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1812 Submissions

[439] viXra:1812.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 12:45:35

Series De Números Cuyos Factores Son la Lista De Los Números Primos Desde el Principio Y Enumerando Todos Sin Excepción

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 5 Pages.

Series De Números Cuyos Factores Son La Lista De Los Números Primos Desde El Principio y Enumerando Todos Sin excepción
Category: Number Theory

[438] viXra:1812.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 13:08:20

Series of Numbers Whose Factors Are the List of Prime Numbers from the Beginning and Listing All Without Exception

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 5 Pages.

Series of numbers whose factors are the list of prime numbers from the beginning and listing all without exception
Category: Number Theory

[437] viXra:1812.0495 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-30 16:38:19

Proof of the Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 5 Pages. This replacement paper adds a ratio TPA / 2.06 column to Table 2 and Table 1 contains a comparison of the twin prime pairs formula for [743,743^2] and [19993,19993^2]. It gives a better explanation for the twin prime pairs formula.

Let P_n be the n_th prime. For twin primes P_n – P_n-1 = 2. We exhibit formula for calculating the number of twin primes in the closed interval [P_n, P_n^2]. We prove that as P_n increases the number of twin primes in the interval [P_n, Pn^2] also increases.
Category: Number Theory

[436] viXra:1812.0494 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-18 17:04:43

A Set of Formulas for Primes

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 10 Pages.

A set of new formulas for primes are given. These formulas have a growth rate much smaller than the ones of Mills and Wright.
Category: Number Theory

[435] viXra:1812.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 11:57:19

Adaptation of Gestation or Egg-laying in Species Depends on the Amount of Internal Heat Generated in Digesting the Food

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anatomically and physiologically, the reproductive process of gestation or egg-laying, and dietary habits in vertebrates appear to be distinct processes. An in-depth analysis of the dietary habits of vertebrates reveals that the gestation or egg-laying characteristic in these species is tightly coupled with the digestive process. Once the food has been ingested, it is then broken down to the molecular level to be absorbed into the body. The amount of energy required to digest the food depends upon the amount and composition of the food material that was ingested. The denser (ex. bones and muscle) and bigger the size of the food bits ingested, the higher the amount of energy required to break down the material - that in turn requires higher amount of gastrointestinal acids. Where there is higher amount of energy is consumed, there will be an excess amount of heat gets generated. To protect the embryo from this heat, a layer develops around it. Therefore, it appears that the higher amount of heat generated in digesting the food results in egg-laying characteristic in species such as birds and reptiles, which ingest large chunks of raw meat. Rest of the vertebrates adapted to gestation due to chewing the food into small pieces before ingesting which generates less internal heat in digestion.
Category: Physics of Biology

[434] viXra:1812.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 09:20:05

Realism to Blockchain's Promise

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

Depending on who you ask, blockchain technology is poised to revolutionize the world-from creating a universal currency to building a free and truly private internet. [52] By constructing a hybrid device made from two different types of qubit-the fundamental computing element of quantum computers-they have created a device that can be quickly initialized and read out, and that simultaneously maintains high control fidelity. [51] Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba-a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm-has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[433] viXra:1812.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 09:23:35

Mach's Principle: The Origin of the Inertial Mass (II)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 16 Pages.

We find that the force of inertia acting on an accelerated body is the result of the action of the gravitational induction force produced by the relative movement of the Universe as a whole, which fully confirms the Mach's Principle. The calculations are developed with the linearized theory of General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[432] viXra:1812.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 09:50:44

Longest DNA Sequence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[431] viXra:1812.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 10:08:37

Topological LC Circuits Transporting EM Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

NIMS has succeeded in fabricating topological LC circuits arranged in a honeycomb pattern where electromagnetic (EM) waves can propagate without backscattering, even when pathways turn sharply. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[430] viXra:1812.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 10:59:58

Multiples of the Simple Composite Numbers by Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper develops the analysis of Simple composite numbers by golden patterns. Examine how the Simple composite numbers are distributed in different combinations of multiples.
Category: Number Theory

[429] viXra:1812.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 12:48:10

The Critical Fermion Density of the Universe Revisited: Role of Holography in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: A MHCE8S theory value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in better agreement with that published thanks to holography
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[428] viXra:1812.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 14:03:47

Quantum-Mechanical Analysis of the Wave–Particle Duality from the Position of PQS.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 8 Pages.

The wave-particle duality of elementary particles is analyzed using the principle of quantum superposition (PQS). It is shown that the elementary particle can no longer be regarded as a corpuscle (or as a material point), but also it cannot be regarded as a wave. A real elementary particle, for example, an electron, is a phenomenon of a higher level in which both the corpuscle and the wave are only particular manifestations of the complex internal structure of the particle. Using the oscillation hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (together with the principle of PQS), an elementary particle can be represented as an oscillator, in which the kinetic and potential energy completely transform into each other with a certain frequency.
Category: Quantum Physics

[427] viXra:1812.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 14:39:07

Bread is the Staff of Life

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

Origin of words BREAD and RUSSIA
Category: Linguistics

[426] viXra:1812.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 16:05:22

A Mechanism for Propulsion Without the Reactive Ejection of Matter or Energy

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper updates earlier thoughts by the author on a putative propulsion system. The concept was based around static electromagnetic momentum, as expounded in the “Feynman Disk” and experimentally verified by Graham and Lahoz. That said, naïve static electromagnetic momentum schemes to achieve linear translation are defeated by “hidden momentum” mechanisms, so too are simple arrangements just cycling the fields; we shall survey the flaws in their arguments. It may however be possible to achieve linear translation by means of arrangements of torques with a novel mechanism to break the symmetry of forces (or torques) on the second half of the cycle as the field is switched off. At the time of earlier presentation no mechanism could be found to explain the momentum balance for the process but it was believed that momentum was being given to the zero-point of the field. We show that it is possible to dump angular momentum and thence linear momentum to the ground state by standard quantum analysis of the EM field. None of this violates the conservation of momenergy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[425] viXra:1812.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 17:40:26

Beginnings of the Helicity Basis in the (S,0)+(0,S) Representations of the Lorentz Group

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 10 Pages. To be published in the Proceedings of the MG15, Rome, Jul. 2018. (World Scientific ebook)

We write solutions of relativistic quantum equations explicitly in the helicity basis for S=1/2 and S=1. We present the analyses of relations between Dirac-like and Majorana-like field operators. Several interesting features of bradyonic and tachyonic solutions are presented.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[424] viXra:1812.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 19:20:53

Even FibBinary Numbers and the Golden Ratio

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 4 Pages.

Previously, a determination of the relationship between the Natural numbers (N) and the n'th odd fibbinary number has been made using a relationship with the Golden ratio \phi=(Sqrt[5]+1}/2 and \tau=1/\phi. Specifically, if the n'th odd fibbinary equates to the j'th N, then j=Floor[n(\phi+1) - 1]. This note documents the completion of the relationship for the even fibbinary numbers, such that if the n'th even fibbinary equates to the j'th N, then j=Floor[n(\tau+1) + \tau].
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[423] viXra:1812.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 23:34:26

Two Martian Hyperbolas, Artificial or Natural Formations?

Authors: Greg Orme
Comments: 37 Pages.

This shows two long ridges on Mars, both are close to mathematical hyperbolas in shape. It is argued these are too long and too exact to form by chance, a random formation would deviate from a hyperbola. Together they form an Isosceles Triangle with the King Face, a well known face on Mars. Other geometric formations nearby are also shown.
Category: Archaeology

[422] viXra:1812.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 00:05:05

Classifying Conic Sections in Terms of Differential Forms

Authors: Kohji Suzuki
Comments: 28 Pages.

We explore classification of conics from a viewpoint of differential forms.
Category: General Mathematics

[421] viXra:1812.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 00:47:52

Predictions of New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 4 Pages.

A number of theories of gravity have been developed by many physicists to explain the different unsolved problems in physics. None of them is able to explain all the observed unsolved problems like perihelion precession of mercury, precession of orbits of stars near super dense bodies (black holes), galaxy rotation curve, accelerating bodies after super nova explosion and few others. A new theory of quantum gravity has been developed by me. This theory explains many of the unsolved problems in the field of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[420] viXra:1812.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 03:21:23

A Classical Interpretation of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper summarizes our papers over the past years which – taken together – effectively amount to a classical interpretation of QED. Our very first paper started exploring a basic intuition: if QED is the theory of electrons and photons, and their interactions, then why is there no good model of what electrons and photons actually are? We have tried to address this perceived gap in the theory – further building on the Zitterbewegung model of an electron – ever since. We thought we should write one final paper to provide some history – acknowledgements, basically – and summarize the key principles of the interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[419] viXra:1812.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 05:16:06

Cases with Middle Nasal Turbinate Honey and Nasal Smell Critical Disease Being Overlooked, "Nasal Discharge Secretion Syndrome"

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 9 Pages.

Having middle turbinate pneumatization, I experienced a case to give off a nose smell. Paranasal sinus mycosis was denied than an examination for psychiatry introduction consultation as the self-smell fear than otolaryngology, but there was relatively strongly surely a nose smell. The treatment in dentistry was assigned enough. "I was troubled with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) from the elementary school lower grades very much and suffered from the mucus which came out during classful very much. It totally disappeared to suffer from a runny nose coming out during class from the second grade at a high school, but this time says, I seemed to give off a nose smell. " The article that described a middle turbinate pneumatization and the association of the nose smell was not found include foreign countries and reports it here.
Category: Mind Science

[418] viXra:1812.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 05:48:29

See Far Back in Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25] The authors suggest that this virtual reality simulation could be useful for studying HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/black+holes/" black holes. [24] Every galaxy is thought to harbor a supermassive black hole in the center, or nucleus, of the galaxy, and in active galaxies this black hole is fed by infalling matter. [23] A new study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder finds that violent crashes may be more effective at activating black holes than more peaceful mergers. [22] For the first time, a team of astronomers has observed several pairs of galaxies in the final stages of merging together into single, larger galaxies. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[417] viXra:1812.0475 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-04 02:41:56

The True Nature of the Mass

Authors: Francesco Ferrara
Comments: 6 Pages.

The document assumes a model for the electron as a current loop and qualitatively demonstrates that the inertia of matter has an essentially electrical nature
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[416] viXra:1812.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 13:02:51

Nightmares Good Dreams Heaven and Hell

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

a brief essay about some psychic experiences of my past
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[415] viXra:1812.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 19:03:17

Theory of Matter Creation (Lorentz Length Contraction Reason) (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 42 Pages.

The Matter Creation: 1-The Energy is found before any Matter Birth 2-The Energy is in motion (always) 3-The Energy motion creates relativistic effects (because the Energy has different velocities in her motion) 4-Lorentz Length Contraction effect causes to concentrate the Energy (Hypothesis) 5-The matter is created from the Energy based on the quantum standardization 6-The Space is Energy but has different Energy density… 7-There's a higher velocity in the solar group causes relativistic effects 8-We can't observe this higher velocity but we can observe the relativistic effects on the distances and periods values in the solar group… 9-These relativistic effects effect on Earth moon orbit, causes length contraction effect which enable the moon orbit to store the solar group main energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[414] viXra:1812.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-13 00:55:47

A New Representation of Spin Angular Momentum

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper aims to present intuitive imagery of the angular momentum of electrons, which has not been attempted yet. As electrons move similarly to a slinky spring, we first discuss the motions of a slinky progressing down a stairway. The spin angular momentum under a magnetic field gradient is analogous to a slinky traveling down a stairway inclined perpendicular to the advancing direction. The study extends our previous work from a single virtual oscillating photon to a particle moving linearly in one direction. The entire mass-energy of the electrons is assumed as thermal potential energy. Particles (spinors) possessing this energy emit all their energy by radiation, which is then absorbed by a paired spinor particle. This transfer of radiative energy is accomplished by a virtual photon enveloping the spinor particles. If one electron is a composite of an emitter particle, absorber particles, and transmitter particle, it can discretely move like a slinky spring.
Category: Quantum Physics

[413] viXra:1812.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 03:08:43

Två Markvetare

Authors: Magnus Carlsson
Comments: 1 Page.

Two prominent soil scientists and their deeds are described.
Category: Geophysics

[412] viXra:1812.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 03:33:46

Naturliga Arkiv Och Klimatfrågan

Authors: Magnus Carlsson
Comments: 2 Pages.

Environmental science studies natural archives. Archival science studies historical archives. Those two disciplines can learn from eachother.
Category: Climate Research

[411] viXra:1812.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 04:42:53

Distant Spinning Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[410] viXra:1812.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 07:24:14

Hybrid Qubits Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 90 Pages.

By constructing a hybrid device made from two different types of qubit-the fundamental computing element of quantum computers-they have created a device that can be quickly initialized and read out, and that simultaneously maintains high control fidelity. [51] Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba-a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm-has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[409] viXra:1812.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 07:53:54

Rotating Molecules Description

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 92 Pages.

Giacomo Bighin, a postdoc in the group of Mikhail Lemeshko at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), has now extended the Feynman diagram technique. [52] When beams of ultra-short laser pulses running in the same direction intersect with each other at a noticeable angle, various interactions occur between the pulses. [51] In a recent publication in Science, researchers at the University of Paderborn and the Fritz Haber Institute Berlin demonstrated their ability to observe electrons' movements during a chemical reaction. [50] The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46]
Category: Condensed Matter

[408] viXra:1812.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 08:32:59

Looking Molecules with Soft-X-Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have now successfully combined a table-top laser-based extreme high-order harmonic source for short-pulse soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the water window with novel flatjet technology. [53] Giacomo Bighin, a postdoc in the group of Mikhail Lemeshko at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), has now extended the Feynman diagram technique. [52] When beams of ultra-short laser pulses running in the same direction intersect with each other at a noticeable angle, various interactions occur between the pulses. [51] In a recent publication in Science, researchers at the University of Paderborn and the Fritz Haber Institute Berlin demonstrated their ability to observe electrons' movements during a chemical reaction. [50] The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48]
Category: Condensed Matter

[407] viXra:1812.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 08:57:59

Spintronics Rashba Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[406] viXra:1812.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 09:23:00

Light-Induced Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[405] viXra:1812.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 10:24:53

Our Universe and Some Thoughts.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

MODERN PHYSICS DWELLING ON WRONG TIME.
Category: Classical Physics

[404] viXra:1812.0461 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-09 18:02:18

On the Nature and Origin of Dark Energy, Cosmological Constant an Dark Matter V 2

Authors: Ramon Isasi
Comments: 16 Pages. Some typing errors were corrected

In the present essay, we consider the origin of the dark energy, cosmological constant and the dark matter. The dark energy, is consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. This dark energy was the origin and cause of the cosmological expansion and the past and present creation of the whole space. We consider the presence of the call “dark” matter as consequence of highly excited hydrogen and helium Ridberg’s atoms in perfect equilibrium with the CMB radiation. The cosmological constant is considered as an arbitrary ad hoc anti gravitational entity. Finally, we consider the Casimir effect, as a suitable and truly efficient physical method and a reliable resource in the experimental determination of the dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[403] viXra:1812.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 15:45:41

Most Mass-Dependent Isotope Fractionation is Due to Stellar Evolution (Planet Formation)

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Isotope fractionation means the separation of specific isotopes of a specific element. Say, O-17 is heavier than O-16 so it will sink easier into a star because it is heavier. This is mass dependent isotope fractionation. Most isotope fractionation taught by mainstream only include mass independent fractionation, meaning they are searching for separation of isotopes without mass being a factor. In this paper it is explained firstly that lighter isotopes can escape the star, leaving heavier ones to sink. This leads to the idea that the large percentage of a galactic bodies' isotope fractionation is due to its evolutionary history, and is directly based on mass dependent fractionation. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[402] viXra:1812.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 18:18:38

Theory of Matter Creation (Lorentz Length Contraction Reason) (part I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Matter Creation Steps: 1-The Energy is found before any Matter Birth 2-The Energy is found in motion (always) 3-The Energy motion creates relativistic effects (because the Energy has different velocities in her motion) 4-Lorentz Length Contraction effect causes to concentrate the Energy (Hypothesis) 5-The matter is created from the Energy based on the quantum standardization 6-The Space is Energy but has different Energy density…
Category: Astrophysics

[401] viXra:1812.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 21:12:36

AdSCon Systems Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Of topmost qualitative order.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[400] viXra:1812.0456 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-29 17:46:11

Special Relativity is Wrong ( New Theory of Relativity)

Authors: Yaseen Ali Mohamed Al Azzam
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper is to show how wrong assumptions and derivations were used to conclude the formulas for time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass. When dealing with such a theory which was never been proved experimentally, its mathematical origin and compliance with fundamentals of physics should be checked before starting to struggle in imagining what observers observe from different frames of reference or how behaviors change as this speed or that. The factor α which defines relativistic mass came from a misunderstanding of the nature of motion at the speed of light and as a correction factor to correct the mistake made in the second Lorentz transformation equation of special relativity generated by multiplying (vt) by the same factor used for ct`.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[399] viXra:1812.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 00:39:16

A Classical Explanation for the One-Photon Mach-Zehnder Experiment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 15 Pages.

In previous papers, we tried to show that the lack of an agreed-upon model of the electron may have contributed to an extraordinary convoluted explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron. We also suggested a classical electron model (the Zitterbewegung or the Dirac-Kerr-Newman model) may explain what is going on. The next logical step, of course, was to re-explore the classical idea of a photon to check if it can do what John Stewart Bell said cannot be done, and that is to explain interference at the level of a single photon. We think we have a classical explanation in this paper. If Mr. Bell was right, we must be wrong – we should be – but we don’t see why.
Category: Quantum Physics

[398] viXra:1812.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 01:37:51

Imageai Interaction with Imagej Via Jython Plugin/jikesrvm in the Context of Advanced Image Processing and Analysis – a Useful Insight Into the Promising World of Ai,python & Java Based Image Processing Informatics Framework.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

IMAGEAI Interaction with ImageJ via Jython Plugin/JikesRVM in the context of Advanced Image Processing and Analysis – A Useful Insight into the Promising World of AI,Python & Java Based Image Processing Informatics Framework.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[397] viXra:1812.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 04:15:29

Electron Microscopy Deep Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

MENNDL, an artificial intelligence system, automatically designed an optimal deep learning network to extract structural information from raw atomic-resolution microscopy data. [27] Researchers at Google have recently developed a new technique for synthesizing a motion blurred image, using a pair of un-blurred images captured in succession. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[396] viXra:1812.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 04:33:46

Structure of Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of researchers at RWTH Aachen University's Institute of Information Management in Mechanical Engineering have recently explored the use of neuroscience techniques to determine how information is structured inside artificial neural networks (ANNs). [28] MENNDL, an artificial intelligence system, automatically designed an optimal deep learning network to extract structural information from raw atomic-resolution microscopy data. [27] Researchers at Google have recently developed a new technique for synthesizing a motion blurred image, using a pair of un-blurred images captured in succession. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[395] viXra:1812.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 04:51:45

Fourth Industrial Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Indeed, what many are calling "the Fourth Industrial Revolution" is already here, disrupting jobs and labor markets, largely because of the rise and advance of artificial intelligence and robotics. [29] A team of researchers at RWTH Aachen University's Institute of Information Management in Mechanical Engineering have recently explored the use of neuroscience techniques to determine how information is structured inside artificial neural networks (ANNs). [28] MENNDL, an artificial intelligence system, automatically designed an optimal deep learning network to extract structural information from raw atomic-resolution microscopy data. [27] Researchers at Google have recently developed a new technique for synthesizing a motion blurred image, using a pair of un-blurred images captured in succession. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an a-MAZE-ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[394] viXra:1812.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 05:11:00

Virtual Reality Experience

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[393] viXra:1812.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 05:30:01

Brief History of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Late in 2018, the gravitational wave observatory, LIGO, announced that they had detected the most distant and massive source of ripples of spacetime ever monitored: waves triggered by pairs of black holes colliding in deep space. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there’s a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[392] viXra:1812.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 06:30:29

Genetic Signature of Biological Aging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Some people appear to be considerably younger or older than their chronological age. Genetic signatures that may help explain this have been discovered by scientists at the Salk Institute. [27] Plant scientists at the Universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have unravelled a mechanism that enables flowering plants to sense and 'remember' changes in their environment. [26] The exocyst is a protein complex essential for life, that is comprised of eight subunits and is a crucial component in vesicle trafficking. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[391] viXra:1812.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 08:25:34

High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[390] viXra:1812.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 08:52:35

Electron Behavior During Chemical Reactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

In a recent publication in Science, researchers at the University of Paderborn and the Fritz Haber Institute Berlin demonstrated their ability to observe electrons' movements during a chemical reaction. [50] The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[389] viXra:1812.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 09:18:39

Femtosecond Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

Femtosecond Junctions When beams of ultra-short laser pulses running in the same direction intersect with each other at a noticeable angle, various interactions occur between the pulses. [51] In a recent publication in Science, researchers at the University of Paderborn and the Fritz Haber Institute Berlin demonstrated their ability to observe electrons' movements during a chemical reaction. [50] The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[388] viXra:1812.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 10:24:18

Review: Generic Multi-Objective Deep Reinforcement Learning(MODRL)

Authors: Norio Kosaka
Comments: 6 Pages. See the original paper as well. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1803/1803.02965.pdf

In this paper, the author reviewed the existing survey regarding MODRL and published in March 2018 by Thanh Thi Nguyen, and discussed the variety of reinforcement learning approaches in terms of multi-objective problem setting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[387] viXra:1812.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 10:48:39

The Error in the 2nd Exact Solution of Schwarzschild for Incompressible Fluid and a Realistic Fluid Solution According to the Theory of Total Relativity

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is shown that Schwarzschild's 2nd exact solution to the General Relativity Theory is not physically plausible due to the violation of energy conservation in the 5th dimension interpreted as mass. A physically plausible realistic solution of Fluid is given according to the Total Relativity Theory where density and pressure are directly proportional to the gravitational force within the fluid distribution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[386] viXra:1812.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 12:22:38

Halvah and Lafa

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

The etymology of the closely related words having a joint origin is considered
Category: Linguistics

[385] viXra:1812.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 14:03:53

Refutation of a Minimal Non-Contingency Logic System

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate a minimal non-contingency logic system based on its unique definition which is not tautologous and hence reject it.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[384] viXra:1812.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 18:34:37

Proof that as the Standard Deviation of a Log Normal Distribution Approaches Zero the Distribution Becomes a Normal Distribution

Authors: Robert C. Hall
Comments: 5 Pages.

While it is fairly easy to prove that the Log Normal distribution becomes a Benford distribution as the standard deviation approaches infinity (see appendix A), it is a bit more difficult to prove that as the standard deviation approaches zero that the distribution becomes a Normal distribution with a mean of e^u where u is the mean of the natural logarithms of the data set values.
Category: Number Theory

[383] viXra:1812.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 18:35:07

Approximations

Authors: Harry Watson
Comments: 3 Pages.

The set of generating values, {(4 pi), (4 pi-1/pi), (4 pi-2/pi), (4 pi-3/pi), (4 pi-4/pi), (ln(4 pi))}, whose products can be used to approximate the mass ratios of the proton to the electron, the neutron to the electron, and the Higgs boson to the electron. For the proton-electron mass ratio there are several tri-axial ellipsoids whose volume is numerically close to that ratio. harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[382] viXra:1812.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-06 01:48:45

Please: What's Wrong with This Refutation of Bell's Famous Inequality?

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 2 Pages.

Elementary algebra refutes Bell’s famous inequality conclusively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[381] viXra:1812.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 00:58:56

Galileo's Solution for the 'Path of Quickest Descent'

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty padyala
Comments: 12 Pages.

Path of the quickest descent of a material particle from a point A to another point B at a lower lever, in a constant gravitational field, is a famous problem in mathematics. It was solved by Galileo around 1638. Galileo’s solution was that the quickest path is the arc of a circle with B as the lower end of the vertical diameter of the circle in the vertical plane. It is important to note that Galileo does not use the summation of time intervals of travel along the successive chords that connect A and B. He compares the times of travel between two paths from A to B. One path consists of the direct shortest path – the chord connecting A and B. The second path consists of two chords AC and CB. Galileo proves that the two chord path ACB is quicker than the single chord path. Then he compares the two chord path with the three chord path, AC, CD, DB and proves the three chord path ACDB is quicker than the two chord path ACB. He extends this procedure indefinitely to more and more chords and proves that the arc of the circle is the quickest path of travel from A to B. Later, John Bernoulli solves this problem and poses it as a challenge to peers to solve it. Many well known mathematicians that include Bernoulli’s elder brother Jacob Bernoulli, Newton, Pascal among others solved it. John Bernoulli’s solution was based on Fermat’s least time principle. To account for the path followed by a ray of light between two points, Fermat enunciated the principle of least time. According to this principle light takes the path of minimum time in going from the initial to the final point involving reflections or of refractions on its way. Bernoulli argued that if light follows Fermat’s principle in economizing the time of travel between two points, why not a material particle also follow that principle, so that nature economizes on the number of principles required to govern various processes? Arguing thus, he employed Fermat’s least time principle and arrived at a different solution from that of Galileo’s solution. This solution became very famous and gave rise to many other mathematical developments. In contrast to Galileo’s circular path, Bernoulli’s solution was a ‘brachistochrone’. We discussed Bernoulli’s solution in an article in this journal earlier. Bernoulli’s solution involves the summation of time intervals of travel along the successive chords of the brachistochrone. Galileo did not add the time intervals because time intervals along paths of different accelerations are not additive – they are additive if and only if they are along path of the same value of acceleration. Students must get a good grasp of this idea in order to appreciate Galileo’s solution. As Erlichson says, this study provides some very interesting information on Galileo’s geometrical methods.
Category: Classical Physics

[380] viXra:1812.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 03:19:00

“QUANTUM Physics of a Sound, Respectively Physics of Pressured Oscillations of Quanticles Called “PHONONS““

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 8 Pages.

This Tech–Science text of article dedicated to the QUANTUM ACOUSTIC Sensu Stricto says about phonons, the sound quazi–particles elements, which are very interesting in nano, micro, makro scales of nature. This New Concept of QUANTUM ACOUSTIC PHYSICS OR QUANTUM PHYSICS OF SOUND IS ILLUSTRATED ON EMPIRIO–CRITICISM PHILOSOPHY OF EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS OF MORAVIAN BORN PROFESSOR ERNST MACH, the text operated with subjects like MACH’S NUMBER, MACH’S CONE, MACH’S PRINCIPLE, MACH’S WAVEMACHINE. The Highlights is focused on Author’s Sketches in problematic connected with AERODYNAMICS AND AERONAUTICS.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[379] viXra:1812.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 11:12:03

Earth Circumference

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

Why Earth Circumference =40080 km? Let's summarize the story in following: -Earth daily motion is Energy (2.58 million km), Earth does it daily -On the first day, Earth sent her daily motion energy (2.58mkm) toward the moon orbit on the horizontal axis … -There are relativistic effects in the space between Earth the moon caused by v1=0.99c which caused a rate = 7.1 -Earth daily energy(2.58 mkm) faced these relativistic effects, and Earth daily energy is contracted by the rate 7.1 which produces the equation 2.58 mkm =7.1 x 0.363 mkm (perigee radius =0.363 mkm) where the Energy stopped here! -So Perigee radius is created firstly from Earth daily energy, but Earth energy is stopped at perigee point (r=0.363 mkm) and can't move further That's Why…. -On the second day, Earth sent her daily motion (2.58 mkm) toward the sun on the vertical axis…. to avoid the contraction effect -Earth daily Energy (2.58 mkm) reaches to the sun, where the sun absorbs this energy and reflects it towed Pluto….so the Energy 2.58 mkm is sent from the sun to Pluto -In the way Earth Daily Energy (2.58mkm) received a great effect from Uranus and sent it again toward Pluto -Earth Daily Energy (2.58 mkm) reaches to Pluto who will send this same energy toward the moon orbit (Energy transportation process depends on r=0.406 mkm) -Earth Energy (2.58mkm) is sent from Pluto to Apogee circumference =2.58 mkm which makes apogee radius = 406000km -Earth Energy which consist the moon apogee circumference wants to move deeper toward the Earth body, but this energy again faces the relativistic effects from the other side so the contraction is done by the rate 1.0725 -Earth Energy tried 2 times to move deeper toward the Earth body starting from apogee orbit…. oIn first time the apogee circumference 2.58 mkm (r=0406mkm) is contracted to produce the moon orbit average circumference 2.41 mkm (r=0.384mkm) and the energy is stopped here again… oIn the second time the Energy at apogee radius r= 0.406 mkm faces the relativistic effects and produce the total solar eclipse radius r= 0.378 mkm and stopped here…. But -The moon orbit energy had to reach to Earth body to complete the process because the moon orbit is created from Earth daily motion energy, so the distance between apogee (r=0.406 mkm) and perigee (r=0.363 mkm) (which is an Energy), this distance (0.406 mkm – 0.363 mkm = 43000km) is contracted by the rate 1.0725 mkm and reach to the Earth through Perigee point which is the only point connected with the Earth body directly -43000 km = 1.0725 x 40080 km (Earth Circumference =40080 km) -Earth rotates around her axis daily producing this distance =40080 km = Earth Circumference …. That means Earth Circumference is created by this process and the previous story was related to Earth motion Energy before the matter birth. -That means the energy from higher points (apogee, average and total solar eclipse radiuses) will be sent to Perigee point because it is the only point is connected to the Earth directly… -Who will carry the Energy from higher to lower points?….. The Moon…. -Now we can see why the three points are distinguish from perigee point because they receive their energy by 2 different trajectories of Energy…. This story proves we have discussed in my previous paper " The Solar Day Production"
Category: Astrophysics

[378] viXra:1812.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 12:34:45

The Demise of the Current M-Theory

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper proposes not a 5th, but 9 fundamental forces, and why the 8th might establish M-theory as not just incomplete, but wrong, and presents a hypersymettric marrying of relativity and quantum mechanics, in a thought proposing a cheat to the infamous e=mc^2. A solution we've been on a quest for since the 20th century.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[377] viXra:1812.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 12:49:51

Nanoparticle Growth with X-Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Hydrogen fuel cells are a promising technology for producing clean and renewable energy, but the cost and activity of their cathode materials is a major challenge for commercialization. [17] Rice University scientists have created a rubbery, shape-shifting material that morphs from one sophisticated form to another on demand. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[376] viXra:1812.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-06 14:55:08

Motion of a Spinning Symmetric Top

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 62 Pages.

We firstly reviewed the symmetric top problem, then we have solved different possible motions numerically. We have given explanation about the rise of the symmetric top during nutation in terms of torque and angu- lar momentum. We have encountered with previously unnoticed proper- ties of motion and studied them. During the study, calculations gave some surprising results that the symmetric top can change its spin direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[375] viXra:1812.0430 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-28 01:09:18

Better and Deeper Quantum Mechanics! Thoughts on a New Definition of Momentum That Makes Physics Simpler and More Consistent

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 18 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy–momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Further, we show that Minkowski space-time is unnecessarily complex and that a simplified, special case of Minkowski space-time is more consistent with the quantum world. Also, we show how the Heisenberg principle breaks down at the Planck scale, which opens this area of physics up for hidden variable theories once again. Many of the mystical interpretations in modern QM are rooted in the development of an unnecessarily complex theory that drives much speculation and is therefore subject to many different and even conflicting interpretations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[374] viXra:1812.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 21:59:10

The New Bivalent, Three-Valued Logic VŁ3

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We build and test a new bivalent three-valued logic named VŁ3. Recent advances are support of the classical tautologies, modal definitions, the law of excluded fourth, and extended contradiction principle.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[373] viXra:1812.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 13:17:50

Theory of Everything Called Quantum Hook Theory

Authors: Antoine Khai Nguyen
Comments: 32 Pages.

A new attempt to find a theory of everything based on theoretical quantum hook elements. The quantum hooks were deduced from actual quantum facts (link between double slit experiment and photon based image projection) and cosmic facts (link between flipped pole of Venus, Saturn's rings, Uranus' horizontal pole, tidal lock of celestial bodies, synchronized orbital planes of planets in the solar system,...)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[372] viXra:1812.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 13:30:53

The Solar Day Production

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

The solar planets different motions are working as gears motions have different rates of time, they use Light Motion Energy for 1 second period and produce this same Energy in 1 Day Period of a Planet Motion… And by this process the solar planets transform the period of 1 second into 1 day period which produces the solar day… The solar Day production is the solar planets different motions main job.
Category: Astrophysics

[371] viXra:1812.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 14:36:31

Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts as a Result of Simultaneous "Evaporation" of Black Holes.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 11 Pages.

A new theory is proposed here a cosmological gamma ray bursts. In black holes, the matter annihilates with the formation of virtual photons (bosons), due to the lag of the gravitational field effect. The effect of the lag of the gravitational field leads to an increase in the speed of rotation of the black hole. But, since the rotation speed cannot exceed the speed of light in a vacuum, then at a certain “deformation” of the space-time continuum, inevitably begins the annihilation of matter with the formation of virtual photons (at the first stage). After complete annihilation, all virtual photons are one-momentally radiated and a become a real photons, therefore, we see a cosmological gamma-ray burst, early radiation did not occur due to the slowing down (actually stopping) of time in a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[370] viXra:1812.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 16:17:28

Everything's Relative, or is it

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 57 Pages.

The special theory of relativity has confused physicists for over a century, demolishing our intuitive understanding of time. Its success depends on two facts: 1) Einstein hid his false premise in the definition of inertial reference frame and then based all axioms on this, and 2) the proofs of time dilation, from muon to Hafele-Keating time differentials. Unlike quantum mechanics – with its Bohr, Bohm, Everett, and other interpretations – special relativity has only one interpretation: that of space-time symmetry. Herein I develop an energy-time conjugation interpretation offering a new way to interpret time dilation proofs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[369] viXra:1812.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-11 20:21:50

The Curvature and Dimension of Non-Differentiable Surfaces

Authors: Shawn Halayka
Comments: 5 Pages.

The curvature of a surface can lead to fractional dimension. In this paper, the properties of the 2-sphere surface of a 3D ball and the 2.x-surface of a 3D fractal set are considered. Tessellation is used to approximate each surface, primarily because the 2.x-surface of a 3D fractal set is otherwise non-differentiable.
Category: Geometry

[368] viXra:1812.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-15 03:19:29

Beal Conjecture Convincing Proof

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 11 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The author proves the original Beal conjecture that if A^x + B^y = C^z, where A, B, C, x, y, z are positive integers and x, y, z > 2, then A, B and C have a common prime factor. In the numerical equations, two approaches have been used to change the sum, A^x + B^y, of two powers to a single power, C^z. In one approach, the application of factorization is the main principle, while in the other approach, a formula derived from A^x + B^y was applied. The two approaches changed the sum A^x + B^y to a single power, C^z, perfectly. The derived formula confirmed the validity of the assumption that it is necessary that the sum A^x + B^y has a common prime factor before C^z can be derived. It was concluded that if A^x + B^y = C^z, where A, B, C, x, y, z are positive integers and x, y, z > 2, then A, B and C have a common prime factor.
Category: Number Theory

[367] viXra:1812.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 03:23:10

A Short Technical Communication on Ising Model as Mathematical Tools to Probe CryoEM /SEM/TEM/Raman Spectroscopy/FTIR Based Images/MRI Pulse Sequences- Using Python – An Interesting Suggestion & Insight into the Promising World of Image Processing Domains

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

A Short Technical Communication on Ising Model as Mathematical Tools to Probe : CryoEM/SEM/TEM/Raman Spectroscopy/FTIR Based Images Using Python – An Interesting Insight into the Promising World of Image Processing.Though we refer to CryoEM Images it is applicable to all the images obtained through SEM/TEM/Raman Spectroscopy/FTIR etc to probe Nano-Bio Machines and their complex Molecular Systems to advance next generation technology, devices and applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[366] viXra:1812.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 04:13:49

Self-interacting Electron as the Gauge Field Under the Ultimate Separation of the Absolute Quantum Motions

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 13 Pages.

The problem of the reason of physical motion needs a review in the framework of quantum theory. The Aristotle's mistake, Galileo-Newton progress, Einstein physical geometry established the fundamental role of the spacetime geometry in the motion of fields and bodies. Quantum theory poses a new question about the motion of the quantum states and its reason in the quantum state space. The standard approach of quantum theory uses so-called method of the classical analogy where the action functional contains in the additive manner three terms: matter (free particles) + free fields + interaction term. Such approach leads to the quantum state space as some space of functions defined on the spacetime. I think if one try to understand the peculiarity of the self-interacting quantum particles together with its ``field shell" then the classical scheme should be replaced. Then the role of the spacetime should be revised: the space of the unlocated pure quantum degrees of freedom and its geometry will play the fundamental role and the local dynamical spacetime arises as representation of the internal quantum motions (inverse representation). I will discuss in this work a small but important change in the formulation of the field equations for the energy-momentum, orbital momentum and kinetic momentum of the self-interacting electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[365] viXra:1812.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 04:22:35

Testing QED: The Other Game in Town

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page

The measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment and its theoretical explanation in terms of perturbative quantum electrodynamics (QED) are always presented as the ‘high-precision test’ in (modern) quantum electrodynamics. This paper argues an explanation in terms of the classical Zitterbewegung or – preferably – the Dirac-Kerr-Newman electron model might be possible. Indeed, the author of the latter model (Burinskii, 2016) has updated it to incorporate the most recent theoretical developments – which include compatibility with the supersymmetric Higgs field theory and string theory based on the Landau-Ginzburg (LG) field model. However, as far as we can see, his model does reduce to the classical Zitterbewegung model in the classical limit (i.e. when assuming only general relativity and classical electromagnetism). As Dirac noted, a direct verification of these models is not possible because of the very high frequency of the oscillatory motion (the zbw charge moves at the speed of light) and the very small amplitude (the Compton radius). However, logic tells us that the form factor that comes out of the Dirac-Kerr-Newman model can easily be used in models that do not involve micro-motion at the speed of light. In other words, we should be able to indirectly verify whether these models make sense or not by inserting the form factor in models that involve relativistically slow motion of an electron around a nucleus (atomic orbitals) or – in this particular case – the motion of an electron in a Penning trap. Even if the results would only remotely explain the anomaly, we would still have achieved two very significant scientific breakthroughs. First, it would show that these seemingly irrelevant micro-models can be validated externally. More importantly, it would prove that an alternative (classical) explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment would be possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[364] viXra:1812.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 06:01:30

Two Properties at the Base of the Riemann Hypothesis: a Proof of Its Truth

Authors: Nicolò Rigamonti
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper shows the importance of two properties, which are at the base of the Riemann hypothesis. The key point of all the reasoning about the validity of the Riemann hypothesis is in the fact that only if the Riemann hypothesis is true, these two properties, which are satisfied by the non-trivial zeros, are both true. In fact, only if these two properties are both true , all non-trivial zeros lie on the critical line. Leave a comment, a reflection or an opinion about the paper. You shouldn’t keep your doubts and questions in yourself: if you think that it’s right or can’t attack it,share it, otherwise “ Why don’t you start a discussion?.........”.
Category: Number Theory

[363] viXra:1812.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 09:15:40

Remark on Vacuum fluctuation as the Cause of Universe Creation: or How Neutrosophic Logic and Material Point Method May Resolve Dispute on the Origin of the Universe Through re-Reading Gen. 1:1-2

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper has been accepted by Asia Mathematika journal. To appear next year, 2019. Comments are welcome

Questions regarding the formation of the Universe and what was there before the existence of Early Universe have been great interest to mankind of all times. In recent decades, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. Among other things, we can cite A.A. Grib & Pavlov who pointed out some problems of heavy particles creation out of vacuum and also other proposal of Creatio ex nihilo theory (CET). But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does it exist forever, i.e. is it eternal at least in relation to the past? This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages, and still has its revival in modern physical cosmology both in the controversy between the big bang and steady state models some decades ago and in the contemporary attempts to explain the big bang within a quantum cosmological (vacuum fluctuation) framework. In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s ” first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture. Further observations are recommended.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[362] viXra:1812.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 09:29:47

The Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Metric in de Sitter Spacetime

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a pure de Sitter universe, showing that the cosmological constant is proportional to the Ricci scalar. As in the standard FLRW model, the fate of such a universe depends on whether the cosmological constant is positive, negative or zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[361] viXra:1812.0413 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-18 16:37:12

A Rational Cover

Authors: Igor Hrnčić
Comments: 3 Pages. Version 2: added 2 figures with clarifications.

This letter demonstrates in an elegant way that Cantor’s postulate that there’s a bijection between any two countable infinite sets is flawed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[360] viXra:1812.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 14:54:09

A Major Solution to Newton's Search May Mark the Future of Space Travel

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 64 Pages. Some claims in this paper have not been proven or fully studied, though thorough extensive testing has proven most true. Take some claims with a grain of salt

3x2(9yz)4a^inf(A)*(R)<=>RSF That is the solution to an infamous thought experiment posited by scientist Dr. Ivan Axes as a rebuke to einstein's theories, as provided "theoretical proof" in 1955 that einstein was incorrect in his equations of energy and time, and that newton's assessment of absolute time and seperate space were both still correct. The thought experiment explained how perception could not define one's temporal state or arrow based on well-proven laws of physics. The thought experiment is not really taken seriously among scientists today, mainly because einstein's equations are so well-proven and supported by actual physical tests the thought experiment was established as irrelevant long ago. However, upon further investigation, I believe this thought experiment has more meat to it than previously thought, and I developed an equation proposing how an n-dimensional field of hypermass in which space-time function differently would create a new form of kinetic energy, which would not only explain away dark energy, but could, with the correct technology, take us across the observable universe and far beyond, a sci-fi like acheivement once restricted to the realm of dreams and science-fiction writing. This papers discusses more on my fissured gen-mortaic science work, this theory, and it's possible applications in just decades, making a star wars-like civilization once millenia away a reality for our grandchildren, in a 64 pages long postulation of this formula and an accompanying thought experiment for the holidays.
Category: Quantum Physics

[359] viXra:1812.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 15:53:20

Frame Dragging Lense-Thirring Time Dilation and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

how the geometric phenomenon of Lense-Thirring relates to time and temporal elasticity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[358] viXra:1812.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 16:22:46

Some Exercises

Authors: Kohji Suzuki
Comments: 4 Pages.

The interested reader is invited to solve these exercises.
Category: General Mathematics

[357] viXra:1812.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 17:44:12

The Impetus of Firenado

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 10 Pages.

For the vortex formation of fire whirl, the mechanism or physics behind is discussed. If the driving force for the updraft of fire whirl is just buoyancy of heated-air and flame inside the vortex, the vortex of firenado reaching up to a few kilometers, even more, above the ground surface cannot be explained. There should be an additional driving force for the updraft. The driving force for the vortex formation of firenado is supposed to be the electric interaction of electric charges in the vortex of firenado with the induced electric charges in a crustal conducting body underground.
Category: Classical Physics

[356] viXra:1812.0408 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-01 06:53:36

Classical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 10 Pages.

Here we present the physical side of the quantum mechanics (QM) that emerges from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We showed that the quantum superposition is misinterpreted. The key to understand QM is the difference between quantum coherence and quantum entanglement. We as well explained what conditions and structures lead to relativistic invariants such as electric charge and spin, and how this affects the superposition.
Category: Quantum Physics

[355] viXra:1812.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-23 06:25:17

Foundations of Quantal Economy and Banking.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 32 Pages. Preliminary and incomplete version.

An abstract banking theory is set up.
Category: Economics and Finance

[354] viXra:1812.0406 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-12 11:32:59

The “Information as Absolute” Conception: the Consciousness

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: The paper is presented in two versions: English, pages 1-22; and Russian, pages 23-48

in the paper one of utmost fundamental in philosophy and science phenomenon/notion “Consciousness” is considered in framework of the “The Information as Absolute” conception.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[353] viXra:1812.0405 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-06 15:31:43

Three Dimensions in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 16 Pages.

Important polytope sequences, like the associahedra and permutohedra, contain one object in each dimension. The more particles labelling the leaves of a tree, the higher the dimension required to compute physical amplitudes, where we speak of an abstract categorical dimension. Yet for most purposes, we care only about low dimensional arrows, particularly associators and braiding arrows. In the emerging theory of motivic quantum gravity, the structure of three dimensions explains why we perceive three dimensions. The Leech lattice is a simple consequence of quantum mechanics. Higher dimensional data, like the e8 lattice, is encoded in three dimensions. Here we give a very elementary overview of key data from an axiomatic perspective, focusing on the permutoassociahedra of Kapranov.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[352] viXra:1812.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-23 21:43:27

Attribute Spaces and Flat Space Scalar Field Gravitation

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 11 Pages.

4 associated essays combined: attribute spaces, temporal elasticity, causality and antigravity, and flat space scalar field gravitation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[351] viXra:1812.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-23 22:59:50

Baklava, Praise, Glory

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 6 Pages. -

The etymology of the connected bush of words is considered
Category: Linguistics

[350] viXra:1812.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 02:07:32

Comment on "Nonequilibrium Equality for Free Energy Differences"

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 1 Page.

The existence of Jarzynski “equality” is a direct threat to the second law of thermodynamics. Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)] uses Liouville equation of motion in dissipative system and derives a relation between ir-reversible work and change in Helmholtz free energy. In this comment, we will underline the flaw that exists in Jarzynski analysis, and thus, we will show that exact relation between ir-reversible works and change in Helmholtz/Gibbs free energy is impossible in any real thermodynamical system.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[349] viXra:1812.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 03:56:20

The Christmas Eve Before Christmas Day

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

It's social and ethical impact...
Category: Social Science

[348] viXra:1812.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-25 07:45:30

How to Check if a Number is Prime Using a Finite Definite Integral

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 21 Pages.

b=0; p=input('Input a number : '); m=fix((p+1)/2); for k=2:m+1; fun=@(w) exp(p.*1j.*w).*exp(-2.*k.*1j.*w).*(1-exp(-m.*k.*1j.*w))./(1-exp(-k.*1j.*w)); a=integral(fun,-pi,pi); b=b+a; end; b=b/(2*pi); disp(b); Above simple MATLAB/Octave program, can detect if a number is prime or not. If the result is zero (considering zero being less than 1e-5), the number introduced is a prime. If the result is an integer, this result will tell us how many permutations of two divisors, the input number has. As you can check, no recurrent division by odd or prime numbers is done. Just this strange integral: 1/2π ∫_(-π)^π▒〖e^pjω (∑_(k=2)^(k=m+1)▒〖e^(-2kjω) ((1-e^(-mkjω))/(1-e^(-kjω) )) 〗)dω 〗 Being p the number that we want to check if it is a prime or not. And being m whatever integer number higher than (p+1)/2(the lowest, the most efficient the operation). As k and ω are independent variables, the sum can be taken outside the integral (as it is in the above program). To get to this point, we will do the following. First, we will create a domain with all the composite numbers. This is easy, as you can just multiply one by one all the integers (greater or equal than 2) in that domain. So, you will get all the composite numbers (not getting any prime) in that domain. Then, we will use the Fourier transform to change from this original domain (called discrete time domain in this regards) to the frequency domain. There, we can “ask”, using Parseval’s theorem, if a certain number is there or not. The use of Parseval’s theorem leads to the above integral. If the number p that we want to check is not in the domain, the result of the integral is zero and the number is a prime. If instead, the result is an integer, this integer will tell us how many permutations of two divisors the number p has. And, in consequence information how many factors, the number p has. So, for any number p lower than 2m-1, you can check if it is prime or not, just making the numerical definite integration (but even this integral, if no further developments are done, the numerical integration is inefficient computing-wise compared with brute-force checking for example). To be added, is the question regarding the level of accuracy needed (number of decimals and number of steps in the numerical integration) to have a reliable result for large numbers. This will be commented on the paper, but a separate study will be needed to have detailed conclusions. Of course, the best would be that in the future, an analytical result (or at least an approximation) for the summation or for the integration is achieved.
Category: Number Theory

[347] viXra:1812.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 06:09:05

Cameras Captures Motions of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[346] viXra:1812.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 07:39:52

Pion Condensation of Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[345] viXra:1812.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 07:58:00

Amoeba Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba-a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm-has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[344] viXra:1812.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 16:35:00

Iron/Nickel Ratio Stability in Young Stars to Stellar Guts (Meteorites)

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 pages of handwritten notes

The ratio of iron/nickel in young stars predicts the ratio of their remains for their most evolved state, and into stages where they have completely disintegrated into small asteroids. For example, the Sun which has iron/nickel abundance ratio of 92% to 8% will remain the same as it evolves. This means when the Sun has evolved to its most evolved state, the iron/nickel meteorites it will produce will have a similar ratio of iron to nickel. Other elements are not considered, but will be in the future to make this hypothesis more exacting. This is only to serve as a starting point for drawing conclusions concerning the origins of meteorites and why they all have different ratios. They are stellar guts from different long destroyed stars, per the Krypton Hypothesis. Two pages of hand written notes follow.
Category: Astrophysics

[343] viXra:1812.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 18:53:03

A Method of Purchasing Goods and Services on the Internet using Internet Service Providers to Transfer the Money

Authors: Timothy J Walshaw
Comments: 20 Pages.

This article describes a method of purchasing goods and services on the internet using money deposited with an Internet Service Provider (ISP), and a proposed centralized Internet Money Transfer Service (IMTS) to transfer the money from the Buyer's ISP to the Seller's ISP. The method in short requires:- 1.Having the buyer establish an account with the buyer’s internet service provider (ISP); 2.Having the seller establish an account with the sellers’ ISP; 3.The buyer placing funds in the buyer’s ISP, or establishing a line of credit; 4.The buyer purchases a good or service from the seller by sending a message over the internet via the buyer’s ISP and the seller’s ISP; 5.This purchase results in a debiting of the buyer’s account and crediting of the seller’s account; 6.The transfer of money from the buyer’s ISP to the seller’s ISP. 7.For domestic only transfer, there is a single domestic Money Transfer Service, owned by the provider, that transfers money from one domestic ISP to another. 8.The domestic transfer of money from one ISP to another would pass through the domestic Internet Money Transfer Service (IMTS), owned by the provider. All the ISP’s would open accounts with this service, and the Domestic IMTS would refund net payments to each ISP at the end of the day through its banking agent, or require the ISP to refund it the net amount at the end of the day. 9.The domestic IMTS would act as the central banker for this internet money transfer service. There would be an IMTS service in each country. 10.For International money transactions each Domestic IMTS would also act as an International IMTS. 11.The international transfer of money from one ISP to one in another country would pass through the International IMTS, owned by the provider. All the ISP’s would open accounts with this service, and the IMTS would refund net payments to each ISP at the end of the day through its banking agent, or require the ISP to refund it the net amount at the end of the day. 12.Each country’s IMTS would act as the central banker for this internet money transfer service. There would be an IMTS in each country, and they would facilitate inter-country payments. These IMTS’s would facilitate foreign exchange transactions. This methodology could be used in economies where more advanced money transfer systems, based on the use of credit cards and individual credit, are unable to be used. Additionally, there are issues with the safety of the provision of credit card numbers to sellers. The transmission of these numbers over the internet is dangerous, the seller has to be trusted not to misuse the credit card information, and the retention of this information in databases can be highly dangerous. It is a lot safer to transfer the money directly from buyer to seller via third parties using encryption.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[342] viXra:1812.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 07:32:42

About the Meaning of „Understanding“ in Modern Physics

Authors: Carsten Reese
Comments: 9 Pages.

For nearly 100 years, physicists have been trying to „understand“ quantum physics. Up to today no satisfying answer could be given concerning the surprising behavior of nature, especially if looking into microscopic scales. This article identifies an approach towards an answer to the questions arising from the quantum physics effects, which are preposterous to common sense, by first going one-step back: “understanding” as a terminus is defined, as well as the terms analogy, model, concept and theory. In addition, the role of mathematics for the understanding of physics is addressed. This generates a more accurate basis. The limitations of our mind and senses due to the fact that we are living in a mesoscopic world are taken into account. This may lead to an identification of our limits of insight. As an outcome, models may have to be replaced by concepts to achieve a different level of understanding compared to the “classical” expectation.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[341] viXra:1812.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 08:59:28

A New? Definition of the Second Law of the Thermodynamics

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try a new definition of second law of thermodynamics
Category: Classical Physics

[340] viXra:1812.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 11:00:22

Dance Between Light and Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[339] viXra:1812.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 11:17:56

Quantum Tricks Unveil the Secret

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[338] viXra:1812.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 11:55:33

Eccentric Quantum Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[337] viXra:1812.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 13:16:24

Coolest Experiment in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Nothing in nature is known to hit the temperatures achieved in laboratories like CAL, which means the orbiting facility is regularly the coldest known spot in the universe. [24] There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[336] viXra:1812.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 13:33:46

Glimpse of Flat Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

One reason is that flat landscapes can unlock new movement patterns in the quantum world of atoms and electrons. [25] Nothing in nature is known to hit the temperatures achieved in laboratories like CAL, which means the orbiting facility is regularly the coldest known spot in the universe. [24] There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[335] viXra:1812.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 15:32:02

Green is the Midst of the Whole Electromagnetic Spectrum

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

If green is the midst of the electromagnetic spectrum then the other two colors blue and red are the beginning and end as in the past and future and so green is the present time
Category: Quantum Physics

[334] viXra:1812.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 17:01:16

Voodoo Fusion Energy

Authors: Daniel L. Jassby
Comments: Pages: 8

During the last 15 years a host of fusion energy “startups” have declared that their systems will put net electrical power on the grid or serve as a portable electric power generator within a decade. But only 10% of these myriad ventures have given evidence of any fusion-neutron production whatever. This paper defines “voodoo fusion energy” as those plasma systems that have never produced any fusion neutrons, but whose promoters make the claim of near-term electric power generation. With representations analogous to those of the notorious Theranos blood-diagnosis sham, the voodoo-fusion practitioners have cast a spell over credulous journalists, investors and politicians.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[333] viXra:1812.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 23:56:16

Acceleration Of Radio Wave From Reflection Symmetry

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The reflection symmetry is a physical property for inertial reference frames. It shows that the elapsed time in one inertial reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in another inertial reference frame. The same symmetry also leads to the conservation of the wavelength across inertial reference frames. The velocity of a wave is proportional to its frequency. Doppler effect shows that both the velocity and the frequency depend on the reference frame. The higher the detected frequency is, the faster the wave travels toward the detector. One example is the radar gun used by the traffic police. The reflected radio wave travels faster than the emitted radio wave. This results in frequency difference between two waves. This difference is used to calculate the velocity of a vehicle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[332] viXra:1812.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 00:23:45

Quantum Gravity that Lead to Demise of Einstein’s Theories of Relativity

Authors: Satish Malhotra
Comments: 11 Pages. with the foundation of physics gone, we will need to rewrite all physics

: Einstein told us that gravity has some intrinsic (yet not understood) connection to the geometry of spacetime. To understand this real connection between geometry of space and gravity we restate the postulates (same postulates explain special theory of relativity as well as the general theory) nothing new needs to be added): a) space and time are the continuing absolute (equivalent to the absoluteness of velocity of light) quantum gravity flow it gives us the meaning to length, mass and time. Working through this postulate, we derive a law of force which tells us that force does not act on the body on which force is applied, but it acts to change the homogeneity and isotropy of space and bodies move in the curved space and time. This is what the Einstein’s unknown connection between the gravity and curvature in space is; the curvature is, however, local and not general for the entire space. This is the a new falsifiable version on quantum gravity (which has nothing to do with quantum mechanics) which revolutionizes entire physics). There is a) an absolute space, a flow of quantum gravity, and b) it is this absolute space that matter curves only locally, which otherwise i.e. in the absence of matter is flat (inside of a large spreading sphere can only be flat)! What was rejected by Einstein (the absolute character of space and time) now returns (as an absolute flow of quantum gravity) to solve all the contentious problem physics faces today, including the velocity-curvature relation and the equivalence principle. In the bargain get a common law of force (including gravity) which is not the way Newton applied, or the way Einstein worked with, but which has something from both.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[331] viXra:1812.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 00:48:23

There is Only One Way to Correctness in Explanation: the Way Shown by Popper

Authors: Satish Malhotra
Comments: 10 Pages. revival of the long forgotten concept of falsifiability is an urgent necessity

If there is a universal method of correct explanation (reasoning), it will naturally be the method of reasoning on all subjects, and it will be applicable in all situations and all circumstances. Popper’s theory-- method of falsification-- is the universal method of explanation and reasoning, there is no other way to explain correctly; it applies in all situations—practical or theoretical-- and is valid for all subjects—scientific explanations; it is the method of demarcation between science and metaphysics. As the rational human beings, we all reason out, draw inferences and form explanations. The inferences and the explanations a person makes is based on the knowledge the person drawing the inference has on the matter under his consideration. If he does not know enough about the issue being consideration he goes and asks a person who has knowledge of the subject (on which decision is needed). A person’s explanation emerges out of the knowledge a person has about the subject being reasoned—my knowledge and my reasoning has an inseparable connection. Wrong, incorrect or lack of knowledge is the cause of incorrect reasoning and incorrect inferences. Knowledge thus is an integral part of the process of reasoning; we in this paper argue the man has only one universal method of correct knowledge as such of the correctness of one’s explanation: long forgotten, Sir Karl Popper’s theory of knowledge, his criterion of demarcation between science and metaphysics (and between right and wrong explanation as well as the reasoning behind any explanation).
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[330] viXra:1812.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 01:14:03

Energy and Metric Gauging in the Covariant Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 19 Pages. Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 0-0 (2018). doi: 10.29002/asujse.433947

Relations for the relativistic energy and metric are analyzed inside and outside the body in the framework of the covariant theory of gravitation. The methods of optimal energy gauging and equations for the metric are chosen. It is shown that for the matter inside the body a procedure is required to average the physical quantities, including the cosmological constant and the scalar curvature. For the case of the relativistic uniform system, the cosmological constant and the scalar curvature are explicitly calculated, which turn out to be constant values inside the body and are assumed to be equal to zero outside the body. Comparison of the cosmological constants inside a proton, a neutron star and in the observable Universe allows us to explain the cosmological constant problem arising in the Lambda-CDM model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[329] viXra:1812.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 05:09:56

Programmable Photonic Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[328] viXra:1812.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 05:34:01

Theta Functions & CryoEM Image Processing Aspects – An Insight into Novel Design and Implementation Towards a Promising CryoEM Image Processing Informatics Platform.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Theta Functions & CryoEM Image Processing Aspects – An Insight into Novel Design and Implementation Towards a Promising CryoEM Image Processing Informatics Platform.Let us probe and understand complex “Nano-Bio Machines” using Mathematical Tools.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[327] viXra:1812.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 05:32:23

High-Capacity Data Transmission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[326] viXra:1812.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:42:31

New Equation of Motion of an Electron: the Covariance of Self-action

Authors: Xiaowen Tong
Comments: Pages.

It is well known that our knowledge about the radiation reaction of an electron in classical electrodynamics is unambiguous, but the self-action is not. The latter corresponds to an electromagnetic mass which is not relativistically covariant. In this paper we first derive a new formula for energy density of electrostatic fields. By establishing a delay coordinate system, a classical equation of motion of an electron is then obtained based on the conservation of energy and momentum. Finally we calculate the self-energy of an electron in quantum electrodynamics and find that it merely leads to an additional mass of the electron. Thus the covariance of the self-action is proved without altering classical electrodynamics but with a direct cut-off imposed on the integral of the self-energy. The detail that the self-action becomes covariant in quantum electrodynamics is unknown. However, the interaction energy of an electron interacting with vacuum fluctuations can be easily calculated by assuming that every mode of the radiation fields is occupied by one real photon. Making use of all the results we obtain a semi-classical and covariant equation of motion of an electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[325] viXra:1812.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:43:31

Sphere Theory Explains the Prevalence of the Golden Ratio in Nature

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the charge or gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity or the electromagnetic force of particles, increases as we get farther from the center of the sphere linearly, the gravity or electromagnetic force from adjacent elementary particles decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that sphere. The point at which these two accelerations, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[324] viXra:1812.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 06:04:56

Evaluation of the Numerical Values of the Normalization Parameter 'a' and the Distance Scale 'alpha'

Authors: Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane
Comments: 2 Pages. This is the next work of our first paper viXra:1811.0097

Here we will determine the numerical values of 'a' and 'alpha' in order to determine with more precisions the impact of dark energy in the vicinity of a black hole
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[323] viXra:1812.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 07:18:22

Refutation of Lambda λ-Calculus and Lisp

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate McCarthy's lambda λ-calculus in six equations. Five of the equations are not tautologous, and one equation is a trivial tautology. McCarthy's three-valued logic is not bivalent on which the LISP programming language is implemented, and hence also flawed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[322] viXra:1812.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 08:01:15

Pear-Shaped Nuclear Fission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Nuclear fission is a process in which a heavy nucleus split into two. Most of the actinides nuclei (plutonium, uranium, curium, etc) fission asymmetrically with one big fragment and one small. [31] A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[321] viXra:1812.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 08:58:27

3-D Neutron Polarization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

The team then succeeded for the first time in analyzing neutron polarization in three dimensions at an extremely high pressure of several gigapascals using the cell. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[320] viXra:1812.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 09:35:00

Quantum Maxwell's Demon Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[319] viXra:1812.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 10:24:52

Electromagnetic Wave Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[318] viXra:1812.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 10:42:43

Quantum Sensor for Satellite Gravimetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

NASA and the Sunnyvale, California-based AOSense, Inc., have successfully built and demonstrated a prototype quantum sensor capable of obtaining highly sensitive and accurate gravity measurements-a stepping stone toward next-generation geodesy, hydrology, and climate-monitoring missions in space. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[317] viXra:1812.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 11:30:21

New Conception of Space Curvature

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages, 4 Figures

According the new statement of Space, Space and the Force field are synonyms. Therefore Space is curved in the same way as a gravity field around celestial bodies. Far away from stars and planets Space is flat. The gravity Space is curved around each atom in micro scale distances.
Category: Classical Physics

[316] viXra:1812.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 14:39:17

Speculation: Conventional and Unconventional

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

the arrogance and disdain of conventional speculation is explored; two unconventional ideas are briefly explored
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[315] viXra:1812.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-05 11:57:28

Framework of Natural Cosmology

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 16 Pages.

As an application of Universal and Unified Physics*, the Natural Cosmology is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “Physical Cosmology” by transcending both Einstein's field equations and Friedmann equations with the ontological field equations and horizon field equations. Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold, our cosmological field equation has not only substituted “general relativity”, but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions. 

Consequently, we are presented the Christmas Gifts of 2018, revealing exceptionally secrets of the Natural Cosmology with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions. 

____

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261


Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[314] viXra:1812.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 21:07:15

On the Impossibility of the Existence of Cycles Including Integer Multiples of 3 in a Collatz Sequence

Authors: Ho Soo Shin
Comments: 2 Pages. comments welcome!

As is well known, the Collatz sequence, which is also named as the hailstone sequence, follows the rule of Collatz conjecture. The rule requires us to divide any positive even integer by 2. We must multiply every positive odd number by 3 and then add 1 according to the rule. By investigating residues modulo 3, I will prove any integer multiple of 3 cannot appear more than one time in a Collatz sequence, which implies any multiple of 3 cannot be included in a possible cycle of the Collatz sequence.
Category: Number Theory

[313] viXra:1812.0361 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-21 14:13:22

ζ (3)

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 2 Pages.

ζ (3) was obtained by another method. \begin{equation} \zeta(3) =\frac{-17.74063+\pi^3 log(4)}{21}= \end{equation} and \begin{equation} \zeta(3) =\frac{11.5610 +\pi^2\log(4)}{21} \end{equation}
Category: General Mathematics

[312] viXra:1812.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 02:58:46

Black Hole Singularity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[311] viXra:1812.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:02:27

Record Data Storage Density

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 97 Pages.

Researchers have demonstrated a new technique that can store more optical data in a smaller space than was previously possible on-chip. [57] A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[310] viXra:1812.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:11:28

Microworld_53. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 13

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

THE THEORY OF NON-LINEAR OSCILLATIONS ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF WATER AND ABOUT THE NATURE OF “FLOATING WATER BRIDGE” The article offers information about the structure of water and the structure of “floating water bridge”. In natural conditions, water has multimolecular aggregates of branched hyper-skeletal structure, which composition and shape depend on temperature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[309] viXra:1812.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-25 15:17:04

Physics since Einstein

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 139 Pages.

Each scientist in physics has the moral responsibility to try to adapt mathematics to physics. Einstein adapted physics to his mathematics in his Special Theory of Relativity, with which the decay of physics began
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[308] viXra:1812.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:35:34

Future Hard Disk Drives

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 98 Pages.

Magnetic recording is the primary technology underpinning today's large-scale data storage. Now, companies are racing to develop new hard disk devices (HDDs) capable of recording densities greater than 1 terabit per square inch. [58] Researchers have demonstrated a new technique that can store more optical data in a smaller space than was previously possible on-chip. [57] A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[307] viXra:1812.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:45:53

Mighty Morphing Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Rice University scientists have created a rubbery, shape-shifting material that morphs from one sophisticated form to another on demand. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[306] viXra:1812.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:56:11

Memory Mechanism in Plants

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Plant scientists at the Universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have unravelled a mechanism that enables flowering plants to sense and 'remember' changes in their environment. [26] The exocyst is a protein complex essential for life, that is comprised of eight subunits and is a crucial component in vesicle trafficking. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[305] viXra:1812.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 06:10:38

Black Holes Mass Density and Definition of the Maximum Energy of Stability for a Particle

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Black holes mass density equations and definition of the maximum energy of stability for a particle
Category: Astrophysics

[304] viXra:1812.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 07:05:05

Strongly-Correlated Proton-Neutron Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[303] viXra:1812.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 07:47:39

NeuNetS for Broader Adoption of AI

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

On December 14, 2018, IBM released NeuNetS, a fundamentally new capability that addresses the skills gap for development of latest AI models for a wide range of business domains. [27] Machine learning algorithms now underlie much of the software we use, helping to personalize our news feeds and finish our thoughts before we're done typing. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[302] viXra:1812.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 08:04:33

Two Properties at the Base of the Riemann Hypothesis: an Argument for Its Truth [final]

Authors: Nicolò Rigamonti
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper shows the importance of two properties, which are at the base of the Riemann hypothesis. The key point of all the reasoning about the validity of the Riemann hypothesis is in the fact that only if the Riemann hypothesis is true, these two properties, which are satisfied by the non-trivial zeros, are both true. In fact, only if these two properties are both true , all non-trivial zeros lie on the critical line
Category: General Mathematics

[301] viXra:1812.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 08:41:10

Insight into Exotic Matter State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The properties of matter are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[300] viXra:1812.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 08:59:22

Quantum Superposition Measures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[299] viXra:1812.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 09:12:08

Connect Quantum and Classical Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 96 Pages.

Physicists from Skoltech have invented a new method for calculating the dynamics of large quantum systems. Underpinned by a combination of quantum and classical modeling, the method has been successfully applied to nuclear magnetic resonance in solids. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[298] viXra:1812.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-20 08:27:21

New Equations of the Resolution of The Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to the journal Annals of PDE. Comments welcome.

This paper represents an attempt to give a solution of the Navier-Stokes equations under the assumptions (A) of the problem as described by the Clay Mathematics Institute. After elimination of the pressure, we obtain the fundamental equations function of the velocity vector u and vorticity vector \Omega=curl(u), then we deduce the new equations for the description of the motion of viscous incompressible fluids, derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, given by: \nu \Delta \Omega -\frac{\partial \Omega}{\partial t}=0 \Delta p=-\sum^{i=3}_{i=1}\sum^{j=3}_{j=1}\frac{\partial u_i}{\partial x_j}\frac{\partial u_j}{\partial x_i} Then, we give a proof of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations u and p that are smooth functions and u verifies the condition of bounded energy.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[297] viXra:1812.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 15:20:04

Hubble Constant, CMBR, Fine Structure Constant & Friedmann Density Parameters

Authors: David E. Fuller, Ruud Loeffen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Hubble Constant, CMBR, Fine Structure Constant & Friedmann Density Parameters ((((7.04370151e+4 * (m / s)) / (1 Mpc)) / (160.4589 GHz)) / G) * (6.5248935 * (kg^(-1)) * (m / s)) * (c^2) * (8 s) = 1 7.04370151e+4 / (6.5248935 / (2pi)) = 67827.7459024 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble%27s_law#Observed_values_of_the_Hubble_constant (((7.04370151e+4 * (m / s)) / (1 Mpc)) / (160.4589 GHz)) * (hbar / planck length) * (4 (s / (m^4))) = 3.71295774e-28 kg / m^3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedmann_equations#Density_parameter
Category: Quantum Physics

[296] viXra:1812.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 16:05:25

The Electromagnetic Wave is in Past Presence and Future

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

The electromagnetic wave lives in the past presence and future for example when we look at an electromagnetic wave we find that it has peaks and troughs the peaks represents the future as in the electromagnetic wave the height of peaks is how much does the electromagnetic wave wants to travel to the future and then there is the length of troughs where the electromagnetic wave lives in the past now when an electromagnetic wave has small heights of peaks and troughs that means they are living in the present time more than having the need to live in the past or the future
Category: Quantum Physics

[295] viXra:1812.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 17:38:24

Electromagnetic Causes Photon Deflection Experiment Report

Authors: Weixiong Huang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein believes that gravity causes photon deflection. This created the black hole theory. Huang Weixiong's theory of magneton believes that electromagnetic causes photon deflection. This experiment proves that electromagnetic causes photon deflection. This experiment proves that electromagnetic causes photons to rotate.
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1812.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 17:41:09

Fermi Bubble Negation Black Hole Theory

Authors: Weixiong Huang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein believes that gravity causes photon deflection. This created the black hole theory. Fermi bubbles prove that the reason for photon deflection is not gravity, but magnetic force. Thus negating the black hole theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[293] viXra:1812.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-21 15:57:08

Modular Logarithms Unequal

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in completely new style. By a careful construction the result that two finite numbers is with unequal logarithms in a corresponding module is proven, which result is applied to solving a kind of high degree diophantine equation.
Category: Number Theory

[292] viXra:1812.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 20:51:50

Estimating Lamb Shift by Using Virtual Photons

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 24 Pages. 1 figure; Include Chinese version

The virtual photon can be used to calculate the ground state energy levels of hydrogen atom and helium atom. The calculation method is relatively simple and easy to understand. The Lamb shift is a problem in quantum electrodynamics. To explain the causes of Lamb's shift, more complex calculations and various assumptions are needed. It is tested that there is a clear difference between the 2S1/2 orbital of the hydrogen atom and the 2P1/2 orbital, which involves the virtual photon exchange between the electron and the proton, which inevitably causes the difference of the virtual photon exchange mode. The difference in the way of this virtual photon exchange may cause the energy loss of the electron proton interactions of the 2S1/2 orbital and 2P1/2 orbital to differ. Through the calculations in this paper, it is found that if the 2S1/2 orbital virtual photon exchange requires additional transmission of a longer distance, the efficiency of virtual photon energy exchange will be slightly reduced. Thus the energy lost by the 2S1/2 orbital is less than the energy lost by the 2P1/2 orbital. This difference in energy reflects Lamb's shift. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental results on the order of magnitude. This suggests that Lamb shift may also be caused by changes in the efficiency of virtual photon exchange between particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[291] viXra:1812.0336 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-07 21:24:59

Newton's Second Law is Valid in Relativity for Proper Time

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 7 Pages.

In Newtonian single-particle dynamics, time is invariant under inertial transformations, and the particle's speed has no upper bound. In special relativity, it is the particle's proper time, rather than an arbitrary observer's time, which is inertial-transformation invariant, and it is the particle's proper-time speed which has no upper bound. Thus it is reasonable to surmise that the proper-time version of Newton's Second Law is implicit in special-relativistic single-particle dynamics. In fact, gamma times the usual special-relativistic force on a particle equals its rest mass times its proper-time acceleration, and gamma of course goes to unity in the nonrelativistic limit. Furthermore, we show that the scalar potential, the four-vector (electromagnetic) potential and all analogous such tensor potentials, as well as the metric (gravitational) potential, each produces a proper force on the particle equal to its rest mass times its proper-time acceleration. It is to be noted that the Lorentz-covariant four-vector completion of proper-time acceleration, as well as of proper force, has only three components which are mutually independent.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[290] viXra:1812.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 02:21:56

Astrophysical Phenomena

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper substantiates the true origins of our universe and black holes beyond the Standard Model and opens new frontiers to NextGen astrophysical research and observations
Category: Astrophysics

[289] viXra:1812.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 02:46:36

Security with Biological Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 97 Pages.

Living cells, regardless of the type, can be kept around for a long time and because they move constantly, can be photographed repeatedly to create new encryption keys. [57] A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[288] viXra:1812.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 03:38:25

Dynamic Existence

Authors: Claus Janew
Comments: 9 Pages. CC-BY 4.0 / Janew, Claus. 2011. Dynamic Existence. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 2, no. 6: 877-884

Everything is in motion. "Inertness" arises from (approximative) repetition, that is, through rotation or an alternation that delineates a focus of consciousness. This focus of consciousness, in turn, must also move/alternate (the two differ only in continuity). If its alternation seems to go too far - physically, psychically or intellectually - it reaches into the subconscious. In this way, interconnection is established by the alternation of the focus of consciousness. Therefore, in a world in which everything is interconnected, all focuses must reciprocally transition into each other. "Reality" is a common "goal", a focus which all participants can switch into and which is conscious to them as such, as a potential one. Its "degree of reality" is the probability of its fully becoming conscious (or more simply: its current degree of consciousness). Thus, a reality is created when all participants increase its probability or, respectively, their consciousness of it.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[287] viXra:1812.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:00:59

Global Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 98 Pages.

Researchers in Italy have demonstrated the feasibility of quantum communications between high-orbiting global navigation satellites and a ground station, with an exchange at the single photon level over a distance of 20,000km. [58] Living cells, regardless of the type, can be kept around for a long time and because they move constantly, can be photographed repeatedly to create new encryption keys. [57] A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/computer/" computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51]
Category: Quantum Physics

[286] viXra:1812.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:31:34

Weak Force Between Protons and Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[285] viXra:1812.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:51:07

(Esr Version 1.0 6 Pages 20.12.2018) an Extended Special Relativity (Esr) Containing a Set of Universal Equivalence Principles and Predicting a Quantized Spacetime

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an extended Special relativity (eSR) containing a set of universal equivalence principles (UEPs), offering an alternative interpretation of the universal physical constants and predicting a "digital"/quantized spacetime, together with the possible existence of superluminal gravitons and a set of maximum speeds (in perfect vacuum) for each type of elementary particle. Keywords: extended Special relativity (eSR), universal equivalence principles (UEPs); universal physical constants; “digital”/quantized spacetime; superluminal gravitons; set of maximum speeds (in perfect vacuum)
Category: Quantum Physics

[284] viXra:1812.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:01:48

Casimir Torque

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Maryland have for the first time measured an effect that was predicted more than 40 years ago, called the Casimir torque. [34] The properties of matter are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[283] viXra:1812.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:04:18

(Eped Version 1.0 1.12.2018 6 Pages) the “Electronic Pediatrician” (Eped) – a Demo Software for Computer-Assisted Pediatric Diagnosis and Treatment Implemented Using Microsoft Visual Basic 6 (VB6), with Extended Applicability

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper presents EPed (abbreviation for “Electronic Pediatrician”), which is a demo software for computer-assisted pediatric diagnosis and treatment built by the author in Microsoft Visual Basic 6 (VB6) (VB6), a software with extended applicability. Keywords: “Electronic Pediatrician” (EPed); computer-assisted pediatric diagnosis and treatment; Microsoft Visual Basic 6 (VB6);
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[282] viXra:1812.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:07:02

(Ezeh Article-Like Preprint Version 1.0 8 Pages 12.12.2018) an Extended Zero-Energy Hypothesis Predicting the Existence of Negative-Energy Gravitons and Possibly Explaining the Accelerated Expansion of Our Universe

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper proposes an extended (e) zero-energy hypothesis (eZEH) starting from the “classical” speculative zero-energy universe hypothesis (ZEUH) (first proposed by physicist Pascual Jordan), which mainly states that the total amount of energy in our universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy (in the form of matter and radiation) is exactly canceled out by its negative energy (in the form of gravity). eZEH “pushes” ZEUH “to its quantum limits” and generates some new predictions: (1) the existence of multiple types of negative-energy gravitons; (2) a strong quantum gravitational field acting at very small subatomic length scales (which is measured by a quantum strong gravitational constant and which is predicted to make Hawking radiation very improbable to form at the first place); (3) a (macrocosmic) black hole Casimir effect which may explain the accelerated expansion of our universe etc. Keywords: the zero-energy universe hypothesis (ZEUH); an extended zero-energy hypothesis (eZEH); quantum vacuum; negative-energy graviton; quantum strong gravitational constant; Hawking radiation; black hole Casimir effect; accelerated expansion of our universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[281] viXra:1812.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:12:23

(CV in English Using RG Format Last Updated on 20.12.2018 16 Pages) Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi, MD (Pediatrician Specialist), Certified Whistleblower, Independent Researcher, Reviewer and Publisher – CV

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 16 Pages.

My CV in English written in Research Gate format.
Category: Education and Didactics

[280] viXra:1812.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:14:06

(Music Catalog Version 1.1 18.11.2018 3 Pages) a Music Catalog of Dr. Andrei-Lucian Dragoi’s Original Compositions and Published Transcriptions

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 3 Pages.

DR. ANDREI LUCIAN DRĂGOI – A MUSIC CATALOG OF DR. DRĂGOI’S ORIGINAL COMPOSITIONS AND PUBLISHED TRANSCRIPTIONS
Category: Education and Didactics

[279] viXra:1812.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:15:58

(WB Press Release No.1 Version 1.1 4 Pages 29.11.2018) Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (MD Pediatrician Specialist and Whistleblower) Press Release No. 1 from September 11th 2018 (Tuesday) (On my Checkpoint Results as a Whistleblower Fighting Against the H

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is my first press release as a whistleblower from September 11th 2018 (on my checkpoint results as a whistleblower fighting against the high level of corruption from Romania, a corruption with significant repercussions on children with disabilities). This paper version 1.1 is written in Romanian and contains updates from November 2018.
Category: Social Science

[278] viXra:1812.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:17:55

Self-Healing Electroluminescent Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[277] viXra:1812.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 09:16:24

Counting the Number of Twin Primes

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright 2018 James Edwin Rock Create Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License2

Let Pn be the n_th prime. For twin primes Pn – Pn-1 = 2. We give a heuristic argument that in the interval (Pn, Pn2) as Pn gets larger, there is an increasing number of twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[276] viXra:1812.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 12:16:21

Positivity of the Fourier Transform of the Shortest Maximal Order Convolution Mask for Cardinal B-splines

Authors: Markus Sprecher
Comments: 6 Pages.

Positivity of the Fourier transform of a convolution mask can be used to define an inverse convolution and show that the spatial dependency decays exponentially. In this document, we consider, for an arbitrary order, the shortest possible convolution mask which transforms samples of a function to Cardinal B-spline coefficients and show that it is unique and has indeed a positive Fourier transform. We also describe how the convolution mask can be computed including some code.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[275] viXra:1812.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 12:41:59

Gravity and Subatomic Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[274] viXra:1812.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 13:11:13

Magnetoresistance Ratio Enhancement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Magnetoresistance-a variation of electrical resistance in response to an externally applied magnetic field-is important for all magnetic field sensor applications. [23] As a result of climate change, population growth, and rising expectations regarding quality of life, energy requirements for cooling processes are growing much faster worldwide than for heating. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[273] viXra:1812.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-10 00:58:18

Sunqm-3s9: Using {N,n} QM to Explain the Sunspot Drift, the Continental Drift, and Sun’s and Earth’s Magnetic Dynamo

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper, a Ylm cycle model with two phases has been proposed. In phase-1 of Ylm cycle, nLL effect induces a |nLL> mode mass peaking and upwelling below the surface of an {N,n}o orbit shell, and generates a equatorial fast flow stream at the surface. As phase-1 progress, the equatorial fast flow stream gets narrower and shallower, and eventually diminished. In phase-2 of Ylm cycle, |n,L,m=0..L-1> modes cause mass peaking and upwelling below the surface of the same {N,n}o orbit shell but at high latitude region, and generates an effective equatorial slow flow stream at the surface. This (equivalent) slow flow stream also gets narrower and shallower, and eventually diminished. This single model has been used to explain the sunspot drift on Sun’s surface, the continental drift on Earth surface, and both Sun’s and Earth’s magnetic dynamo. The alternation between two phases of Ylm cycle not only alternates the orientation of Sun’s (or Earth’s) magnetic field, but also supports the supercontinent cycle model. Under this model, the apparent random drift of post-Pangaea continents can be nicely depicted as an expected hydrodynamic result of a broken dam through a mouth located near the south end of South America continent. In papers of SunQM-3s6, SunQM-3s7, and SunQM-3s8, I used radial wave function R(nl) to predict the mass density r-distribution for all planets and Sun, plus the QM structure evolution for rocky planets and Sun. In papers of SunQM-3s3 and SunQM-3s9, I used spherical wave function Y(lm) to explain planets’ and Sun’s atmosphere movement, surface (or mantle) movement, and internal mass movement. Therefore, results from all these papers reveal that for all planets and stars, not only they were formed and evolved under planet’s (or star’s) QM, but the current movement of their internal mass is also determined by the planet’s (or star’s) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[272] viXra:1812.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 17:26:08

Comment on Aspect's Experiment: Classical Interpretation

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 6 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 6, No. 1 (2019)

Quantum mechanics was the foundation for physics in the 20th century and its mysterious world has presented various unique effects beyond human understanding. In particular, Aspect’s experiment and Bell’s inequality suggest a non-local interaction causing wave packet reduction, and are regarded as evidence for quantum mechanics’ validity. This short paper reconsiders the electric field of entangled light and Aspect’s experiment in terms of classical theory and shows that the experimental results can be explained equally as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[271] viXra:1812.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-23 01:07:02

Worm Holes, Quantization and Galois Theory

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 45 page re do. Accepted after being reformatted as to JHEPGC instructions. Added one Eq. (53) as to Kaluza Klein, plus material as to polarization for future work and review. Deleted over 2/3rds of the referee questions at request of JHEPGC type setters

45 page thought experiment as to how Quantum gravity emerges from a quintic polynomial, and its relationship to galois theory. Focus is on wormhole throats, as a precursor to the thought experiment. Added material and cut referee questions and replies at request of JHEPGC editors, and the present form of paper is accepted by JHEPGC
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[270] viXra:1812.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 19:54:48

Rejection of Trivial Objections to Modal Logic Ł4

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate objections to the modal logic Ł4 by six equations in contra arguments which we reject as not tautologous. The concluding equation invoked as (((p=p)=(q=q)))=(r=r))=((p=q)=r) is not tautologous. We reject the trivial conclusion that "modal syllogisms with both necessary premises and with mixed premises cannot be distinguished while one is necessary and another assertoric[:] Łukasiewicz’ modal logic is useless for investigating Aristotelian modal syllogistic". Hence we use our VŁ4 to invalidate objections to itself.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[269] viXra:1812.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 03:57:11

The Alternative Schrödinger’s Equation

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

According to the unified theory of dynamic space the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). So, by this inductive phenomenon and the phenomenon of motion the wave function will be calculated. This wave function, which essentially interprets the phenomena of motion waves, replaces the Schrödinger’s equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[268] viXra:1812.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-19 06:26:14

Another Proof for Catalan's Conjecture

Authors: Julian Beauchamp
Comments: 3 Pages.

In 2002 Preda Mihailescu used the theory of cyclotomic fields and Galois modules to prove Catalan's Conjecture. In this short paper, we give a very simple proof. We first prove that no solutions exist for a^x-b^y=1 for a,b>0 and x,y>2. Then we prove that when x=2 the only solution for a is a=3 and the only solution for y is y=3.
Category: Number Theory

[267] viXra:1812.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 05:51:21

Easier Gravity Measure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Instead, a kilogram will be defined by choosing an exact value of Planck's constant, a quantity that relates weight to electrical current. [10] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and one in Russia has devised two new ways to measure the gravitational constant. [9] The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[266] viXra:1812.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 07:17:17

RNA Sequencing Strategy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[265] viXra:1812.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 07:45:06

Next-Generation GPS Satellites

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

After months of delays, the U.S. Air Force is about to launch the first of a new generation of GPS satellites, designed to be more accurate, secure and versatile. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[264] viXra:1812.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 08:11:20

Exocyst Dynamo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

The exocyst is a protein complex essential for life, that is comprised of eight subunits and is a crucial component in vesicle trafficking. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[263] viXra:1812.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 09:47:06

On-Demand Photons from Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A team of researchers from Austria, Italy and Sweden has successfully demonstrated teleportation using on-demand photons from quantum dots. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[262] viXra:1812.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 09:55:28

Power Law and Dimension of the Maximum Value for Belief Distribution with the Max Deng Entropy

Authors: Bingyi Kang
Comments: 13 Pages.

Deng entropy is a novel and efficient uncertainty measure to deal with imprecise phenomenon, which is an extension of Shannon entropy. In this paper, power law and dimension of the maximum value for belief distribution with the max Deng entropy are presented, which partially uncover the inherent physical meanings of Deng entropy from the perspective of statistics. This indicated some work related to power law or scale-free can be analyzed using Deng entropy. The results of some numerical simulations are used to support the new views.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[261] viXra:1812.0305 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-25 04:29:58

On the Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this paper it is proposed and proved an exact formula for the prime-counting function, finding an expression of Legendre's formula. As corollaries, they are proved some important conjectures regarding prime numbers distribution.
Category: Number Theory

[260] viXra:1812.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 11:52:08

Event Horizons and the Ideal Gas Law

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

instead of temporal elasticity, we examine time near an event horizon using the ideal gas law to frame the problem, some paradoxes are revealed when we consider antimatter
Category: Astrophysics

[259] viXra:1812.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 12:02:35

Generalized Relativity Extended

Authors: Mavriche Adrian
Comments: 11 Pages.

The present document starts from the relative existence of the electromagnetic field, reaching through mental experiments to its connection with the gravitational field, without the necessity to resort to other space - time dimensions or supplementary "exotic" particles. The main idea is: Generalized Relativity says, through the Equivalence Principle, that local we cannot distinguish between the effects of an accelerated movement (effects of an acceleration field) and the effects of a gravitational field. Knowing that an electron located in a field of acceleration (accelerated) will radiate in report to an observer outside of the acceleration field effect, then through the aforementioned equivalence, and an electron being at rest in a gravitational field, has to radiate in reference to an observer who is outside of that gravitational field. In conclusion, it explain why we have expansion "super-accelerated" of the universe, without the necessity of dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[258] viXra:1812.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 13:57:38

Sunqm-3s7: Predict Mass Density R-Distribution for Gas/ice Planets Based on {N,n} QM Probability Distribution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 11 Pages.

Using the same method developed in paper SunQM-3s6, the (close to the true) mass density r-distribution for gas/ice planets has been estimated based on {N,n} QM probability distribution. Based on this calculation (as well as on other scientists’ calculation), the center core mass density for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the undiscovered {3,2} planet (if it does formed) are estimated to be: ~ 26000 kg/m^3, ~ 23000 kg/m^3, ~ 16500 kg/m^3, ~ 17000 kg/m^3, and ~ 16000 kg/m^3 respectively. The results from this paper (as well as from papers of SunQM-3s6 and SunQM-3s8) strongly suggest that all planets and stars were formed and evolved under planet's (or star's) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[257] viXra:1812.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 16:23:09

Barley Spent Grains, a Novel Alternative for Its Utilization.

Authors: Manuel Alam-Cepero, Eddy Martínez-Padrón, Marcelo Marcet-Sánchez
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this research a study is made about the possibility of producing an energy and ecological drink from by-products of the brewing industry. Barley Spent Grains (BSG) is the largest residue or by-product of this industry. It represents 85% of the total by-product generated. BSG is a lignocellulosic material containing about 17% cellulose, 28% non-cellulosic polysaccharides, some arabinoxylans, and 28% lignin. It is available in large quantities and during all seasons of the year. Its main application has been limited to animal feeding. However, due to its high protein and fiber content (around 20% and 70% in dry basis respectively); it can be an attractive adjunct to human nutrition. The work was carried out in the pilot plant of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering of the University of Matanzas, in the Provincial Center for Electromedical Services of the city of Matanzas and in the Research Institute of the Food Industry of the MINAL in Havana City. Basically the study consisted of evaluating 3 formulations of beverages using the BSG treated enzymatically to recover proteins, carbohydrates and aromas of barley malt. These experiments were developed in a mash equipment designed and built with the collaboration of the Food Institute and automated in the Provincial Center for Electromedical Services of Matanzas. A control system was designed and built that allows an increase in efficiency and economy of the process with the consequent environmental benefit.
Category: Biochemistry

[256] viXra:1812.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 23:40:30

零点空格証明黎曼猜想不成立

Authors: Aaron chau
Comments: 1 Page.

无论是在历史的任何时间,如不谈黎曼猜想则已;如谈,我们大家当然先要彻底弄明白: 黎曼临界线上从小到大的一组零点及其(零点空格),它们在数论上究竟是什么意思呢?
Category: Number Theory

[255] viXra:1812.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 23:47:57

多 与 少 证 明 = 2

Authors: Aaron chau
Comments: 2 Pages.

本文强调:质数与孪生质数分别都是无限的依据是算术中的(加减乘除)。 比如在古希腊,欧几里德证明质数无限,他所应用的是(乘除法)来表述反证法。 又比如,现时在伦敦来证明孪生质数无限,即无限存在二个质数的距离=2;本文应用的是(加减法)来表述:就在(单数空格)里,单数与奇合数的个数分别在每一数段里的多与少。
Category: Number Theory

[254] viXra:1812.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 23:50:20

Fluid State of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this work we discuss the nature of the electromagnetic field and show, by using Maxwell field equations, that its steady state is a fluid state. Similar to the fluid state of Dirac quantum particles that we discussed in our previous work, the quantum particles of an electromagnetic field, i.e. photons, can be formulated in terms of velocity potentials and stream functions in three dimensions in which the electric field and magnetic field are identified with the velocity fields of the fluid flows.
Category: Quantum Physics

[253] viXra:1812.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 00:40:35

Inverse Problems Based Java Informatics Framework to Probe CryoEM Images – A Simple Suggestion Using JikesRVM – Research Virtual Machine & its Promising Image Processing Applications.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Inverse Problems Based Java Informatics Framework to Probe CryoEM Images – A Simple Suggestion Using JikesRVM – Research Virtual Machine & its Promising Image Processing Applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[252] viXra:1812.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 01:33:20

On the Fundamentals of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Joseph Olloh
Comments: 13 Pages. The content of the paper provides a fundamentally new way of looking at numbers.

We differentiate even and odd numbers into various groups and subgroups. We provide the properties of the forms of numbers which fall into each groups and subgroups. We expound on the relationship of a special group of even numbers and the collatz conjecture, we also derive an accurate formula to calculate the steps involved when an even number of the group is the initial value of the collatz operation. For each group and subgroup of odd and even numbers, we discuss the observed pattern of their sequences and also derive accurate formulas for each sequence. Throughout, b, d, k, N, n, x, m, and z all denote positive integers, with d, and N denoting odd numbers, x and z denoting even numbers, and b denoting special even-even numbers The order of priority of the properties of each group is key in the differentiation of the numbers into their various groups and subgroups.
Category: Number Theory

[251] viXra:1812.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 02:04:46

Memristor Mimics Synapses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 95 Pages.

A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[250] viXra:1812.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-18 10:52:05

Flat Space Scalar Field Gravitation

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

an intuitive investigation of conventional GR and TET, temporal elasticity theory
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[249] viXra:1812.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 03:37:46

Error Theory. in 1920, Brown of Norway 9 + 9.~~In1966, 1+2 Chen Jingrun, China

Authors: 1
Comments: 3 Pages.

Integer theory or fractional theory
Category: Mathematical Physics

[248] viXra:1812.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 03:54:16

Etymology of Words Force, Salt, Himself

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 8 Pages. -

The etymology of the connected bush of words is considered
Category: Linguistics

[247] viXra:1812.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 04:34:58

Material Harness Power of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Scientists have long known that synthetic materials-called metamaterials-can manipulate electromagnetic waves such as visible light to make them behave in ways that cannot be found in nature. [31] A team of researchers from Austria, Italy and Sweden has successfully demonstrated teleportation using on-demand photons from quantum dots. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[246] viXra:1812.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 05:03:32

Graphene Printed Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[245] viXra:1812.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 06:48:09

Minute Pulse Principle

Authors: Sai suman sutar
Comments: 1 Page. Its all about time

Its my assumption that time is abssolute
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[244] viXra:1812.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 07:10:18

Enzyme Role in Muscle Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Since the 1960s, scientists have known of a modification that occurs to a particular molecule in muscles, especially after exercise. [38] Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[243] viXra:1812.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 09:20:54

Prove Grimm’s Conjecture via Stepwise Forming Consecutive Composite Number’s Points on the Original Number Axis

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 14 Pages.

If regard positive integers which have a common prime factor as a kind, then the positive half line of the number axis consists of infinite many recurring segments which have same permutations of c kinds of integer’s points, where c≥1. In this article, the author shall prove Grimm’s conjecture by the method that changes orderly symbols of each kind of composite number’s points at the original number axis, so as to form consecutive composite number’s points within limits that proven Bertrand's postulate restricts.
Category: Number Theory

[242] viXra:1812.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 10:19:48

Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Machine learning algorithms now underlie much of the software we use, helping to personalize our news feeds and finish our thoughts before we're done typing. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[241] viXra:1812.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 10:38:37

Footprints of Protein Synthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

To trace which proteins are produced and when, researchers say, just follow the ribosome "footprints." [39] Since the 1960s, scientists have known of a modification that occurs to a particular molecule in muscles, especially after exercise. [38] Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[240] viXra:1812.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 11:31:38

Physiological Model of One Materialized Human Thought

Authors: Kondratenko Viktoria
Comments: 11 Pages.

ABSTRACT In this article, the creation in the second signal system of a correct reflex ring – physiological model of one of the materialized elementary, or compound human thoughts – is shown on a specific example. As tools, functionally full formal language and predicate logic language are used. The methodology is described in the Theory of axiomatic modeling of Kondratenko (1). As any other functional problem in any domain, according to the Theory, the problem is interpreted in mathematical logic as a theorem which is subject to proof. The reflex ring is physiological model of one of materialized elementary, or compound, thoughts of the specific person, as the ring represents a fragment of neural network of the person. The logical work of concepts of knowledge reflected in concepts No. 1 – 7, is guaranteed to provide the creation of the correct reflex ring having the property of "being physiological model of one of the materialized elementary, or compound thoughts of a person". At reflection on visual carriers of any concrete functionally complete sense received in the course of knowledge of the natural and man-made phenomena of the universe, only purely formular texts are an ideal format in terms of quantity of the symbols necessary for these purposes. Even the axiomatic format of reflection of the specified meanings demands one-two orders more of symbols, not to mention a verbal format from which the order of magnitude of formular symbols can exceed four in certain cases. Special importance is gained by this fact at reflection on visual carriers of biological and medical knowledge. Физиологическая модель одной из материализованных мыслей человека. Виктория Кондратенко Аннотация. В статье демонстрируется на конкретном примере построение во второй сигнальной системе корректного рефлекторного кольца – физиологической модели одной из материализованных элементарных, либо составных мыслей человека. В качестве инструментария используется функционально полный формальный язык, язык логики предикатов. Методология описана в Теории аксиоматического моделирования Кондратенко(1). Задача, как любая другая проблемная функциональная задача произвольной предметной области, согласно Теории, интерпретируется в математической логике в качестве подлежащей доказательству теоремы. Рефлекторное кольцо является физиологической моделью одной из материализованных элементарных, либо составных, мыслей конкретного человека, так как само кольцо представляет собой фрагмент нейронной сети человека. Логическое произведение концептов знаний, отраженных в концептах №№1 – 7, гарантировано обеспечит построение корректного рефлекторного кольца, обладающего свойством “являющегося физиологической моделью одной из материализованных элементарных, либо составных мыслей этого человека”. При отражении на визуальных носителях любого конкретного функционально завершенного смысла, полученного в процессе познания природных и рукотворных явлений в мироздании, только чисто формульные тексты являются идеальным форматом с точки зрения количества символов, необходимых для этих целей. Даже аксиоматический формат отражения указанных смыслов требует на один-два порядка больше необходимых символов, не говоря уже о вербальном формате, который может превысить в некоторых случаях и четыре прядка формульных символов. Особую важность приобретает этот факт при отражении на визуальных носителях биологических и медицинских знаний.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[239] viXra:1812.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 11:30:25

Laser-Pointing Data Transmit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[238] viXra:1812.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 11:49:22

Hubble's Ultraviolet Vision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Hubble's ultraviolet vision opens up a new window on the evolving universe, tracking the birth of stars over the last 11 billion years up to the busiest star-forming period in the cosmos, which happened about three billion years after the big bang. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[237] viXra:1812.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 12:39:15

Controlled Artificial Nucleosyntheses and Electron Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 11 Pages.

By now, about 3000 nuclides are known, which decay and pass into each other. Many of them can be obtained in nuclear reactors. The author offers a method for searching for the desired nuclides and a simple controlled method for obtaining artificial nuclides, such that in the chain of subsequent decays they contain an alpha decay. With alpha decay, a large amount of nuclear energy is generated that can easily be converted into electricity and reactive traction. This method is simple and safe, does not require large, expensive laser, magnetic installations, million temperatures, it can be used in small and medium engines for cars, airplanes, rockets, space vehicles and for unlimited energy on Earth.
Category: Classical Physics

[236] viXra:1812.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 13:29:41

Stellar Metamorphosis vs. Columbia University and Forbes Magazine

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 references

There is a clear disconnect between Columbia University and writers for Forbes Magazine. The problem that media causes astronomy is made clear. The statement is very simple so as to not confuse the public. In a paper written by Columbia University researchers there are 4 types of worlds, in a Forbes article writer Ethan Siegal states that there are only 3 types of worlds, which directly references the very article that contradicts his statement. This means there is a direct disconnect between writers/editors of magazines and researchers. This issue can be cleared up with stellar metamorphosis. There are no distinct types of worlds, as stellar evolution is continuous, stars cool, shrink and lose mass becoming planets/exoplanets and moons. Explanation with pictures from the arxiv site and Forbes are provided with references.
Category: Astrophysics

[235] viXra:1812.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 21:44:40

Computer Models of Brain Tumor Metastasis

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 13 Pages.

A computer model of brain tumor metastasis is developed and simulated using the language Mathematica. Diffusion of cancer cells through regions of gray and white matter is differentiated resulting in realistic asymmetric tumor growth. Applications include the precise treatment of a patient’s “future tumor” with focused radiation, and modelling the effects of chemotherapy.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[234] viXra:1812.0276 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-29 03:06:41

The Photoelectric Effect, Wave-Particle Duality and Atomic Structure

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 52 pages long: Diamond C-12 model altered and more explanation of bar models.

n 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this thesis paper, electrons, positrons and preons are postulated to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are postulated to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed helical solenoidal structure of photons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of a wave-particle duality. Quarks are postulated to be built from preons, and nucleons from up- and down-quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons The model developed provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electronpositron annihilation, electric current (a ‘hole’ free explanation), the ionization process during plasma formation, Gravity and Gravity waves. It also provides good correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do.
Category: Classical Physics

[233] viXra:1812.0275 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-17 12:21:39

Confirmation of the Łukasiewicz Square of Opposition Via Logic VŁ4

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 4 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the existential import of the Revised Modern Square of Opposition. We confirm that the Łukasiewicz syllogistic was intended to apply to all terms. What follows is that Aristotle was mistaken in his mapping of vertices, which we correct and show fidelity to Aristotle's intentions. We also evaluate the Cube of Opposition of Seuren. Two final claims are not tautologous, hence refuting the Cube, which also contradict criticism of Seuren that was not based on those claims.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[232] viXra:1812.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 03:17:10

Generalized Ising Model, Approximate Calculation Method

Authors: Akira Saito
Comments: 5 Pages.

An approximate solution of the expected value of the direction of an arbitrary electron on the generalized Ising model (Ising model in which the energy with the external magnetic eld and the energy of the interaction between the electrons take an arbitrary value) was obtained. Actually, considering application to the information system, we calculated each electron spin state as 0or1 instead of -1or1. As a result, even if the number of each spin increased, the error did not increase and it fell within 2%. If the expected value of the spin state is 0.1 to 0.9, the expected value can be obtained within an error range of 2% regardless of whether the energy value is positive or negative. The calculation amount of the approximate solution is obtained by the calculation amount of the square of N multiplied by 10 times. It can be expected as application of network analysis and the like. We also posted python source code.
Category: Condensed Matter

[231] viXra:1812.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-23 03:32:50

Layered Motions: the Meaning of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 22 Pages.

Following a series of papers on geometric interpretations of the wavefunction, this paper offers an overview of all of them. If anything, it shows that classical physics goes a long way in explaining so-called quantum-mechanical phenomena. It is suggested that the fine-structure constant can be interpreted as a scaling constant in a layered model of electron motion. Hence, instead of one single wave equation explaining it all, we offer a theory of superposed motions based on the fine-structure constant, which we interpret as a scaling constant. The layers are the following: 1. To explain the electron’s rest mass, we use the Zitterbewegung model. Here, we think of the electron as a pointlike charge (no internal structure or motion) with zero rest mass, and (1) its two-dimensional oscillation, (2) the E/m = c2 = a2ω2 elasticity of spacetime and (3) Planck’s quantum of action (h) explain the rest mass: it is just the equivalent mass of the energy in the oscillation. 2. We then have the Bohr model, which shows orbitals pack the same amount of physical action (h) or a multiple of it (S = n·h). It just packs that amount in much larger loops which – of course – then also pack a different amount of energy. As it turns out, the equivalent energy (E = h·f) is equal to α2mc2. The fine-structure constant also acts as a scaling constant for all other dimensions (radii, velocities, and frequencies). 3. The difference between the energies of the Bohr orbitals is, of course, the energy of the photon when an electron makes a transition. Hence, we also offer an elegant one-cycle model of a photon and show the meaning of the fine-structure constant as a coupling constant in QED. This all leads to a much more comprehensive interpretation of the fine-structure constant as a scaling constant. As an added bonus, we argue that the fine-structure constant also introduces a form factor (the electron is now viewed as a disk-like structure), which might explain the anomalous magnetic moment. We argue that the anomalous magnetic moment may, therefore, not be anomalous at all.
Category: Quantum Physics

[230] viXra:1812.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 03:40:51

Ferent Equation of the Material and Spiritual Universe

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 270 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe Scientists from the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, like Edward Witten, Paul Berg, Juan Martin Maldacena…were not able to discover a Transdisciplinarity equation or an equation to link Matter with Spiritual Matter. The greatest scientists tried to unify Science and Spirituality and to write a Transdisciplinarity equation without success. I am the first who discovered a Transdisciplinarity equation; the Ferent equation of the Soul. There are 3 walls in our Universe: the Planck wall with the constant ‘h’, the Ferent wall with the constant ‘a’ and the Spiritual wall with the constant ‘s’. At the Planck wall emerged Matter, at the Ferent wall emerged Dark Matter and at the Spiritual wall emerged Spiritual Matter. The most general form, is the time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system made of Matter, Dark Matter and Spiritual Matter evolving in time. The most general form of the time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent Where: |Ψ(r,t)> – is the state vector of the Universe r and t are the position vector and time h – is the Planck constant a – is the Ferent constant s – is the Spiritual constant The evolution of N elementary particles quantum system is governed through the Ferent equation for N elementary particles. The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, Dark Matter, M elementary particles, and Spiritual Matter, L elementary particles, evolving in time. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent Where: Ψ – the wave function of the Universe, material and spiritual m1i – the mass of Matter elementary particle i m2j – the mass of Dark Matter elementary particle j m3k – the mass of Spiritual Matter elementary particle k r1N – the position of Matter elementary particle N r2M – the position of Dark Matter elementary particle M r3L – the position of Spiritual Matter elementary particle L 158. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the Soul 159. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe
Category: Astrophysics

[229] viXra:1812.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 06:06:03

Accuracy of Neural Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an a-MAZE-ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[228] viXra:1812.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 08:19:41

Synthesizing Motion-Blurred Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Researchers at Google have recently developed a new technique for synthesizing a motion blurred image, using a pair of un-blurred images captured in succession. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an a-MAZE-ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[227] viXra:1812.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 08:45:37

Approximate Computing Approach

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Fukuoka University, in Japan, have recently proposed a design methodology for configurable approximate arithmetic circuits. [27] Researchers at Google have recently developed a new technique for synthesizing a motion blurred image, using a pair of un-blurred images captured in succession. [26] Constructing a neural network model for each new dataset is the ultimate nightmare for every data scientist. [25] Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[226] viXra:1812.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 08:57:19

Refutation of Pure Alethic Modal Logic (Pam)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the formula □p → p → ◊p as the backbone of pure alethic modal logic (PAM). Two inconsistent results arise from different orders of precedence: a result of not tautologous, not contradictory; and a tautologous result. That ambiguity refutes PAM.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[225] viXra:1812.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 09:05:39

AI Control of Human Birth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A group of researchers from MIT have already developed an AI robot that can assist in a labour room. [28] Researchers at Fukuoka University, in Japan, have recently proposed a design methodology for configurable approximate arithmetic circuits. [27] Researchers at Google have recently developed a new technique for synthesizing a motion blurred image, using a pair of un-blurred images captured in succession. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[224] viXra:1812.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 10:51:20

The Superfast Cosmophoton Enables Us to Contact the Center of Our Galaxy in 0.6 x 10^-4 Second

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: I have (October, 2017) first described a superfast photon, called the cosmophoton, which can traverse the maximum expanse of our holographic universe in 2000 seconds.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[223] viXra:1812.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 11:07:34

A Conservative Standard Model

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

the most conservative Standard Model of elementary particle physics that is possible
Category: Classical Physics

[222] viXra:1812.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-08 23:25:41

The Classical Spin-Rotation Coupling and the Kinematic Origin of Inertia

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier
Comments: 30 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which accelerates curvilinearly from its center of mass relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to induced spin motion in the rigid body to the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to rotational motion of the same spinning rigid body have been derived. The paper also bringing to light the nature of the forces which cause induction of spin motion in that rigid body and a formula which coupling of this highlighted forces to the force which causes rotation of the rigid body has been also derived.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[221] viXra:1812.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 12:34:44

Is Special Relativity Really Tested Empirically?

Authors: Jorma Jormakka
Comments: 16 Pages.

All elements of special relativity, like the Lorentz transform, time dilation, space contraction, moving mass and E=mc^2 are said to be verified empirically beyond any doubt. While checking a discrete model of space I was surprised to notice that these experiments cannot distinguish between the Lorentz transform and the coordinate transform in my discrete model. There were also a lack of clarity in what frame of reference the formula for moving mass is differentiated to give E=mc^2. In the discrete model E=mc^2 follows easily from basic concepts. My conclusion is that the special relativity theory is not tested well enough and the principle that there is no preferred frame of reference should be revised.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[220] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-13 06:29:14

Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[219] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-03 15:57:39

Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[218] viXra:1812.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 15:44:58

Bivalent Correction of Ieee Std 1800-2017 (Verilog) and Std 1164-1993 (VHDL)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the multivalued logic SystemVerilog in IEEE Std 1800-2017. The classical logic proof tables for the connectives And, Or, Xor, and negations are based on the bivalency of 1, 0, X, Z as 0=~1 and Z=~X. This refutes and corrects the standard. We also retrofit and correct IEEE Std 1164-1993 (SynopsysVHDL) for the same.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[217] viXra:1812.0257 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-13 21:08:35

Quarks in the Model of 4D Matter

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 26 Pages. on Russian

In the paper it was suggested the constructions of some fundamental particles without quarks but with their substitution in the model of 4D matter. It seems to be more simpler in some sense because relies on the single presentation for all particles. The detailed treatment of the masses and some other properties of particles has been considered. In particular, the mechanism of the confinement of quarks has been found its interpretation due to its belonging to the same so called 4D vortex that presents the proper particle in the model of 4D matter. Also the way of generation of the fundamental particles along with the galaxies is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[216] viXra:1812.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-16 08:48:54

Preliminary Presentation to STFK Dec 2018

Authors: Jeffrey P Baugher
Comments: 18 Pages.

The cosmological constant is now the most contentious term in all of science due to the observation of the phenomena now known as dark energy. The term, as well as the rest of the einstein field equation, is ultimately derived from primitive notions of points, line and planes from the axiomatic method. I explain here this preliminary information as well as the hypothesis that these primitive notions are not logically consistent. I introduce evidence that using the concept of locations and relative line segments may for a more viable geometric expression for gravity.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[215] viXra:1812.0255 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-17 07:59:37

Electromagnetic Control of the Gravitational Mass of a Ferrite Lamina, and the Gravity Acceleration Above It.

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here we show that it is possible controlling the gravitational mass of a specific ferrite lamina, and the gravity acceleration above it, simply applying an extra-low frequency electromagnetic field through it.
Category: Condensed Matter

[214] viXra:1812.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 08:31:44

Wi-Fi Wave-Based Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A pair of researchers, one with the Langevin Institute, the other a company called Greenerwave, both in France, has developed a way to use ordinary Wi-Fi signals to perform analog, wave-based computations. [34] A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[213] viXra:1812.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 09:11:58

Ceramic Copper Oxide Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

This electronic super fluidity is a quantum state of matter, so it behaves in a very exotic way that is different from classical physics, Comin says. [39] The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38] Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors-materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss-have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31]
Category: Condensed Matter

[212] viXra:1812.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 09:48:26

The Fourth State of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

This revolution in healthcare has many practical applications, from food hygiene to treatment of different kinds of skin diseases, purification of water and odour management. [40] A novel quantum effect observed in a carbon nanotube film could lead to the development of unique lasers and other optoelectronic devices, according to scientists at Rice University and Tokyo Metropolitan University. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[211] viXra:1812.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 10:20:21

Travel Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1812.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 11:59:51

Aspie96 at IronITA (EVALITA 2018): Irony Detection in Italian Tweets with Character-Level Convolutional RNN

Authors: Valentino Giudice
Comments: 6 Pages.

Irony is characterized by a strong contrast between what is said and what is meant: this makes its detection an important task in sentiment analysis. In recent years, neural networks have given promising results in different areas, including irony detection. In this report, I describe the system used by the Aspie96 team in the IronITA competition (part of EVALITA 2018) for irony and sarcasm detection in Italian tweets.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[209] viXra:1812.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 14:55:21

Guilt by Association – Weak Higgs and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

reductionism and the anthropic principle are understood with respect to the Higgs and weak force, antimatter, and gravitation
Category: Classical Physics

[208] viXra:1812.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 00:40:09

Time and Relative Reflection Symmetry

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative reflection symmetry exists for an isolated system of two stationary persons. The first person sees the second person in a distance away. The second person sees the first person in the same distance away but in the opposite direction. Such symmetry also exists for two mobile persons. Both persons see each other moving at the same speed but in opposite direction in their own rest frames. From the definition of velocity, the time in the rest frame of the first person can be compared to the time in the rest frame of the second person. The result shows that the time in the rest frame of the first person differs from the time in the rest frame of the second person by a constant. Two simultaneous events in one inertial reference frame are also simultaneous in another inertial reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[207] viXra:1812.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 05:30:08

Fair Computer-Aided Decisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Algorithmic fairness is increasingly important because as more decisions of greater importance are made by computer programs, the potential for harm grows. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an a-MAZE-ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[206] viXra:1812.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 06:24:47

New Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Würzburg have been able to boost current super-resolution microscopy by a novel tweak. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31]
Category: Condensed Matter

[205] viXra:1812.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 06:44:09

Low-Power Computing Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

"The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[204] viXra:1812.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 07:34:37

Quantum Networking Future

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:1812.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 08:06:20

Mini Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[202] viXra:1812.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-14 12:37:47

Pourquoi L'hypothèse de Riemann Est Fausse

Authors: Jean Pierre Morvan
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'hypothèse de RIEMANN est fausse parce que la fonction zéta n'est pas nulle avec s = 1/2 + ib
Category: Number Theory

[201] viXra:1812.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 08:50:51

Secrets of the Sun

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 3 pages

When measured in Planck units the vital parameters of the sun take particular values.
Category: Astrophysics

[200] viXra:1812.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 13:40:18

Reversing Teerac

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 10 Pages. Malware research into Teerac variant of TorrentLocker

2016 is filled with what seems like a new Ransomware every day, whether the influx is due to the recent sale of the CryptoWall source code or the actors involved in Dyre have since moved on to something profitable after the reported takedown, it would appear that for the time being pushing Ransomware is the new hip thing in the malware world. Most of the big names in Ransomware have had plenty of papers and research done but lots of the newer variants while possibly being based on either leaked or sold code will more often than not make changes in order to make themselves unique. Teerac which is a variant of TorrentLocker with a subdomain generation feature to the hardcoded domain is no exception to this as the malware matches multiple reports on TorrentLocker with the exception of an added subdomain generation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[199] viXra:1812.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 16:12:24

Ten Explanations on Essential Subjects of the Modern Theoretical Physics which need Immediate and Radical Re-studying. Part One.

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 14 Pages.

Many explanations on essential subjects of the modern theoretical physics leave a lot of unanswered questions. Certainly, the proposal of these explanations has been formulated based on the rationale that their definite establishment would take place only when all questions on each and every explanation would have been answered. However, as time passed by, the questions that had to be answered have been forgotten and the explanations have been established without the provision of the respective answers. The result of this tactic was the introduction of a lot of erroneous explanations in the modern theoretical physics; which need immediate and radical re-studying. In the present paper, I describe these explanations, adding some new proposals, which I believe will help this re-studying.
Category: Classical Physics

[198] viXra:1812.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 21:08:50

A Comment on the Collatz (3x+1) Conjecture

Authors: Stephen Moore
Comments: 2 Pages.

rThe stopping time of an integer X is the number of steps in a Collatz sequence which lead to an integer value less than X. This note details an algorithm for deriving X from a list of the steps in a stopping time sequence, thus inverting the operation. sfmoorex@gmail.com
Category: General Mathematics

[197] viXra:1812.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 22:07:23

The Masses Explanation

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

In this theory we will talk about the notion of masses masses are conceptually not understood so we will show how to understand masses now first of all masses have a relation with volume this relation defines how masses act the relation is simply is that if you have a mass having a certain volume you must now that this is not the true volume masses occupy less true volume than its seen volume being that said you know that if an element has a ratio of real volume over seen volume or real volume/seen volume in one element much less than that of another element you could conclude that the second element has larger mass
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[196] viXra:1812.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-16 19:13:27

A Method of Judging Whether or not a Remainder Obtained by Dividing by a Multiple of 30 and 48 is a Prime Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 9 Pages.

Based on whether or not the remainder divided by 30 and 48 is a prime number, the prime number was judged. It was difficult to judge which one was better, it seemed better to use both. And, I was searching for a prime number determination method to be a multiple of 48, and to be able to judge with a remainder of multiples of 30, I came across a kind of pseudo prime number 203.
Category: Number Theory

[195] viXra:1812.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 00:26:43

The Big Burst

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 5 Pages.

Everyone has heard of various possible ends of the universe:
The Big Crunch, The Big Bounce, The Big Rip, The Big Freeze, etc.

Here is another...
The Big Burst - Welcome to the End of the World.
There will be a massive energy burst released by neutrinos into the fabric-of-space.
Then a massive drop-off in tension caused by too much "fabric" per given volume.
The fabric-of-space - that is the universe as we know it - becomes something like a floppy 3-D tennis net.
First Law? Energy? Gravity? Light? Heat? Pooof, Gone!
There will NOT even be time happening (as we know it).
Category: Astrophysics

[194] viXra:1812.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-21 12:18:08

The Not-So Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper is a didactic exploration of the geometry of the experiments measuring the anomalous magnetic moment. It is argued that there may be nothing anomalous about it. We argue that Schwinger’s α/2π factor and the other quantum-mechanical corrections might be explained by a form factor: the electron should, perhaps, not be thought of as a perfect sphere or a perfect disk. If this possibility is allowed for, the anomalous magnetic moment might possibly be explained in terms of a classical explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[193] viXra:1812.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 02:46:32

God Does not Play Dice.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 2 Pages. For further research.

Age old debate on whether God play dice or not can be resolved by re structuring Quantum Physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[192] viXra:1812.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 03:35:24

Stretched Quantum Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

By studying ultracold atoms trapped in artificial crystals of light, Guillaume Salomon, a postdoc at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics and a team of scientists have been able to directly observe a fundamental effect of one-dimensional quantum systems. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[191] viXra:1812.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 04:53:44

In Cosmology, C2=const is the Measure of Inertia, not Mass

Authors: Milan D. Nešić
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is understandable that in 1916 Einstein was unable to explain his postulate c=const, that in the case of the lightning and the train that moves on the railway embankment he still tacitly implied that the inertial coordinate system which is at rest has advantage over the one in motion. In serious scientific journals, there are no tries of explanations of this postulate, but it is strange that even today, at popular lectures, Einstein's explanation is taken as valid. It isn't difficult to show that his explanation is not valid; it is difficult to find the right explanation without trying to form an alternative theory. The article is dedicated to this goal. The found explanation will also serve to explain, for example, the EPR-paradox without any “spooky action at a distance” or “hidden variables” (Einstein’s expressions). And this is not the only example where it can serve.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[190] viXra:1812.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 06:10:22

Copper Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 90 Pages.

Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[189] viXra:1812.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-16 05:09:34

Equal Sized Rigid String Based New Black Holes do not Merge But, Form Herbig Haro Systems.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

In Q-FFF Theory, equal sized Rigid String based Black Holes do not merge but, form Herbig Haro systems with a White Hole (also called Wormhole) in the middle as the center of plasma jet production. Q-FFF Theory postulates, that all rigid string based black holes (Bhs), with variable sizes, from semi-stable Ball lightning up to stable Comets, Dual Herbig Haro black hole bow shocks and even dual Galaxy Anchor Bhs, are negative charged from the outside and positive charged from the inside. Q-FFF = Quantum Function Follows Form at the stringy quantum scale. The origin of different charged Bh zones, is counter intuitive 1: the Bh repulsion of all Fermions and 2: the continuous pair production out of the chiral oscillating Axion-Higgs particle based vacuum lattice at the BH horizon and 3: the preference for positrons in the chiral vacuum, to merge with photons, forming a positive charged quark plasma at the inside of the Bh horizon. (see poster below)
Category: Astrophysics

[188] viXra:1812.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 06:32:19

El Fractal F74

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages.

Esta nota presenta una imagen fractal.
Category: General Mathematics

[187] viXra:1812.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 06:35:09

Elementary Fractals : Part V

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 108 Pages.

This note presents a collection of elementary fractals.
Category: Geometry

[186] viXra:1812.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 07:28:16

Real History of Quantum Biology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Quantum biology seeks to understand whether quantum mechanics plays a role in biological processes. [32] Washington State University researchers for the first time have shown that they can use electrical fields to gain valuable information about the tiny, floating vesicles that move around in animals and plants and are critically important to many biological functions. [31] Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[185] viXra:1812.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 07:46:37

About the Universe

Authors: Peter H. Michalicka
Comments: 4 Pages.

A time scale of the Universe will be shown in all details. It starts with the existence of the first information (0/1) Bit and the probability of God or the Creator of the Universe. Step by step are comming dimensions within the Universe until the 4-dimensionsal Universe of General Relativity Theory (GRT) is created.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[184] viXra:1812.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 08:40:36

Quantum Computing a Decade Away

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 92 Pages.

Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[183] viXra:1812.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 09:48:46

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A longstanding problem in optics holds that an improved resolution in imaging is offset by a loss in the depth of focus. Now, scientists are joining computation with X-ray imaging as they develop a new and exciting technique to bypass this limitation. [25] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have successfully generated controlled electron pulses in the attosecond range. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[182] viXra:1812.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 10:19:27

When Organizational Identification and Control Prevent Sharing Scientific Discovery

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages. 5 references, a "B-" paper

: A short overview of how academics control each other and some flaws induced by too much identification, control and discipline. It is argued and researched that too much of all three latter concepts can counteract the stated goals of teams in large organizations. In fact, too much identification, control and discipline reduces quality, stamps out creativity and decreases employee involvement. This can lead to peer review reinforced group think and the overall stalling of progress in science and of sharing scientific discoveries. As well it shows that resistance to discoveries is rooted in cultural norms and shared misguided definitions.
Category: Social Science

[181] viXra:1812.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 10:58:38

New Type of Phase Transformation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have discovered an unusual new type of phase transformation in the transition metal zirconium. [27] In the drive to find new ways to extend electronics beyond the use of silicon, physicists are experimenting with other properties of electrons, beyond charge. [26] In the emerging field of magnon spintronics, researchers seek to transport and process information by means of so-called magnon spin currents. [25] Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[180] viXra:1812.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 13:19:51

Neutrosophic Shortest Path Problem

Authors: Ranjan Kumar, S A Edaltpanah, Sripati Jha, Said Broumi, Arindam Dey
Comments: 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic set theory provides a new tool to handle the uncertainties in shortest path problem (SPP). This paper introduces the SPP from a source node to a destination node on a neutrosophic graph in which a positive neutrosophic number is assigned to each edge as its edge cost. We define this problem as neutrosophic shortest path problem (NSSPP). A simple algorithm is also introduced to solve the NSSPP. The proposed algorithm finds the neutrosophic shortest path (NSSP) and its corresponding neutrosophic shortest path length (NSSPL) between source node and destination node. Our proposed algorithm is also capable to find crisp shortest path length (CrSPL) of the corresponding neutrosophic shortest path length (NSSPL) which helps the decision maker to choose the shortest path easily. We also compare our proposed algorithm with some existing methods to show efficiency of our proposed algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness and robustness of the new model. Numerical and graphical results demonstrate that the novel methods are superior to the existing method.
Category: General Mathematics

[179] viXra:1812.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 13:52:02

Refutation of Graded Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate definitions of five frame classes and a main theorem of satisfiability. Three of the five frame classes are not tautologous and the designated example for satisfiability is not tautologous. This refutes graded modal logic.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[178] viXra:1812.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 13:49:28

How Cells Communicate Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[177] viXra:1812.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 21:36:30

On the Logical Foundation of Physics (Part 2) Draft

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 76 Pages.

The aim of this work is, first, to set the basis for a formal model of science, then, it is to show that the laws of physics are its theorems. Necessarily, all theories that are the logical product of science are theorems of our model. As this includes physics, our model is, therefore, its logical foundation. Our model is an axiomatic realization of the participatory universe envisioned by John Archibald Wheeler, in which the observer's practice of science is associated with proving reality. As our model is constructive of the mathematical structure isomorphic to nature, it deprecates Karl Popper's definition of science based on falsifiability. The formal practice of science consists of constructing a message (in the sense of Shannon's theory of information) of experiments (the elements of the message) constrained by the requirement that the elements are verifiable by the statistical priors of the message. In this context, we define the priors as Nature and we qualify the message as scientific. Nature is thus understood as a general proof checker for experiments. We show that the construction of a scientific message bounds nature (the priors) to a cosmology entirely emergent from the entropy of the scientific message. Finally, we conclude that the participatory-universe is emergent from the ideal practice of science.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[176] viXra:1812.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 21:38:39

Refutation of Lyndon Interpolation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the Lyndon interpolation on the logic GL. Each is not tautologous, and the combination is not tautologous, hence rendering both refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[175] viXra:1812.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 03:04:57

New Device Questions Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy—a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[174] viXra:1812.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 04:07:23

Technology Sees Nerve Cells Fire

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, have created a noninvasive technology that detects when nerve cells fire based on changes in shape. [38] Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[173] viXra:1812.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-15 14:26:36

Existence is a Travel Through 3 Scales of the 5th Dimension

Authors: Luis sancho
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper resumes in 10 pages the scalar, decametric organic systems of the 5th dimension of space-time, information. We introduce the fifth dimension that organizes parts into wholes, its metric, its main system in simultaneous space, the superorganism, and in time, the worldcycle of existence, describing life as a travel through 3 scales of the 5th dimension. Finally we introduce the 3 scalar levels of time motions, the mathematical spatial continuous level of calculus, the discontinuous causal level of logic repetitive actions and the Deep time, organic level of evolution, which allow us to forecast the futures not only of physical systems, but biologic and social systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[172] viXra:1812.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 08:23:49

What Do We See: Signs Of Quantum Gravity Or Dark Energy?

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 6 Pages. Contribution to the 15th Marcel Grossmann Meeting (MG15), Rome, Italy, July 1-7, 2018

Cosmological observations of remote objects may be interpreted in the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author without dark energy. The theoretical Hubble diagram of the model fits observations very well. Additionally, this diagram should be the multivalued function of the redshift for soft and hard radiations; perhaps, this feature may be seen for the GRBs data set with the Yonetoku calibration. In the model, the ratio H(z)/(1+z) should be equal to the Hubble constant; the constancy of this ratio is verified up to $z< 2$ with high probability using compilations of H(z) observations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[171] viXra:1812.0209 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-03 06:50:24

Refutation of the Hahn-Banach Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages.

We evaluate the Hahn-Banach theorem. Without or with the universal quantifiers, the equations are not tautologous. This refutes the Hahn-Banach theorem.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[170] viXra:1812.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-23 08:21:08

Definitive Proof of the Twin-Prime Conjecture

Authors: Kenneth A. Watanabe
Comments: 14 Pages. Acknowledgement section was added and proof of delta pi was added

A twin prime is defined as a pair of prime numbers (p1,p2) such that p1 + 2 = p2. The Twin Prime Conjecture states that there are an infinite number of twin primes. A more general conjecture by de Polignac states that for every natural number k, there are infinitely many primes p such that p + 2k is also prime. The case where k = 1 is the Twin Prime Conjecture. In this document, a function is derived that corresponds to the number of twin primes less than n for large values of n. Then by proof by induction, it is shown that as n increases indefinitely, the function also increases indefinitely thus proving the Twin Prime Conjecture. Using this same methodology, the de Polignac Conjecture is also shown to be true.
Category: Number Theory

[169] viXra:1812.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 16:31:35

Ole Romer

Authors: Gerard Garroch
Comments: 18 Pages.

hypothesis based on real time events
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[168] viXra:1812.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 21:37:57

Solution of a Sangaku ``Tangency" Problem via Geometric Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 5 Pages.

Because the shortage of worked-out examples at introductory levels is an obstacle to widespread adoption of Geometric Algebra (GA), we use GA to solve one of the beautiful \emph{sangaku} problems from 19th-Century Japan. Among the GA operations that prove useful is the rotation of vectors via the unit bivector i.
Category: Geometry

[167] viXra:1812.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 22:27:00

Refutation of Agm Postulates and Levi and Harper Bridging Principles

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the AGM logic system in eight postulates and two bridging principles. The postulates named success, inclusion, vacuity, and inconsistency and the Levi and Harper bridging principles are not tautologous, hence refuting the AGM logic system.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[166] viXra:1812.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 22:28:46

Resolution of Moore's Paradox as a Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate Moore's paradox, as touted by Wittgenstein, with Hintikka's omissive or commissive logical forms as "P and NOT(belief in P)" or "P and belief in NOT-P". The former as antecedent (contradictory) and the latter as consequent (neither contradictory nor tautologous) imply tautology, a theorem.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[165] viXra:1812.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-12 10:43:42

Review on Rationality Problems of Algebraic K-Tori

Authors: Youngjin Bae
Comments: 12 Pages.

Rationality problems of algebraic k-tori are closely related to rationality problems of the invariant field, also known as Noether's Problem. We describe how a function field of algebraic k-tori can be identified as an invariant field under a group action and that a k-tori is rational if and only if its function field is rational over k. We also introduce character group of k-tori and numerical approach to determine rationality of k-tori.
Category: Algebra

[164] viXra:1812.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 01:39:33

A Geometric Interpretation of Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page and references

Following a series of papers on a geometric interpretation of the wavefunction, this paper offers a geometric interpretation of the wave equation itself. It interprets Schrödinger’s equation as a differential equation for elliptical orbitals. As such, it complements a revised Rutherford-Bohr model which is also based on the assumption that – if electron orbitals would be actual orbitals – they would be elliptical rather than circular. Keywords: Bohr model, Schrödinger’s equation, rest matter oscillation, electron orbitals, wavefunction interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[163] viXra:1812.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 02:29:14

Six, Pole and Gesture

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 8 Pages.

The estimated etymology of the connected bush of words is considered
Category: Linguistics

[162] viXra:1812.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 03:07:28

The Moon Orbital Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract Why Earth daily motion 2.58 mkm = The moon orbital circumference at apogee radius r=0.406 mkm (Apogee radius is the longest distance between the Earth and Moon)? Conclusion: The Moon orbital motion depends on relativistic effects are found in the moon orbit. Introduction Paper Main Hypothesis: The rate 1.0725 is found by lorentz relativities effects (Apogee orbital Circumference 2.58/Moon orbital circumference 2.41) =1.0725 The Hypothesis Explanation: (28.3 deg Neptune axial tilt/ 26.7 deg. Saturn axial tilt)= (26.7 deg. Saturn axial tilt/ 25.2 deg. Mars axial tilt) = (25.2 deg. Mars axial tilt/ 23.4 deg. Earth axial tilt) =1.0725 The previous equation explain the hypothesis 28.3 degrees (Neptune axial tilt) is the main value which is contracted by lorentz effect (1.0725) to produce 26.7 deg (Saturn axial tilt) which also is contracted again to produce 25.2 deg. (Mars axial tilt) and then contracted again to produce 23.4 deg. (Earth axial tilt) so these 4 values are one value but the difference is found by relativistic effects (The prove of this rate 1.0725 will be discussed in point no. 3) -The moon orbital motion The moon moves 2.58 mkm daily = Earth motion daily (otherwise they will be separated from each other) If there's no relativistic effects in the solar system, the moon should be seen as a bright stationary point in the sky because Earth and Moon move by the same velocity. But Because of the relativistic effects this value (2.58 mkm) will be contracted with the rate 1.0725 to produce the value 2.41 mkm (Note please/ The length contraction rate 1.0725 we have discussed clearly in my previous paper) So the moon daily motion =2.58 mkm but this value is seen =2.41mkm (because of lorentz length contraction phenomenon) The difference between both = 0.17 mkm which causes The Moon Daily Displacement (0.17 mkm = 2 x 88000km) Why the difference 0.17 mkm = 2 x moon daily displacement 88000km? may that occur because of the motions opposite directions.
Category: Astrophysics

[161] viXra:1812.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 03:15:46

The Future Science Institute (Volume Ⅱ Issue 2017-2018)

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 266 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[160] viXra:1812.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 04:16:13

Unlock Neuron's Secrets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team of researchers at the Laboratory for fundamental BioPhotonics (LBP) within EPFL's School of Engineering (STI) has come up with a way to monitor changes in membrane potential and to observe ion fluxes by studying the behavior of the water molecules surrounding the membranes of the neurons. [35] One recent measure to improve the visualization of the brain has been to create more comprehensive brain models that simulate neural activity. [34] Brain-machine interfaces provide one way to connect with this puzzling organ system, including the brain. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25]
Category: Mind Science

[159] viXra:1812.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 05:14:56

Shape Shifting Cell Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[158] viXra:1812.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 05:25:40

Wearable Biomedical Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have fabricated light-guiding structures known as waveguides just over one micron wide in a clear silicone commonly used for biomedical applications. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[157] viXra:1812.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 06:08:27

Photocathodes Quantum Efficiency

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Teams from the accelerator physics and the SRF groups at HZB are developing a superconducting linear accelerator featuring energy recovery (Energy Recovery Linac) as part of the bERLinPro project. [46] Particle accelerators are made of structures called cavities, which impart energy to the particle beam, kicking it forward. [45] As an alternative cost-cutting option to accelerate particles more efficiently, the wakefield accelerator has been suggested. Physicists send a beam of either electrons, protons, or a laser through a plasma. [44] A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[156] viXra:1812.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 07:24:30

The Nature of Israel's Public Policy Aimed at Curbing the Rise in Property Prices from 2008-2015, as a Derivative of the Country's Governance Structure

Authors: Erez Cohen
Comments: 19 Pages.

The paper portrays public policy steps taken in order to reduce housing prices, formulated and implemented in Israel 2008-2015, and analyzes them in light of the locally prevalent economic worldview and governance structure. Analysis of the policy shows that in order to understand the justifications for its formulation it should be viewed through the positivist worldview that focuses on the subjective considerations of policy shapers that neutralize its objective-normative efficacy. The paper stresses the impact of the country's governance structure at each point in time on the type of policy chosen and determines that a democratic but weak and unstable governance structure leads to the formulation and implementation of a positivist policy reflecting politicians' narrow interests of reelection. In contrast, stable democratic rule supported by a sound majority of a single ruling party can easily sustain public policy that expresses the normative approach, reflecting social values as defined by politicians.
Category: Social Science

[155] viXra:1812.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 07:27:29

Regulation of Academia in Israel Legislation, Policy, and Market Forces

Authors: Erez Cohen
Comments: 16 Pages.

The rapid development of Israel’s system of higher education in recent years has led to a sharp rise in the number of students, the establishment of new institutions certified to award degrees, and legislation and policy changes. The evolving circumstances are explored in the current article, which follows the sources, causes, and justifications for these changes. The study analyzes three major processes that occurred in Israel’s system of higher education since its reform in the early 1990s: the increase in the number of students, admission terms to the departments, and the demand for studies. The research findings indicate that it was the government’s decision to establish colleges in the early 1990s, rather than free market forces, that led to the considerable increase in enrollment for academic studies. Then again, free market forces appear to determine admission terms to the various departments in accordance with the principles of demand and supply. Furthermore, the government intervenes to regulate the supply of high-demand fields of study but does not complement this by acting to regulate demand trends, which are determined exclusively by the free will of applicants. Therefore, the research conclusion is that Israel has no clear well-formulated policy on higher education, a fact that allows the unrestrained detrimental domination of this system by free market forces.
Category: Social Science

[154] viXra:1812.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 07:29:44

Effect of Welfare and Employment Policies on the Correlation Between Migration and Unemployment.

Authors: Erez Cohen
Comments: 19 Pages.

The subject of immigration has been on the public and political agenda of most established countries for many years and has been the focus of much research. In light of increasing immigration to Europe in recent years, this study explores the association between immigration and local unemployment, by examining three prominent immigration destinations: Greece, Germany, and the United States. The research findings indicate that all three countries show a correlation between the two indices, with the different welfare and employment policies implemented by each generating differences in the features of this correlation. In Greece, where the welfare and employment policy implemented encourages idleness, a positive correlation was found between the indices. In Germany, which implements a conservative policy that encourages employment, a negative correlation was found between the two indices. In contrast, the United States implements a liberal immigration policy that produces an ambivalent association between the indices.
Category: Social Science

[153] viXra:1812.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 07:31:41

The Rise in Israel Real Estate Prices Sociodemographic Aspects

Authors: Erez Cohen
Comments: 21 Pages.

The conspicuous rise in Israel’s housing prices from 2008 to date, after the stable prices in the early 2000s, has raised concerns of a property bubble in the Israeli economy. The grave effects of real estate bubbles that emerged in various countries around the world throughout history and led to severe long-term economic crises within the country and elsewhere add to the concern about such occurrences in the Israeli economy. This article focuses on the current effects of the real estate bubble on Israeli society at the preliminary stage, and examines the sociodemographic implications of Israel’s rise in housing prices and its impact on several social parameters, such as the average number of members in a household, Israel’s residential density, age at marriage, the extent of emigration from the country among the young, the population’s spread to peripheral areas, the inequality index, and more.
Category: Social Science

[152] viXra:1812.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 07:51:07

Without Waste Heat Supercomputer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Combining the lossless charge transport of superconductivity with the electronic transport of magnetic information, i.e., spintronics, paves the way for fundamentally novel functionalities for future energy-efficient information technologies. [45] The interactions of quarks and gluons are computed using lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—a computer-friendly version of the mathematical framework that describes these strong-force interactions. [44] The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. [43] In a recent experiment at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, plasma electrons in the paths of intense laser light pulses were almost instantly accelerated close to the speed of light. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[151] viXra:1812.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 09:04:59

First Optical Microchip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:1812.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 09:32:52

Machine Learning Design Peptides

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Northwestern University researchers, teaming up with collaborators at Cornell University and the University of California, San Diego, have developed a new way of finding optimal peptide sequences: using a machine-learning algorithm as a collaborator. [28] A team of researchers led by Sanket Deshmukh, assistant professor of chemical engineering, has developed a method to investigate the structures of polymers that are sensitive to external stimuli. [27] In recent experiments studying analogous HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/extreme+waves/" extreme waves of light, researchers have used artificial intelligence to study this problem, and have now determined a probability distribution that preferentially identifies the emergence of rogue waves. [26] Artificial intelligence's potential lies not only in its ability to help improve the educational performance of learners, but also in its capacity to foster respect and understanding between all humans. [25]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[149] viXra:1812.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 10:07:23

Graphene Liquid Cell Radiation Tolerance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Materials now demonstrate, that the radiation tolerance is increased by an order of magnitude compared to a sample in ice. This result was achieved by preparing a microtubule sample in a graphene liquid cell. [29] For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[148] viXra:1812.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 10:44:07

Relation Between Mass & Time and Electromagnetic Wave & Distance

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

If distance and time are related somehow then they encompass the relation between electromagnetic waves and masses that being the mass is related to time and electromagnetic waves are related to distance
Category: Quantum Physics

[147] viXra:1812.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-30 15:25:04

A Proposed Proof of The ABC Conjecture

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 5 Pages. Submitted to the journal Research In Number Theory. Comments welcome.

In this paper, from a,b,c positive integers relatively prime with c=a+b, we consider a bounded of c depending of a,b. Then we do a choice of K(\epsilon) and finally we obtain that the ABC conjecture is true. Four numerical examples confirm our proof.
Category: Number Theory

[146] viXra:1812.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 11:08:39

Gravity Effect on Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

The electromagnetic waves get less oscillations and more wavelength when they undergo the effect of gravitation thus losing energy
Category: Quantum Physics

[145] viXra:1812.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 14:11:01

Some Neutrosophic Probability Distributions

Authors: Rafif Alhabib, Moustafa Mzher Ranna, Haitham Farah, A.A. Salama
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study some neutrosophic probability distributions, The study is done through generalization of some classical probability distributions as Poisson distribution, Exponential distribution and Uniform distribution, this study opens the way for dealing with issues that follow the classical distributions and at the same time contain data not specified accurately.
Category: Statistics

[144] viXra:1812.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 14:16:20

Intrusion Detection System and Neutrosophic Theory for MANETs: A Comparative Study

Authors: Haitham ElWahsh, Mona Gamal, A. A. Salama, I.M. El-Henawy
Comments: 7 Pages.

. Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically self-organized in arbitrary and temporary network topologies without communication infrastructure. This network may change quickly and unforeseeable. The unique characteristics of MANET give an adversary the opportunity to launch numerous attacks against ad-hoc networks. So the security is an important role in MANETs. This article aims to present the concept of intrusion detection system (IDs) and surveys some of major intrusion detection approach against neutrosophic intrusion detection system in MANETs. Current IDS’s corresponding to those architectures are also reviewed and compared. This paper introduces the accuracy rate and false alarm rate of four completely different classifiers to observe the percentage and the efficiency of the classifiers in detecting attacks in MANETs. Results show that Neutrosophic intelligent system based on genetic algorithm could facilitate significantly in detecting malicious activities in MANETs. Hence, neutrosophic techniques could be utilized to suit the ambiguity nature of the IDs
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[143] viXra:1812.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-12 11:29:13

The Zeta Induction Theorem: The Simplest Equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis?

Authors: Terrence P. Murphy
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents an uncommon variation of proof by induction. We call it deferred induction by recursion. To set up our proof, we state (but do not prove) the Zeta Induction Theorem. We then assume that theorem is true and provide an elementary proof of the Riemann Hypothesis (showing their equivalence).
Category: Functions and Analysis

[142] viXra:1812.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 02:30:47

The 5th Dimension: the Scalar Big-Bang; Its Metric Unification of Forces.

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this article I will try to explain in brief, simple terms unlike a previous book-sized post, what we system scientists call the fifth dimension, or ‘arrow of social evolution and information’ and how its metric explains some essential matters in science, such as genetics, memetics, the scales of the Universe, sociology and religion (the arrow of social evolution in human groups) and how it connects with Relativity and physics as it is similar to the concept of cyclic time clocks, angular momentum and the principle of equivalence between acceleration and gravitational forces. We apply then 5D metrics to the unification of charges and masses and the self-similar roles of electromagnetic and dark energy forces in the quantum and cosmological scales of the fifth dimension.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[141] viXra:1812.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 05:33:11

Decomposition of Nanoparticle Finished Textiles: A Brief Overview

Authors: Liu Yu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Textiles goes through variety of dyes and chemicals to their final destination. Textiles have non/and biodegradable substances, which decompose with time. The chemicals on them may not decompose and might be toxic to microorganisms present in ground. At present, a lot of research is performed on the decomposition of textile materials in natural soil, converting into biomass, water and carbon dioxide, posing no harm to the environment. In this respect, this research work aimed to see the decomposition of chemicals present on textiles, in order to understand the biodegradation phenomenon of textile materials and chemicals when buried in soil. The visual observations revealed that the decomposition or degradation of cellulose textile materials proceeded earlier than the one with functionality substance present on the cellulosic textiles.
Category: Biochemistry

[140] viXra:1812.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 06:18:51

PPPL Plasma Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

As on Earth, so in space. A four-satellite mission that is studying magnetic reconnection—the breaking apart and explosive reconnection of the magnetic field lines in plasma that occurs throughout the universe—has found key aspects of the process in space to be strikingly similar to those found in experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Astrophysics

[139] viXra:1812.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 06:30:39

Fourth Edition: Complex and Quaternion Optimization

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 12 Pages.

We introduce and suggest to research a special class of optimiz- ation problems, wherein an objective function is a real-valued complex vari- ables function under constraints, comprising complex-valued complex vari- ables functions: "Complex Optimization" or "Complex Programming". We demonstrate multiple examples to show a rich variety of problems, d- escribing complex optimization as an optimization subclass as well as a Mi- xed-Real-Integer Complex Optimization. Next, we introduce more general concept "Quaternionic Optimization" for optimization over quaternion subsets
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[138] viXra:1812.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 06:44:21

Results of Work of LHC

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 33 Pages.

Here are some of the results of the LHC.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[137] viXra:1812.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 07:09:54

Ice Promote Formation of Radicals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum, the University of Duisburg-Essen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg have discovered a possible mechanism for this. [46] The pattern of arrangement of atoms in a crystal, called the crystal lattice, can have a huge effect on the properties of solid materials. [45] The first step of this experiment involves placing the super-tiny crystals on the tip of the glass fiber. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Condensed Matter

[136] viXra:1812.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 09:56:48

The 5 Dimensional Motions of the Fractal Universe and Its 'stiences'

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 280 Pages. This paper introduces new research on the 5th Dimension, a paperbook uploaded a few years ago

The Universe is a fractal scalar, organic system of 5 Dimensions of space-time. The fifth dimension is made of the 'different co-existing scales', which from the simplest forces through particles, atoms, molecules, matter, organisms, super organisms, planetary systems and galaxies, create an 'organic network structure', which amazing enough since it was discovered at the beginning of science with telescope and microscopes, was not formalized till I introduce its metric equation in the milieu of systems sciences. In mathematical science for a dimension of space-time to exist, it requires a metric equation, which combines space, and time to gives us a co-invariant system that allows to travel through such dimension. The fifth dimension has a 'metric equation', hence it exists. The equations for a given number of scales co-existing in an organic network is S (size in space) x T (speed of time cycles) = Constant. Stiences study the Disomorphic laws of species, each one focused in a scale of the eusocial 5th Dimension, with different jargons, which we shall unify as all what exist is homologic, made of the same Dimotions (ab. Dimensional motion), which force them to exist as part of super organisms tracing worldcycles, with a ternary structure in space, time and scales, guided by a still, linguistic mind, which projects its smaller mirror images of form in its territorial body waves, creating its fractal scalar structure, broken though by the entropic limits of its perceptive reach. The main nested super organisms humans perceive are: the galatom, where nested thermodynamic planets exist, where nested human social organisms self-centered in visual, verbal, mathematic and logic minds create its order with social and mechanical memes, carried by individuals where nested cellular systems exist, coded by genes, made of even smaller atoms and particles coded by quantum numbers. Yet all those scales are unified by the co-invariant metric equations of each of its synchronous time clocks. It means when we become smaller within such organic network, our time clocks accelerate. And vice versa. For example, in your organism the equation relates the cellular genetic scale, whose time cycles run much faster than your biological cycles. As information is stored in the form and frequency of time clocks, it follows that in all nature's organisms, smaller systems code the information of larger systems. Each 'stience' therefore specializes in the study of a nested super organism, or scale of the fifth dimension (∆±¡), We study 3 fundamental super organisms of the 5th dimension. The 'galatom', whose metric equation is H(Planck constant of angular momentum) x C (speed of light) = C, whereas h is an obvious 'cyclical time clock' and C an obvious measure of speed-distances in space. And indeed, smaller scales have faster turning particles, and larger systems move in slower cycles. (Vortex law: Vo x Ro = k). In biology we study families of animals such as mammals where larger organisms have slower metabolic cycles. In history we study social organisms, whose cycles of life and death, will define the evolution of nations and civilizations. And in each of those organisms, smaller systems code larger ones. So the quantum numbers of particles code matter, genes code biologic organisms, and memes code societies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[135] viXra:1812.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 09:49:23

Materials Skip Energy Barrier

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

A new collaborative study led by a research team at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Washington could provide engineers new design rules for creating microelectronics, membranes and tissues, and open up better production methods for new materials. [47]Nürnberg have discovered a possible mechanism for this. [46] The pattern of arrangement of atoms in a crystal, called the crystal lattice, can have a huge effect on the properties of solid materials. [45] The first step of this experiment involves placing the super-tiny crystals on the tip of the glass fiber. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter

[134] viXra:1812.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 10:12:03

Affirmation of the Craig Interpolation Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the Craig interpolation theorem, find a mistake in a Craig lemma as rendered by Feferman, and affirm the theorem.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[133] viXra:1812.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 11:09:30

Traffic Rules in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In the drive to find new ways to extend electronics beyond the use of silicon, physicists are experimenting with other properties of electrons, beyond charge. [26] In the emerging field of magnon spintronics, researchers seek to transport and process information by means of so-called magnon spin currents. [25] Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[132] viXra:1812.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 13:37:14

Why Recessive Lethal Alleles Have not Disappeared?

Authors: Jorma Jormakka
Comments: 11 Pages. I have several times tried to submit this paper, please delete the earlier versions.

The article derives the probability for lethal recessive alleles in the case of recessive disadvantage or advantage and discusses why lethal recessive alleles have not disappeared. It is shown that recessive advantage of a lethal gene can be detected by the ratio of heterozygotes and homozygotes. This demonstrates that higher IQ of certain ethnic groups cannot be explained by recessive advantage of lethal genes.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[131] viXra:1812.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 16:20:16

Refutation of the modal logic GL2

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the modal logic GL2 in two axioms and for satisfiability. One of the two axioms is not tautologous, and the five formulas for PSpace complete satisfiability are not tautologous. Hence GL2 is refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[130] viXra:1812.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 03:05:02

Proof of Goldbach Conjecture for the Integer System

Authors: Kim Geon Hack
Comments: 6 Pages. Proof of Goldbach conjecture

According to Goldbach's conjecture, every even number is the sum of two.Prime .This conjecture was proposed in 1742, In fact, it remains unproven. I prove Goldbach's conjecture.. It is related to the integer system and when the number expands to infinity it is concluded that Goldbach speculation is proven.
Category: General Mathematics

[129] viXra:1812.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 03:04:59

Microworld_52. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 12

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

EmDrive, “Antigravity engine”, photon engine – outbreak of a new power engineering era in the contemporary earth civilization.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[128] viXra:1812.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 03:30:41

2 Things Science Hates for Good Reasons and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

why science hates time travel and antigravity, why they're impossible, and what the implications are for antimatter
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[127] viXra:1812.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 04:29:36

An Application for Medical Decision Making with the Fuzzy Soft Sets

Authors: Murat Kirisci
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the present study, for the medical decision making problem, the proposed technique related to the fuzzy soft set by Celik-Yamak through Sanchez’s method was used. The real dataset which is called Cleveland heart disease dataset applied in this problem.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[126] viXra:1812.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 04:41:31

Pluto Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Earth velocity daily (2.58 mkm) = Pluto velocity daily (0.406 mkm) x 2π The previous relationship is found based on 2 reasons –at least- which are: 1-Earth and Pluto are the 2 ends of the solar group main energy trajectory. 2-Earth and Pluto Relationship is found through the moon orbit (Earth moon orbit) This paper tries to prove these facts.
Category: Astrophysics

[125] viXra:1812.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 04:51:14

Quanta of Decay Momentum

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 3 pages, 2 tables

The article discloses a new property of any known forcefield: elementary particles have an equal initial momentum at the distances comparable with the radius of a proton. It is probably the quanta of a decay momentum.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[124] viXra:1812.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:50:45

光速极限的秘密

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 4 Pages.

光速唯一定理:宇宙空间由离散的普朗克空间组成,粒子只能在一个普朗克时间从一个普朗克空间跳到另一个普朗克空间,速度就是光速。光速是宇宙中唯一的运动速度,其它亚光速是光速和普朗克时间组合而生成的,没有超光速的组合。所有粒子要么以光速运动,要么以零速静止。
Category: Quantum Physics

[123] viXra:1812.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-19 03:02:31

Deriving Spacetime in Four-Dimensional Euclidean Space Without Time and Dynamics (In English)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 9 Pages.

Hypothesis, allowing deriving a space-time with a Minkowski space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This hypothesis also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the hypothesis. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the hypothesis. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived, Lorentz transformations were derived.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[122] viXra:1812.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 10:20:47

Hypersphere Cosmology 3.

Authors: Peter J Carroll
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper presents core the equations and physical principles of Hypersphere Cosmology drawn together in summary from a number of the authors previous papers. It presents an alternative interpretation of observed cosmological data to that currently used in the Standard Model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[121] viXra:1812.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-13 06:58:30

L' Attraction Des Nombres Par la Force Syracusienne

Authors: M. Sghiar
Comments: 7 Pages. Accepted & french version © Copyright 2018 by M. Sghiar. All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: msghiar21@gmail.com

I show here that if $ x \in \mathbb{N}^*$ then $1 \in \mathcal{O}_S (x)= \{ S^n(x), n \in \mathbb{N}^* \} $ where $ \mathcal{O}_S (x)$ is the orbit of the function S defined on $\mathbb{R}^+$ by $S(x)= \frac{x}{2} + (x+\frac{1}{2}) sin^2(x\frac{\pi}{2})$, and I deduce the proof of the Syracuse conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[120] viXra:1812.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 20:02:54

Refutation of Definable Modal Operators on Stable Set Lattices

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate definable modal operators on stable set lattices. None of the definitions or implementations is tautologous, hence refuting the operators.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[119] viXra:1812.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 20:08:04

Refutation of the Definition of Sacchetti's Modal Logics of Provability

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the definition of Sacchetti's modal logics of provability. It is not tautologous. Therefore it is a mistake to use it as a basis for constructing fixed point procedures.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[118] viXra:1812.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 20:47:32

Relationship of the Resistivity with the Specific Heat.

Authors: Olmos Alfredo, Olmos R. Romyna
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this article, the relationship between resistivity and the specific heat of a conductor is studied. It is known that the resistivity of a conductor increases when the temperature of the conductor increases. And the specific heat of a material is a function of temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[117] viXra:1812.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-18 09:09:13

A Simple, Direct Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Phil Aaron Bloom
Comments: 3 Pages.

An open problem is proving FLT \emph{simply} (using Fermat's toolbox) for each $n\in\mathbb{N}, n>2$. Our \emph{direct proof} (not BWOC) of FLT is based on our algebraic identity $((r+2q^n)^\frac{1}{n})^n-(2^\frac{2}{n}q)^n=((r-2q^n)^\frac{1}{n})^n$ with arbitrary values of $n\in\mathbb{N}$, and with $r\in\mathbb{R},q\in\mathbb{Q},n,q,r>0$. For convenience, we \emph{denote} $(r+2q^n)^\frac{1}{n}$ by $s$; we \emph{denote} $2^\frac{2}{n}q$ by $t$; and, we \emph{denote} $(r-2q^n)^\frac{1}{n}$ by $u$. For any given $n>2$ : Since the term $t$ or $2^\frac{2}{n}q$ with $q\in\mathbb{Q}$ is not rational, this identity allows us to relate null set $\{(s,t,u)|s,t,u\in\mathbb{Q},s,t,u>0,s^n-t^n=u^n\}$ with subsequently proven null set $\{z,y,x|z,y,x\in\mathbb{Q},z,y,x>0,z^n-y^n=x^n\}$: We show it is true, for $n>0$, that $\{t|s,t,u\in\mathbb{Q},s,t,u>0,s^n-t^n=u^n\}=\{y|z,y,x\in\mathbb{Q},z,y,x>0,z^n-y^n=x^n\}$. Hence, for any given $n\in\mathbb{N},n>2$, it is a true statement that $\{(x,y,z)|x,y,z\in\mathbb{N},x,y,z>0,x^n+y^n=z^n\}=\varnothing$.
Category: Number Theory

[116] viXra:1812.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 01:43:34

Rotation Operators and Head Piece Fashion

Authors: Armin Zjajo
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ever since caps were worn, fashion deemed it necessary that everyone eventuallymigrate to new styles as the older styles became ”worn” and ”uncool.” Unfor-tunately, as of yet, there have been no mathematical explanations for how thesenew styles have come about. We henceforth set about creating a mathemati-cal foundation for the styles people use for wearing their hats, caps, and otherheadpieces of choice.
Category: Classical Physics

[115] viXra:1812.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 01:46:35

Tunneling Wave Function and the Inreval of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 5 Pages.

A link is established between tunneling and the nature of space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[114] viXra:1812.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-13 18:40:24

Diffusion Limited Aggregation and the Spiderweb Distribution of Dark Matter on Galactic Scales

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 6 Pages. First draft.

It was recently found that multivariable flows from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of field theory display universal properties. Under the assumption that these flows develop outside equilibrium, they can reproduce the dynamic content of the Standard Model (SM) and shed light on the physics of Dark Matter structures. Here we explore a scenario where the spiderweb patterns of Dark Matter on galactic scales arise from a process resembling three-dimensional Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). Key words: Strange Attractors, Standard Model, Dark Matter, Cantor Dust, Diffusion Limited Aggregation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[113] viXra:1812.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 05:05:27

Spin on Kagome Lattices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 90 Pages.

Like so many targets of scientific inquiry, the class of material referred to as the kagome magnet has proven to be a source of both frustration and amazement. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[112] viXra:1812.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 07:29:14

Atoms Stand for High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38] Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[111] viXra:1812.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 07:58:14

AI Predict Rogue Waves of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In recent experiments studying analogous extreme waves of light, researchers have used artificial intelligence to study this problem, and have now determined a probability distribution that preferentially identifies the emergence of rogue waves. [26] Artificial intelligence's potential lies not only in its ability to help improve the educational performance of learners, but also in its capacity to foster respect and understanding between all humans. [25] The New York Times contacted IBM Research in late September asking for our help to use AI in a clever way to create art for the coming special section on AI. [24] Granting human rights to a computer would degrade human dignity. [23] IBM researchers are developing a new computer architecture, better equipped to handle increased data loads from artificial intelligence. [22] A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[110] viXra:1812.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 08:24:17

Spin-Based Memory Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[109] viXra:1812.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 08:51:21

Nonlinearity for Wireless Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

The nonlinear characteristics of metamaterials have displayed emerging potentials for frequency conversions owing to the induced local fields around the resonators. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[108] viXra:1812.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 09:20:05

Небесная Механика Эфира

Authors: Геннадий Бражник
Comments: 128 Pages.

Современное представление о гравитационном взаимодействии планет Солнечной системы основано на гелиоцентрической системе мира. Вместе с тем теоретическая аналитика показывает, что Солнце в структуре окружающего бытия вращается вокруг Меркурия, а Земля — вокруг Луны… Объяснение этих «парадоксов небесной механики» можно найти в предлагаемой публикации.
Category: Classical Physics

[107] viXra:1812.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 10:21:12

Null-Cone Integral Formulation of QFT

Authors: Julian Brown
Comments: 2 Pages.

In these preliminary notes we show that there exist null cone integral analogues of both the Dirac equation and the U(1) gauge field. We then explore a generalization of this idea through the introduction of a universal scalar, analogous to the lagrangian density of the Standard Model, from which all known particle equations of motion and interactions can be derived in principle, without recourse to either field derivatives or gauge degrees of freedom. The formulation suggests that at least some of the constants appearing in the Standard Model are related to cosmological quantities such as the total number and mass of particles on the past null cone, and that these are the origin of broken gauge symmetry.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[106] viXra:1812.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 13:00:59

Negative Mass as a Driver for Cosmic Inflation and Dark Energy

Authors: Mark Ridler
Comments: 6 Pages.

I have conducted n-body simulations of a model universe. Initial conditions include a uniform mix of 4 types of particle: positive and negative charge and positive and negative mass. A "cold collapse" scenario is used, except that only parts of the model collapse, the rest expands. I contend that this is compatible with the known universe and a viable solution to the Dark Energy puzzle. Also discussed is a possible solution to the Dark Matter puzzle. This relies on the self-attractive effects of negative mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[105] viXra:1812.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 13:32:39

Partitioning the Positive Integers with the Collatz Algorithm

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 5 Pages. Copyright 2018 James Edwin Rock Create Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Collatz sequences are formed by applying the Collatz algorithm to a positive integer. If it is even repeatedly divide by two until it is odd, then multiply by three and add one to get an even number and vice versa. Eventually you get back to one. The Collatz Structure is created, which contains all positive integers exactly once. The terms of the Collatz Structure are joined together via the Collatz algorithm. Thus, every positive integer forms a Collatz sequence with unique terms terminating in the number one.
Category: Number Theory

[104] viXra:1812.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 16:10:26

The Moon Motion is A Relativistic Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Hypothesis: The Moon is a physical point moves with light velocity (0.3million /sec), for that reason the moon motion causes relativistic effects The Moon Daily Motion -The moon moves 2.58 mkm daily = Earth daily motion (otherwise they will be separated from each other) -If there's no relativistic effect the moon should be seen as a bright stationary point in the sky because Earth and Moon move by the same velocity. But -Because of the relativistic effects this value (2.58mkm) will be contracted with the same rate 1.0725 to produce the value 2.41 mkm (the rate 1.0725 we have discussed before clearly) -So the moon daily motion =2.58 mkm but this value is seen =2.41mkm -The difference between both = 0.17 mkm which causes the moon daily displacement (0.17 mkm = 2 x 88000km) -Why the difference 0.17 mkm = 2 x moon daily displacement 88000km? may that occur because of the motions opposite directions. -So this explanation shows easily how the moon move and proves also that the moon motion causes relativistic effects.
Category: Astrophysics

[103] viXra:1812.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-09 13:58:06

Is This Euler's Mistake? or is it Just a Misprint Circling?

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 7 Pages.

Euler's formula is generally expressed as follows. \zeta(1-s)={\frac{2}{(2*pi)^s}\Gamma(s)\cos(\frac{pi*s}{2})\zeta(s))} However, I substitute (-2,-4,-6) in this and do not become zero. There is not it and approaches only for a zero when I surely substitute Non trivial zero point (0.5+14.1347i, 0.5+21.0220i) for this formula. It is either whether the formula of the Euler is wrong whether a misprint is sold as for this.  I am convinced misprints are circulating. I am convinced that it is sold It is make a mistake with cos, and to have printed sin. Suppose you replace cos with sin. \zeta(1-s)={\frac{2}{(2*pi)^s}\Gamma(s)\sin(\frac{pi*s}{2})\zeta(s))}
Category: General Mathematics

[102] viXra:1812.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 21:04:48

Abc Conjecture is in the Ambiguity in Which Case of ε>0

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 12 Pages.

Since there are infinitely many consecutive satisfactory values of ε to enable A+B=C satisfying C>(rad(A, B, C))1+ε, thus the author uses a representative equality, namely 1+2N(2N-2)=(2N-1)2 satisfying (2N-1)2>[rad(1, 2N(2N-2), (2N-1)2)]1+ε, and that first let ε equal a value near the greater end of the infinitely many consecutive satisfactory values to prove the ABC conjecture; again let ε equal a value near the smaller end to negate the ABC conjecture. This shows that the ABC conjecture is in the ambiguity in which case of ε>0.
Category: Number Theory

[101] viXra:1812.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 22:43:34

3 Ways for Him to Swing

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 5 Pages.

the ways antimatter can interact with time are explored and the consequences of the only viable option are enumerated, theory detailed, test proposed, and casual finale
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1812.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 03:49:03

Molecules with Extreme X-Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[99] viXra:1812.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:11:16

Spin Orbit Coupling in Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[98] viXra:1812.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:29:44

Machine Learning in Biomedical Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A team of researchers led by Sanket Deshmukh, assistant professor of chemical engineering, has developed a method to investigate the structures of polymers that are sensitive to external stimuli. [27] In recent experiments studying analogous extreme waves of light, researchers have used artificial intelligence to study this problem, and have now determined a probability distribution that preferentially identifies the emergence of rogue waves. [26] Artificial intelligence's potential lies not only in its ability to help improve the educational performance of learners, but also in its capacity to foster respect and understanding between all humans. [25] The New York Times contacted IBM Research in late September asking for our help to use AI in a clever way to create art for the coming special section on AI. [24] Granting human rights to a computer would degrade human dignity. [23] IBM researchers are developing a new computer architecture, better equipped to handle increased data loads from artificial intelligence. [22] A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[97] viXra:1812.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:47:46

Blind Spot in Atomic Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 90 Pages.

Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy—a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1812.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:56:15

Eld Och Miljön

Authors: Magnus Carlsson
Comments: 2 Pages.

A fire has a certain amount of black carbon as rest product. This carbon remains in the ground and is withdrawn from the atmosphere. Examples are given.
Category: Climate Research

[95] viXra:1812.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:12:22

Gravity As A Unified Force

Authors: Mark Ridler
Comments: 15 Pages.

Model A is attractive; standard physics. Model AB is attractive / repulsive; Hermann Bondi. Model ABCD is likes vs opposites; non-standard physics. Also discussed is a is a new way of looking at Electron-Positron annihilation.
Category: Astrophysics

[94] viXra:1812.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:15:25

Holographic Display and Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[93] viXra:1812.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:25:54

Unexplored Territory in Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[92] viXra:1812.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:47:56

Competing States in High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1812.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:55:50

Why Energy has Different Forms?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 2 Pages.

Energy different forms are created because of the observer different positions relative to it. Why the observer positions are different relative to the energy? The observer position changes according to the observer knowledge and realization… The universe is reflected from the human knowledge and logic
Category: Astrophysics

[90] viXra:1812.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 08:24:46

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 8

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 20 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Der RS1B2- Wandler wird vorgestellt und hinsichtlich dem Betrag der umzuwandelnden Energie mit einer Photovoltaikanlage durchschnittlicher Leistung verglichen. Es wird zudem aufgezeigt, dass je nach der Anzahl der Freiheitsgrade eines Kreisels zwischen der Winkelgeschwindigkeit und der Umfangsgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung unterschieden werden muss.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[89] viXra:1812.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 08:27:36

Interaction Between Two Qubits Using Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1812.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 09:59:52

Artificial Photosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[87] viXra:1812.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 10:25:29

3-D Imaging of Perovskite Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[86] viXra:1812.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 10:55:12

Temporal Elasticity Gravitation and Antimatter

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a concise treatment of gravitation and antimatter using temporal elasticity as mediator
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[85] viXra:1812.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 11:18:58

Accelerated Frames of Reference Without the Clock Hypothesis: Fundamental Disagreements with Rindler

Authors: Francois Ritter
Comments: 21 Pages.

Based on an intuitive generalization of the Lorentz Transformations to non-inertial frames, this study presents new coordinates for a hyperbolically accelerated reference frame. These coordinates are equivalent to the Rindler coordinates exclusively at small times due to the loss of the clock hypothesis. This hypothesis is considered an excellent but fundamentally incorrect approximation for longitudinal motion. The proper acceleration of a hyperbolically accelerated particle is no longer constant and its proper time progressively slows down until becoming constant at the speed of light. This is in agreement with the timeless nature of photons. An event horizon beyond which any information cannot reach the particle is still present and is identical to the Rindler horizon. More importantly, a time dependent factor appears in the metric that could profoundly change our understanding of the space-time dynamic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[84] viXra:1812.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 14:23:59

A Note About the Determination of The Integer Coordinates of An Elliptic Curve: Part I

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 8 Pages. Comments welcome.

In this paper, we give the elliptic curve (E) given by the equation: y^2=x^3+px+q with $p,q \in Z$ not null simultaneous. We study a part of the conditions verified by $(p,q)$ so that it exists (x,y) \in Z^2 the coordinates of a point of the elliptic curve (E) given by the equation above.
Category: Number Theory

[83] viXra:1812.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 19:14:46

A Hybrid Model of Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

an attempt to reconcile two seemingly incompatible concepts: General Relativity and the Standard Model via temporal elasticity
Category: Quantum Physics

[82] viXra:1812.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-11 09:59:51

Modified General Relativity

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 18 Pages.

A modified Einstein equation of general relativity is obtained by using the principle of least action, a decomposition of symmetric tensors on a time oriented Lorentzian manifold, and a fundamental postulate of general relativity. The decomposition introduces a new symmetric tensor $ \varPhi_{\alpha\beta} $ which describes the energy-momentum of the gravitational field itself. It completes Einstein's equation and addresses the energy localization problem. The positive part of $ \Phi $, the trace of the new tensor with respect to the metric, describes dark energy. The cosmological constant must vanish and is dynamically replaced by $ \Phi $. A cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang is described. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe. The negative part of $ \Phi $ describes the attractive self-gravitating energy of the gravitational field. $\varPhi_{\alpha\beta} $ introduces two additional terms into the Newtonian radial force equation: the force due to dark energy and the $\frac{1}{r}$ "dark matter" force. When the dark energy force balances the Newtonian force, the flat rotation curves and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation are obtained. The Newtonian rotation curves for galaxies with no flat orbital curves, and those with rising rotation curves for large radii are described as examples of the flexibility of the orbital rotation curve equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:1812.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 04:07:13

Ferent Equation of the Universe

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 263 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent equation of the Universe:” Adrian Ferent Today ordinary Matter, which includes atoms, stars, galaxies… accounts for only 15% of the contents of the Universe and 85% is Dark Matter. This means Dark Matter accounts for most of the matter in the Universe. Dark Matter neither emits nor absorbs electromagnetic radiation. Ordinary Matter is composed of elementary particles. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent I consider M, the number of Dark Matter elementary particles, in the Universe. M is the number of Dark Matter elementary particles in Dark Matter and Matter in the Universe. The Universe as a quantum system! The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as a quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, and Dark Matter, M elementary particles, evolving in time. 157. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the Universe:
Category: Quantum Physics

[80] viXra:1812.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 05:01:29

Proteins Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots.
Category: Physics of Biology

[79] viXra:1812.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 06:13:46

Etymology of words THIN and EXACT

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 7 Pages. -

It is shown that these two words have an identical origin
Category: Linguistics

[78] viXra:1812.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 08:54:53

Dark Energy Mayall Telescope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/matter/" matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[77] viXra:1812.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 09:04:44

Attribute Spaces vs Standard Model

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

a brief depressing comparison of the titled two subjects
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[76] viXra:1812.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 09:22:53

Particles Change Flavor in Flight

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A recent Ph.D. thesis in University of Jyväskylä, Finland, finds that the properties of the ghost-like particles, the so-called neutrinos, can be studied at a high precision in the next generation of accelerator-based experiments. [18] The largest liquid-argon neutrino detector in the world has just recorded its first particle tracks, signaling the start of a new chapter in the story of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[75] viXra:1812.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 09:44:47

Theoretical Dark Matter Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Collisions between dark matter and regular matter would be an excellent source of information on the still-unknown 80 % of all matter in our Universe. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/ matter/" matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/detector/" detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[74] viXra:1812.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 09:56:01

E = not Mc2 in Massless Black Holes According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 33 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Energy is not the same as Mass x c2 for Black Hole nuclei, in detail: Black Hole nuclei are massless they do not radiate EM or graviton radiation and they have no Inertia, but they gravitate by the absorption of the local oscillating Casimir Axion –Higgs pressure 2: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 3: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[73] viXra:1812.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 10:06:34

AI Transform Education

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Artificial intelligence's potential lies not only in its ability to help improve the educational performance of learners, but also in its capacity to foster respect and understanding between all humans. [25] The New York Times contacted IBM Research in late September asking for our help to use AI in a clever way to create art for the coming special section on AI. [24] Granting human rights to a computer would degrade human dignity. [23] IBM researchers are developing a new computer architecture, better equipped to handle increased data loads from artificial intelligence. [22] A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[72] viXra:1812.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 11:09:19

New Creative Approaches in Social Sciences

Authors: D. Vlad, A. Iorgulescu, M. Marcu, A. C. Stoian
Comments: 180 Pages.

[The Proceedings of CIL 2018: Fifth Edition of International Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity, Imaginary, Language, Craiova, Romania, 24-25 May 2018 (www.cilconference.ro)]
Category: Social Science

[71] viXra:1812.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 19:29:23

Refutation of the Planar Eucleadian R-Geometry of Tarski

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com . Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the axioms of the title. The axiom of identity of betweenness and axiom Euclid are tautologous, but the others are not. The commonplace expression of the axiom of Euclid does not match its other two variations which is troubling. This effectively refutes the planar R-geometry.
Category: Geometry

[70] viXra:1812.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 02:46:35

Proof of Infinite Prime Number

Authors: Tangyin Wu Ye
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract, simulates basic arithmetic logic, reasoning judgment and hypothesis contradiction.
Category: General Mathematics

[69] viXra:1812.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 03:00:05

Ferent Equation for N Elementary Particles

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 261 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent A quantum system involves the wave function. The wave function is the most complete description that can be given of a quantum system. The evolution of N elementary particles quantum system is governed through the Ferent equation for N elementary particles. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity, Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent That is why: The Higgs mechanism doesn't explains the source of any masses, the Higgs mechanism is not a mechanism for generating mass. “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent 156. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation for N elementary particles
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1812.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 03:29:36

Who Needs Wave Equations?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page and references

This paper further explores a dual interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle as applied to the classical Rutherford-Bohr calculations of the geometry of the hydrogen electron orbitals. It shows the Rutherford-Bohr model has some advantages over the quantum-mechanical model (Schrödinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom). As such, it basically continues a development started in my previous paper (http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0028). What is novel in this paper is the exploration of the mathematical equivalence between both models.
Category: Quantum Physics

[67] viXra:1812.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-24 08:52:30

Geometries of O

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 93 Pages.

Geometries of O adhere to Ockham's principle of simplest possible ontology: the only individuals are points, there are no straight lines, circles, angles etc. , just as it was was laid down by Tarski in the 1920s, when he put forward a set of axioms that only contain two relations, quaternary congruence and ternary betweenness. However, relations are not as intuitive as functions when constructions are concerned. Therefore the planar geometries of O contain only functions and no relations to start with. Essentially three quaternary functions occur: appension for line-joining of two pairs of points, linisection representing intersection of straight lines and circulation corresponding to intersection of circles. Functions are strictly defined by composition of given ones only. Both, Euclid and Lobachevsky planar geometries are developed using a precise notation for object-language and metalanguage, that allows for a very broad area of mathematical systems up to theory of types. Some astonishing results are obtained, among them: (A) Based on a special triangle construction Euclid planar geometry can start with a less powerful ontological basis than Lobachevsky geometry. (B) Usual Lobachevsky planar geometry is not complete, there are nonstandard planar Lobachevsky geometries. One needs a further axiom, the 'smallest' system is produced by the proto-octomidial- axiom. (C) Real numbers can be abandoned in connection with planar geometry. A very promising conjecture is put forward stating that the Euclidean Klein-model of Lobachevsky planar geometry does not contain all points of the constructive Euclidean unit-circle.
Category: Geometry

[66] viXra:1812.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 07:29:36

Quantum Materials as Computing Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[65] viXra:1812.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 08:39:14

A New Way To Harness Energy

Authors: Sudarshan Saha
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we are proposing a method to harness energy in a green way. The method uses the fact, if two molecule with different electron affinity mechanically forced to interact with each other, electrostatic energy can be generated. The method has similarity with Photo-Voltaic Cell and Van de Graaff Generator, but it is more versatile and efficient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[64] viXra:1812.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 08:44:17

Is Mass Electric Charge? The Photon in the 5th Dimension and Reissner Nordström Solution for Theory of Total Relativity

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 5 Pages.

A particle solution is obtained, interpreted as being the Photon, with mass and electric charge, using the Null Quantum tensor in 5th dimension according to Theory of Total Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[63] viXra:1812.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 09:41:03

AI Chip Radiation at CERN

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

An ESA-led team subjected Intel's new Myriad 2 artificial intelligence chip to one of the most energetic radiation beams available on Earth. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[62] viXra:1812.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 10:06:16

AI-Motorized Wheelchair

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

A new wheelchair may give people with severe mobility challenges another reason to smile about artificial intelligence—that grin might literally help them control their wheelchair. [22] Now, researchers at Stanford University have devised a new type of artificially intelligent camera system that can classify images faster and more energy efficiently, and that could one day be built small enough to be embedded in the devices themselves, something that is not possible today. [21] Today, deep neural networks with different architectures, such as convolutional, recurrent and autoencoder networks, are becoming an increasingly popular area of research. [20] A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as—and sometimes better than— today's best automated methods or even human experts. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[61] viXra:1812.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 10:20:56

On-Demand Video Dispatch Networks: A Scalable End-to-End Learning Approach

Authors: Damao Yang, Sihan Peng, He Huang, Hongliang Xue
Comments: 11 Pages.

We design a dispatch system to improve the peak service quality of video on demand (VOD). Our system predicts the hot videos during the peak hours of the next day based on the historical requests, and dispatches to the content delivery networks (CDNs) at the previous off-peak time. In order to scale to billions of videos, we build the system with two neural networks, one for video clustering and the other for dispatch policy developing. The clustering network employs autoencoder layers and reduces the video number to a fixed value. The policy network employs fully connected layers and ranks the clustered videos with dispatch probabilities. The two networks are coupled with weight-sharing temporal layers, which analyze the video request sequences with convolutional and recurrent modules. Therefore, the clustering and dispatch tasks are trained in an end-to-end mechanism. The real-world results show that our approach achieves an average prediction accuracy of 17%, compared with 3% from the present baseline method, for the same amount of dispatches.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[60] viXra:1812.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 10:43:20

Building Block in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[59] viXra:1812.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 11:03:14

Magnetism by Crystal Lattice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

The pattern of arrangement of atoms in a crystal, called the crystal lattice, can have a huge effect on the properties of solid materials. [45] The first step of this experiment involves placing the super-tiny crystals on the tip of the glass fiber. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[58] viXra:1812.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 13:21:29

Euclid Riemann and TET

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 6 Pages.

a humorous discussion of why we need a new branch of mathematics called 'theory of attribute spaces'
Category: Classical Physics

[57] viXra:1812.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 15:44:36

Special Interference

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Light also has inertia and variable speed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:1812.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-10 15:13:28

Proof of Lagarias’s Elementary Version of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Riemann hypothesis is a conjecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zero’s only at the negative even integers and complex numbers with real part 1/2 The Riemann hypothesis implies results about the distribution of prime numbers. Along with suitable generalizations, some mathematicians consider it the most important unresolved problem in pure mathematics (Bombieri 2000). It was proposed by Bernhard Riemann (1859), after whom it is named. The name is also used for some closely related analogues, such as the Riemann hypothesis for curves over finite fields. The Riemann hypothesis implies significant results about the distribution of prime numbers. Along with suitable generalizations, some mathematicians consider it the most important unresolved problem in pure mathematics (Bombieri 2000). The Riemann zeta function is defined for complex s with real part greater than 1 by the absolutely convergent infinite series: ζ(s) = 1 + 1/2s + 1/3s + 1/4s + ... The Riemann hypothesis asserts that all interesting solutions of the equation: ζ(s) = 0 lie on a certain vertical straight line. In mathematics, the n-th harmonic number is the sum of the reciprocals of the first n natural numbers: Hn = 1 + 1/2+1/3+1/4+⋯+ 1/n = ∑_(n=1)^n▒1/n Harmonic numbers have been studied since early times and are important in various branches of number theory. They are sometimes loosely termed harmonic series, are closely related to the Riemann zeta function. The harmonic numbers roughly approximate the natural logarithm function and thus the associated harmonic series grows without limit, albeit slowly. In 1737, Leonhard Euler used the divergence of the harmonic series to provide a new proof of the infinity of prime numbers. His work was extended into the complex plane by Bernhard Riemann in 1859, leading directly to the celebrated Riemann hypothesis about the distribution of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[55] viXra:1812.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 18:47:19

A Multi-Dimensional Puppet Show

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 14 Pages.

Infinite dimensions, the sub-planck Quantum realm, and the Quantum web of dimensional interactions, and it's implications for our universe, the physical forces, and even consciousness.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] viXra:1812.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 20:55:33

The Twin Prime Number is Infinite

Authors: 1
Comments: 23 Pages. Welcome to comment on my article

Reference: proof of the infinite size of Euclidean prime numbers The twin prime number
Category: General Mathematics

[53] viXra:1812.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 22:22:02

Confirmation of the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

Using the standard wiki definition of the Collatz conjecture, we map a positive number to imply that a divisor of two implies either an even numbered result (unchanged) or an odd numbered result (changed to the number multiplied by three plus one) to imply the final result of one. This is the shortest known confirmation of the conjecture, and in mathematical logic.
Category: Number Theory

[52] viXra:1812.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 00:04:07

Divergence Measure of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Fuyuan Xiao
Comments: 9 Pages.

As a generation of fuzzy sets, the intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) have more powerful ability to represent and deal with the uncertainty of information. The distance measure between the IFSs is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a new distance measure between the IFSs on the basis of the Jensen{ Shannon divergence. The new distance measure of IFSs not only can satisfy the axiomatic de nition of distance measure, but also can discriminate the diference between the IFSs more better. As a result, the new distance measure can generate more reasonable results.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[51] viXra:1812.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-07 14:39:27

The Peak Strong Force or Peak Strong Gravitational Force

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Most everyone is aware off gravity, some are aware of the gravitational constant, less are aware of the strong force, and virtually no one knows about the strong gravitational constant or what it would be. The author proposes that the same format can be used for the strong force that is used for the gravitational constant. The calculations will be shown here. Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is made of spheres that are made of spheres perhaps indefinitely. It is the discontinuities in the spheres that give rise to imperfection and make the universe interesting. The equations, so far have shown the forces from elementary charge, weak charge, and gravity. This paper shows the building of the equation for the unit strong force. The unit strong force is the force of one strong force carrier at its closest interaction. The unit strong force has a very short distance of action as the attraction loops back on itself very quickly due to its extreme strength that basically pulls apart space and makes new quarks. The equation developed herein is only for the force at its closest interaction, which is strong enough to hold the protons and neutrons and other nucleons together within the nucleus of the atom.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] viXra:1812.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 04:31:50

Einstein's Field Theory is Wrong and Nordstr\"om's Correct

Authors: Jorma Jormakka
Comments: 33 Pages.

Gunnar Nordstr\"om published his second gravitation theory in 1913. This theory is today considered to be inconsistent with observations. At this time Einstein was working on his field theory, the General Relativity Theory. Einstein's theory has been accepted as the only theory of gravitation consistent with measurements. The article reconsiders Nordstr\"om's theory and proves the following claims. 1) If gravitation is caused by a scalar field, then the theory is Nordstr\"om's second gravitation, which in a vacuum outside a point mass reduces to his first gravitation theory. Nordstr\"om's scalar field theory gives proper time values that fully agree with gravitational redshift in the Pound-Rebka experiment and with the Shapiro time delay in Shapiro's radar bouncing experiment. Gravitation in Schwarzschild's solution is not a field but a deformed geometry. If proper time is calculated via the General Relativity formula, Schwarzschild's solution fails both the Pound-Rebka redshift and Shapiro time delay tests because the ball in Schwarzschild's solution is deformed and light as measured by an external clock can exceed $c$. 2) The third classical tests of Einstein's theory is the movement of the perihelion of Mercury. Calculations from Schwarzschild's exact solution to Einstein's equations gave a correction that very well fitted the unexplained part of Mercury's movement. However, Schwarzschild's solution as a stationary solution it fails to explain why the orbit of Mercury, or any planet, is an ellipse. It is shown that the customary proof of Kepler's law stating that the orbit is an ellipse is incorrect: under a central stationary Newtonian force the orbit of a two mass system can only be a circle or (almost) a hyperbole because of conservation of energy. This observation invalidates the movement of Mercury as a test of General Relativity: Schwarzschild's solution cannot produce an elliptic orbit, therefore it is not the solution and that it gives a correct size modification to the movement of the perihelion is just a coincidence. Nordstr\"om's theory remains inconclusive in the Mercury test because calculating the orbit is difficult and cannot be done in this article. Nordstr\"om's theory, however, offers a possibility for explaining elliptic orbits: some energy is needed for waves in time-dependent solutions to Nordstr\"om's field equation and this loss of potential energy from the radial potential can lead to elliptic orbits. 3) The fourth classical test is the light bending test. Light bends in Nordstr\"om's theory as light behaves as a test mass in a gravitational field. Calculation of the amount of light bending in Norstrs\"om's theory is similar to calculation of the orbit of planets and beyond the scope of this article. Theoretical consideration of bending of light leads to the conclusion that the stress-energy tensor in the General Relativity is incorrect: the diagonal entries should contain the energy of a stationary gravitational field in the vacuum outside a point mass and therefore diagonal Ricci tensor entries cannot be zeroes. Nordstr\"om's theory passes this theoretical consideration while Einstein's theory fails it.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[49] viXra:1812.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 04:46:49

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 7

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 18 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Es wird zudem aufgezeigt, dass aus einer unterschiedlichen Anzahl der Freiheitsgrade eines Kreisels auch unterschiedliche Berechnungsalgorithmen für die Winkelgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung resultieren.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[48] viXra:1812.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 05:16:56

Negative Dark Matter Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1812.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 06:39:33

Fractal for the Function: F(z)=ln(ln(ln Z)) 1 , Z in (-6-6i,6+6i)

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 33 Pages.

This note presents the newton fractal for the function: f(z)=ln(ln(ln z))-1.
Category: General Mathematics

[46] viXra:1812.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 06:42:06

Elementary Fractals: Part IV

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 119 Pages.

This note presents a collection of elementary Fractals.
Category: Geometry

[45] viXra:1812.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 07:11:29

Macroscopic by Microscopic Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1812.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 07:53:03

Dual 8-bit Breakthrough in AI

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

IBM Research launched the reduced-precision approach to AI model training and inference with a landmark paper describing a novel dataflow approach for conventional CMOS technologies to rev up hardware platforms by dramatically reducing the bit precision of data and computations. [24] Recent successful applications of deep learning include medical image analysis, speech recognition, language translation, image classification, as well as addressing more specific tasks, such as solving inverse imaging problems. [23] Researchers at Caltech have developed an artificial neural network made out of DNA that can solve a classic machine learning problem: correctly identifying handwritten numbers. [22] Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand—and much faster than recently possible. [21] Humans have 46 chromosomes, and each one is capped at either end by repetitive sequences called telomeres. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[43] viXra:1812.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 09:23:09

Force of the Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Scientists from the Theory Department of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg, Germany have shown through theoretical calculations and computer simulations that the force between electrons and lattice distortions in an atomically thin two-dimensional superconductor can be controlled with virtual photons. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1812.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 09:35:01

The Higgs vs TET

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 7 Pages.

the motivations for the Higgs boson are detailed and compared to the reasons why TET is rejected by the physics community
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[41] viXra:1812.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 09:51:40

Atomic-Scale Pictures of Tiny Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

The first step of this experiment involves placing the super-tiny crystals on the tip of the glass fiber. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[40] viXra:1812.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 10:26:08

Infrared Image Encoding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Plasmonic materials can uniquely control the electromagnetic spectrum due to nano-scale surface architecture. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1812.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 11:32:36

Universal Forecasting Scheme By Professor Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Universal Forecasting Scheme.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[38] viXra:1812.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 11:40:35

Theoretical Model For Holistic Non Unique Clustering By Professor Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the analysis of Theoretical Model For Holistic Non Unique Clustering.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[37] viXra:1812.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 11:55:09

Black Holes

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

A whirlpool on Earth has one jet due to gravity, so if gravity didn't apply to that whirlpool then it would have two jets. So why do we see two jets in a black hole or a galaxy?, because it's a whirlpool as well. And because a whirlpool always requires a medium that is made of loose particles, we can conclude that a black hole or a galaxy is an enormous invisible whirlpool in ether particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1812.0050 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-02 14:44:32

Real-Time Scheduling Approach for IoT based Home Automation System

Authors: Rishab Bhattacharyya, Aditya Das, Atanu Majumdar, Pramit Ghosh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most disruptive technologies now- adays which can efficiently connect, control and manage intelligent objects those are connected to the Internet. IoT based applications like smart education, smart agriculture, smart health-care, smart homes etc which can deliver services with- out manual intervention and in a more effective manner. In this work, we have proposed a IoT based smart home automation system using a micro-controller based Arduino board and mobile based Short Message service (SMS) application working functionality. Wi connectivity has been used to establish the communi- cation between the Arduino module and automated home appliances. We have proposed a real-time scheduling strategy that offers a novel communication pro- tocol to control the home environment with the switching functionality. Our sim- ulation results show that the proposed strategy is quite capable to achieve high performance with different simulation scenarios.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] viXra:1812.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 17:00:27

On the Solvability of Real Topoi

Authors: Liad Baruchin, Eva-Maria Mueller
Comments: 7 Pages.

Let X′(O) ∈ √2. In [1], the main result was the extension of matrices. We show that M e,...,O−9 ̸= 0: C5 ∋ <x−1(−i)×Σκ(−|z|,−1)×····Xy′ ∨Ξ ̃. X. Johnson [1] improved upon the results of S. F. Qian by constructing matrices. Recent interest in sub-universal random variables has centered on classifying simply contra-Markov subsets.
Category: Topology

[34] viXra:1812.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-04 11:12:13

Refutation of the Lonely Runner Conjecture with Three Runners

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the conjecture of the lonely runner with three runners. We do not assume a runner may be stationary as a no-go contestant. The result is that the conjecture diverges from tautology by one logical value and hence is refuted. We then assume a runner can be stationary with result of the same truth table also to refute the conjecture.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[33] viXra:1812.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-10 02:34:57

Complete Science of Faith with Its《The Principle of Natural Law》

Authors: Yansha Yu-Sandstrom
Comments: 73 Pages.

中国“前沿科学”杂志受篇幅限制,于2014年02期发表了本人所著“宇宙生命复合立体同步划分整合相生演进原理”前几部章节;随后,中国线装书局于2015年五月出版了这一原理更为丰富的内容,书名《宇宙学 人类文明智慧交叉整合共通共识理论原理》。美国网络期刊“数学前沿(JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MATHEMATICS)”在2015年12月18日发表了该原理的部分简化内容,标题为《The principle of natural law》 build in “Complete Scientific Modeling" with its internet could inclusive of all human faith, knowledge and experience. The world peace come from all the personality together blooming and complement each other。由于本人英文水平非常有限,相信不会有人看懂它。 兹寻求“完满的科学信仰及其《自然规律原理》”不同语言翻译者,以利世界不同文明文化信仰学科通过沟通交流达成人类的和解共识,谨此向翻译者们致以衷心的感谢!! 何谓包容完满的信仰?理性全方位融会贯通也*注1;换言之,从全体“个性规律”中求得它们共同具有的“共性原则”即为包容完满的信仰。何谓《自然规律原理》?即为“共性原则”也为“个性规律”的“共性原则个性规律共通共识”三大相辅相成法则,在不排斥全体人类认知认证基础上,结合数理化,包容全面地阐明万事万物各自自身及其彼此相互的存在方式和存在关系,方式方法异曲同工地翻译、互补和建立人类不同文明文化信仰学科共同具有的存在道理,为科学时代的科学人类,从各自立场属性出发走向和解共识,共建健康安全发展的“科学社会PUZZLE有机互补公共道德秩序制度”,奠定理论沟通基础。 《自然规律原理》也称“三位一体”*注2原理。鉴于科学只有量子学说接触到了“三位一体”一些皮毛,但量子学说尚未归纳总结出“三位一体”的任何概念和法则,科学实验室更未接触到“三位一体”的任何皮毛。因此,本文“引文索引”只能从世界古老文明文化信仰们方式方法异曲同工的“三位一体”法则中取得佐证。竟如,《圣经》和“本体论”的“上帝”及其“三位一体”符号“十字架”的“上帝法则”;《古兰经》“阿拉”及其“阿拉之星月”法则(其中,“星”也由“男性白色传统长袍”代表,“月”也由“女性从头到脚覆盖的黑色传统长袍”代表);《佛经》“佛”及其“三身佛”法;《易经》“大恒”及其“阴阳球”之宇宙法理;《道德经》“道”及其“一阴一阳之谓道”的“三一之道”法自然;……。为有助相应科学期刊的理解、支持和发表,兹将《自然规律原理》解决当下科学理论困局的四篇演绎文章做为本文概要,为即将入住正文追本寻源科学和跨学科真理的仁人志士们,热身。
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1812.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-08 01:40:57

Non-Parametric Regression or Smoothing on a Two Dimensional Lattice Using the K-Matrix

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 16 Pages.

A two-dimensional lattice model is described that is able to treat border effects in a coherent way. The model belongs to a class of non-parametric regression models, coming with three smoothness parameters that are estimated from cross validation. The techniques use the K-matrix, which is a typically large and sparse matrix that is also symmetric and indefinite. The K-matrix is subjected to factorization, and algorithmic differentiation, using optimized software, thereby permitting estimation of the smoothness parameters and estimation of the two-dimensional surface. The techniques are demonstrated on real data.
Category: Statistics

[31] viXra:1812.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-05 02:08:54

ζ(3), ζ(5), ζ(7), ζ(9), ζ(11), ζ(13) Are Irrational Numbers  

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since ζ(3) could be represented by sin, cos and π, we report here. I spelled In wolframAlpha, and, ζ(5), ζ(7), ζ(9), ζ (11), ζ(13) considered. From these equations, it can be said that ζ(3), ζ (5), ζ (7), ζ (9), ζ (11), ζ(13) are irrational numbers. ζ (15), ζ (17) etc. can also be expressed by these equations.
Category: General Mathematics

[30] viXra:1812.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 00:47:46

The Discreteness of Space is the Cause of the Quantization of the Wavelength

Authors: Miheev Sergey Vladimirovich
Comments: 2 Pages.

The requirement of invariance with respect to phase change imposed on free oscillations in discrete space limits the wavelength of free oscillations to discrete values that are multiples of the minimum wavelength. The minimum wavelength is twice the fundamental length — the distance between adjacent lattice points of a discrete space. The old calculations of the cosmological constant do not contain significant errors. The result of the calculations was incorrectly interpreted. Since the energy of standing oscillations related to the size of the discrete space was summed, the energy density of the discrete space was obtained. In fact, the binding energy was obtained, ensuring connectivity and stability of space. Our universe was formed from free oscillations of discrete space, therefore its density is 120 orders of magnitude lower than the density of discrete space in which it exists.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29] viXra:1812.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-20 01:47:08

Sqrt(30a-11)=t and Sqrt(16a-7)=t

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

sqrt(30a-11)=t and sqrt(16a-7)=t are of course an expression derived from sqrt(30a+1)=t and sqrt(16a+1)=t, but decided to announce sqrt(30a-11)=t and sqrt(16a-7)=t, because it has a feeling of producing more prime than sqrt(30a+1)=t and sqrt(16a+1)=t. These have the advantage that they do not produce numbers that end with 5 and It is difficult to produce a multiplication of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[28] viXra:1812.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 06:25:19

Refutation of Kent Algebras on Rough Set Concept Analysis

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We use modal logic to evaluate definitions for Kent algebras, as presented for rough set concept analysis. Some definitions are not tautologous, hence refuting Kent algebras on rough sets.
Category: Algebra

[27] viXra:1812.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 08:48:13

Refutation of a Modal Logic for Partial Awareness from Published Example

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate a modal logic for partial awareness from a published example. The definitions and conjectures are not tautologous. We show how to exclude a priori logical clauses to promote a perhaps unintended tautology for the example. However, our evaluation does not rely on modal operators, suggesting that the system as proffered should be renamed to a logic for awareness, without the word modal.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[26] viXra:1812.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 12:02:48

Tet Cont'd

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 6 Pages.

temporal elasticity theory is detailed and established on firm foundation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1812.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 13:44:40

Pluto Data Shows a Relationship with Earth

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Earth Pluto Relationship disproves the solar group current theory And proves that the solar group is one geometrical structure
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1812.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 14:40:10

Low Inductive and Resistance Energy Capacitor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper considers the design of a powerful electric capacitor with a very small induction and resistance. Such capacitors are necessary in many branches of technology, when all the energy of a capacitor must be given out for millionths (10-6) of a second to an object with low electrical resistance. The proposed capacitor allows you to reduce the installation of energy supply to a nuclear reactor and its cost a thousand times. Key words: Low Inductive Capacitor, Low Resistance Capacitor, Energy Capacitor, Capacitor for Fusion Reactor.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23] viXra:1812.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 14:47:21

Science Research and Patenting of Innovations

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 11 Pages.

At the present time the USA’s Federal Government spends big tax monies for Scientific Research and Development (R&D). How to best organize this vast governmental activity, how to best estimate its ultimate utility and profitability (real and potential), how to best increase efficiency of innovation and production, how to best estimate the worth of new discoveries and innovations, how to properly fund R&D of new concepts and innovations, and how to correctly estimate their results, how to improve a patenting all these macro-problems are important for successful planning of scientific research, new systems—these are all complex and pressing questions that require answers if further industrial progress and scientific improvements are ever to be! The authors consider these some major-system problems and offer many remarkable innovations in organization, estimation, suggestions for entirely new research efficiency criteria, development, new methods for assessments of new ideas, innovations in science and industry, and new methods in patenting technology. The author A.A. Bolonkin worked for many years within the USA’s Federal Government entities (scientific laboratories of NASA, Air Force), and USSR and USA universities and industry. -------------------------------------------------- Keywords: Organizing scientific research, planning of research, funding research, funding new ideas (concepts), funding inventions and innovations, estimating research cost, assessment of research results, research efficiency criteria, innovation in organizing of scientific R&D, patenting.
Category: Economics and Finance

[22] viXra:1812.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 17:02:04

Experts are Not Always the Prepared Minds

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A small list outlines what future discoverers will be like. It is suggested to look out for them, as they think differently. This is a small list that is from the author's experience with the sharing of the discovery that planets are simply older, evolving and dead stars.
Category: Education and Didactics

[21] viXra:1812.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 19:34:05

Any Even Number Greater Than 2 Must be the Sum of Two Prime

Authors: Tangyin Wu Ye
Comments: 23 Pages.

Abstract simulation,basiclogicof synchronization algorithm, reasoning judgment and hypothesis contradiction [integer theory]
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20] viXra:1812.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-07 14:57:33

The Unit Strong Force in Sphere Theory Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

We find that the peak force measured at Jefferson Laboratory could be about 7000 newtons inside the proton, and the peak strong force calculated in equation 16,17 to be about 6150 Newtons. Both are similar and the author proposes that what Jefferson Laboratory measured in their test was mostly the strong force. It is not clear what surface area Jefferson Laboratory was using for their calculation of pressure. The author believes it was an area from a space that had a radius of 0.6 femtometers as discussed in the Nature article [1]. Also, in Nature article, it is clear that the Pascals, is a rough number, on which they intend to find improvement. The author of this paper proposes that Jefferson Laboratory only state what the force was as the area may not be measurable and could in fact be the Planck Area, which would put the pressure up into the Pascals pressure.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:1812.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 03:34:21

Bohr’s Atom, the Photon and the [un]certainty Principle

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages include title page and references

This is a didactic exploration of a possible dual interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle as applied to the classical Rutherford-Bohr calculations of the geometry of the hydrogen electron orbitals. It highlights, in particular, a classical mistake in regard to the interpretation of atoms as atomic oscillators – and the calculation of their Q. It also offers a substantial correction to the model of a photon that was presented in a previous paper (The Metaphysics of Physics).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1812.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 03:45:52

Mach's Principle: the Origin of the Inertial Mass (I)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 9 Pages.

We show that the forces of inertia acting on the accelerated bodies are forces of gravitational induction exerted by the whole of the Universe. Therefore, the phenomenon of inertia and the inertial mass of a body have a cosmic origin, as demanded by the Mach's principle. The calculations will be applied to a vector gravitational field theory. In a second part of this research we will apply these results to the General Theory of Relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1812.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:37:38

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory:part B: Granular Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 8 Pages.

A previous publication in Phys. Rev. D, (Part A of this paper) pointed out that vacuum energy fluctuations implied mass fluctuations which implied curvature fluctuations which then implied fluctuations of the metric tensor. The metric fluctuations were then taken as fundamental and a stochastic space-time was theorized. A number of results from quantum mechanics were derived. This paper (Part B), in addressing some of the difficulties of Part A, required an extension of the model: In so far as the fluctuations are not in space-time but of space-time, a granular model was deemed necessary. For Lorentz invariance, the grains have constant 4-volume. Further, as we wish to treat time and space similarly, we propose fluctuations in time. In order that a particle not appear at different points in space at the same time, we find it necessary to introduce a new model for time where time as we know it is emergent from an analogous coordinate, tau-time, τ, where ' τ -Time Leaves No Tracks' (that is to say, in the sub-quantum domain, there is no 'history'). The model provides a 'meaning' of curvature as well as a (loose) derivation of the Schwartzschild metric without need for the General Relativity field equations. The purpose is to fold the seemingly incomprehensible behaviors of quantum mechanics into the (one hopes) less incomprehensible properties of space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1812.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 13:50:16

The Massive Universe

Authors: Alan T Kelly
Comments: 22 Pages.

Based on a quantitative assessment of the fundamental forces and constants, we demonstrate a solution to the Constant Speed of Light V’s Variable Speed of Light question. The solution provides that all physical constants begin at a point of fundamental perfection, where their values can be described in the absolute simplest terms, requiring only the numbers 1; 2; 3; and 5 to do so. We subsequently demonstrate that by inserting a Mass Variable into the model, to account for the quantity of mass interacting with our locale of space, we can transform these perfect prime based constants, to attain predictive results that are on average 99.94% in agreement with CODATA values. We conclude that the speed of light is indeed variable, as is every other physical constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1812.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-25 01:58:45

Riemann Hypothesis has to be True : Mathematics as the Game :Application Game Theory Nash Equilibrium

Authors: Pankaj Mani
Comments: 12 Pages.

Riemann Hypothesis is TRUE if we look at the Functional Equation satisfied by the Riemann Zeta function upon analytical continuation in Game Perspective way as visualized by David Hilbert. It uses technical game theoretical concepts e.g. Nash Equilibrium to assert that Riemann Hypothesis has to be True. Needs to be looked at the Foundational Principles underlying Mathematics. In other words,it’s the game of arranging Zeros in the complex plane using the functional equation.
Category: Number Theory

[14] viXra:1812.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 15:00:27

Schrodinger's Cat Pseudoscience and Fringe Theories

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 6 Pages.

detailed examination of title topics, examples, and presentation of one viable alternative
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[13] viXra:1812.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 15:11:29

A Complete Proof of the ABC Conjecture

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

In this paper, we assume that Beal conjecture is true, we give a complete proof of the ABC conjecture. We consider that Beal conjecture is false $\Longrightarrow$ we arrive that the ABC conjecture is false. Then taking the negation of the last statement, we obtain: ABC conjecture is true $\Longrightarrow$ Beal conjecture is true. But, if the Beal conjecture is true, then we deduce that the ABC conjecture is true
Category: Number Theory

[12] viXra:1812.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-13 09:03:08

A Probabilistic Proof of the Convergence of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Kamal Barghout
Comments: 16 Pages. The material in this article is copyrighted. Please obtain authorization from the author before the use of any part of the manuscript

A probabilistic proof of the Collatz conjecture is described via identifying a sequential permutation of even natural numbers by divisions by 2 that follows a recurrent pattern of the form x,1,x,1…, where x represents divisions by 2 more than once. The sequence presents a probability of 50:50 of division by 2 more than once as opposed to divisions by 2 once over the even natural numbers. The sequence also gives the same 50:50 probability of consecutive Collatz even elements when counted for division by 2 more than once as opposed to division by 2 once and a ratio of 3:1 of high counts. Considering Collatz function producing random numbers and over sufficient iterations, this probability distribution produces numbers in descending order that lead to the convergence of the Collatz function to 1, assuming the only cycle of the function is 1-4-2-1.
Category: Number Theory

[11] viXra:1812.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-08 21:11:56

Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function can be Found Arbitrary Close to the Line \Re(s) =1

Authors: Khalid Ibrahim
Comments: 96 Pages.

In this paper, not only did we disprove the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) but we also showed that zeros of the Riemann zeta function $\zeta (s)$ can be found arbitrary close to the line $\Re (s) =1$. Our method to reach this conclusion is based on analyzing the fine behavior of the partial sum of the Dirichlet series with the Mobius function $M (s) = \sum_n \mu (n) /n^s$ defined over $p_r$ rough numbers (i.e. numbers that have only prime factors greater than or equal to $p_r$). Two methods to analyze the partial sum fine behavior are presented and compared. The first one is based on establishing a connection between the Dirichlet series with the Mobius function $M (s) $ and a functional representation of the zeta function $\zeta (s)$ in terms of its partial Euler product. Complex analysis methods (specifically, Fourier and Laplace transforms) were then used to analyze the fine behavior of partial sum of the Dirichlet series. The second method to estimate the fine behavior of partial sum was based on integration methods to add the different co-prime partial sum terms with prime numbers greater than or equal to $p_r$. Comparing the results of these two methods leads to a contradiction when we assume that $\zeta (s)$ has no zeros for $\Re (s) > c$ and $c <1$.
Category: Number Theory

[10] viXra:1812.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-10 13:13:36

Special Relativity Leads to a Trans-Planckian Crisis that is Solved by Haug’s Maximum Velocity for Matter

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In gravity theory, there is a well-known trans-Planckian problem, which is that general relativity theory leads to a shorter than Planck length and shorter than Planck time in relation to so-called black holes. However, there has been little focus on the fact that special relativity also leads to a trans-Planckian problem, something we will demonstrate here. According to special relativity, an object with mass must move slower than light, but special relativity has no limits on how close to the speed of light something with mass can move. This leads to a scenario where objects can undergo so much length contraction that they will become shorter than the Planck length as measured from another frame, and we can also have shorter time intervals than the Planck time. The trans-Planckian problem is easily solved by a small modification that assumes Haug’s maximum velocity for matter is the ultimate speed limit for something with mass. This speed limit depends on the Planck length, which can be measured without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the Planck constant. After a long period of slow progress in theoretical physics, we are now in a Klondike “gold rush” period where many of the essential pieces are falling in place.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1812.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-03 12:51:54

Refutation of the Frauchiger-Renner Thought Paradox as a Quantum Model

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 4 Pages.

We use modal logic to evaluate a quantum model of the Frauchiger-Renner thought experiment as not a contradiction (paradox) and not a tautology (theorem). The example misapplies the Born rule which we refute elsewhere.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[8] viXra:1812.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 01:18:44

Projection Holographic Geometry and Holographic Principle

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

n this paper, we consider the relationship between the wave function and the holographic principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1812.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 03:10:43

Refutation of Modal Forms on Vietoris Space

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We use modal logic to evaluate the defined modal forms on Vietoris space to find them not tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[6] viXra:1812.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 03:51:42

Faster Computer Memory Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[5] viXra:1812.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 04:26:50

Microscopic Machines can Fail

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1812.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 04:41:49

Understanding of Solutal Convection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The findings revealed that the primary driver of this type of fluid flow—called solutal convection— had been overlooked. What's more, once this driver is accounted for, it completely flips the expected flow outcomes. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1812.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 04:56:58

Extracting Gas from Shale Formations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Extracting gas from new sources is vital in order to supplement dwindling conventional supplies. [48] The findings revealed that the primary driver of this type of fluid flow—called solutal convection— had been overlooked. What's more, once this driver is accounted for, it completely flips the expected flow outcomes. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:1812.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 05:01:55

An Analysis and Proof on Beal’s Conjecture

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this article, the author first classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby get rid of two kinds which belong not to AX+BY=CZ. Then, affirm the existence of AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have at least a common prime factor by several concrete equalities. After that, prove AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the distinct odd-even relation on the premise whereby even number 2W-1HZ as symmetric center of positive odd numbers concerned after divide the inequality in four. Finally, reach a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture holds water via the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.
Category: Number Theory

[1] viXra:1812.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 05:32:47

See Stress Using Supercomputers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Supercomputer simulations show that at the atomic level, material stress doesn't behave symmetrically. [49] Extracting gas from new sources is vital in order to supplement dwindling conventional supplies. [48] The findings revealed that the primary driver of this type of fluid flow—called solutal convection — had been overlooked. What's more, once this driver is accounted for, it completely flips the expected flow outcomes. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter