.А., Новые методы оптимизации и их применение. МВТУ им. Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4.), прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает новые методы и алгоритмы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и его оценок и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Вы можете загрузить полный сканированный текст диссертации.
Линки на диссертацию: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BzlCj79-4Dz9YTJOUHVhR1FZUVE/view?pli=1 ,
http://viXra.org/abs/1509.0267 Part 1 , http://vixra.org/abs/1509.0265 Part 2 ,
Автореферат http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081

**Category:** General Mathematics

[188] **viXra:1511.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 02:25:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding Cause<-->Effect<-->Cause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[187] **viXra:1511.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 07:13:44*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In French.

This note of differential geometry concerns the formulas of Elie Cartan about the differntial forms on a surface. We calculate these formulas for an ellipsoïd of revolution used in geodesy.

**Category:** Geometry

[186] **viXra:1511.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 15:20:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Chongqing University presentation made in front of officials from the Chinese academy of sciences, in November 17, 2015

How Plasma Fusion Burning makes
possible GW analysis in place of only
using Electric Fields in Plasma’s

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[185] **viXra:1511.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 06:26:10*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do time and space exist because there exist mathematical structures that determine the empirical facts about physics? Does time exist because 2^46 divides the order of the monster group? Does space exist because 3^20 divides the order of the monster group? This brief communication offers speculation concerning string theory and a possible unified theory of mathematics, theoretical physics, and theoretical computer science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[184] **viXra:1511.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-03 16:02:24*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[183] **viXra:1511.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-28 11:35:42*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[182] **viXra:1511.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 09:38:34*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Prepared for the BGL-9 Conference, October 27-30, 2015, Minsk, Belarus, http://dragon.bas-net.by/bgl9/

We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We discuss corresponding massless limits.
We analize the quantum field theory taking into account the mass dimensions
of the notoph and the photon. Next, we deduced the gravitational field equations from
relativistic quantum mechanics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[181] **viXra:1511.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 07:54:00*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The general curvature of the universe which determine the shape , evolution and fate of the universe is not the same as the average curvature of the universe which is associated with the average density. Mixing them up leads to the problematic dependence of the shape , evolution and fate of the universe on its average density .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1511.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 08:34:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The author has detailed some important notions regarding Evolution (Of the type of our Universe) here, in this research manuscript.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[179] **viXra:1511.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 05:45:24*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In French.

The paper concerns the Peterson operator in differentail geometry. The case of the sphere is presented as an example.

**Category:** Geometry

[178] **viXra:1511.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 15:56:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a numeric method to solving equations of degree n in one variable. Because the method is based on a quadratic model, provides, in general, more accuracy than the similar linear model invented by Isaac Newton.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[177] **viXra:1511.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 17:44:45*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Singularity, Universe, Matter, Time

This paper considers the model of a universe, YRA-model. The Universe, according to this model is the cosmological material object. The Universe has a center. In the center of the Universe there is a "massive" matter’s core, called the Singularity. The Singularity in the rhythm of nature "emits" a matter in the form of the atom of the matter. The radiating matter Singularity is reduced in size (diameter). The quantity of matter in the Singularity is also reduced. The atoms of the matter come into the Universe. The Universe grows in size (diameter) and the quantity of contained matter. This expansion of the Universe and the reduction of the Singularity are synchronized in tempo of the rhythm of the nature or figuratively speaking in the "speed of light". The author examines the Universe and Singularity as the inseparable couple, a tandem of the "Singularity – Universe" (SU)./
В настоящей статье представлена авторская модель мироздания, YRA-модель. Вселенная, согласно этой модели, представляет собой материальный космологический объект. Вселенная имеет центр. В центре Вселенной находится «массивное» материальное ядро, которое называется Сингулярностью. Сингулярность в ритме природы, «излучает» материю в виде крупиц материи. Сингулярность, излучая материю, уменьшается в размерах (в диаметре). Количество материи в Сингулярности также уменьшается. Крупицы материи поступают во Вселенную. Вселенная увеличивается в размерах (в диаметре) и по количеству содержащейся материи. Это расширение Вселенной и уменьшение Сингулярности идет синхронно в темпе ритма природы, образно выражаясь «со скоростью света». Автор рассматривает Вселенную и Сингулярность, как неразрывную пару, тандем «Сингулярность – Вселенная» (СВ).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[176] **viXra:1511.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 20:14:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Studies on the ultimatum game explain the rejection of low offers as costly punishment imposed by responders on unfair proposers. It is also argued that negative emotions serve as the proximate mechanism for such behavior. This article reports two experimental studies demonstrating that the rejection of low offers is also driven by a desire to maintain a sense of self-worth and that negative emotions alone are poor predictors of responders’ rejections. For this purpose we used a novel variant of the ultimatum game, in which rejecting an offer results in the proposer keeping the entire amount, thus eliminating the possibility of punishment and replacing it with a possible positive reinforcement. Although rejections entail rewarding the proposers instead of punishing them, a sizable percentage of the responders rejected low offers. Accepting low offers was found to be associated with the desire for profit maximization, while rejecting similarly low offers was associated with the desire to maintain self-worth.
The evolutionary puzzle of rejecting low offers, even at a cost of rewarding unfair proposers, is resolved by adopting a wider framework of human interactions; one which accounts not only for the bearing of an interaction on the players' material capital, but also on their symbolic capital. Within such a framework, the rejection of low offers in the investigated game, as in many significant real-life situations, is explained as costly signals aimed at protecting attributes of symbolic capital, such as self-worth, status and prestige.

**Category:** Social Science

[175] **viXra:1511.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 20:38:06*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

中国发射暗物质卫星促使nature提出zombie physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[174] **viXra:1511.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 15:38:56*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Three pages

Many talk about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity when they are thinking Lorentz/Einstein 1916 “Lorentz Relativity.” The difference is described in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[173] **viXra:1511.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 10:30:43*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The attempt of Schrödinger to describe elementary particles by wave packets is repeated by means nowadays available, that is to say, by applying the results of quantum field theory and especially by the explicit consideration of interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[172] **viXra:1511.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 10:44:03*

**Authors:** Safaa Moallim

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, I introduce two concepts, first is number influence strength, and second is count of influenced multiples less than x. going from there, we can calculate how many composites is less than x stepping to how many primes is less than x.

**Category:** Number Theory

[171] **viXra:1511.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 12:10:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A Florida State University high-performance computing researcher has predicted a physical effect that would help physicists and astronomers provide fresh evidence of the correctness of Einstein's general theory of relativity. [4]
This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[170] **viXra:1511.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 08:54:56*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

I explore the question: Does the deep inelastic scattering data support a simpler, more accommodating, model of the proton than the quark-gluon model?; and present a case for an alternative to the current proton model. By
reanalyzing the SLAC proton and deuteron F2 curves, I show that the proton can be modeled as nine muons. Then, by reevaluating the F2 results of the HERA proton deep inelastic scattering experiments, I further show that the muons in this proton model are each made of just over 200 electrons. A model of the free electron falls out of the new proton model that reveals why the Bohr magneton only approximates the free electron magnetic moment, and that the mass of the electron neutrino is 236 eV. Finally, by slightly modifying my proton model, I build a model of
the neutron that reveals 0.24 MeV of energy not currently accounted for in the neutron mass-energy balances used to determine its mass. From all of this, I conclude that the deep inelastic scattering data does support a simpler, more accommodating, model of the proton than the quark-gluon model, and question the validity of the quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[169] **viXra:1511.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 09:00:08*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented some basic definitions using which one can form the basis for Algebraic Operations in the Prime Metric Of Any Rth Order Space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[168] **viXra:1511.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 09:22:57*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The author considers the optimization problem named ‘the impulse regime’, when the control can have for a short time an instantaneous infinity value and the phase variables have gaps. In mathematics these mean: the variables are not continuous, not differentiable. The variable calculation and Pontryagin principle are not applicable. These problems are in space trajectories, theory of corrections, nuclear physics, economics, advertising and other real control tasks. We need a special theory and special methods for solution of these problems.
Author offers the following method, which simplifies and solves these tasks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1511.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-23 08:45:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Here we showed that the non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the lacking part of Theory of Everything (ToE). General Relativity (GR) leads to the Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons. Due to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal Higgs field, there appear different scales - it is the foundations of the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Theories of three scales are dual i.e. ratios of physical quantities in these scales concerning the same mechanisms, have the same values. Due to the succeeding phase transitions, there appear the binary systems of superluminal closed strings (i.e. the entanglons that are responsible for the quantum entanglement), neutrinos and neutrino-antineutrino pairs the luminal Einstein spacetime consists of, cores of baryons, and cores of cosmic structures (the cores of protoworlds) that evolution leads to dark matter, dark energy, and to the expanding universes. There appear three additional interactions i.e. viscosity of tachyons, superluminal linear quantum entanglement, and volumetric confinement. There appears the four-particle symmetry that solves many problems. Here as well we described the internal dynamics of baryons that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons and next to mesons and to the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV. Among many other things, we described symmetries and laws of conservation that result from the initial parameters, we calculated the physical constants from initial conditions, coupling constants, running coupling for nuclear strong interactions and masses of quarks. Due to the superluminal Higgs field, the neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. Theoretical results are much better than results obtained within Standard Model. We apply 7 parameters only and very simple mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[166] **viXra:1511.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 04:28:56*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 318 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[165] **viXra:1511.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 21:36:07*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Please contact gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Observations of the universe’s expansion created discussion regarding dark energy. There is consensus that late stage expansion currently is more linear than the equation R=r0*(t/t0)^(2/3). Since this equation represents conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy and is a curve, Hubble data showing that late stage expansion is almost linear appears to violate energy conservation and require a dark (unknown) energy source. Two literature proposals (cosmological constant and quintessence) attempt to account for this unknown energy source.
This paper presents calculations indicating that energy produced by stars causes the linear expansion curve. The analysis draws on data regarding the relative abundance of elements to determine the number of stars and their energy output. A calculation procedure for expansion was developed that allows one to add energy and predict its effect on late stage expansion. It was surprising that a small amount of energy has a large effect on expansion. At the same time, the required energy addition has only a small effect on current temperature (2.73K). Energy produced by stars is fusion energy and provides a physical alternative to dark energy. Current cosmology is based on mass with kinetic energy but includes a large fraction (0.719) of dark energy. The expansion curve, energy release points and associated temperature curve is presented. Analysis shows that although the density is 9.14e-27 kg/m^3, the mass fractions should be 0.5 normal and 0.5 dark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[164] **viXra:1511.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 17:05:30*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The stretched rubber bed sheet and the bowling ball aren't an accurate model of the gravitational warpage of space... that implies the area nearer the sunken ball is higher density and other masses are attracted to it.

The reverse happens, particles seek a lower density, as in (something like) pressure. You can't say the higher mass or density has a higher gravity because you are using gravity in the example (the explanation) and you can't because in this case it's the question

**Category:** Astrophysics

[163] **viXra:1511.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-22 09:22:40*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The G(8,2) Geometric Algebra, also called the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA), has entities that represent conic sections. DCGA also has entities that represent planar sections of Darboux cyclides, which are called cyclidic sections in this paper. This paper presents these entities and many operations on them. Operations include reflection, projection, rejection, and intersection with respect to spheres and planes. Other operations include rotation, translation, and dilation. Possible applications are introduced that include orthographic and perspective projections of conic sections onto view planes, which may be of interest in computer graphics or other computational geometry subjects.

**Category:** Geometry

[162] **viXra:1511.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 20:22:09*

**Authors:** U. V. S. Seshavatharam1, B. Ramanuja Srinivas2, T. Rajavardhanarao3, P. Kalyanai4

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Boldly it is possible to show that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.720586603E-19 C and squared ratio of electromagnetic and strong interaction charges is equal to the strong coupling constant. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329561213E28 m3/kg/sec2; 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335685E37 m3/kg/sec2; Considering the proposed strong interaction elementary charge, magnetic moments of proton and neutron can be understood. Considering the proposed electromagnetic and strong gravitational constants currently believed quantum constants can be quantified and can be shown to be secondary physical constants. Based on these points, in this paper, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of elementary particle rest masses, magnetic moments and quantum nature of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, the authors developed simple procedure for understanding stable atomic nuclides’ mass number and their corresponding nuclear binding energy.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[161] **viXra:1511.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:23:59*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

In trial,
we especially consider inequalities for confirming multipartite entanglement
from experimental data obtained in Bell-type experiments.
We present new entanglement witness inequalities.
Some physical situation is that we measure
$\sigma_x$, $\sigma_y$, and $\sigma_z$ per side.
Our analysis discovers a new multipartite entangled state
and it is experimentally feasible.
If the reduction factor $V$ of the interferometric contrast observed
in a $N$-particle correlation experiment is $V>0.4$, then
a measured state is full $N$-partite entanglement in a significant
specific case.
It is not revealed by previous Bell-type experimentally
feasible methods presented
in \cite{NKI},
which states if $V>0.5$ then
the significant specific type state is full $N$-partite entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[160] **viXra:1511.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:28:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling,
based on the truth values, i.e.,
the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false.
The results of measurement are either 0 or 1.
To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both
observability and controllability
of a quantum state.
The new measurement theory can satisfy these two.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using
raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[159] **viXra:1511.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-03 11:54:56*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Modeling the ‘creation/emergence’ of matter from spacetime is as old as modern cosmology itself and not without
controversy within each model such as Static, Steady-state, Big Bang or Multiverse Continuous-State. In this paper we
present only a brief primitive introduction to a new form of ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ dual space-antispace vacuum
Particle Creation applicable especially to Big Bang alternatives which are well-known but ignored; Hubble discovered
‘Redshift’ not a Doppler expansion of the universe which remains the currently popular interpretation. Holographic
Anthropic Multiverse cosmology provides viable alternatives to all seemingly sacrosanct pillars of the Big Bang.
A model for Multiverse Space-Antispace Dual Calabi-Yau ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ particle creation has only
become possible by incorporating the additional degrees of freedom provided by the capacity complex dimensional
extended Yang-Mills Kaluza-Klein correspondence provides.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[158] **viXra:1511.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:00:30*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

spacetime’, ‘spacetime is not fundamental but emergent’ etc. “Henceforth space by itself and time by itself are doomed to fade into the mere shadows, and only a union of the two will preserve an independent reality.” – 1908 Hermann Minkowski. We have come full circle from the time of Minkowski’s 1908 statement to the brink of an imminent new age of discovery. The basis of our understanding of the natural world has evolved in modern times from Newtonian Mechanics to the 2nd regime of Quantum Mechanics; and now to the threshold of a 3rd regime - Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). The Planck scale stochastic quantum realm can no longer be considered the ‘basement’ or fundamental level of reality. As hard as quantum reality was to imagine so is the fact that the quantum domain is a manifold of finite radius; and that the ‘sacrosanct - indelible’ Quantum Uncertainty Principle can now be surmounted. For decades main stream physicists have been stymied by efforts to reconcile General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The stumbling block lies with the two theories conflicting views of space and time: For quantum theory, space and time offer a fixed backcloth against which particles move. In Einstein's relativities, space and time are not only inextricably linked, but the resultant spacetime is warped by the matter within it. In our nascent UFM paradigm for arcane reasons the quantum manifold is not the regime of integration with gravity; it is instead integrated with the domain of the unified field where the forces of nature are deemed to unify. We give a simplistic survey of the fundamental premises of UFM and summarize experimental protocols to falsify the model at this stage of the paradigm’s development.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[157] **viXra:1511.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:03:44*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Anthropic Multiverse cosmology in 12 ‘continuous-state’ dimensions. The paradigm with many new parameters is cast in a scale-invariant conformal covariant Dirac polarized vacuum utilizing extended HD forms of the de Broglie-Bohm and Cramer interpretations of quantum theory. The model utilizes a unique form of M-Theory based in part on the original hadronic form of string theory that had a variable string tension, TS and included a tachyon. The model is experimentally testable, thus putatively able to demonstrate the existence of large-scale additional dimensionality (LSXD), test for QED violating tight-bound state spectral lines in hydrogen ‘below’ the lowest Bohr orbit, and surmount the quantum uncertainty principle utilizing a hyperincursive Sagnac Effect resonance hierarchy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[156] **viXra:1511.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:27:09*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In French

In this paper, a review of the regional inverse referential is presented with application on geodesy for the determination of the parameters of the passage from a geodetic system to another. An numerical exemple is also given.

**Category:** Geophysics

[155] **viXra:1511.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:23:37*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Peter Rowlands

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

space-antispace quaternionic form and discuss various implications and applications. We note unique solutions in complex spin space. Tachyonic/tardonic signaling also appears to arise from this formalism as well as extensions to micro and macro nonlocality. Complex 8-space Dirac equation solutions exhibit additional nonlinear terms which may yield extension of the formalism from Special to General Relativity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[154] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 22:14:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 6 Figures

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[153] **viXra:1511.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 10:40:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The new limits on the dark matter interaction strength allow for the possibility that an oscillating, low-mass dark matter field coupled to standard model particles causes variations in the fundamental constants. As the scientists explain, this could have important implications for understanding life's origins. [11]
Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[152] **viXra:1511.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 07:41:35*

**Authors:** C.A. Laforet

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The (proper) transit time of a light signal emitted by an observer at rest at r_0 in a Schwarzschild gravitational field, reflected by body at some distance r>r_0 and received by the observer is shown to decrease as the observer is moved closer to the event horizon. This suggests that observers at rest close to the event horizon will see an increasingly length contracted Universe. We then seek to discover whether the free falling observer will also see the Universe similarly contracted as he/she falls toward the horizon. Using the definition of the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates (T, X) in terms of Schwarzschild coordinates (r, t) and expanding the expression for dT/dX, it is shown that the worldlines of both timelike and spacelike observers must have slopes approaching 1 on the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinate chart implying that the free falling observer should indeed see an increasingly length contracted Universe as he/she falls toward the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[151] **viXra:1511.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 08:07:56*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Casimir's celebrated result that the conducting plates of an unpowered rectangular cavity attract each other with a pressure inversely proportional to the fourth power of their separation entails an unphysical unbounded pressure as the plate separation goes to zero. An unphysical result isn't surprising in light of Casimir's unphysical assumption of perfectly conducting plates that zero out electric fields regardless of their frequency, which he sought to counteract via a physically foundationless discarding of the pressure between the cavity plates when they are sufficiently widely separated. Casimir himself, however, emphasized that real metal plates are transparent to sufficiently high electromagnetic frequencies, which makes removal of the frequency cutoff that he inserted unjustifiable at any stage of his calculation. Therefore his physically groundless discarding of the large-separation pressure isn't even needed, and when it is left out a constant attractive pressure between cavity plates exists when their separation is substantially larger than the cutoff wavelength. The intact cutoff furthermore implies zero pressure between cavity plates when their separation is zero, and also that Casimir's pressure is merely the subsidiary lowest-order correction term to the constant attractive pressure between cavity plates that is dominant when their separation substantially exceeds the cutoff wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[150] **viXra:1511.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 16:25:39*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 32 Pages. This is a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton.

I explained Gravitation with quantum mechanics; this means all four fundamental forces acting on the atomic scale are described with quantum mechanics.
I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall.
The single graviton state is an eigenstate of H and the corresponding energy is aν.
I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f
I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ
I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle: Δp × Δx ≥ a
In my view the electromagnetic wave is the superposition of 3 sinusoids, because the photon has relativistic mass and travels with a coupled graviton.
The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy.
I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light.
I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[149] **viXra:1511.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 17:55:40*

**Authors:** Fermin Aldabe

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The U (1) × SO(4) covariant derivative produces an action where the SO(4) generators do not commute with the Dirac matrices because the generators themselves are constructed from those matrices. This yields additional interactions absent in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang Mills theories. The contributions from these interactions produce T-matrix elements consistent with the Newtonian and post Newtonian interactions found in the low energy limit of classical general relativity theory for both matter-matter and matter-photon interactions. The theory here proposed not only reproduces the observed experimental results of general relativity, but it is also renormalizable and more importantly it can be coupled to the standard model in a trivial way. Thus, SO(4) × SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) Yang Mills best describes all
interactions in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[148] **viXra:1511.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 01:08:22*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Until now descriptions of the nature of love have been left to the muse of poets and inspiration of philosophers. Psychologists usually refer to love as an emotion and biologists as a biochemical condition. Proponents of Artificial Intelligence (AI) suggest love can be described by a computer program even with current computer technology if we only knew the correct algorithm. Cognitive psychologists would profess that love reduces to configurational states in neural networks, microtubules or synapses. These aspects are not denied only that they are the wrapping and not the essence of love itself. Now that the physical cosmology of the mind-body interaction (awareness) has been discovered, it is possible to describe the fundamental basis of love. What is the soul, what is life, what is intelligence, and especially what is love and why it takes a whole cosmology to be adequately described are questions that noetic science begins to formally answer. It will take volumes to completely describe the physical cosmology of love; thus in this work we give basic descriptions as a way of introducing what comes in the near future as new noetic technologies become available to explore Self-Organized Living Systems (SOLS). A unique form of meditation to subjectively experience the soul of another person as if one were them is also introduced

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[147] **viXra:1511.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 14:36:35*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The following paper is not a complete self-sustained model of the electromagnetic system of a plasma-thruster. It is just an estimation of inputted energy and outputted thrust. The points of the ionization system where transfer of electrical energy mainly occurs are highlighted by a mathematical treatment to estimate the power consumption. The formation of the charge-density as basis for the electric field that generates the repulsion-force by extraction and acceleration of the ionized fuel-gas was analyzed in order to estimate the thrust generation. Nevertheless, this approach could be used to be a basis of a self-sustained model. Since it was planned to obtain an estimation of the needed electrical input energy, the pure electric thruster of the two Helios concepts [1] was chosen as model-type.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[146] **viXra:1511.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 12:28:07*

**Authors:** Alex Patterson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Will be look at (data) type inference for the four major arithmetic types to search for symmetry-checks and factorization in the Lie algebra, using the multiplicative decomposition by such searches in the Lie Algebra to Poincare Group, Poincare Group important only for the theory check.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[145] **viXra:1511.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 12:48:28*

**Authors:** M. B. Bell

**Comments:** 6 pages with 4 figs. This paper has been published in the International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol 5, pp166-172. author email addresses are: morley.bell@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca and morleybell@rogers.com

Recently evidence has been reported for a low-level velocity oscillation with a period of 39 +/- 1 Mpc (127 +/- 3 Myr) superimposed on the Hubble flow. Like the Hubble flow, this oscillation is assumed to be an expansion and contraction of space itself. If space is oscillating as it expands and the Hubble flow contains a superimposed velocity ripple, matter on Earth will experience alternating accelerations and decelerations relative to the rest of the matter in the Universe. The acceleration curve can be obtained from the velocity oscillation curve simply by taking the magnitude of the derivative of the velocity curve and the acceleration curve is found here to have a period of 63.5+/-1.5 Myr. Evidence has also been claimed recently for an ubiquitous ~62 +/-3 Myr periodic fluctuation superimposed on general trends in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. The periods of the acceleration curve oscillation and fossil biodiversity fluctuations are thus identical within the errors. A second, weaker fluctuation is also detected in both the Hubble flow and fossil biodiversity trends. They too have identical periods of ~140 Myr. From this excellent agreement it is argued here that it is the oscillation in the Hubble flow, through an inertia-like phenomenon involving all the matter in the Universe that has produced the fluctuations in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. This may represent the first instance where observational evidence supporting Mach's Principle of Inertia has been found.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[144] **viXra:1511.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 13:26:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The XENON1T Experiment hopes to finally detect and prove the existence of dark matter particles with the help of much, much more sensitive equipment. [17]
Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16]
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[143] **viXra:1511.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-19 09:57:38*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to Weizaecker's Ur-Theory there are N so called 'urs' that form each object in the universe.
Each 'ur' is one bit of information, so the entropy S of the universe in natural units is: $S = 4\pi M^2 = 4\pi N$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[142] **viXra:1511.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 10:34:45*

**Authors:** Cesar Alcalde Blanco

**Comments:** 28 Pages. the article is written in spanish

This article discusses the theory formulated by the Polish physicist Theodor
Kaluza in 1919.
In this theory, it generalized Kaluza's equations of general relativity
four spatial dimensions (rather than the three we know), obtaining
results in the symmetry associated with freedom of movement
He allowed the new dimension caused the existence of a force field like
the electromagnetic, thus unifying the gravitational fields
and electromagnetic.
This theory, later improved by the Swedish mathematician Oskar Klein, had a
serious defect that ultimately was the cause of it fell into oblivion, and it was
it lacked an explanation of the origin of that extra dimension as well
and the fact that we can not see or feel it.
In this article, through the formulation of the Theory of Fluctuations
Spontaneous, I try to give an explanation of the genesis of this dimension,
and see how this new dimension, hitherto neglected, is
essential to unify and understand concepts such as the origin of mass,
electric charge, acceleration, expansion of the universe, energy
dark, the unification of the four fundamental forces, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[141] **viXra:1511.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 22:25:34*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

No Spatial Expansion / No Dark Energy

Can a particle field push or pull matter?

It would have to be pushing or pulling on all sides

Compression / No Singularity

Stuff cannot compress to infinity or infinite density.

Matter is particles. Whatever gravity is... it is also connected particles.

Tension / Vacuum of Space

There are supposedly 100 billion stars in the galaxy. So that means there are 100 billion things pulling on a common center. There actually doesn't have to be anything there.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[140] **viXra:1511.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 04:16:45*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This rebuttal of the multiverse hypothesis, the idea that other universes exist alongside ours, draws on mathematics' topology, or rubber-sheet geometry. The topology takes the form of electronics' binary digits (1's and 0's) composing 2 Möbius strips which are united into a figure-8 Klein bottle constituting a "sub"universe. The encoding of infinitely-long irrational and transcendental numbers like pi, e, √2 by the digits produces an infinite series of sub-universes (an infinite universe). And other subs can naturally affect our own 13.8 billion-year-old subcosmos. (“Our Mathematical Universe” by cosmologist Max Tegmark – Random House/Knopf, January 2014 believes the universe has a mathematical foundation).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[139] **viXra:1511.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-08 11:53:06*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown here that the incidence of sonic waves on a solid can reduce its gravitational mass. This effect is more relevant in the case of the Aerogels, in which it is possible strongly reduce their gravitational masses by using sonic waves of low frequency.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[138] **viXra:1511.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 16:07:44*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is a new type of math based on string particle lengths.

It doesn't mean everything else is incorrect, it means this can also be correct.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[137] **viXra:1511.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 19:36:32*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 19 Pages. v2 contains a new section 7 showing how the half-integer monopole charges would only be detectable by electrically-charged fermions, not bosons.

It has long been believed that to avoid unphysical observable string singularities, Dirac monopoles must be quantized in whole integers according to the Dirac Quantization Condition 2eg=n, where e and g are the electric and magnetic charge strengths respectively, and n is an integer. This is in fact true if the electron wavefunction is not rotated while it traverses a single complete 2π circuit about the monopole. But it is also well-known that when a spinor undergoes a rotation through 2π, the sign of that spinor is reversed yielding an opposite “version” of that spinor, and that the original sign and version are only restored after a 4π double rotation. Consequently, it is shown here that when an electron wavefunction is rotated in a tidal lock with the monopole during a single 2π circuit, and specifically due to the version change that occurs because of this tidally-locked rotation, to avoid unphysical singularities the Dirac condition must change from the usual whole integer condition to a half-integer condition 2eg=n-½. It is also shown how these half-integer charges would only be detectable by electrically-charged fermions, not bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[136] **viXra:1511.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 10:22:44*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is no way to know the speed things are really happening. If everything is happening very slowly so is the way the brain sees it.

It's like being a character in a movie and you don't know the speed the projector is running... fast, slow, stop, start... you don't know.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[135] **viXra:1511.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 02:49:01*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The general n-point information (n-pi) are introduced and equations for them are considered. The role of right and left invertible interaction operators occurring in these equations together with their interpretation is discussed. Some comments on approximations to the proposed equations are given. The importance of positivity conditions and a possible interpretation of n-pi in the case of their non-compliance, for essentially nonlinear interactions (ENI), are proposed. A language of creation, annihilation and projection operators which can be applied in classical as well as in quantum case is used. The role of the complex numbers and functions in physics is also a little elucidated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1511.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 10:23:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the Department of Physics at the University of Basel have demonstrated for the first time how electrons are transported from a superconductor through a quantum dot into a metal with normal conductivity. This transport process through a quantum dot had already been calculated theoretically in the nineties, but scientists at the University of Basel have now succeeded in proving the theory with measurements. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[133] **viXra:1511.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 06:32:04*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 2 in English

In classical mechanics, this article obtains the principle of least action for a single particle in a didactic and simple way.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[132] **viXra:1511.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-21 09:59:47*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published version, Open Access Library Journal, 2: e2254. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102254

The phenomenological model proposed in this note indicates that the black hole radiation consists of two components: the standard thermal Hawking radiation and an additional non-thermal baryonic/leptonic component due to quantum number neutralization by the no-hair theorem. The particle radiation grows relatively stronger than the Hawking radiation with increasing black hole mass, and it can be tested in principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[131] **viXra:1511.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 06:02:52*

**Authors:** Liguo Fei, Yong Deng, Sankaran Mahadevan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, many numerical examples are designed to compare the existing different belief functions
with the new entropy, named Deng entropy. The results illustrate that, among the existing belief entropy functions,Deng entropy is the best alternative due to its reasonable properties.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[130] **viXra:1511.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 06:09:55*

**Authors:** Liguo Fei, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Dempster Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) is more and more extensively applied to information fusion for the advantage dealing with uncertain
information. However, the results opposite to common sense are often obtained when combining the different evidence using the Dempster’s combination rules. How to measure the divergence between different evidence is still an open issue. In this paper, a new relative entropy named as Deng relative entropy is proposed in order to measure the divergence between different basic probability assignments (BPAs). The Deng
relative entropy is the generalization of Kullback-Leibler Divergence because when the BPA is degenerated as probability, Deng relative entropy is equal to Kullback-Leibler Divergence. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed Deng relative entropy.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[129] **viXra:1511.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 06:14:26*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The 4th dimension of science is explored from a Judaic point of view.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[128] **viXra:1511.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 17:34:30*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Collecting Energy from the Saturated Vacuum

Existing technology is extended with reasonable modifications to show that energy can be borrowed from the vacuum and used for a period of time before being repaid to the vacuum.
Physical laws are proposed to reside in the vacuum of space and be enforced by the vacuum energy. Fundamental principles are found in Schrödinger’s writing to govern the collection of energy in non-random systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[127] **viXra:1511.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 21:09:05*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If you have an equation for a sphere, it is mapping out a solid sphere...

Nothing is Solid (except something like a neutron star, protons and neutrons are supposedly solid but they might just have a very loose string pack)

A "reality" math would be based on strings and commandeering sections of space.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[126] **viXra:1511.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 23:08:46*

**Authors:** Hajime Mashima

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Prime number is infinite. This proof is similar to the Euclid's theorem(300 B.C.).

**Category:** Number Theory

[125] **viXra:1511.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 13:18:52*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper describes an EUV spot-scanning microscope, which performs actinic, through-pellicle photomask inspection for EUV lithography. A primary benefit of spot-scanning microscopy is that it provides access to each illuminated spot’s angular reflectance spectrum, which is sensitive to pure-phase mask defects. Additionally, the spot generation and detection optics can entirely nullify geometric aberrations in the imaging system, potentially resulting in simplified, lower-cost and higher-performing imaging optics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[124] **viXra:1511.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 11:09:04*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this article, two of the pinnacles of nonlinear science – solitons and chaos, are discussed giving importance to the philosophy behind these concepts, and highlighting the ubiquity of the duo in real life phenomena. It is seen that solitons and chaos are prevalent in nature much more than one would expect, and are much wider in scope than the restrictive mathematical equations usually seen in literature. While solitons are a representation of the fundamental life cycle of birth, growth, zenith, decay and death, chaos is seen as a representation of the amount of information an observer possesses, and the interconnectedness between everything and everything else. Various applications of the soliton in communications and computing are discussed. The smoothness and compactness of the soliton give rise to its involvement in various phenomena in nature, along with the genesis of the ‘solitary wavelet’. With the characteristic signatures of determinism and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, chaos theory forms the hallmark of nonlinear science. The present work stresses on and elaborates various techniques on achieving an easy-to-tune signal based chaos, with the help of standard circle maps, mathematical functions and digital circuits. Following this various applications of chaos theory are discussed, culminating in a chaotic interpretation of quantum mechanics and Theory of Everything. Finally, nonlinear analysis and its significance in various real time data are outlined with suitable examples and illustrations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[123] **viXra:1511.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 07:32:04*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Популярно изложена история странностей, заблуждений и лжи астрономии, начиная с Кеплера
Popular history of oddities, errors and lies of astronomy, starting from Kepler

**Category:** Classical Physics

[122] **viXra:1511.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 07:33:22*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

I raise some issues when one combines the dynamical causal sequential growth dynamics with the static approach towards quantum ﬁeld theory. A proper understanding of these points is mandatory before one attempts to unite both approaches. The conclusions we draw however appear to transcend causal set theory and apply to any theory of spacetime and matter which involves topology change.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[121] **viXra:1511.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 08:13:54*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

An alternate model for cosmology is defined using general relativity and a new metric which is based on cosmological principle and the assumption that size of atoms changes with time. Geodesic of photons calculated using the new metric indicate towards a contracting universe. Predictions for three basic tests of cosmology, viz. luminosity versus redshift relation for Type Ia Supernovae, stretched light curves of Supernovae and angular size versus redshift relation for galaxies match the observed data without any size evolution. Origin of CMB can be explained in new model and epoch of recombination is calculated at a redshift of around 30 which translates to approximately 445 billion years. Explanation for formation of large scale structures and other issues like flatness and horizon problem is straight forward in new model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1511.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 09:18:35*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author has detailed some important notions regarding Evolution (Of the type of our Universe) here, in this research manuscript

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1511.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 09:23:51*

**Authors:** Dan Valeriu Voinea, Elena Rodica Opran, Ștefan Vlăduțescu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This study examines the poetry specific of one of greatest contemporary Romanian
poets, Ioan Es. Pop. It follows that the Ioan Es. Popřs senses lyrics becomes a lyric of subsenses,
of blunt senses. This lyric is one of the minimal being in continuous contraction,
retreat, under an increasingly pressing fatigue. Its voice is modulated by the direct effects of
phenomena that affect the senses: fatigue, drink, sleepiness, reverie, aging, anesthesia. In
poetical and generating order the major Ioan Es. Popřs contribution is concept introducing of
Ŗeidosŗ minimal being.

**Category:** Social Science

[118] **viXra:1511.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 05:05:07*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 390 Pages. In French.

It is a preliminary version of a book on " Geodesy and the Theory of Least Squares". The book contains two parts. The first part is about geomtric and spatial geodesy. The second part concerns the theory of errors of least squares, we give an idea of the theory when we use non-linear models.

**Category:** Geophysics

[117] **viXra:1511.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 04:59:00*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown show that the current in the wire has a complex structure, and inside the wire a flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading. The functioning of Milroy engine can be explained by the existence of circular current and energy flow in the conductor. Based on this fact perform the calculation of Milroy engine can be performed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[116] **viXra:1511.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 16:55:22*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A path forward in space exploration with magnetic engines

Magnetic engines are proposed for saving energy in surface to orbit launches by interacting with the magnetic field of Earth. Difficulties are discussed with proposals for ways to overcome obstacles and mitigate risk. Stability and directional control are the main design parameters.
The components of the magnetic lifters are suitable for configuring a test of field effect propulsion, leading to the possibility of deep space transport.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[115] **viXra:1511.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 13:08:19*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** Pages.

By way of the 10D/4D correspondence we have identified atomic nuclei as the particle analogues of supermassive black holes. We now specify the nuclear analogues of the supermassive black holes of the Milky Way and M31 galaxies and show that they occupy mass levels in the Planck Model. We show that the particle analogue of the ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1, which is thought to be an intermediate mass black hole, would be of mass 0.8 TeV. The particle analogues of stellar mass black holes would have masses in the region of 3-5 TeV. The 10D/4D correspondence may have implications for the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[114] **viXra:1511.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 12:19:43*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Roger Penrose believed that the collapse of the wave function is associated with gravity and the Schrödinger equation is modified as nonlinear. Here the result is obtained that at the Planck scale is not met the principle of superposition and is given a physical nature of the wave function in the form of a soliton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[113] **viXra:1511.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-16 05:30:56*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paradigm shifting paper, we show that the physical world is manifestation of a non-physical objective reality that exists absolutely, manifests relatively, and behaves relationally. We show that all the phenomena observed in the quantum world manifest themselves more eloquently even in the macro world. Things do not have any pre-existing values even in the macro world, but things do have predictable values even in the quantum world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1511.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 17:10:02*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

New equations for the motion of the bodies are derived using concepts of Newton and Maxwell, a preferred frame (CMB), and the light and force fields with velocity c in relation to CMB. And we have a theory that explain the relativistics experiments like mass variation, time dilation, transverse Doppler effect, etc. An experiment is proposed to test this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[111] **viXra:1511.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 21:35:04*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

本文在中国遭遇促使nature提出一个新名词zombie.physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1511.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-15 17:53:15*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Electrons are actually particles but they (the strings they are made from)form a mesh-like cage around the nucleus. They are also held in place by string connections to the protons.

An electron is actually not moving... only the vibrations that are traveling around the strings are moving... and that's what everyone mistakenly thinks an electron is.

Check the larger noble gases: Argon 18, Krypton 36, Xenon 54, Radon 86, the amount of electrons in outermost shells will always sum to 18, the first three even have atomic numbers that are multiples of eighteen.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[109] **viXra:1511.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 23:06:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Power Line Interference, typically occurring at 50-60Hz frequencies and baseline drift at sub-Hertz ranges are two of the key sources of corruption of ECG signals. In this short article, elimination/mitigation of these effects using notch and high pass filters termed DC notch filters are discussed. The results plotted highlight effective removal of PLI and baseline effects.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[108] **viXra:1511.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 00:38:50*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented his views on how to live a happy and contented life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1511.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 00:50:41*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented his views on how to live a happy and contented life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[106] **viXra:1511.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 13:30:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[105] **viXra:1511.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 10:43:20*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If you were holding a rope and I was holding the other end... we are connected.

If you have a rope and so do I and we exchange ropes... nothing is connected and we will fly apart.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[104] **viXra:1511.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 08:38:15*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Three pages

If you cannot explain it to a Barmaid, you probably do not understand it yourself, sayeth Ernest Rutherford

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1511.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 09:57:36*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper shows a model for building all elementary particles of the Standard Model plus the higgs, dark matter and gravitons, out of preons and sub-preons. The preons are built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. Hexark colour and tone completely determine particle colour charge and electric charge. Gravitons occur in three generations: the first generation graviton is colourless and gives rise to dark energy. The third generation gravitons are coloured with colour-anticolour, like the gluon, and give rise to a generally attractive but very weak force over an inter-galactic range, just as the gluon gives a generally attractive but much stronger force over a much shorter distance. The third generation higgs, recently discovered, also has colour-anticolour. Model #7 replaces the old Model #6 of May 2015 which did not cater for the graviton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[102] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-16 17:51:11*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's theorem presupposes that particles that are distanced from each other become spatially disconnected. Yet studies have never experimentally confirmed the possibility of spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that Bell’s theorem cannot forbid an infinite set of local-deterministic relativity theories that violate Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies. This result in itself cannot guarantee a theory from this set of theories to successfully reproduce the predictions of quantum theory, but until the spatial locality loophole is satisfactorily closed, experiments should be decided the fate of such theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1511.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 19:38:40*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Universe and everything in it had to form automatically by itself (it doesn't have a formation instruction manual).

There is not anything that is complex and there is not a way for things to be complex and also work automatically (which everything must be doing).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[100] **viXra:1511.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 12:56:53*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Submitted to journal N.P.

The proposed coordinate/field duality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 163] is applied to the gauge and matter sectors of gauge theories. In the non-Abelian case, due to indices originated from the internal space, the dual coordinates appear to be matrices. The dimensions and the transformations of the matrix coordinates of gauge and matter sectors are different and are consistent to expectations from lattice gauge theory and the theory of open strings equipped with the Chan-Paton factors. It is argued that in the unbroken symmetry phase, where only proper collections of field components as colorless states are detected, it is logical to assume that the same happens for the dual coordinates, making matrix coordinates the natural candidates to capture the internal dynamics of baryonic confined states. The proposed matrix coordinates happen to be the same appearing in the bound-state of D0-branes of string theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[99] **viXra:1511.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 08:46:30*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The differences between Dissidents and the politically correct “Main Stream” are discussed along with Dr. Einstein’s consistent published ideas between 1905 and 1952

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1511.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 06:55:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A group of national particle physicists known as the Lattice Strong Dynamics Collaboration, led by a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team, has combined theoretical and computational physics techniques and used the Laboratory's massively parallel 2-petaflop Vulcan supercomputer to devise a new model of dark matter. [16]
Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[97] **viXra:1511.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 01:56:51*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed out schemes to live a happy and contended life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[96] **viXra:1511.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 00:06:34*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Pindi Patana, Sena Adi Subrata, Hendy Hertiasa, Mikrajuddin Abdullah

**Comments:** 9 pages, 13 figures, 1 table, presented in International Seminar on Biological Sciences 2015, Medan, Indonesia, 17 October 2015, #24

Inspiring by Leonardo's formula regarding cross section of trees from trunk to branches, Eloy (2011) found that Leonardo's exponent is between 1.8 and 2.3, instead of exact 2. In this work another aspect is investigated, tree branches natural frequency. It is already usual that in a nearly no-windy condition, some branches vibrated alternatively due to wind movement passing their leaves. This could explain why in a very windy situation a tree may survive, while a power line construction not. It could be addressed to their natural vibration frequency. A tree model based on granular particle interaction in Eloy's parameter ranges is developed. Vibration is induced to some parts to investigate which other part will be also vibrated. Few branches trees and many ones give different responses. From the results prevention may be designed to conserve our forestry resources.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[95] **viXra:1511.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 19:57:08*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Unbroken E8 symmetry is required for -mc^2 matter and supersymmetry to exist and a flat, cyclic universe to form. Our present epoch is unfortunately of broken E8 symmetry type in which negative intrinsic energy is not possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1511.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 18:42:16*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[93] **viXra:1511.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 13:22:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper is the French version of «THE ALLAIS ECLIPSE EFFECT AND THE SECULAR ADVANCES OF THE NODE OF VENUS AND THE PERIHELION OF MARS» on viXra.org/abs/1511.0101.

Dans le présent travail, on cherche à expliquer les désaccords en ce qui concerne les avances séculaires du nœud de Vénus et du périhélie de Mars. Nous supposons que ces deux désaccords relatifs aux deux planètes voisines de la Terre s’expliquent par une augmentation de l’unité astronomique (UA), résultant de l’hypothèse de l’effet d’éclipse Allais. Dans un article précédent [1], nous avons supposé que les éclipses étaient les causes plutôt que les témoins de l’éloignement de la Lune de la Terre et, du même coup, de l’éloignement du système Terre-Lune du Soleil. L’éloignement du système Terre-Lune augmente l’UA, c’est-à-dire la distance Terre-Soleil, d’environ 10 mètres par siècle, ce qui rapproche la Terre de Mars et l’éloigne de Vénus. Le rapprochement de Mars contribue à l’avance du périhélie de mars qui est de 8" par siècle et l’éloignement de Vénus contribue à l’avance du nœud de Vénus qui est de 10" par siècle (valeur des avances exprimées en secondes d’arc).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1511.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-15 17:01:08*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is energy equal to length? How about speed? Is speed equal to mass? No, of course not.

So everyone needs to stop saying mass and energy are equal -- they are not equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[91] **viXra:1511.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 01:10:58*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Corrected typos, added theorems

Direct links between generalized harmonic numbers, linear Euler sums and Tornheim double series are established in a more perspicuous manner than is found in existing literature. We show that every linear Euler sum can be decomposed into a linear combination of Tornheim double series of the same weight. New closed form evaluations of various Euler sums are presented. Finally certain combinations of linear Euler sums that are reducible to Riemann zeta values are discovered.

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1511.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 12:28:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the present work, we try to explain the discordances regarding the secular advances of the node of Venus and the perihelion of Mars. We assume that these two discordances concerning the two neighboring planets of the Earth can be explained by an increase of the astronomical unit (AU), resulting from the hypothesis of the Allais eclipse effect. In a previous article [1], we supposed that the eclipses were the causes rather than the witnesses of the withdrawal of the Moon from the Earth and, at the same time, of the remoteness of the Earth-Moon system from the sun. The remoteness of the Earth-Moon system increases the AU, i.e. the Earth-Sun distance, of about 10 meters per century, which approaches the Earth from Mars and moves it away from Venus. Becoming closer from Mars contributes to the advance of the perihelion of Mars that is 8" per century and the distancing of Venus helps to the advance the Venus node that is 10" per century (value of the advances expressed in arcseconds).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1511.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 12:45:03*

**Authors:** Agustin Ostachuk

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

What is the relation between science and ideology? Are they incompatible, complementary or the same thing? Should science avoid “contamination” from ideology? Is there an only way to do science? Does anyone of them lead to the same results and give us the same view of the world? We will focus on the figure of Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher, in order to discuss these and other relevant topics. His theories gave birth to what may be called later “the theory of the two sciences”, which entitles this work.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[88] **viXra:1511.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

We accurately describe what time is. And it is about time!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1511.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 16:34:18*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Connes has constructed a realistic physics model in 4-dim spacetime based on NonCommutative Geometry (NCG) of M x F where M = 4-dim spacetime and F = C x H x M3(C) and C = Complex Numbers, H = Quaternions, and M3(C) = 3x3 Complex Matrices. E8 has been used as a basis for physics models such as those by Lisi ( arXiv 1506.08073 ) and Smith ( viXra 1508.0157 ) so the purpose of this paper is to show a connection between Connes NCG Physics and E8. Version 2 (v2) gives more detailed comparison of Tquark and Higgs masses from NCG Physics and from E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1511.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 23:06:12*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Thomas Scott Zolotor predicted the brightest supernova yet back in 2013.

Thomas Scott Zolotor predicted the brightest supernova yet back in 2013.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[85] **viXra:1511.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 22:44:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In this article I explain the concepts behind the multifaceted Planck mass through each of
its facets, highlighting the relation of the Planck mass with the origins of the universe,
with the physics of white dwarfs and black holes, with the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, and, finally, with the microscopic world of elementary particles. The paper also suggests a new definition for this “multicoloured” mass. In certain way the Planck
mass is a unit that unifies all of physics. Finally, three main conclusions are drawn: (a)
the cause of quantum entanglement, (b) the existence of the Pre-universe, and (c) the
possible existence of parallel universes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[84] **viXra:1511.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 13:10:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Imagine a world where "thinking" robots were able to care for the elderly and people with disabilities. This concept may seem futuristic, but exciting new research into consciousness could pave the way for the creation of intuitive artificial intelligence. [13]
A small, Santa Fe, New Mexico-based company called Knowm claims it will soon begin commercializing a state-of-the-art technique for building computing chips that learn. Other companies, including HP HPQ -3.45% and IBM IBM -2.10% , have already invested in developing these so-called brain-based chips, but Knowm says it has just achieved a major technological breakthrough that it should be able to push into production hopefully within a few years. [12]
A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[83] **viXra:1511.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-04 16:30:58*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Keywords: Navier-Stokes equations, non-stationary helical flow, Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flow

In fluid mechanics, a lot of authors have been executing their researches to obtain the analytical solutions of Navier-Stokes equations, even for 3D case of compressible gas flow. But there is an essential deficiency of non-stationary solutions indeed.
In our derivation, we explore the case of non-stationary helical flow of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids at any given initial conditions for velocity fields (it means an open choice for the space part of a solution).
Such a non-stationary helical flow is proved to be decreasing exponentially in regard to the time-parameter, the extent of time-dependent exponential component is given by the coefficient of kinematic viscosity, multiplied by the square of the coefficient of proportionality between the vorticity and velocity field.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[82] **viXra:1511.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 09:40:30*

**Authors:** Solaiman, Abdur Rouf, Shamsuzzaman Rasel, Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper deals with three types of washing (enzyme, softener, Silicone) effects on 100% cotton Single Jersey T-shirt, Slub Single Jersey T-shirt, Double Lacoste (5% Lycra) Polo shirt, Single jersey CVC (T-shirt) and PC single Jersey (T-shirt). Typical industrial washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physico-mechanical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that after washing, weight of each garments has increased from 5% to 36%; stitch length of the constituted fabric has decreased from 1% to 10% approximately; CPI has increased 23% for CVC fabric only for enzyme treatment and for other process it has a little bit or no wash effects. Same effects found for WPI except 100% cotton and Double Lacoste. Shrinkage property both for lengthwise and widthwise remains the same except CVC and Double Lacoste knitted garments and spirality has almost unchanged except 100% cotton and slub fabric. Both the dry and wet rubbing properties have improved after any types of wash except 100% cotton on Silicone wash. Water absorbency property has increased; pH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 4.5 and 5.0. But there is no significant change of colorfastness to wash and stain after these washing treatments.

**Category:** Chemistry

[81] **viXra:1511.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-12 21:57:13*

**Authors:** Robert Kardien Vanderhoek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A Classical model based on computer analyzed linear accelerator data discovered about 10 years after the conception of the quark hypothesis, the known laws of electrodynamics and its positively charged compliment, along with Einstein's energy-mass equivalence formula, the physical shape of a spherical containment and the forward progression of time.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[80] **viXra:1511.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-11 20:38:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

On Tuesday, November 10, 2015 the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) showed the TV program "Einstein's Extraordinary Universe". It was a celebration of Einstein's release of the General Theory of Relativity 100 years ago this month, and was this week's edition of the ABC's program "Catalyst" (the presenter was Dr. Graham Phillips). This article is my own little way of celebrating Relativity's birthday. I had to limit my comment on the Catalyst website to 500 words, but I've expanded that here to nearly 3,000 words.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1511.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 07:05:24*

**Authors:** N. Murata, Yoja Panchan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. -

In this paper, the mass derived from the g$\_$equation is assumed to be the mass of quark-lepton, and is used to calculate the masses of the atomic nucleus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[78] **viXra:1511.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 08:41:59*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

How do variants bond?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[77] **viXra:1511.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 04:19:19*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The physico-mathematical model of force fields is based on the concept of continuity of space and it is represented by axes of the reference frame of the field whose continuity is defined by the existence of recurring decimal numbers and of irrational real numbers. Like for other fields quantum properties of gravitational field therefore have to be based on a quantization law like it happens for instance for electronic orbits inside the electrostatic field of atom. The purpose of this paper is to verify the possibility of defining a quantization law also for gravitational fields. Starting from these considerations then the author goes ahead with the calculation of relativistic errors of position and of synchronization delays relative to a system of measurement of position through satellite laboratory-stations in the gravitational field of second type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1511.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-30 10:12:21*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Essential modifications are introduced

Some recent experiments signalize the high-energy particles due of laser irradiation of Deuterium layer absorbed (adsorbed) on metals surface.
Based on the previously author works about models on nucleons structure and on the bias current inside valence nucleons during stimulation by a laser, in the present one is analyzed the feasibility of these experiments. Thus, by using QM&MD programme: fhi96md is confirmed the apparition of high D coverage (~0.5) of the surface of Pd lattice. Also is proved the author’s model of vortex assisted photon beta decay, when a laser photon makes this process much more probable by creating a spot (melt) in nucleon with suppressed order parameter that lowering the energy barrier for vortex crossing together with an heavy electron (bias current ) as resulting from the decay of the permanent rate of bosons pairs as produced inside nucleons by a Schwinger effect. Thus, the obtained electrical current have a power Pw=2x109 w<<Plaser ~2Pw for a laser spot of size , that corresponds with ELI laser characteristics, that means not energy gain for this laser type. But if we use others lasers of much smaller power when we have per photons ~10-5w x1ns(T=109K)~10-14 J of duration ~1ns and, respectively ~10-14 Jx1013 ~0.1J~108 [w] for a pulse composed of ~1013 ph/s, in this case it can appears a net gain of 2x109/108=20. If these remains in stage of muons (100MeV) collected into a metallic sphere that means ~1.6x108w.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[75] **viXra:1511.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 17:24:31*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Polarizable Vacuum theory of Harold Puthoff and others is evaluated with relativistic calculations to show that it can only be valid when velocity is small or zero.
A modification based on work by Niels Bohr in 1949 is used to extend PV theory for high velocity deep space transport.
The modification is used to predict that the high velocity of prolonged acceleration is sufficient to polarize the vacuum with a reversed curvature of space. A weakness of PV theory is removed by eliminating the leap of faith required for field effect generators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1511.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 15:43:18*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 54 Pages. In Russian Robert Yusupov © My Universe

This article represents the author's views on the nature and on the basis of the universe, that the author had in 2013, that is two years ago. It would be possible to name this article “Theory of the nature 2013”. Then “Theory of the nature 2014» it is necessary to consider article viXra:1510.0523. “Theory of the nature 2015” it is necessary to consider two articles viXra:1509.0038 and viXra:1509.0216.
Настоящая статья представляет собой взгляды автора на природу, на основы мироздания, которые автор имел в 2013 году, то есть два года назад. Можно было бы назвать эту статью «Теория природы 2013». «Теорией природы 2014» тогда следует считать статью viXra:1510.0523, а «Теорией природы 2015» две статьи viXra:1509.0038 и viXra:1509.0216.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[73] **viXra:1511.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 16:59:41*

**Authors:** C. A. Brannen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We present a new decomposition of unitary matrices particularly useful for mixing matrices. The decomposition separates the complex phase information from the mixing angle information of the matrices and leads to a new type of parameterization. We show that the mixing angle part of U(n) is equivalent to U(n-1). We give closed form parameterizations for 3x3 unitary mixing matrices (such as the CKM and MNS matrices) that treat the mixing angles equally.
We show the relationship between Berry-Pancharatnam or quantum phase and the Jarlskog invariant Jcp that gives the CP-violation in the standard model.
We established the likely existence of the new decomposition by computer simulation in 2008. Philip Gibbs proved the n=3 case in 2009 and in 2011, Samuel Lisi proved the general case using Floer theory in symplectic geometry. We give an accessible version of Lisi's proof.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[72] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-12 05:45:57*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body distancing from an observer's rest-frame will stretch rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[71] **viXra:1511.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-17 23:50:49*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing the state of the light propagation in the Universe space.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[70] **viXra:1511.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 07:07:37*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A novel protocol of quantum cryptography, called genuine quantum secure communication (GQSC), is proposed by using a new method for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD). After secure quantum channel being established, the transmission of secret messages in the GQSC protocol does not require classical channel. Compared with the previous protocols of quantum secure direct communication, the advantage of the present protocol is not only more security, but also higher covert.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1511.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 07:45:11*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages. by Russian

We consider a new theoretical rationale of Ranque effect. From this it follows that in the Ranque tube the internal energy of central flow significantly less than the internal energy of external flow. \\ Рассматривается новое теоретическое обоснование эффекта Ранка. Из него следует, что в трубе Ранка внутренняя энергия центрального потока существенно меньше внутренней энергии внешнего потока.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[68] **viXra:1511.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 07:45:51*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** Few text; the majority of pages show pairs of abscissae and weights.

We tabulate the abscissae and associated weights for numerical integration of
integrals with kernels which contain a power of x
and Modified Bessel Functions K_nu(x).
The first family of integrals contains the factor x^m K_nu(x)
with integer indices nu=0 or 1 and integer powers nu <= m <= 3.
The second family of integrals contains the factor x^m K_nu(x)K_nu'(x)
with
integer indices 0 <= nu, nu' <= 1
and integer powers nu+nu' <= m <= 3.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[67] **viXra:1511.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 05:43:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Further evidence is provided why a $ Cl ( 5, C ) $ gauge field theory in four dimensions furnishes the $simplest$ Grand Unification model of Gravity and the Standard Model.
In essence we have four copies of $ Cl ( 4, R )$, one copy per each axis-direction in our observed $ D = 4$-dim spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 13:14:14*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 116 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, this paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
The paper uses a special version of the generalized Stokes theorem in order to establish a dynamic model of the whole universe.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models appear to be equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[65] **viXra:1511.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 23:13:27*

**Authors:** E. V. Rothstein Chan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The exchange integrals occur in solving for the quantum mechanical wave function using
the Schroedinger equation. r12STOmolecular deals with interelectronic distances and
STOs ( Slater type orbitals), centered at various molecular origins. STOs have a radially
dependent exponential term (multiplied by radial distance term to the power of principal
quantum number n minus one) multiplied by a spherical harmonic with quantum
numbers l and m. The small and large radial behavior differ from Gaussians. Ipython
notebook with arbitrary precision for evaluation from analytic formula is presented. This
work was undertaken to make accurate molecular computation more readily available to
other researchers.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[64] **viXra:1511.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 14:08:44*

**Authors:** Zanyar Mohammadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The way human beings have thought shows that any being has propelled himself/herself to the intellectual challenges by the issue of the universe reality in such a way that its results have led to introducing some theories and rules as the standard model for the universe. So far, some remarkable advancement has been made that clarifies the truth and nature of everything. Having been presented theoretically, the accuracy or inaccuracy of these issues has been declared by contributing them in practical events.
Nowadays, having examined the structure within the particlesand the fission within atoms, other particles such as Quarks that are known as the minimal possible level so far have been discovered. This minimal level of particles and the irregularity among them came up with ambiguous or vague observations as it could be expected. To overcome these ambiguities, an algorithm has been merely introduced theoretically and in some cases practically by some theories such as M Reference Theory, Superstring Theory, or the principles of the standard model for the fundamental concepts of the universe. By taking the advancements on the area into consideration and also by referring to Peter Ware Higgs' theory; assuming that there is a particle called Higgs' particle which links or describes whatsoever exists in the universe under a cosmos wide field as a carrier for particles and the interaction among them, stating that it is the contrast or mutuality that gives mass and meaning to everything. From the 1970s, it has been struggled to find out the Higgs' particle by investing a lot on this area so that the major nature of the universe can be determined.
According to the aforementioned issues, the following question can be proposed:
Is what is considered as space-time [the universe] nowadays the true understanding of this concept regarding the Theoretical Physics or there might be something else?
The present study attempts to discuss the concepts in another viewpoint using synthetic subjects which are different from the current theoretical ones; seeking to provide an acceptable idea to shed some light to the field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1511.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 06:26:54*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In portuguese.

A critique to Otelbaev solution for the sixth millenium problem (Navier-Stokes equation). Begins with a dialogue with the teacher Odilon in the IME-USP library.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[62] **viXra:1511.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 03:16:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a quantum superposition, a quantum object can be in two incompatible states at the same time, which is famously illustrated by Schrödinger's dead-and-alive cat. Recent research has shown that it's possible to have a superposition not only of incompatible states, but also of incompatible orders of events. We often think of events occurring in a definite chronological order, with event A happening (and causing) event B, or vice versa. But in certain quantum processes, events don't happen in a single definite order, but instead both orders (A before B, and B before A) occur at the same time. This counterintuitive superposition-like phenomenon is called "causal nonseparability." [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1511.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-08 12:03:06*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper is positioned in the Fundamentals of Communication Science zone. The
approach is message-meanings centered and assumes that, at meta-analytic level, the
message is the nucleus of communication.
The first axiomatic finding is that, on semantic dimension, the message is an edifice of
meanings. A second axiomatic finding is that, on operational dimension, the message is
common construction of communicators. A third axiomatic finding is that, on ontological
dimension, the message has no independent existance; as volatile as the meaning, the
message takes the concrete form of discourse. A fourth axiomatic finding is that, on the
pragmatic dimension, efficient and effective message is given that speech with which it is
trained is planned and prepared in advance. Finally, fifth axiomatic finding is that the
message is articulated threefold: cognitive, affective and volitional, ie communicative
message is nuclear thinking of an aspirational desire.

**Category:** Social Science

[60] **viXra:1511.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-08 12:05:00*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The study falls within the basic research component of General Communication
Science and deals with one of the major ontological uncertainty of communication as an
academic discipline: uncertainty about the title. It is considered a meta-analysis of
denominative options.
First, it appears that, in fact, there are four communication uncertainties: uncertainty
regarding title, uncertainty about status, uncertainty of place and uncertainty of unificationfragmentation.
Then in a constructive-cognitive-cogitative approach of titles under which
communication is studied (“Communication”, “Communication theory”, “Communicology”,
“Communication study”, “Communication studies”, “Communication science”, "Sciences
de l' information et de la communication"); it highlights the uncertainty on the title.
Our meta-analytic approach is to remove a few nuclei of certainty from the mass of
uncertainty. From these ideational formations of certainty crystallized by meta-analysis
General Communication Science results a possible, rigorous, robust, flexible and convergent
title, consisting of Fundamental Communication Science, Applied Communication Research
and "Grounded Practical" Communication Application.
The war with the uncertainties must continue: the other three are to be studied.

**Category:** Social Science

[59] **viXra:1511.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-08 07:46:27*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

“If a man reads or hears a criticism of anything in which he has an interest, watch ... if he shows concern with any question except ‘is it true?’ he thereby reveals that his own attitude is unscientific. Likewise if ... he judges an idea not on its merits but with reference to the author of it; if he criticizes it as ‘heresy’; if he argues that authority must be right because it is authority ... The path of truth is paved with critical doubt, and lighted by the spirit of objective enquiry... the majority of people have resented what seems in retrospect to have been purely matter of fact ... nothing has aided the persistence of falsehood, and the evils resulting from it, more than the unwillingness of good people to admit the truth ... the tendency continues to be shocked by natural comment, and to hold certain things too ‘sacred’ to think about. ... How rarely does one meet anyone whose first reaction to anything is to ask: ‘is it true?’ Yet, unless that is a man’s natural reaction, it shows that truth is not uppermost in his mind, and unless it is, true progress is unlikely.” - Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart, Why Don’t We Learn from History?, PEN Books, 1944; revised edition, Allen and Unwin, 1972.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[58] **viXra:1511.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-08 01:25:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I think everything in the universe, as well as in every century, is really only one thing. So life and death can't be separate things. What we call death must really be continuation of life. If animals and humans are quantum entangled with every point in space-time, such a condition would allow animals to automatically, or instinctively, do and know things beyond their individual reasoning abilities. Think of the possibilities if this principle is applied to human consciousness. We could acquire knowledge that's presently considered unknowable! We could do things considered impossible! If only life exists, what we term "our lives" has to be continuation of a life we had prior to being born on this planet. Presumably, life before birth is identical to life after death. I think the unknowable and the impossible always exist because the knowledge we gain throughout history, and into future centuries, gradually builds into godlike abilities which transcend the barrier of time apparently only moving forwards. Continuing the theme of humanity's future godlike abilities - Einstein told us space and time are curved and warped. This allows evolution to be restricted to adaptations and relatively minor modifications within species. Their origin is plausibly explained by human biotechnology from centuries in the future finding its way into the distant past.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[57] **viXra:1511.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-07 17:06:00*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

After writing a paper critical to Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, it is only natural to continue with an article critical to Hertz’s work. This is because every physics textbook today claims that Hertz demonstrated experimentally Maxwell’s theory. This claim amounts to saying that Hertz demonstrated experimentally that radio waves and light are electromagnetic, i.e. that they are made up of entangled electric and magnetic fields that oscillate and induce one another. In this work it will be shown that Hertz’s claim of having verified experimentally Maxwell’s theory is an exaggeration simply not true. Although Hertz did confirm the existence of a certain wave propagating in air, it cannot be said that his verification that the waves were composed of magnetic and electric oscillations is correct. And Hertz explicitly stated that he did not offer a direct verification that light itself is electromagnetic. I only wish more physicists read Hertz’s works before believing Maxwell’s theory or that it has been confirmed experimentally through Hertz’s works or otherwise.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1511.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 10:36:00*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 269 Pages. only spanish. Final correction writing very few equations

This book published in vixra; is an extensive research on the physics of the microworld that has very direct implications for the world of the macrocosm: cosmology. The implications are such that reveal, like gravity, including general relativity, they must be corrected to account for gravitational anomalies as important as: 1) The rotation speed curve within galaxies. In this research it demonstrates how there is a repulsive acceleration caused by the quantum vacuum (c x H = a0, H = Hubble constant, c = speed light in vacuum); It is the cause of abnormal speeds within galaxies and do not follow the laws of gravitation, in the calculation by the laws of Keppler. Therefore, the so-called dark matter does not exist.This acceleration repulsive also produces effects of gravitational micro lens. 2) The annual increase in the Earth-Sun distance of about 15 cm per year. It is calculated correctly and its cause is founded on this repulsive acceleration. 3) Similarly, the increase in the Earth-Moon distance of about 3.8 cm per year, is calculated correctly. 4) The modification of gravity also explains the Allais effect. Effect, which in total solar eclipses the pendulum stop rotating the plane of oscillation. It is calculated correctly. 5) The anomalous speed overflights of various spacecraft around the Earth. It explains how the original Anderson´s equation is an adequate approximation. 6) The Chandler wobble is explained and calculated. This wobble is a rotation of precession of the space around the Earth. Oscillation of a swing of the vacuum. 7) It is shown that the Earth is the center of the universe (hence, the alignment of the ecliptic with the CMB is produced) Earth being the center of the universe; is the entire space which revolves around the Earth. This rotational speed of the universe is derived as a function of the properties of the vacuum. Not only the Earth does not turn on its own axis; if not that does not turn about the Sun either. It is the Sun and the planets those that turn about the Earth. 8) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at a speed of 465 m/s it would be necessary to produce a sonic boom. But this sonic boom, it does not take place. 9) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at the speed of 465 m/s, the friction with the atmosphere, it would provoke that the Earth would stop its draft in 59 years. 10) The effect of the pendulum of Foucault takes place also if the space about the Earth, turns at a speed of 465 m/s That all these falsehoods on the existent movement of Earth's spin, have been kept so long, are due to interests of the elite, but not at the service of truth. A lie repeated 1000 times make it a "truth" 11) The existence of a creator of the universe, God, it is a fact as scientific as could be, for example, the existence of the light. The book, for the time being, is only in spanish. Its extension of 537 pages will need time to be translated into english.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1511.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 17:56:55*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 270 Pages. Only spanish. Final correction writing very few equations

This book published in vixra; is an extensive research on the physics of the microworld that has very direct implications for the world of the macrocosm: cosmology. The implications are such that reveal, like gravity, including general relativity, they must be corrected to account for gravitational anomalies as important as: 1) The rotation speed curve within galaxies. In this research it demonstrates how there is a repulsive acceleration caused by the quantum vacuum (c x H = a0, H = Hubble constant, c = speed light in vacuum); It is the cause of abnormal speeds within galaxies and do not follow the laws of gravitation, in the calculation by the laws of Keppler. Therefore, the so-called dark matter does not exist.This acceleration repulsive also produces effects of gravitational micro lens. 2) The annual increase in the Earth-Sun distance of about 15 cm per year. It is calculated correctly and its cause is founded on this repulsive acceleration. 3) Similarly, the increase in the Earth-Moon distance of about 3.8 cm per year, is calculated correctly. 4) The modification of gravity also explains the Allais effect. Effect, which in total solar eclipses the pendulum stop rotating the plane of oscillation. It is calculated correctly. 5) The anomalous speed overflights of various spacecraft around the Earth. It explains how the original Anderson´s equation is an adequate approximation. 6) The Chandler wobble is explained and calculated. This wobble is a rotation of precession of the space around the Earth. Oscillation of a swing of the vacuum. 7) It is shown that the Earth is the center of the universe (hence, the alignment of the ecliptic with the CMB is produced) Earth being the center of the universe; is the entire space which revolves around the Earth. This rotational speed of the universe is derived as a function of the properties of the vacuum. Not only the Earth does not turn on its own axis; if not that does not turn about the Sun either. It is the Sun and the planets those that turn about the Earth. 8) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at a speed of 465 m/s it would be necessary to produce a sonic boom. But this sonic boom, it does not take place. 9) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at the speed of 465 m/s, the friction with the atmosphere, it would provoke that the Earth would stop its draft in 59 years. 10) The effect of the pendulum of Foucault takes place also if the space about the Earth, turns at a speed of 465 m/s That all these falsehoods on the existent movement of Earth's spin, have been kept so long, are due to interests of the elite, but not at the service of truth. A lie repeated 1000 times make it a "truth" 11) The existence of a creator of the universe, God, it is a fact as scientific as could be, for example, the existence of the light. The book, for the time being, is only in spanish. Its extension of 537 pages will need time to be translated into english.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1511.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-07 14:02:13*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 36 Pages. In French.

Ce papier représente la traduction de la communication du Professeur Helmut Moritz (1988) intitulée " Equilibrium Figures In Geodesy And Geophysics". Il étudie le problème des figures d'équilibre hydrostatique terrestre. L'auteur passe en revue les publications à ce sujet.

**Category:** Geophysics

[53] **viXra:1511.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-07 11:28:09*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Après avoir défini les lignes géodésiques d'une surface, on établit les équations des géodésiques pour une surface donnée. Comme application, nous détaillons celles de l'ellipsoïde de révolution. On fera l'intégration de ces équations.

**Category:** Geophysics

[52] **viXra:1511.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 21:13:30*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article takes the form of 3 "microarticles". They are 1) Relativity says science overvalues experiments, 2) Time dilation to co-moving and non-comoving observers and 3) EXPLORING VENUS, MARS, ETC BY ENTANGLING THEM WITH EARTH. Each microarticle was originally written to stand alone, but I decided they should be combined into one article.
Everybody (even including Nobel-winning physicists) seems to have a preference for experiment
instead of theory. This reminds me of a movie I saw about Alexander the Great. Aristotle (played by
Christopher Plummer) was teaching the young Alexander and said Greeks use their minds while
other races rely on their senses, and what they can see and hear etc. While science acknowledges the importance of theory and mind, it appears to be following Aristotle's "other races" when it declares that observation and experiment always have the last word.
This is justified by saying the ancient Greeks made mistakes because they didn't always rely enough on mathematics and experiment. However, it's well known that experimenters make mistakes too - from the days of Galileo to the recent experiments with faster-than-light neutrinos, and with the cosmic microwave background. This article hopes to plant a seed that will grow into a science which doesn't automatically assume observation and experiment must always have the last word.
The entire universe, along with all of the past and present and future, appears to be becoming unified by our science into one entity/event. Consider the 19th century's union of electricity and magnetism into the one force of electromagnetism (light, and every type of radiation, are forms of this). Consider the unifying attempts of Einstein's Unified Field Theory, as well as the union of space and time into space-time, in the 20th century - and of physics' subatomic String Theory and Theory of Everything in the 21st century. A vital player in this trend is quantum mechanics, with its experimentally verified quantum entanglement that says particles can affect each other regardless of distance in space-time.
The way things are going, the mathematics used on Earth will end up being revised. After all, it's based on the limited perceptions of our senses and the idea that a virtually unlimited set of separate observations and experiments can be made ie it says 1+1=2. But if absolutely everything is actually a single thing/event, 1+1 will have no choice but to equal 1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1511.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 12:27:42*

**Authors:** Arghyadeep Chatterjee

**Comments:** 1 Page. Read it and give your opinion

Based on my latest calculations and concepts .
It is just a initial paper. I will post an updated paper soon

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[50] **viXra:1511.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 12:45:35*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) gives us simple expressions for charge density distribution (ρ_{e}) within fluids or plasma. A recent work of this author shows that the old boundary conditions (BC), which are usually used to solve PBE, have serious defects. The old solutions turned out to be non-unique, and violates charge conservation principle in some cases. There we also derived the correct formula of ρ_{e} for a finite, rectangular geometry, using appropriate BCs.
Here we consider some other types of geometries and obtain formula of ρ_{e}, which may be useful to analyse different experimental conditions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[49] **viXra:1511.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 09:44:20*

**Authors:** Hosein Majlesi

**Comments:** 10 Page,10 figure, Patent:139350140003006698, Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Stern-Gerlach experiment by free electron is very important experiment because it answered some questions that remain unanswered for almost a century. Bohr and Pauli considered its objective observation as impossible while some other scientists considered such observation as possible. The experiment on free electrons has not been conducted so far because the high magnetic field gradient predicted there was thought as impossible to generate. This paper proves that it is not only possible but also observable using a high vacuum lamp which is deionized well. To obtain a high magnetic field gradient, it is not necessary to have a very strong magnetic field and it is possible to observe the phenomenon using a very sharp pointed magnet and adjusting the voltage in a certain distance from free electron beams. that objective observation requires your consideration of some technical points simultaneously.In this experiment, no electric field and no magnetic field does not change with time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1511.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 06:10:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Osaka University in Japan has devised an experiment that gave results showing that phonons mix in such a way that they can be now be classified as 'bosonic' particles. Dave Kielpinski with Hewlett Packard Laboratories, offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team and explains how it relates to work done with photons and other quantum particles. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[47] **viXra:1511.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-05 23:38:35*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The author conceived the Central idea of 'Normalized Recursion Scheme' at around noon time (Indian Standard Time) on November November 5th, 2015. (Indian Standard Time), Dakamarri, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

In this research monograph, the author presents a novel ‘Universal Recursive Algorithmic Scheme For Generating The Sequence Of Prime Numbers (Of 2nd Order Space)’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[46] **viXra:1511.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 01:42:06*

**Authors:** Amrinder Singh

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Version2 20th Nov 2015

Current mainstream understanding of the galaxies is that they have super-massive black holes in their centre’s which are mired in mystery in regards to their actual operations and various theoretical models have been invented to describe their behaviour. Most of these Theoretical/Mathematical models are based upon many vague assumptions and are really difficult to understand in a rational manner (i.e. cannot be conceived by one’s senses to exist in reality). A more rational explanation is provided in this paper for describing the workings of the inner regions (cores) of galaxies without using any vague mathematical assumptions and using the well understood phenomenon’s of electromagnetism as the material inside the core of the galaxies is highly luminous plasma (ionised matter) moving at high speeds and will therefore have strong electromagnetic processes in its workings. The phenomenon of radio type galaxies, Quasars type objects, birth of galaxies and the question of what powers the galaxies are also discussed and a hypothesis proposed for the existence of a fifth state of matter in certain extreme conditions inside the AGN’s (in addition to Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma state).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[45] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 06:34:05*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures

Entanglement states are important for both basic research and applied research. However, these entanglement states usually relate to one or several of the particles' physical quantities. Here we theoretically show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles. The particles in the packaged entanglement states are hermaphroditic and indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement states. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states. These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[44] **viXra:1511.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 02:47:10*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

The publication introduces 10 Gates of Healing.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[43] **viXra:1511.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 03:59:09*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The strict "unified theory" cannot be existed. Applying least square method, "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations of natural science so far can be established. In this way, the theory of everything to express all of natural laws, described by Hawking that a single equation could be written on a T-shirt, is partially and temporarily realized in the form of "partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far". With the help of "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far", this paper successfully deals with some faster-than-light (FTL) problems. From a ray of light to observe another ray of light, the variation range of the speed of another light equals 0 to 2c (c=300,000 km/s). When the speed of an object is close or equal to the speed of light, for breaking the light barrier, the speed of this object could be faster than light as it passes through the Sun’s gravitational field. According to Hubble's law, the value of far away speed of a galaxy is the exponential function of time, and therefore it can be faster-than-light.
Key words: Unified theory, partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far, partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far, Hawking, T-shirt, Hubble's law, faster-than-light (FTL)

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[42] **viXra:1511.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-05 04:53:00*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

All systems of nature are made of time
cycles that enclose a vital space with motion, creating a
fractal Universe of infinite cyclical frequencies.
This reality of infinite time cycles break space into inner
and outer forms, which provide motion and energy of
reproduction for the cycle.
So we are in a broken, fractal world of ∞ time cycles, which
we shall call mathematically, ‘non-Euclidean fractal
points’, which interact and moves and reproduce its cycles.
And we need to order them. To classify them. And this is
what the 5th dimensional metrics - where the 5th
dimension is the absolute sum of all of them, achieves.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[41] **viXra:1511.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-09 12:15:46*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Author name corrected

If we drop the generally accepted notion that size of atoms does not change in RW universe, then a new metric with scale factor as the time-time component is derived from the cosmological principle. Using Cartan-Karlhede algorithm it is proved that this metric is physically different from RW metric. This means RW metric is not a unique metric based on cosmological principle and employs certain assumptions implicitly which has not been noticed before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1511.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-05 04:00:52*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. no comment

Fundamental physical constants (FPC) and Universe co-evolution is considered, assuming that the individual set of FPC corresponding to each evolution stage (phase), differs from the FPC of the previous and the next stages, but genetically related to them. That relationship is stipulated as the FPC of any stage is "disaggregation" of the FPC previous stage. A particular version of such co-evolution stages sequence is proposed.8

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1511.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-05 05:02:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[38] **viXra:1511.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 10:59:50*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Everyone knows of Einstein's famous E = mc^2 equation, meaning energy is trapped in mass and ready to be released.

Tesla thought the opposite was true...

"There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment." – Nikola Tesla

An equation has been discovered that confirms Tesla's idea.

Mnemonic memory device...

E for Einstein: E = mc^2

TL for Tesla: TL = mc^2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1511.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 11:47:29*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Hamiltonians in particle interactions are subject to a number of constraints originating from locality, the cluster decomposition principle and Lorentz covariance of the scattering matrix. Moreover, it is always assumed that the Hamiltonian must be deﬁned on a Hilbert space and be bounded from below, the latter would be a requirement following from stability of the system. In this paper we examine if these criteria are really mandatory, as it is well known that all of them taken together lead to the usual inﬁnities of quantum ﬁeld theory. In particular, we study a class of Hamiltonians unbounded from below and examine its stability. This leads us into the construction of novel statistics in three space dimensions; it is shown that for rigid strings the possibilities for statistics exceed those for standard anyons in two space dimensions

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1511.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 09:05:58*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Gravitomagnetism can be misinterpreted and mistakenly identified with the gravitational mass dependence on velocity. The derivations show that a version of Gravitomagnetism can be derived for certain field arrangements from the formula for the mass dependence on velocity. For a one particular choice of the Gravitomagnetic field factor the resulting gravitational wave propagation velocity that follows from such Gravitomagnetism is larger than the speed of light, which is not acceptable. It is thus reasonable to modify the analog of Lorentz force equation instead, which leads to the speed of gravitational waves equal to c. Finally, it is found that this Generalized Lorentz force equation can be used to classify the various theories of gravitational force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1511.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 21:53:48*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Experimental Observed and Theoretical Ideal T-quark widths are discussed for the 3 mass states of the T-quark of E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[34] **viXra:1511.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-11 19:37:33*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 16 pages. The replacement elaborates the supplementary information of our previous version and refines the language of presentation. Many of our ideas should become very clear after reading this version (also published as arXiv:1409.7156v5).

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[33] **viXra:1511.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 01:45:26*

**Authors:** Sudhanva s joshi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Its my first research paper.hoping to find a solution for theory of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:1511.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 16:41:11*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook, Stanley G. Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Emails of more detailed discussion with the associate editor of Physical Review Letters on 22 January 2003 over the mechanism of gravity (see http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0012 for brief summary or http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111 and related uploads to vixra for more detail). Once specious and otherwise false claims by Physical Review Letters are omitted, we are left with an email from the associate editor Richard Price which arrogantly and ignorantly declares: "You are
proposing a very nonstandard mechanism for gravity ... Your mechanism/model is highly nonstandard and, as such, needs very thorough justification. Physical Review Letters is not the appropriate journal for such a presentation." This last sentence basically terminates any possibility of publishing the facts in the PRL, regardless of the thoroughness of the presentation, because they state that the journal is not the place for a scientific revolution based on proved facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:1511.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 16:23:05*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook, Stanley G. Brown

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Email discussion with the editor of Physical Review Letters on 2 January 2003 over the mechanism of gravity (see http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0012 for brief summary or http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111 and related uploads to vixra for more detail). Notice that Stanley G. Brown, editor of PRL, makes a large number of unproved, misleading, speculative and false assertions in failing to publish the paper (which he falsely claims is speculative, suggesting he has not read it or checked the calculations made) and begins with the assertion that I have a doctorate, which is incorrect and proves that even my covering letter letter has not been read. When you exclude all the incorrect statements made by Stanley G. Brown, you are left with merely "Physical Review Letters does not, in general, publish papers on alternatives to currently accepted theories ..." This tells you a lot about the stagnation of quantum gravity in "peer" reviewed journals since 2003. These people are proved ignorant by their replies, and do not even read the letters to see whether authors have a PhD or not. So, given that error, why trust their judgement to censor the paper itself? There was a further exchange of emails with the associate editor over a longer period, in which the associate editor correctly called the mechanism "an extremely non-standard theory", but it turned out that instead of praising the new idea for its accurate prediction of the amount of dark energy two years before observation, what he really meant was that he only wanted spin-2 superstring theories of the failed Edward Witten variety that did not predict the observed dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1511.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 16:29:11*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

1 October 2015: A reply to the challenge, “What’s your problem with Bell’s theorem?” (For me, a problem is a deviation from an expectation.)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1511.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 11:48:25*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 215 Pages.

Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.

**Category:** Algebra

[28] **viXra:1511.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 11:50:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 652 Pages.

Prezentul volum este al treisprezecelea volum din seria de folclor umoristic internetist. Materialele prezentate sunt, pe de o parte, oferite spre divertisment personal, pe de altă parte, sunt doar o bucată a unei cercetări sistematice a fenomenului umoristic la români (aşa cum se exprimă acesta prin bancuri). Textele şi fotografiile din seria antologiilor de folclor umoristic au fost primite de la cunoscuţi şi necunoscuţi prin e-mail sau culese din reţele de socializare.

**Category:** Social Science

[27] **viXra:1511.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 11:52:39*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 205 Pages.

In this book the notion of MOD functions are defined on MOD planes. This new concept of MOD functions behaves in a very different way. Even very simple functions like y = nx has several zeros in MOD planes where as they are nice single line graphs with only (0, 0) as the only zero. Further polynomials in MOD planes do not in general follows the usual or classical laws of differentiation or integration.

**Category:** Algebra

[26] **viXra:1511.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 11:56:46*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

The authors in this book introduce a new class of natural neutrsophic numbers using MOD intervals. These natural MOD neutrosophic numbers behave in a different way for the product of two natural neutrosophic numbers can be neutrosophic zero divisors or idempotents or nilpotents. Several open problems are suggested in this book.

**Category:** Number Theory

[25] **viXra:1511.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 11:59:18*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 223 Pages.

A new dimension is given to modulo theory by defining MOD planes. In this book, the authors consolidate the entire four quadrant plane into a single quadrant plane defined as the MOD planes. MOD planes can be transformed to infinite plane and vice versa. Several innovative results in this direction are obtained. This paradigm shift will certainly lead to new discoveries.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[24] **viXra:1511.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 12:02:49*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 234 Pages.

The main purpose of this book is to define and develop the notion of multi-dimensional MOD planes. Here, several interesting features enjoyed by these multi-dimensional MOD planes are studied and analyzed. Interesting problems are proposed to the reader.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[23] **viXra:1511.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 12:06:27*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 212 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time construct non-associative algebraic structures on the MOD planes. Using MOD planes we can construct infinite number of groupoids for a fixed m and all these MOD groupoids are of infinite cardinality. Special identities satisfied by these MOD groupoids build using the six types of MOD planes are studied. Further, the new concept of special pseudo zero of these groupoids are defined, described and developed. Also conditions for these MOD groupoids to have special elements like idempotent, special pseudo zero divisors and special pseudo nilpotent are obtained. Further non-associative MOD rings are constructed using MOD groupoids and commutative rings with unit. That is the MOD groupoid rings gives infinitely many non-associative ring. These rings are analysed for substructures and special elements. This study is new and innovative and several open problems are suggested.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22] **viXra:1511.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 12:13:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 130 Pages.

This book is a collection of articles, notes, reviews, blogs and abstracts on Physics. Some are published for the first time here, some were previously published in journals, and revised here.
We approach a novel form of plasma, Unmatter Plasma. The electron-positron beam plasma was generated in the laboratory in the beginning of 2015. This experimental fact shows that unmatter, a new form of matter that is formed by matter and antimatter bind together (mathematically predicted a decade ago) really exists.
Further, we generalize the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction, and show that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.
Then, using the Oblique-Length Contraction Factor, we show several trigonometric relations between distorted and original angles of moving object lengths in the Special Theory of Relativity.
We also discuss some paradoxes which we call “neutrosophic” since they are based on indeterminacy (or neutrality, i.e. neither true nor false), which is the third component in neutrosophic logic. We generalize the Venn diagram to a Neutrosophic Diagram, which deals with vague, inexact, ambiguous, ill-defined ideas, statements, notions, entities with unclear borders. We define the neutrosophic truth table, then we introduce two neutrosophic operators (neuterization and antonymization operators), and give many classes of neutrosophic paradoxes.
Other topics addressed in this book are: neutrosophic physics as a new field of research, neutrosophic numbers in physics, neutrosophic degree of paradoxicity, unparticle and unmatter, multispace and multistructure, nucleon clusters, and others.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[21] **viXra:1511.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 07:49:45*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1505.0211), the inductive-inertial G phenomenon is developed, which is a precondition to create E/M waves, while the cause for the creation of E/M formations is the Γ phenomenon, namely the rotary oscillations of the electron.
So, the creation of E/M waves is interpreted as photons at the emission and absorption in the atomic orbitals, while the Compton scattering is interpreted, as a result of the absorption inability of the high energy photons from the electron.
Also, the emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos is interpreted as independent E/M formations, which are created when a neutron breaks down into a proton and an electron (beta decay). Specifically, at the contact limits of the neutron quarks, due to the acceleration of the surface charges of the neutron cortex (see http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097), the adjacent opposite units are accelerated strongly, causing grouping units (G phenomenon) outside the neutron cortex, as an E/M wave of one spindle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1511.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-03 22:51:02*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The 4th version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing
ansatz, such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can
naturally be incorporated into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal
flavor mixing. The consequences of this new ansatze on the latest experimental da-
ta of neutrino oscillations are analyzed.
This theory is perfectly matched with the
current experimental data, and surprisedly, we find that the existing neutrino oscil-
lation experimental data is the initial experimental evidence supporting one kind of
high dimensional unified theories, such as M-theory. Besides, an interesting approach
to construct lepton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is
also discussed. This theory opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the
Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[19] **viXra:1511.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 04:36:14*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The mass-energy formula E=mc^2 is thought to be derived by Einstein from special relativity. The present study shows that since the formula has also been derived from classical physics by Einstein, it has a deep-rooted connection with classical physics. The formula is implied by Maxwell’s electromagnetic momentum P=E/c and the Newtonian definition of momentum P=mv. It can be derived from classical physics with c as the constant velocity of light in its medium ether. The present study also shows that within the framework of classical physics, this classical physics based formula is correct in other inertial frames that move relative to the ether frame as well. In contrast, Einstein’s derivation in 1905 seems logically flawed as a relativistic proof, because it relies on the classical kinetic energy definition, approximates at low velocity and fails to show mass-energy equivalence in the same reference frame. Therefore, treating E=mc^2 as a quantity like the momentum P=mv , which applies to both classical physics and special relativity if relativistic mass is used in the equation, appears to be more consistent with the logic of special relativity. Then the truly relativistic formula should be E=E_0/√(1-v^2/c^2) derived by Laue and Klein, which corresponds to the formula of relativistic mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1511.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-24 13:07:55*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the other gravity field equation and the other solution. For example, the other solution treats in Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nodstrom solution. Hence, the uniqueness of GR solution is denied by numberless solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1511.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-24 08:19:10*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 19 pages incl. suppl. info. This replacement updates the supp. info. section D which clarifies the origin of 'surprising' quantum behavior exhibited by a single electron as resulting from the exchange mechanism.

The wave-particle duality is one of the most remarkable concepts in physics ever discovered. It is a central pillar upon which the entire theory of quantum mechanics is based. However the origin of the wave-particle duality is unrevealed yet and is generally taken as a postulate representing a fundamental fact of nature. Here we disclose the origin of this remarkable fact of nature. We show that the introduction of (fermionic or bosonic) exchange symmetry for the state describing a group of particles of matter would naturally lead those particles to demonstrate wave-like character from particle-like character. Thus the existence of (fermionic or bosonic) exchange symmetry among the particles of matter is absolutely necessary for their wave character to manifest thus shedding light on the microscopic origin of the peculiar quantum behavior of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1511.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 18:50:19*

**Authors:** Nalin Asanka Gamagedara Arachchilage, Steve Love, Carsten Maple

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Usable Security

Phishing is an online fraudulent technique, which aims to steal sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and online banking details from its victims. To prevent this, anti-phishing education needs to be considered. This research focuses on examining the effectiveness of mobile game based learning compared to traditional online learning to thwart phishing threats. Therefore, a mobile game prototype was developed based on the design introduced by Arachchilage and Cole [3]. The game design aimed to enhance avoidance behaviour through motivation to thwart phishing threats. A website developed by Anti-Phishing Work Group (APWG) for the public Anti-phishing education initiative was used as a traditional web based learning source. A think-aloud experiment along with a pre- and post-test was conducted through a user study. The study findings revealed that the participants who played the mobile game were better able to identify fraudulent web sites compared to the participants who read the website without any training.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[15] **viXra:1511.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 01:48:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The tunneling Hamiltonian is a proven method to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions in many-body physics. Our problem is how to apply a wave functional formulation of tunneling Hamiltonians to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems in which we consider tunneling between states that are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field. We present derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wave-functionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both the wave-functionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine Gordon physical system should be picked by topological charge arguments that in principle appear to assign values that have a tie in with the false vacuum hypothesis first presented by Sidney Coleman. Our supposition is that indeed this is useful and that the topological arguments give evidence as to a first order phase transition which gives credence to the observed and calculated I-E curve as evidence

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[14] **viXra:1511.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 01:52:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We examine what Padmanabhan presented in an exercise as of a linkage to (Electromagnetic) E and M fields with Gravitation. The modifications we bring up take the nonrelativistic approximation as the beginning of an order of magnitude estimate as to gravitons, E and M fields, and are by definition linked to the total angular momentum of an initial configuration of ‘particles’ of space-time import. The innovation put into Padmanbhan’/s calculation is to for total mass M, used, to substitute in M ~ N(gravitons) times m(g), where m(g) is about 10^-62 grams, as well as specify distances, for the object spinning as being about Planck length in size, give or take a few orders of magnitude. The results are by definition very crude, and do not take into account relativistic effects, but are probably within an order of magnitude important comparisons

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1511.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 02:07:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article poses the question of a minimum cosmological constant, i.e. vacuum energy at the start of the cosmological evolution from a near singularity. We pose this comparing formalism as given by Berry (1976) as to a small time length, and compare that in its entirety to compare this value given by Berry (1976) with a minimum time length at the start of cosmological space-time evolution. Using the methodology of Zeldovich (1972) as to a problem with electron-positron pair production we also propose another upper bound to the problem of minimum time length which may be accessible to experimental inquiry. This then makes the problem of minimum time length a way of specifying a magnetic field dependence of the cosmological constant, which has major implications to answering if quinessence , i.e. a changing cosmological vacuum energy, or a constant for the “cosmological constant” problem . Our answer is an initial value greater than today which suggests either Quintessence, or if still a constant,a much better value for this parameter than what is suggested by traditional field theory methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1511.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 15:32:57*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** Pages 9 to 21 are a JAVA program distributed under the LGPL v3.

The multinomial coefficients count the number of ways (of permutations) of
placing a number of partially distinguishable objects on a line, taking ordering
into account. A well-known two-parametric family of counts arises if there are objects
of c distinguishable colors and m objects of each color, m*c objects in total, to be placed on line.
In this work we propose an algorithm to count the permutations where
no two objects of the same color appear side-by-side on the line. This eliminates
all permutations with "clusters" of colors. Essentially we represent filling
the line sequentially with objects as a tree of states where each node
matches one partially filled line. Subtrees are merged if they have the same
branching structure, and weights are assigned to nodes in the tree keeping track
of how many mergers take place. This is implemented in a JAVA program; numerical results
confirm Hardin's earlier counts for this kind of restricted permutations.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[11] **viXra:1511.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 03:39:59*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 12 Pages. From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Septembre 2015, traducted in French

Abstract. A Coherent Cosmology is based on a number of oscillations. The main one is the matter-antimatter at 10^104 Hz. A connexion is made with the non-Doppler Kotov-Lyuty Coherent Cosmic oscillation, confirmed by a Topologic Axis which rehabilates the tachyonic boson string theory and justifies a massive gluon.
Résumé. Le transfert dimensionnel, par abus de langage, 'Principe Holographique', et sa version diophantienne, le Principe Holique (Sanchez, 1994). s'appliquent à la cosmologie permanente, en définissant une Cosmologie Cohérente, où l'Univers subit une oscillation matière-antimatière de fréquence 10^104 Hz. La fréquence de l'oscillation cosmique cohérente (non-Doppler) de Kotov-Lyuty s'intègre dans un processus d'élimination de la vitesse c, prouvant que l'Univers à un aspect tachyonique. Cela est confirmé par un Axe Topologique qui réhabilite la théorie bosono-tachyonique des cordes, et prévoit une masse au gluon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1511.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 03:59:22*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I propose to explain the results of three recent publications in the light of my iconoclast TpS hypothesis and so analyse the results as a possible confirmation of it. The first publication is about 'Tunnel effect', the second one is about 'Quantum entanglement', the third one concern 'Zeno effect'. 'A world in Presence': viXra : 1211.0149 and the others introduce this TpS hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1511.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 04:40:55*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is argued that several key ideas upon which thermodynamics was founded are likely dubious and may well need to be abandoned altogether. This particularly applies to certain concepts based on the ideal gas laws, e.g. isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression. Indeed, this is apparently the reason for the invalidity of the Carnot cycle, a cornerstone of thermodynamics that has widely influenced the evolution of scientific thought and technological innovation over nearly two centuries. (It has been previously argued that the Carnot cycle is self-evidently invalid, as a closed system operating in a cycle cannot yield net work.) Likewise, a re-evaluation of the Joule-Thomson effect indicates that the actual operations performed relate neither to the model employed nor to the derived theoretical construct. In fact, the proof of constant enthalpy during the adiabatic expansion is debatable, the calculated volume changes being invalidated by the accompanying transfer of mass. Thus, the imputed conversion of kinetic to potential energy is unlikely to be valid (the latter, in fact, being associated with higher – rather than lower – pressures). The Joule-Thomson effect is likely the result of simple pressure changes (including a possible Bernoulli Effect at the nozzle), along with mass changes which affect the energy density, akin to those found at high altitudes (‘hill-station effect’).

**Category:** Chemistry

[8] **viXra:1511.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 23:55:28*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The development of Satellite Imagery and associated analysis has opened up avenues in applications as diverse as meteorology, navigation, warfare and biodiversity. Motivated by this trend, the present article explores the application of nonlinear analysis tools such as entropy and fractal dimension in satellite imagery of the 29 states of India. It is seen that sharp and rich variations in terrain from green to arid or snow-clad mountainous regions contribute to high entropy, while rich variations in borders and varying scales of vegetation patches correspond to high fractal dimensions. The results obtained thus illustrate the significance and relevance of nonlinear analysis tools such as entropy and fractal dimension in satellite imagery.

**Category:** Geophysics

[7] **viXra:1511.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 20:30:23*

**Authors:** Jiwon Han

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

When a glass of wine is oscillated horizontally at 4Hz, the liquid surface oscillates calmly. But when the same amount of liquid is contained in a cylindrical mug and oscillated under the same conditions, the liquid starts to oscillate aggressively against the container walls and results in significant spillage. This is a manifestation of the same principles that also cause coffee spillage when we walk. In this study, we experimentally investigate the cup motion and liquid oscillation during locomotion. The frequency spectrum of each motion reveals that the second harmonic mode of the hand motion corresponds to the resonance frequency of the first antisymmetric mode of coffee oscillation, resulting in maximum spillage. By applying these experimental findings, a number of methods to suppress resonance are presented. Then, we construct two mechanical models to rationalize our experimental findings and gain further insight; both models successfully predict actual hand behaviors.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[6] **viXra:1511.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 19:08:30*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The author is releasing his book "Challenging Science" as a free, down-loadable, pdf file. The book covers many of his thoughts and research papers in chemistry and physics from the time of his retirement in 1993 to its publication in 2005. The small, 2-page, pdf file in this submission presents the reader with the Table of Contents and the Introduction section of the book. The reader is provided with a link to the author's website where many of the topics in the book are updated and where a link to download the 18Mb pdf file of the full-copy of the book for free is available.

**Category:** Chemistry

[5] **viXra:1511.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-26 15:08:32*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

By starting from an infinite dimensional quaternionic separable Hilbert space and its companion Gelfand triple as a base model, the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of some basic fields. A special method is introduced that generates normal operators and parameter spaces from existing quaternionic number systems. The same method is used to relate functions that use these parameter spaces with corresponding normal operators. Continuum eigenspaces of operators that reside in the Gelfand triple will represent the investigated basic fields.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus as well as Maxwell based differential calculus. This is done in order to investigate the properties and behavior of the investigated basic fields. The two toolkits offer different views on the basic fields. The views do not affect the behavior of the investigated field.
Maxwell based differential calculus is commonly used to investigate the electromagnetic field, but the application of this set of equations is certainly not restricted to the EM field. The EM field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. Both basic fields can be investigated by the Maxwell based equations and by the quaternion differential calculus. It will be shown that the fundamental difference between the basic fields is located in the artifacts that vibrate and deform these basic fields.
The paper produces an algorithm that calculates the electric charge and color charge of elementary objects from the symmetry properties of their local parameter spaces. The electric charges generate the electric field. Also the spin of elementary objects is considered.
Via the analysis of the Dirac equation the paper indicates that the wave equation is the result of the coupling between two first order differential equations that hold for different parameter spaces.
The paper reveals that dedicated mechanism control the coherence of the dynamics of the fields.
The behavior of photons and dynamic electromagnetic fields is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields. The paper shows that the usual interpretation of a photon as an electric wave is not correct. In addition the relation between gravitation and inertia is explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1511.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-27 11:59:52*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The concept of an intrinsic vibrational-rotational motion of the electron( zitterbewegung) has been introduced by Schroedinger, and later developed by Kerson Huang and more recently by A. Barut, among others. These authors listed a series of features that should accompany such motion, although its very existence is usually regarded as merely speculative. In the present paper we investigate the consequences of the existence of this motion as far as measured properties of particles are concerned. A phenomenological model based upon the quantization of a classical vibrating system, in the lines of the old Correspondence Principle of Bohr, is applied to particles to mimic the effect of the zitterbewegung upon measurable dynamic properties like the magnetic energy, and the magnetic moment. Gauge invariance is inevitably imposed in the form of a quatization criterion needed for the passage from the classical to the quantum treatment, which results in the prediction of magnetic flux quantization within the area covered by the vibrations. The calculations are carried out for the electron, and also for the proton and the neutron by considering the electric charges of their constituent quarks. The conclusion is that if the zitterbewegung motion is real, the mass, the magnetic moment, the Compton wavelengths (or the measured sizes for the nucleons) for each of these particles, are gathered together in a single expression which is a function of the number of flux quanta trapped inside their ”orbits”. The theory proposed seems to be the first to produce a relation between the rest mass of particles and the inverse of the constant alpha, which might be associated to the extensive analysis of data for all particles carried out years ago by M. MacGregor. We finish the paper making some remarks on the compatibility of these results with those obtained from first principles by QCD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1511.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 06:07:39*

**Authors:** John R. Dixon

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

This is the technical report to accompany:
Dixon, John R., Michael R. Kosorok, and Bee Leng Lee. "Functional inference in semiparametric models using the piggyback bootstrap." Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 57, no. 2 (2005): 255-277.

**Category:** Statistics

[2] **viXra:1511.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 05:40:19*

**Authors:** Amrinder Singh

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Version5 20th Nov 2015

Modern astronomy proposes its planet formation theory with highly questionable assumptions as the basis for formation of planets (in the form of accretion disk model of protoplanetary disks). It also proposes models (again using questionable assumptions) for the stars nearing the end of their lives (which share similar internal structure to all the planets in existence) to end in either explosions (supernovae) or becoming Black holes, Neutron stars or Dwarf stars. Another more rational explanation on how planets form has been provided first by Anthony Abruzzo expanding on Descartes’s original Idea of stars transforming to become planets by a series of papers followed by a comprehensive explanation by Jeffery Wollynski in the form of his Stellar Metamorphosis theory. Stellar Metamorphosis theory provides detailed explanation of the actual mechanics of how this process takes place step by step. Some additional observations are offered in this paper on the mechanism of the process of planet formation by Stellar Metamorphosis as well as some new ideas on the question of why planets stay at similar temperature ranges over millions of years despite continuously cooling during the evolution/propagation of life, observations on the comparison of relative mass of a star during its transition from star to a planet and some thoughts on the nature of space and time.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1511.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 01:31:39*

**Authors:** Bhupendra Badgaiyan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4841.8002

A variant of Dirac equation has been proposed wherein in addition to particles and anti-particles (fermions) with positive and negative energies respectively, one also obtains a bosonic solution with spin 0 (a scalar particle) with the same mass. The boson also has positive and negative energies. In the context of supersymmetry the boson can be seen as an unbroken super partner of the corresponding fermion. Quaternion coordinates have been used to obtain this result.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics