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1905 Submissions

[567] viXra:1905.0616 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 05:50:12

A Geometric and Topological Quantisation of Mass

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this work we discuss a geometric and topological quantisation of mass by extending our work on the principle of least action in which the quantisation of both the angular momentum of a Bohr hydrogen atom and the charge of an elementary particle can be shown to be quantised from the continuous deformation of a differentiable manifold. Similar to the case of the quantisation of charge using the two-dimensional Ricci scalar curvature, we show that in the case of three-dimensional differentiable manifolds we can apply the Yamabe problem, which states that any Riemannian metric on a compact smooth manifold of dimension greater or equal to three is conformal to a metric with constant scalar curvature, to show that mass can also be quantised by the deformation of differentiable manifolds. The Yamabe problem is a generalisation of the uniformisation theorem for two-dimensional differentiable manifolds. We also discuss whether quantum particles can be expressed as direct sums of quantum masses when they possess mathematical structures of differentiable manifolds, with the quantum masses are considered as prime manifolds. This may be regarded as a physical manifestation of an established mathematical proposition in differential geometry and topology that states that any compact, connected, and orientable differentiable manifold M can be decomposed into prime manifolds and the decomposition is unique up to an absorption or emission of 3-spheres S^3. This process of decomposition of differentiable manifolds into prime manifolds and the radiation of 3-spheres is similar to the radiation of the quanta of physical fields from a quantum system, such as the radiation of photons from a hydrogen atom. Even though our work is highly speculative and suggestive, we hope that it may pay way for further rigorous mathematical investigations into whether mass is also quantised like charge and other fundamental entities in physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[566] viXra:1905.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 07:53:11

Boron's Complicated Dance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Work opens a path to precise calculations of the structure of other nuclei. [29] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[565] viXra:1905.0614 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-04 08:31:22

Nature Works the Way Number Works

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 36 Pages.

Based on Eulers formula a concept of dually unit or d-unit circle is discovered. Continuing with, Riemann hypothesis is proved from different angles, Zeta values are renormalised to remove the poles of Zeta function and relationships between numbers and primes is discovered. Other unsolved prime conjectures are also proved with the help of theorems of numbers and number theory. Imaginary number i can be defined such a way that it eases the complex logarithm without needing branch cuts. Pi can also be a base to natural logarithm and complement complex logarithm.Grand integrated scale is discovered which can reconcile the scale difference between very big and very small. Complex constants derived from complex logarithm following Goldbach partition theorem and Eulers Sum to product and product to unity can explain lot of mysteries in the universe.
Category: Number Theory

[564] viXra:1905.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 08:42:01

Weak Gravity Unification with the Quantum Vacuum

Authors: M. A. Thomas
Comments: 41 Pages. PDF of a PPT. presentation 41 Slides

A low energy gauge theory coupled to a scalar tensor has a precise interrelationship to Monster group symmetry (hidden) across a slight energetic vacuum change from the near flat Minkowski type gentle curving space time of the regular uud-ddu (proton neutron) flavor fields to more extremal space time curvature near a neutron (or black hole) star in the ddu-ddu (neutron )flavor fields. The nature of the scalar tensor only slightly violates EP in the weak gravity realm. In addition it is suggested that a highly symmetric version of Scalar Tensor Theory is the correct theory operating in the realm of Newton-Einstein Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[563] viXra:1905.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 08:52:05

SLAC Fires Up Electron Gun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Crews at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have powered up a new electron gun, a key component of the lab's upgrade of its Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser, and last night it fired its first electrons. [41] In April, work began on one of the major projects scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the CERN accelerators: improving the electrical insulation of over 1200 magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[562] viXra:1905.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 09:22:11

Travel Nearly the Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The theory of special relativity showed that particles of light, photons, travel through a vacuum at a constant pace of 670,616,629 miles per hour-a speed that's immensely difficult to achieve and impossible to surpass in that environment. [28] Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete-roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[561] viXra:1905.0610 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 10:08:06

Refutation of BF Calculus (And Square Root of Negation)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Abstract: We evaluate the eight defining equations of the Spencer-Brown system. None is tautologous. This refutes the subsequent primary arithmetic renamed as BF calculus. We previously refuted the Dunn-Belnap 4-valued bilattice as not bivalent and thus non tautologous, so to draw in refinements and extensions by others and apply BF to it compounds the mistakes. Further producing a square root operation on negative 1 is also not tautologous. Spencer-Brown and BF systems subsequently form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[560] viXra:1905.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 10:13:51

100 Single-Atom Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt have recently demonstrated the defect-free assembly of versatile target patterns of up to 111 single-atom quantum systems. [35] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks. [34] Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[559] viXra:1905.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 10:31:59

Organic Laser Diodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Researchers from Japan have demonstrated that a long-elusive kind of laser diode based on organic semiconductors is indeed possible, paving the way for the further expansion of lasers in applications such as biosensing, displays, healthcare and optical communications. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[558] viXra:1905.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 10:41:57

The Value Of Gravitational Quanta

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 5 Pages.

According to theory of quantum gravity developed by me, the gravitational field consists of variable and constant components. The constant or invariable field does not change with distance. This field consists of a very large number of gravitational quanta.We have studied the gravitational force between two bodies at very large distances.From the calculation it is derived that, the smallest value of force exerted by quantum line of gravity called gravitational quanta, q̌ , is equal to 1.48 x 10-97 N.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[557] viXra:1905.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 11:39:09

The Numbers 4 and 8 are Especially Important in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The frequency of the numbers 4 and 8 appearing in Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric theory is sufficiently high that these numbers can be taken as a useful signal of the theory in operation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[556] viXra:1905.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 12:54:22

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory7

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

how does a photon act as a wave imagine a mass and part of that mass is with some space inside it and then the space goes inside the mass volume round and round that is how an electromagnetic wave act
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[555] viXra:1905.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 18:28:36

Photons Redshift0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as the photon goes larger distances it stops spinning its space inside round and round more and so it calms down and has less frequencies and more "wavelength" and then ends up redshifting
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[554] viXra:1905.0603 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 05:51:16

A Relational Formulation of Classical Mechanics

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 6 Pages. Version 6 in English.

This paper presents a relational formulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[553] viXra:1905.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 22:04:34

Energy-Time Dynamics vs Space-Time Symmetry

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 30 Pages.

Special relativity is non-intuitive, leading to logical contradictions. For over a century there has been no alternative theory capable of explaining the many relativity experiments, especially time-dilation experiments. Unlike quantum mechanics, relativity is interpreted only in terms of space-time symmetry. Here we derive and discuss an alternative theory, Energy-time dynamics, that explains relativistic experiments and does not yield the logical contradictions of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[552] viXra:1905.0601 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 23:48:42

Understanding and Testing [e Theorem Prover(etp) +dlib+ruby+llvm+rubinius+graalvm ] in the Context of Dicom/medical Imaging & Informatics Platform a Simple Novel Suggestion on Using Machine Learning [ML] Concepts in hi-End Heterogeneous Computing Envi

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

Understanding and Testing [E Theorem Prover(ETP) +dlib+Ruby+LLVM+Rubinius+GraalVM ] in the context of DICOM/Medical Imaging & Informatics Platform - A Simple Novel Suggestion on Using Machine learning [ML] Concepts in Hi-End Heterogeneous Computing Environments involving [LLVM-Ruby/IoT/HPC] Hardware/Software/Firmware.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[551] viXra:1905.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 09:51:33

On the Emergence of Dark Matter from Coherent Quantum States

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 2 Pages. First draft: abstract, plan of work and references only.

Recent work suggests that Dark Matter behaves as large-scale dimensional condensate of Cantor Dust, a topological structure arising from the minimal fractal geometry of spacetime above the electroweak scale. Here we show that the spectrum of the quantum harmonic oscillator in the number basis stands in a one-to-one correspondence with the formation of Cantor Dust. The correspondence becomes exact upon applying an unbounded number of scaling iterations to a generic fractal set.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[550] viXra:1905.0599 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 11:09:22

Quantum Origins of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

By demonstrating a stable method for formulating the no-boundary proposal, the results may lead to a rethinking of the idea as a description for the origins of the universe. [40] A pair of researchers, one at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and another at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the University of Tokyo, have recently investigated a set of old conjectures about symmetries in quantum gravity. [39] In conventional holography a photographic film can record the interference pattern of monochromatic light scattered from the object to be imaged with a reference beam of un-scattered light. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[549] viXra:1905.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 11:26:45

Refutation of the Schaefer Theorem for the P, NP Problem (Undecided)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the Schaefer theorem for the P, NP problem by two examples for Graph-SAT(Ψ ). Neither example is tautologous; while claimed to be different, they result in the same truth table values. (The injection of NP-intermediate does not describe our result.) This refutes NP-complete (and P, NP, NP-hard). We also evaluate the P, NP problem as based on P≤NP with the same result. Therefore P, NP, NP-complete, NP-hard, NP-intermediate form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[548] viXra:1905.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 13:18:40

Quantum Force Affecting Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[547] viXra:1905.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 14:34:55

Ancillary Inflation and the Theory of General Relativity

Authors: Andrew Goldfarb, Nok Zgrgl
Comments: 5 pages.

This is a review of the main work on the ancient and experimental issues in the study of the potential for inflation in the framework of the classical general relativity. The major subjects considered include the extension of general relativity to the universe in a curved spacetime, and the implications of new and innovative methods for peculiar and general theories of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[546] viXra:1905.0595 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-28 12:34:50

The Speed of Light On The Earth And In The Gravity-Free Space

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 12 Pages.

The metric for describing the spacetime geometry of a charged and rotating source in general relativity is the Kerr-Newman metrics, and it is an appropriate one to discuss the movement on the Earth. It is explicit that the velocity of light we measure is dependent on the rotation and net charges of the Earth, and usually the measurements are less than it in the really free space, at infinity or the gravity-free space, as long as the net charges of the Earth are less than 1.4x10^19 C. According to this, the velocity of light in the really gravity-free space should be corrected. When we adopt the coordinate time at infinity as the unified time at each measurement placement on the Earth, it is 0.2085 m/s slightly larger than what we identify in vacuum on the Earth, 2.9979458x10^8 m/s. The calculations also show the tiny deviation on the speed of light along the longitudinal direction between two poles and the equator, and it also exists deviation between the left-handed circularly light and the right-handed circularly one in the equator. We also discuss the difference on the speed of light in the local reference frame by using the proper time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[545] viXra:1905.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 22:37:49

Using Stellar Metamorphosis to Avoid Astronomical Pigeonholing

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

As exoplanet data is collected, astronomers need to use a theory that can guard them against the pitfalls of pigeonholing the discoveries.
Category: Astrophysics

[544] viXra:1905.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 01:17:14

Operation Between Separated Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks. [34] Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[543] viXra:1905.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 01:39:18

Accessing Damaged DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

UV light damages the DNA of skin cells, which can lead to skin cancer. But this process is counteracted by DNA repair machinery, acting as a molecular sunscreen. [22] Histones are proteins that regulate the unwinding of DNA in the cell nucleus and the expression of genes based on chemical modifications or "marks" that are placed on their tails. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[542] viXra:1905.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 02:50:56

Spring-Clean for LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

In April, work began on one of the major projects scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the CERN accelerators: improving the electrical insulation of over 1200 magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[541] viXra:1905.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 03:08:42

Representation of Processive Functions in Robinson Arithmetic ?

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 10 Pages.

In connection with his so-called incompleteness theorem Gödel discovered the beta-function. The beta-function theorem is important for the representation of recursive functions in the concrete calcule ALPHA of Robinson arithmetic. The other features are composition and minimization of primitive recursive functions. Recursive functions are no part of Robinson arithmetic, but they are representable by certain formulae. The author has developed an approach to logics that comprises, but goes beyond predicate logic. The FUME method contains two tiers of precise languages: object-language Funcish and metalanguage Mencish. It allows for a very wide application in mathematics from recursion theory and axiomatic set theory with first-order logic, to higher-order logic theory of real numbers and so on. The concrete calcule LAMBDA of a natural number arithmetic with first-order logic has been defined by the author. It includes straight recursion and composition of functions, it contains a wide range of so-called compinitive functions, with processive functions far beyond primitive recursive functions. They include e.g. Ackermann's function and similar constructions. All recursive functions (that are obtained by minimization too) can be represented in LAMBDA . As long as there is no proof that all processive functions are minimitive recursive (recursive but not primitive recursive) one has the problem of representing them in concrete calcule ALPHA of Robinson arithmetic. As long as the challenge of such a proof is not met there is the conjecture that there are calculative functions that are not representable in Robinson arithmetic. An abstract calcule alphakappa of Robinson-Crusoe arithmetic shows that there exists an even weaker adequate arithmetic than Robinson's.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[540] viXra:1905.0589 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 07:35:56

Heat Transport for Thermoelectrics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

NCCR MARVEL researchers have developed a novel microscopic theory that is able to describe heat transport in very general ways, and applies equally well to ordered or disordered materials such as crystals or glasses and to anything in between. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[539] viXra:1905.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 08:14:55

Quantum Model of Mass Function

Authors: Xiaozhuan Gao, Yong Deng
Comments: 21 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory has been used in many fields due to the flexibility and effectiveness in modeling uncertainties, which is the extension of classical probability. Recently, quantum probability which can express uncertainty has been used in many fields due to the existing of interference. Especially for human decision and cognition, interference can better model the process of decision. In order to better expand the applications of D-S evidence theory, the paper proposed quantum model of mass function which can consider the interference. In proposed quantum method, quantum mass function uses euler formula to represent. The paper also discusses some operations in quantum model of mass function. Moreover, the paper also discusses the relationship between quantum mass function and classical mass function by using some numerical examples. Classical mass function is the special case when there is no interference in quantum mass function.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[538] viXra:1905.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 07:46:52

On the Various Mathematical Connections with the Ramanujan’s Numbers 1729, 728, the Ramanujan’s Class Invariant, Some Sectors of Particle Physics and Some Formulae Concerning the Supersymmetry

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 186 Pages.

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various and interesting mathematical connections with the Ramanujan’s numbers 1728, 1729, 728, 729 and some sectors of Particle Physics and Supersymmetry
Category: Mathematical Physics

[537] viXra:1905.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 08:13:43

Refutation of Modal Logics that Bound the Circumference of Transitive Frames

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate six seminal equations, none of which is tautologous. (The author mistakenly labels the Löb axiom as a “fact” as proved by another author.) Therefore modal logics bounding the circumference of transitive frames is refuted and becomes another non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[536] viXra:1905.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 08:15:17

Electric-Field-Controlled Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[535] viXra:1905.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 09:05:21

Some Results on the Greatest Common Divisor of Two Integers

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 2 Pages.

An addendum to elementary number theory.
Category: Number Theory

[534] viXra:1905.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 09:28:18

Refutation of the Keisler Measure in Nip Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

In NIP theory, the Keisler measure as φ(x)↦μ(φ(x) ∩X)/μ(X)) is not tautologous, relegating it to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[533] viXra:1905.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 09:30:08

Quantum Continuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Computing the dynamics of many interacting quantum particles accurately is a daunting task. There is however a promising calculation method for such systems: tensor networks, which are being researched in the theory division at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. [27] Researchers of the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have pushed the precision of force and position measurements into a new regime. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[532] viXra:1905.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 09:58:09

Photonic Entanglement Synthesizer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In a recent study, Shuntaro Takeda and colleagues at the interdisciplinary departments of Applied Physics and Engineering in Japan addressed the shortcoming by developing an on-demand entanglement synthesizer. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[531] viXra:1905.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 10:25:35

Nanolasers on Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[530] viXra:1905.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 11:00:39

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 14., Aktualisierte Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 15 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden die physikalischen Gesetzmäßigkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Classical Physics

[529] viXra:1905.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 11:24:49

Refutation of Church’s Thesis as a Consistency Property to Fulfill the Minimalist Foundation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Church’s thesis (CT) is not tautologous as an essential consistency property to fulfill the requirement of the intensional level of a constructive foundation proposed of the minimalist foundation (MF) for constructive mathematics. Therefore, this relegates CT and MF to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[528] viXra:1905.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 12:38:19

Thermal Spectrum of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[527] viXra:1905.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 15:39:52

Archetype Based Analysis of Voice-over-IP

Authors: Likai Fareed
Comments: 7 Pages.

The implications of ambimorphic archetypes have been far-reaching and pervasive. After years of nat- ural research into consistent hashing, we argue the simulation of public-private key pairs, which em- bodies the confirmed principles of theory. Such a hypothesis might seem perverse but is derived from known results. Our focus in this paper is not on whether the well-known knowledge-based algorithm for the emulation of checksums by Herbert Simon runs in Θ(n) time, but rather on exploring a seman- tic tool for harnessing telephony (Swale).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[526] viXra:1905.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 17:57:53

Refutation of the Root in Partition Jensen Polynomials for Hyperbolicity

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The root in partition Jensen polynomials for hyperbolicity is not tautologous. Hence its use to prove the Riemann hypothesis is denied. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Number Theory

[525] viXra:1905.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 18:16:55

Central Limit Theorems for Other Types of Means

Authors: D Williams
Comments: 3 Pages. Some simple transformations are used to construct CLTs for Geometric and Harmonic Means.

Central Limit theorems for Geometric and Harmonic Means are given using simple transformations. The technique can be generalized.
Category: General Mathematics

[524] viXra:1905.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 20:00:51

Developing a Lorentz Invariant Form of the Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Schrodinger equation is not Lorentz Invariant, so it cannot be applied to the wave functions of moving particles. However, the Classical Wave Equation is Lorentz Invariant and is also satisfied by particle wave functions. By using this knowledge, a Lorentz Invariant form of the Schrodinger equation can be developed that can be applied to the wave functions of moving particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[523] viXra:1905.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 20:34:27

The Greatest Common Divisor Function is Symmetric

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: Pages.

With this algorithm you can easily find the greatest common divisor of two numbers even with large numbers of figures and the same can be done if you want to find the greatest common divisor of polynomials easily and also complex numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[522] viXra:1905.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 20:36:13

La Función Máximo Común Divisor es Simétrica

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 5 Pages.

Con este algoritmo podrás hallar fácilmente el máximo comun divisor de dos números incluso con gran cantidad de cifras y lo mismo podrás hacer si quieres hallar el máximo común divisor de polinomios fácilmente.
Category: Number Theory

[521] viXra:1905.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 21:17:17

The Non-Local Nature of a Measurement

Authors: Kenneth R Krechmer
Comments: published in Results in Physics, Volume 12, March 2019, Pages 403-404

This short paper identifies that the concept of a local measurement is always violated by a necessary metrological process - calibration. J. S. Bell's formal development of the same violation demonstrates that the EPR paradox and related discontinuities may be resolved by including the calibration process in a measurement process, as formalized in Measurement, February 2018 "Relative Measurement Theory."
Category: Quantum Physics

[520] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-27 12:34:15

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue. Version 5 (v5) adds remarks about Dark Energy: TeraHertz Josephson Junctions and Neutrino Mass; Raisin-Bread Cosmology; Pioneer Anomaly at Uranus Orbit Raisin/Bread Boundary; and Alcubierrre Warp Drive with Conformal Dark Energy and 5-Tetrahedra Pentagonal DiPyramids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[519] viXra:1905.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 22:05:17

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory6

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

constants and not infinity exist because of weakness within physical objects in more concise words if you ask for something outside of you and you have some of these things inside you you will end up slowing down for example a photon doesnt go at a speed faster than the speed of light because it doesnt have less space within it and it doesnt go less than the speed of light because it doesnt have more space within it
Category: Quantum Physics

[518] viXra:1905.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 01:22:40

Metropolitan Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Successful new field tests of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system over commercial fiber networks could pave the way to its use in metropolitan areas. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[517] viXra:1905.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 02:35:37

Number of Pythagorean Triples and Expansion of Euclid's Formula

Authors: Aryan Phadke
Comments: 12 Pages.

Set of Pythagorean triple consists of three values such that they comprise the three sides of a right angled triangle. Euclid gave a formula to find Pythagorean Triples for any given number. Motive of this paper is to find number of possible Pythagorean Triples for a given number. I have been able to provide a different proof for Euclid’s formula, as well as find the number of triples for any given number. Euclid’s formula is altered a little and is expanded with a variable ‘x’. When ‘x’ follows the conditions mentioned the result is always a Pythagorean Triple.
Category: Number Theory

[516] viXra:1905.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 04:50:11

Ingredients Grow Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Baking soda, table salt, and detergent are surprisingly effective ingredients for cooking up carbon nanotubes, researchers at MIT have found. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[515] viXra:1905.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 05:00:00

Atomic Electric Irradiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

They then developed a theory to describe the probabilities of configurational outcomes based on the momentum of a primary knock-on atom post-collision in an experimental setup. [33] Baking soda, table salt, and detergent are surprisingly effective ingredients for cooking up carbon nanotubes, researchers at MIT have found. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[514] viXra:1905.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 05:09:22

Successor to Shrinking Transistors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Computers and similar electronic devices have gotten faster and smaller over the decades as computer-chip makers have learned how to shrink individual transistors, the tiny electrical switches that convey digital information. [34] They then developed a theory to describe the probabilities of configurational outcomes based on the momentum of a primary knock-on atom post-collision in an experimental setup. [33] Baking soda, table salt, and detergent are surprisingly effective ingredients for cooking up carbon nanotubes, researchers at MIT have found. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[513] viXra:1905.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:32:26

Pi in Terms of Phi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We give two formulas for Pi in terms of Phi.
Category: General Mathematics

[512] viXra:1905.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:35:26

Some Infinite Sum Series for pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We give some infinite series for Pi.
Category: Number Theory

[511] viXra:1905.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:38:47

On the Equation: X^x-X-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents some remarks on the equation: x^x-x-1=0,x>0
Category: Number Theory

[510] viXra:1905.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:41:32

The Number V=phi-Sqrt(phi)

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the number: v=Phi-sqrt(Phi) , Phi=(1+sqrt(5))/2
Category: General Mathematics

[509] viXra:1905.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:44:30

Una Integral Logarítmica

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

Esta nota presenta una integral con la función logarítmo.
Category: General Mathematics

[508] viXra:1905.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 10:35:01

Quantum Measurement Limit Break

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers of the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have pushed the precision of force and position measurements into a new regime. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[507] viXra:1905.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 10:54:57

Refutation of Lusin’s Separation Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

“In descriptive set theory and mathematical logic, Lusin's separation theorem states that if A and B are disjoint analytic subsets of Polish space, then there is a Borel set C in the space such that A ⊆ C and B ∩ C = ∅.” We evaluate two renditions of that equation, both non tautologous, refuting it. Therefore, the separation theorem of Lusin forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[506] viXra:1905.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 11:22:04

Exploration of the Location-Identity Split

Authors: Likai Fareed
Comments: 6 Pages.

Superblocks must work. Given the current status of homogeneous configurations, security experts particularly desire the simulation of 802.11b. we consider how the Internet can be applied to the refinement of Scheme.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[505] viXra:1905.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 11:39:36

About One Geometric Variation Problem

Authors: Emanuels Grinbergs
Comments: 13 Pages. Translated from Latvian by Dainis Zeps

Translation of the article of Emanuels Grinbergs, ОБ ОДНОЙ ГЕОМЕТРИЧЕСКОЙ ВАРИАЦИОННОЙ ЗАДАЧЕ that is published in LVU Zinātniskie darbi, 1958.g., sējums XX, izlaidums 3, 153.-164., in Russian https://dspace.lu.lv/dspace/handle/7/46617.
Category: Geometry

[504] viXra:1905.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 12:01:06

Inhibitory Neurons Brain Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Studying the brain involves measuring the activity of billions of individual brain cells called neurons. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Mind Science

[503] viXra:1905.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 12:09:32

Magnetization-Its Effect on Mass//Магничение-его влияние на массу

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the article there is presented a newly discovered natural phenomenon, which consists in the fact that when material bodies are affected by magnetic field, they change their mass.// В статье представлено новооткрытое природное явление, которое заключается в том, что когда материальные тела подвергаются воздействию магнитного поля, то они изменяют свою массу.
Category: Classical Physics

[502] viXra:1905.0549 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-29 08:16:03

The Age of the Universe Predicted by a Time-Varying G Model?

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 7 Pages. For some reason, the original version, was not transmitted correctly.

This is a short note, based on previous work, which shows how a time varying gravitational constant may help solve the current tension in Hubble's constant, and the predicted age of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[501] viXra:1905.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 13:30:14

Atomically Thin Ferroelectrics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

In addition, knowledge of the spacing among domain walls, and of the number of bright spots at a given bias showing constructive interference, makes it possible to infer the electronic structure of these ferroelectrics, making the experimental techniques employed the first known confirmation of their predicted electronic structure. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[500] viXra:1905.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 14:26:43

Refutation of Gobbay’s Separation Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The separation theorem of Gobbay takes eight basic cases and four cases for disjunction. None is tautologous. In fact, three groups of the basic cases share unique truth table result values, and one group of the disjunctive cases shares the same truth table result values. This refutes the theorem and adds it as another non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[499] viXra:1905.0546 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-10 02:46:08

Consideration of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 75 Pages.

I considered Riemann’s hypothesis. At first, the purpose was to prove, but can not to prove. It is written in the middle of the proof, but it can not been proved at all. (The calculation formula is also written, but the real value 0.5 was not shown at all) The non-trivial zero values match perfectly in the formula of this paper. However, the formula did not reach the real value 0.5. In this case, it only reaches the pole near the real value 0.5.
Category: Number Theory

[498] viXra:1905.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 18:35:52

What Is Life?

Authors: A.V. Kaminsky
Comments: 37 Pages. In Russian

The physical aspect of the phenomenon of life is highly non-trivial. From the point of view of physics, the following questions are considered: The connection of consciousness with quantum mechanics, ethics, free will
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[497] viXra:1905.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 20:14:14

Electronic Resurrection of Relatives and Friends.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the development of electronic immortality and fully electronicized society, proposed by the author at the end of the preceding century, the author as a first-step offers electronic virtual resuscitation of dying relatives and resurrection of dead friends. By now, programs for various recognition and recognizing faces and objects, communicating in any language, photos of a lively mobile person expressing emotions, intelligent communication programs have been created that even experts cannot distinguish whether they are talking to a person or a robot. The task is only a matter creating an e-resurrection-program.
Category: Social Science

[496] viXra:1905.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 20:30:10

Электронное Воскрешение Родственников и Друзей.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 7 Pages.

В развитие электронного бессмертия и электронного общества, предложенных автором в конце прошлого века, автор в качестве первого шага предлагает электронную виртуальную реанимацию (воскрешение) умирающих родственников и друзей. К настоящему времени созданы программы узнавания и распознавания лиц и объектов, общения на любом языке, фотографии живого подвижного лица, выражающего эмоции, программы разумного общения, что даже эксперты не могут отличить, разговаривают ли они с человеком или с роботом. Дело только за созданием Программы электронного Воскрешения.
Category: Social Science

[495] viXra:1905.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 23:25:33

Using Python Based Fine Tuning of [imageai + a Particle Picker] in the Context of Cryo-em Image Processing Towards Developing Novel Cryo-em Informatics Platform.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

Using Python based Fine Tuning of [IMAGEAI + a PARTICLE PICKER] in the Context of cryo-EM Image Processing towards Developing Novel cryo-EM Informatics Platform. [AI Touch for Particle Picking in the cryo-EM Image Processing Application ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[494] viXra:1905.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 00:41:15

Elimination Trickery from Physics//Элиминация плутовства из физики

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents a way to eliminate unreasonable descriptions of physical phenomena from physics that block the development of knowledge about nature.// В статье представлен способ устранения неразумных описаний физических явлений из физики, которые блокируют развитие знаний о природе.
Category: Classical Physics

[493] viXra:1905.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 00:56:35

Atherosclerosis is an Infectious Disease

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 16 pages. Copyright © 2019 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Aim Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Studies reported that anti-rheumatic drug usage is associated with decreased risk of CAD events in RA patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of some anti-inflammatory drugs (etanercept, leflunomide, etoricoxib) on the development of CAD events among patients with RA using anti-rheumatic drug in comparison with nonusers. Methods A systematic review of CAD events in RA patients was performed who used leflunomide, etanercept and etoricoxib and was compared with RA patients who don’t use these drugs. The exclusion relationship and the causal relationship k were used to test the significance of the result. A p-value of < 0.05 was treated as significant. Results Among RA patients, use of leflunomide (p (EXCL) =0,999022483; X2 (EXCL) = 0,06; k = -0,03888389; p-value ( k | HGD) =0,00037588), etanercept and etoricoxib was associated with significantly decreased incidence of CAD. The use leflunomide, etanercept and etoricoxib excludes cardiac events in RA patients. Conclusion The results of study provide further support for the infectious hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Key words: atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, therapy, causal relationship
Category: Statistics

[492] viXra:1905.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 01:19:44

Symmetries from Holography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A pair of researchers, one at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and another at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the University of Tokyo, have recently investigated a set of old conjectures about symmetries in quantum gravity. [39] In conventional holography a photographic film can record the interference pattern of monochromatic light scattered from the object to be imaged with a reference beam of un-scattered light. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[491] viXra:1905.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 01:37:46

Cold Case of Cold Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Scientists from the University of British Columbia (UBC), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Maryland, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Google are conducting a multi-year investigation into cold fusion, a type of benign nuclear reaction hypothesized to occur in benchtop apparatus at room temperature. [39] University of British Columbia researchers have found a new system that could help yield 'warmer' quantum technologies. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[490] viXra:1905.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 04:16:15

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of an Anticancer Drug 6-Mercaptopurine

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

Mercaptopurine is an antineoplastic chemotherapy drug is used for the treatment of cancer, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune diseases, etc. In this scientific study, the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of 6-mercaptopurine was evaluated using the modern analytical technique. The test sample 6-Mercaptopurine powder was divided and named into control and treated sample. The control sample did not receive the Biofield Energy Treatment; whereas, the treated sample received the Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by a well-known Biofield Energy Healer, Gopal Nayak. The particle size values in the treated 6-mercaptopurine sample were significantly decreased by 10.18% (d10), 10.59% (d50), 7.62% (d90), and 9.17% {D(4,3)}; thus, the specific surface area was significantly increased by 10.28% compared to the control sample. The powder XRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the treated 6-mercaptopurine were significantly altered ranging from -43.40% to 23.33% and -37.09% to 136.67%, respectively; whereas the average crystallite size was significantly decreased by 11.04% compared with the control sample. The latent heat of evaporation and latent heat of fusion of the treated 6-mercaptopurine were significantly increased by 11.81% and 14.97% compared with the control sample. The total residue amount was significantly increased by 6.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperature of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd peaks of the treated sample was altered by 1.55%, 0.18%, and -1.29% compared with the control sample. It was concluded that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might have generated a new polymorphic form of 6-mercaptopurine which would offer better solubility, absorption, and bioavailability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated 6-mercaptopurine would be more efficacious against acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and autoimmune diseases.
Category: Biochemistry

[489] viXra:1905.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 08:41:33

Colliding Laser Proton Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[488] viXra:1905.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:19:07

Cosmic-Ray Proton Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Recent advances in the observation of high-energy radiations, including X-rays and gamma-rays, have unveiled many high-energy aspects of the universe. [46] Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: Astrophysics

[487] viXra:1905.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:51:44

Electron Proton Escape Velocity from Electrical Attraction Produces a Dark Matter Candidate

Authors: Michael C Dickerson
Comments: 3 Pages.

The escape velocity between two opposite electrical charges can be treated in a similar fashion as the escape velocity of two gravitational masses. For a given positive and negative charge, one can ask at what radial distance would a particle need to travel at the speed of light in order to escape the electrical attraction towards the other charged mass. In an electron-proton system this distance is found to be 5.62 x 10^-15 meters, which is several times larger than the proton radius. It is proposed that once inside this radius, where it would have to travel the speed of light to escape the electrical attraction of the proton, it can never move to that radius or beyond toward the outside world. This new bound composite particle would be stable, electrically neutral, have no chemical properties, and a mass in the range of 1.73 x 10^-26 kg. It could have also been produced in copious amounts in the early universe when it was extremely hot and dense, in which case it could be a dark matter candidate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[486] viXra:1905.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:49:12

Atom Trap Defect-Free Arrays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A team of researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt has broken the record for the number of atoms positioned individually in a trap to create a defect-free array. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[485] viXra:1905.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 10:01:35

A Noble Derivation of Polynomial Multiplication Rules

Authors: Likai Fareed
Comments: 1 Page.

Through my most extensive research, I have made a groundbreaking discovery. While many of us are familiar with binomial theorem and the polynomial multiplication algorithm, "First Outside Inside Last", there are also a set of rules that apply in field R. For instance, (a+b)^2 expands to a^2+b^2, and (a+b)(a-b) expands to a+b. This paper seeks to prove these rules in a simple and geometric manner.
Category: Algebra

[484] viXra:1905.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 10:14:27

[coptp+q*cert+ocaml+ Haxe+java/jikesrvm/jvm] to Probe ai Driven Smart Phone Apps in the Context of Precision Medicine/disease Detection Using [ocaml+java+jiprolog] Interfacing for [iot/hpc] hi-End Heterogeneous Computing Environments.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

[CopTP+q*cert+OCaml+ HAXE+Java/JikesRVM/JVM] to probe AI Driven Smart Phone Apps in the Context of Precision Medicine/Disease Detection Using [Ocaml+Java+JIProlog] interfacing for [IoT/HPC] Hi-End Heterogeneous Computing Environments.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[483] viXra:1905.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 10:22:59

Terahertz Radiation Benefits Biomedicine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists from ITMO University for the first time in the world managed to directly measure the nonlinear refractive index of matter in the terahertz range. [26] Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have developed a biomedical device for cell immune-isolation (microcapsules) with luminescence for in vivo tracking. [25] Using x-rays to reveal the atomic-scale 3-D structures of proteins has led to countless advances in understanding how these molecules work in bacteria, viruses, plants, and humans-and has guided the development of precision drugs to combat diseases such as cancer and AIDS. [24] How did life arise on Earth? Rutgers researchers have found among the first and perhaps only hard evidence that simple protein catalysts-essential for cells, the building blocks of life, to function-may have existed when life began. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[482] viXra:1905.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 11:11:41

Pair Formation in Superfluids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A FLEET/Swinburne study released this week resolves a long-standing debate about what happens at the microscopic level when matter transitions into a superconducting or superfluid state. [25] The term "superfluid quasicrystal" sounds like something a comic-book villain might use to carry out his dastardly plans. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[481] viXra:1905.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 12:23:50

Further Discussion on the Law of Conservation of Energy

Authors: Yongqiang Zhao
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we will obtain the electric field of static point charge in uniform gravitational field by analyzing the electric field of uniformly accelerating linear moving point charge, and further discuss the Law of Conservation of Energy by analyzing the interaction between charges in gravitational field. //在本文中我们将通过分析匀加速直线运动点电荷的电场,得出均匀引力场中静止点电荷的电场,并通过分析引力场中电荷之间的相互作用,来进一步探讨能量守恒定律。
Category: Classical Physics

[480] viXra:1905.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 15:08:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbonaceous Meteorite Fingerprints Using D/H Ratios

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the General Theory stars can impact other older stars to create interstellar shrapnel. The shrapnel can have its formation age determined by measuring its D/H ratio.
Category: Astrophysics

[479] viXra:1905.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 21:13:09

Refutation of a 'concrete' Rauszer Boolean Algebra Generated by a Preorder

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 5 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

From the 11 equations tested, we refute 13 artifacts: 1. a condition for "an existential quantifier ∃ … on a Boolean algebra"; 2. "a quantifier ∃ as closure operator on B, for which every open element is closed"; 3. the interior operator on abstract topological Boolean algebra; 4. the kernel of a homomorphism from a Heyting algebra into another as a filter; 5. deductive systems and filters as equivalent; 6. the atomic definition of p ≤ ∃p in Halmos algebra; 7. a ‘concrete’ Rauszer Boolean algebra; 8. two conditions for the definition of a filter (and Heyting algebra using the filter); 9. a De Morgan algebra as a Kleene algebra; 10. equivalences of symmetrical Heyting algebras; 11. equivalences in Heyting algebras; 12. intuitionistic implication of intuitionistic logic; and 13. a theorem and a proposition of Nelson algebras. As a result, the following seven areas are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4: 1. Topological Boolean algebra; 2. Heyting algebra; 3. Intuitionistic logic; 4. Halmos algebra; 5. Rauszer algebra; 6. Kleene algebra; and 7. Nelson algebra.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[478] viXra:1905.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 00:01:16

The Theoretical Minimum

Authors: Dolomite Magnus
Comments: 1 Page.

- -
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[477] viXra:1905.0521 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-31 10:11:33

The Electron as a Harmonic Electromagnetic Oscillator

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper complements previous papers and the book which would have been published by IOP and WSP if it were not for the casual comments of a critic, who opined our oscillator model is just “casually connecting disparate formulas.” This paper explains all the nuances and logical steps in the model in very much detail and we, therefore, hope we succeeded in making the case. Comments, remarks and questions are, obviously, welcome.
Category: Quantum Physics

[476] viXra:1905.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 03:30:41

Lifter His Field Mover//Лифтер его полевый движитель

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents the physical mechanism of acceleration of the apparatus, occurring without a reactive mass ejection. A method of computer modeling of this mechanism is also presented.// В статье представлен физический механизм ускорения аппарата, происходящего без реактивного выброса массы. Представлен также метод компьютерного моделирования этого механизма.
Category: Classical Physics

[475] viXra:1905.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 03:49:06

Refutation of Presburger Arithmetic Via Axiom 2

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

In Presburger arithmetic, Axiom 2 as x+1 = y+1 → x=y is not tautologous. Therefore Presburger arithmetic is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[474] viXra:1905.0518 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-29 22:50:16

Response to Noam Chomsky’s, “We Must Stop War with Iran, Before It’s Too Late”

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 8 Pages.

A misguided irrationality of nationalist sentimentality.
Category: Social Science

[473] viXra:1905.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 05:04:04

Word Etymology Kiev

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

The etymology of the considered word Kiev is offered.
Category: Linguistics

[472] viXra:1905.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 05:36:36

Mahendra@trivedisrl.com

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 7 Pages.

The present study was performed to investigate the Hepatoprotective potential of the Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect®) Treated test item, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) in HepG2 cells. The test item was distributed into two parts. One part received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and was labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM group and the other part referred as the untreated DMEM group, where no Biofield Treatment was provided. Results showed that more than 97% cell viability of the test items were observed by MTT assay, which indicated a safe and nontoxic nature of the test items. The Biofield Treated DMEM showed significant (p≤0.001) protection of cells by 10% against oxidative stress induced by t-BHP, while the untreated DMEM group showed 0.4% protection. The level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was significantly (p≤0.01) reduced by 31.57% in Biofield Treated DMEM than untreated DMEM. The level of ALT enzyme activity was significantly (p≤0.001) reduced by 66% in Biofield Treated DMEM compared to untreated DMEM. Cholesterol level was significantly (p≤0.001) reduced by 46.23% in Biofield Treated DMEM than untreated DMEM. Besides, Biofield Treated DMEM group showed 51.18% increased the level of albumin compared to untreated DMEM group. Overall, results demonstrated that Biofield Treatment significantly protect the liver hepatocytes against oxidative stress. Therefore, Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment might be useful as a hepatoprotectant against different types of liver injuries like cirrhosis, alcohol abuse, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Gilbert’s disease, cholangiocarcinoma, steatosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[471] viXra:1905.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 07:45:16

Energy Stored in the Gravitational Field

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 4 Pages.

We evaluate the energy of the gravitational field.
Category: Classical Physics

[470] viXra:1905.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 09:42:24

Proton Charge Radius Distortion in Dirac Hydrogen by "Electron Zitterbewegung"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The commutator of the Dirac free-particle's velocity operator with its Hamiltonian operator is nonzero and independent of Planck's constant, which starkly violates the quantum correspondence-principle requirement that commutators of observables must vanish when Planck's constant vanishes, as well as violating the extended Newton's First Law principle that relativistic free particles do not accelerate. The consequent nonphysical particle "zitterbewegung" is of course absent altogether when the natural relativistic free-particle square-root Hamiltonian operator, which is the transparent consequence of the free particle's Lorentz-covariant energy-momentum, replaces the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian. The energy spectrum of the pathology-free relativistic square-root free-particle Hamiltonian is, however, matched perfectly by the positive-energy sector of the Dirac free-particle Hamiltonian's energy spectrum. But when a hydrogen type of potential energy is added to the free particle Dirac Hamiltonian, Foldy-Wouthuysen unitary transformation of the result reveals a "Darwin term" in its positive-energy sector which stems from nonphysical "zitterbewegung"-smearing of that potential energy. This physically nonexistent smearing of the potential energy can alternatively be viewed as having been produced by physically nonexistent smearing of its proton charge density source, which using the Dirac theory for data analysis erroneously compensates, resulting in a misleadingly contracted impression of the proton's charge radius.
Category: Quantum Physics

[469] viXra:1905.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 11:52:33

An Insight Into the "Flat Earth Society"

Authors: Likai Fareed
Comments: 4 Pages.

Modern flat Earth belief originated with the English writer Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1884). Based on conclusions derived from the Bedford Level experiment, Rowbotham published a pamphlet Zetetic Astronomy. He later expanded into a book Earth Not a Globe, proposing the Earth is a flat disc centred at the North Pole and bounded along its southern edge by a wall of ice, Antarctica. Rowbotham further held that the Sun and Moon were 3,000 miles (4,800 km) above Earth and that the "cosmos" was 3,100 miles (5,000 km) above the Earth. He also published a leaflet titled The inconsistency of Modern Astronomy and its Opposition to the Scriptures, which argued that the "Bible, alongside our senses, supported the idea that the earth was flat and immovable and this essential truth should not be set aside for a system based solely on human conjecture". Rowbotham and followers like William Carpenter gained attention by successful use of pseudoscience in public debates with leading scientists such as Alfred Russel Wallace. Rowbotham created a Zetetic Society in England and New York, shipping over a thousand copies of Zetetic Astronomy. After Rowbotham's death, Lady Elizabeth Blount established a Universal Zetetic Society, whose objective was "the propagation of knowledge related to Natural Cosmogony in confirmation of the Holy Scriptures, based on practical scientific investigation". The society published a magazine, The Earth Not a Globe Review, and remained active well into the early 20th century. A flat Earth journal, Earth: a Monthly Magazine of Sense and Science, was published between 1901–1904, edited by Lady Blount.
Category: Education and Didactics

[468] viXra:1905.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 13:08:57

A Solution of the Laplacian Using Geodetic Coordinates

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages.

Using the geodetic coordinates $(\varphi,\lambda,h)$, we give the expression of the laplacian $\Delta V=\ds \frac{\partial^2 V}{\partial x ^2}+\frac{\partial^2 V}{\partial y ^2}+\frac{\partial^2 V}{\partial z ^2}$ in these coordinates. A solution of $\Delta V=0$ of type $V=f(\lambda).g(\varphi,h)$ is given. The partial differential equation satisfied by $g(\varphi,h)$ is transformed in an ordinary differential equation of a new variable $u=u(\varphi,h)$.
Category: Geophysics

[467] viXra:1905.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 16:47:51

Mars Orbital Distance Is Changed Through History

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

I- The Paper Claim: -The Solar Planets Order was (Pluto – Mercury – Mars ……..etc) But -Mars Ancient Orbital Distance was 84 millions km, found after Mercury Immediately…. -Pluto was before Mercury in order and nearer to the sun (or may Pluto was the Mercury Moon) -This order I suggest based on the rule "Greater Diameter Needs Greater Orbital Distance". (This Rule Is Discussed In This Paper Introduction) Then -Mars immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance = 227.9 mkm. -Mars Immigration was process has a great effect on the solar group especially on Pluto (the smallest planet). And As a result of it, Pluto also immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance =5870 mkm -The Planet diameter and orbital distance rule is (A Greater Diameter needs A Greater Orbital Distance) is disturbed by Mars and Pluto Immigration. -Mars is Exceptional Planet in different arguments because of its immigration.. I- The Claim Explanation: How to prove this fact? -The Solar Group is One Body (Building) – If this is a fact- So, Each Planet Data is created based on the other planets data –i.e. if Mars changed his orbital distance through the solar group history – This Change should be Registered in the solar planets data- i.e. -Mars Immigration Argument Is Another Proof For The Claim ….… "The Solar Group Is One Body and Each Planet is A Member Of It", Or "The Solar Group Is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building"…
Category: Astrophysics

[466] viXra:1905.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 19:25:21

Stellar Metamorphosis: Transformation Curves on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". Some aspects to transformation curves are explained on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[465] viXra:1905.0508 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 21:22:09

Collision Confusion...an Alfa Surprise

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 5 Pages.

Application of Newton’s laws to elastic collisions in different inertial frames produces disturbing violations of the revered laws of physics known as the conservation laws of momentum and energy. The analysis that follows will illustrate the problem – ignored by physics academia – but obvious to those with open and rational minds. We intend to repeat classical collision theory in the reference frame of the laboratory - the ECEF as known by NASA – the same frame in which Galileo, Newton and subsequent experimentalists derived the primitive laws of motion and established the foundations of dynamics. Then the motion solution in the relative frame of motion will be considered... wherein lies the surprise. The findings are not surprising for adherents to the ALFA model of reality, one of whose key premises is the Earth as fixed and immovable. Yes, the geocentric Earth, revealing itself humbly in the simplest of motion – the laws governing particle collisions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[464] viXra:1905.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 22:13:43

In-vivo and In-vitro Blood Glucose Measurement using Surface Waves

Authors: Louis WY.~Liu, Abhishek~Kandwal, Nie Zedong
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, however, we demonstrate with in-vivo and in-vitro experimental proof that, when a measurement was conducted predominantly in surface modes, a positive association between the glucose concentration and the blood permittivity was noticeably observed. During an in-vivo experiment, a cylindrical volume of meat tissues with a known blood glucose level was first formed with the help of a suction aspirator. The exterior wall of the suction aspirator was then wound with one turn of a gelatine-coated copper wire, which is referred thereafter as Goubau line sensor. The two terminals of the Goubau line sensor were then connected to ports 1 and 2 of a Vector Network Analyzer for measuring the S-parameters. The results of our in-vivo experiment show that, in the absence of any significant leaky wave radiation from the sensor, the measured blood glucose concentration positively correlates with the measured S21 parameters in a highly reproducible manner. Keywords: Blood Glucose, Surface Waves, Diabetes, Leaky Waves, Goubau line, Smoking cessation
Category: Classical Physics

[463] viXra:1905.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 00:03:37

Twin Paradox, Explanation.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 6 Pages.

For the first time in 100 years, an explanation of the Paradox of twins with the help of Poincaré’s Theory of Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[462] viXra:1905.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 01:39:18

Multifaceted Approaches to a Berkeley Problem: Part 2

Authors: Kohji Suzuki
Comments: 66 Pages.

We once presented a few ways to solve a Berkeley problem without paying attention to initial values, which we try taking into account in this sequel.
Category: General Mathematics

[461] viXra:1905.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 11:25:54

Electrical Charge – a Different Approach

Authors: Mavriche Adrian
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is a parallel theory with the one of quantum mechanics, and is trying in an approximately-simplistic manner to describe the world of atomic processes. Starting from the similarity between an electric field with a gravitational field, it is demonstrat-ed why (and how) the elementary electrical charge has this value.
Category: Classical Physics

[460] viXra:1905.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-30 09:52:05

Proof of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Gang tae geuk
Comments: 1 Page.

Riemann hypothesis means that satisfying ζ(s)=0(ζ(s) means Riemann Zeta function) unselfevidenceable root's part of true numbers are 1/2. Dennis Hejhal, and John Dubisher explained this hypothesis to : "Choosed Any natural numbers(exclude 1 and constructed with two or higher powered prime numbers) then the probability of numbers that choosed number's forming prime factor become an even number is 1/2." I'll prove this explain to prove Riemann hypothesis indirectly. In binomial coefficient, C(n,0)+C(n+1)+...+C(n,n)=2^n. And C(n,1)+C(n,3)+C(n,5)+...+C(n,n) and C(n,0)+C(n,2)+C(n,4)+...+C(n,n) is 2^(n-1). If you pick up 8 prime numbers, then you can make numbers that exclude 1 and constructed with two or higher powered prime numbers, and the total amount of numbers that you made is 2^8. Same principle, if you pick the numbers in k times(k is a variable), the total amount of numbers you made is C(8,k). If k is an even number, the total amount of numbers you can make is C(8,0)+C(8,2)+...+C(8,8)-1(because we must exclude 1,same for C(8,0)), and as what i said, it equals to 2^(8-1)-1. So, the probability of the numbers that forming prime factor's numbers is an even number is 2^(8-1)-1/2^8 If there are amount of prime numbers exist, and we say that amount to n(n is a variable, as the k so), and sequence of upper works sameas we did, so the probability is 2^(n-1)/2^n. If you limits n to inf, then probability convergents to 1/2. This answer coincident with the explain above, so explain is established, same as the Riemann hypothesis is.
Category: Number Theory

[459] viXra:1905.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-15 15:11:14

Twin Prime Conjecture.

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

I proved the Twin Prime Conjecture.\\ All Twin Prime are executed in hexadecimal notation. For example, it does not change in a huge number (forever huge number).\\ In a hexagonal diagram, (6n -1) and (6n+1), many are prime numbers.\\ Since the positive integers keep spinning around this hexagon forever, Twin Primes exist forever. All Twin Prime numbers are consist in (6n -1) or (6n +1) (n is a positive integer).\\ All numbers are executed in hexadecimal notation. This does not change even in a huge number (forever huge number).\\
Category: Number Theory

[458] viXra:1905.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 00:23:54

Requiem for the Theory?

Authors: Unknown
Comments: 5 Pages.

The story of the emergence of the theory of relativity is a real detective story. The arguments were fabricated, the objections were ignored - in short, in the name of Science, a uniform disgrace was happening. That is what two modern German researchers think, who recently published in Frankfurt-on-Meiner published their book Requiem for Private Relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

[457] viXra:1905.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 03:27:26

Nasa Confirms CFT

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 4 Pages.

Precession in the gravitational field - this phenomenon has been known to mankind since ancient times. Here is a phenomenon that can be considered a precession of a completely different kind. This newly discovered phenomenon consists in changing the direction of the axis of rotation of the gyroscope. But the phenomenon occurs when the gyroscope (in the form of a gyrocompass) moves in the gravitational field of a celestial body. It occurs during orbiting around a celestial body or during movement near the body, when this body remains aside.
Category: Classical Physics

[456] viXra:1905.0498 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-30 06:22:41

About Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Esteve J., Martinez J. E.
Comments: 6 Pages. A correction in the logical argumentation of the main theorem was made.

We proof Goldbach's Conjecture. We use results obtained by Srinivāsa A. Rāmānujan (specifically in his paper A Proof of Bertrand's Postulate). A generalization of the conjeture is also proven for every natural not coprime with a natural m > 1 and greater or equal than 2m.
Category: Number Theory

[455] viXra:1905.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 07:18:01

The United States’ General Advisory Committee on H-Bomb in the Report of 30th Oct, 1949 to the Atomic Energy Commission

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani
Comments: 3 Pages.

Signed in 1946 by President Harry S. Truman, the Atomic Energy Commission was established to foster the peacetime development of the atomic sciences. On having witnessed the magnitude of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, and having realized the need to revisit the nuclear security to match with the European and Russian competition, GAC recommended the project ‘Super Bomb’ (hydrogen fission mechanism weapon) to be dealt with high priority in the famous report of 30th Oct, 1949 to the commission. This essay showcases the resistance in the report on ethical and humane grounds by many dominant figures of the physics community who had worked earlier on the Manhattan project in Los Alamos.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[454] viXra:1905.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 10:52:54

Quantum Computing Stabilizing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[453] viXra:1905.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 11:27:17

Atom Patterning Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 96 Pages.

"We will also work on initiating two-qubit quantum gates between the atoms to build a 2D quantum processor based on so-called Rydberg interactions," reveals Birkl, "and implement large-scale quantum entanglement and quantum simulation." [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[452] viXra:1905.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 12:57:16

AI to Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

In a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, researchers used the power of artificial intelligence and high-performance supercomputers to introduce and assess the impact of different configurations of defects on the performance of a superconductor. [32] Using machine-learning and an integrated photonic chip, researchers from INRS (Canada) and the University of Sussex (UK) can now customize the properties of broadband light sources. [31]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[451] viXra:1905.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 13:33:36

Equivalent Fundamental Physical Quantities and Dimensions in Special Relativity

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 3 Pages.

If we want to get the Derived quantities Lorentz transformation we must be finds the Lorentz transformations for Fundamental Physical Quantities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[450] viXra:1905.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:03:53

(Psip Cases Version 1.3 7.08.2018 19 Pages) on Some Specific Cases of Psi Phenomena (Not Proved to be Frauds Until Present) with Possible Electrogravitational Explanations and Transdisciplinary Implications

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines PSI phenomena (PSIP) as: “the aggregate of parapsychological functions of the mind including extrasensory perception [telepathy, clairvoyance], precognition, and psychokinesis”. Parapsychology (which is considered pseudoscience by the majority of mainstream scientists [including academics], with articles published only in a relatively small number of niche journals) also investigates other paranormal and psychic phenomena like: near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences and other paranormal claims. This paper brings in discussion some specific cases of PSI phenomena (which weren’t proved yet to be frauds) with possible explanations and implications in physics, biology and the theories of information and human consciousness. If proved (with no doubt) to be authentic, PSI phenomena may have huge implications in the evolution (and unification) of physics, biology and spirituality (including religious currents): this unification (built on synapse-like bridges of knowledge and informational integration) is the constant purpose of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity.
Category: Mind Science

[449] viXra:1905.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:53:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using the Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio to Determine the Ages of Hydrous Rocks and Hydrocarbons

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis the D/H ratio can be used to determine the formation ages of rocks, minerals and hydrocarbons that contain hydrogen. Explanation is provided of how this can be done and why it is important.
Category: Astrophysics

[448] viXra:1905.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:16:01

Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Research Main Conclusion: The Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity This conclusion is produced by the Following Questions Analysis: Special Theory Of Relativity Tells Us "If a particle moves by high velocity (Approximately) relative to an observer – the observer will see relativistic effects effected on this particle – (The relativistic effects are Length Contraction - Time Dilation - Mass Increase) The Questions 1-Are These Relativistic Effects Occurred For The Particle Nature Or For Our Vision Only? (to see something wrong as in the mirage) 2-If these effects are occurred for the Particle Nature – Why the Particle Nature Changes As Result Of The Light Velocity Motion? 3-Is The Particle Nature A Real Nature Or Found Because Of The Observer Effect On This Particle? This Paper discusses these questions and The Conclusion Proves which are: 1-The Relativistic Effects Analysis 2-A Quantized Experiment 3-The Solar Planet Moves According To A Physical Law (and Not in Chaos) 4-The Moon Angular Diameter 5-The Human Body Contains Electromagnetic Waves This paper contains 2 points only – Point No.2 (Research Methodology) and Point No. 3 (Research Conclusion Proves) Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[447] viXra:1905.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:21:49

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory5

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.all the masses in the universe volume 2.the volume of space all the masses in the universe take 3.the actual volume the masses take from space playing with those 3 would who use what is time and distance and velocity if the volume of masses and the actual volume of space all the masses take are constant we could say that they both behave with each other against the volume of space all the masses in the universe take so the actual volume of space all the masses take is time velocity is the volume of masses and the distance is the volume of space all the masses in the universe take
Category: Astrophysics

[446] viXra:1905.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 01:52:03

Spin-Orbit Interactions in Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at Delft University of Technology have recently carried out a study investigating spin-orbit interaction in Majorana nanowires. [28] Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[445] viXra:1905.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 02:21:04

Spintronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Rice University researchers have simplified the synthesis of a unique, nearly two-dimensional form of iron oxide with strong magnetic properties that is easy to stack atop other 2-D materials. [29] Researchers at Delft University of Technology have recently carried out a study investigating spin-orbit interaction in Majorana nanowires. [28] Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[444] viXra:1905.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 02:34:55

Approximation of Sum of Harmonic Progression

Authors: Aryan Phadke
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sum of Harmonic Progression is an old problem. While a few complex approximations have surfaced, a simple and efficient formula hasn’t. Motive of the paper is to find a general formula for sum of harmonic progression without using ‘summation’ as a tool. This is an approximation for sum of Harmonic Progression for numerical terms. The formula was obtained by equating the areas of graphs of Harmonic Progression and curve of equation (y=1/x). Formula also has a variability that makes it more suitable for different users with different priorities in terms of accuracy and complexity.
Category: Number Theory

[443] viXra:1905.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 05:37:37

In vitro Assessment of the Biofield Treated Test Item on Cardiac Function Using Rat Cardiomyocytes Cell Line (H9c2) via Multiparametric Analysis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 12 Pages.

Introduction: Heart disorders are the major concern of population health worldwide. According to WHO estimates 2018, 17.9 million peoples were died due to cardiovascular disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Biofield Energy Treated test item, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) using rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Methods: The test item (DMEM) was divided into three parts, first part received one-time Biofield Energy Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and was labeled as the one-time Biofield Energy Treated (BT-I) DMEM, while second part received the two-times Biofield Energy Treatment and is denoted as BT-II DMEM. The third part did not receive any treatment and defined as the untreated DMEM group. Results: Cell viability of the test samples by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay showed 89.03% and 98.49% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively suggested a nontoxic and safe in nature of the tested test item. The BT-I group showed 16.01% restoration of cell viability. The level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly inhibited by 50.37% and 49.35% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively compared to the untreated DMEM group. Moreover, percent protection of creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) by 49.48% and 59.79% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively, compared to the untreated DMEM group. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in terms of mean fluorescence unit (FU) was reduced by 6.64% in the BT-I group than untreated DMEM. Besides, BT-I and BT-II groups significantly increased the level of % apoptotic cells by 63.16% and 97.37% (p≤0.05), respectively than untreated DMEM. Conclusion: Allover, results envisaged that Biofield Treatment significantly improved different cardiac parameters. Thus, Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) could be utilized as a cardio-protectant against several cardiac disorders such as coronary artery disease, heart attack, arrhythmias, heart failure, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[442] viXra:1905.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 05:38:21

Biofield Energy Treatment: Physicochemical and Thermal Characterization of L-Tryptophan

Authors: Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 7 Pages.

L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid that needs to be supplemented through protein-rich diet and it helps in growth and nitrogen balance in the humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the L-tryptophan in terms of its physicochemical and thermal properties by using modern analytical techniques. The method involved dividing the test sample into two parts and providing the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment to one part (named as Biofield Energy Treated sample), remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi; while the other part didn’t receive any treatment called a control sample. The particle size values of the treated sample was increased by 4.77% (d10), 6.37% (d50), 6.72% (d90), and 6.49% {D(4,3)}; thus, the specific surface area was increased by 4.35% compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystal-lite sizes of the treated sample were significantly altered ranging from -82.69% to 30.54% and -17.15% to 179.73%, respectively, in comparison to the control sample. The total weight loss of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 11.60% during the heating process that resulted in a significant increase in the residual amount of the sample by 1093.33% as compared to the control sample. The melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample were significantly increased by 1.12% and 6.79%, respectively, compared to the untreated sample. Hence, the L-tryptophan might form a new polymorph after the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment that may possess better solubility and bioavailability profile along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be considered as a novel approach for designing the formulations with improved drug profile and efficacy. The treated L-tryptophan would be more useful for the treatment of mental health disorders, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[441] viXra:1905.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 06:15:15

Refutation of Bourbaki’s Fixed Point Theorem and the Axiom of Choice

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate Moroianu’s and the Tarski-Bourbaki fixed point theorem and axiom of choice (AC). Two versions of the theorem and then seven theorems and corollary which follow are also not tautologous. Therefore these conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[440] viXra:1905.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 06:53:15

Quantum Dots Enhance Stability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[439] viXra:1905.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 07:34:04

Human Cell Division

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

The Allen Institute today released the Integrated Mitotic Stem Cell, a data-driven model and visualization tool that captures—for the first time—a holistic view of human cell division. [45] A team of physicists has devised a novel strategy that uses naturally occurring motions inside the human cell nucleus to measure the physical properties of the nucleus and its components. [44]
Category: Physics of Biology

[438] viXra:1905.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:10:14

Quantum Theories to Extreme

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[437] viXra:1905.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:12:13

Refutation of Bounded and Σ1 Formulas in pa

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

A fundamental proposition for bounded and Σ1 formulas in PA is not tautologous. While the author states that the informal notes are full of errors, this fundamental mistake causes the entire section about Rosser’s form of Gödel’s theorems to collapse. Therefore the proposition is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[436] viXra:1905.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:13:29

Refutation of Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing and the Hexagon of Oppositions

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Definitions for ◻H and ¬ ◊H are supposed to be equivalent for a classical mapping of agnostic hypothesis tests. While each definition reduces to a theorem in the conjecture, they are not tautologous. This refutes that agnostic hypothesis tests are proved to be logically consistent. Hence the characterization of credal modalities in agnostic hypothesis tests cannot be mapped to the hexagon of oppositions to explain the logical relations between these modalities. Therefore the 11 definitions tested form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[435] viXra:1905.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:14:35

Refutation of Reversing the Counterfactual Analysis of Causation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The seminal formula of C causes E iff (~C □→ ~E) is not tautologous, that is, it is not a theorem, from which the conjecture is derived. Hence reversing the counterfactual analysis of causation is refuted. Therefore the conjecture forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[434] viXra:1905.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 09:15:36

Corrigendum to "Polyomino Enumeration Results. (Parkin et Al., Siam Fall Meeting 1967)"

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 17 Pages.

This work provides a Java program which constructs free polyominoes of size n sorted by width and height of the convex hull (i.e., its rectangular bounding box). The results correct counts for 15-ominoes published in the 1967 proceedings of the SIAM Fall Meeting, and extend them to 16-ominoes and partially to even larger polyominoes.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[433] viXra:1905.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 09:47:03

Something for You to Think About with Respect to Einstein’s Two Relativity Theories

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 3 Pages.

I provide you with scientific clues for you to consider with respect to whether Einstein may have suffered some sort of oversight or not when he first released his Special Relativity Theory in 1905. I briefly discuss the 1887 Michelson and Morely Ether experiment and then provide you with ideas to consider as to whether some sort of Ether like field [say like a dynamic fluid condition] exists in the universe. The question that I then ask you to think about is if there is such a field is it possible that the Earth is moving through this field at a specific and measurable rate of speed? I conclude by asking you to consider what the possible ramifications are for contemporary mainstream physics if this eventually proves to be the case.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[432] viXra:1905.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 10:43:01

Origin And Destiny Of The Universe

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, possible model regarding the Big Crunch and the fate of the Universe.

In this paper there will be a theory about the destiny of the Universe, regarding a solution about the future movement of the Universe. Examinating the actual theories about the destiny of the Universe, and ,doing a reductio ad absurdum, we could formalize a solution. Unfortunately the things that we know about the Big Bang are few, and without any kind of evidence it is pretty difficult to create a plausible solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[431] viXra:1905.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 11:33:45

Quantum Chromodynamics on Lattice: State-of-the-Art and New Methods with New Results

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 55 Pages.

This paper consists of two parts. Part A is a state-of-the-art report in quantum chromodynamics. Here is presented in a concise form: the QCD gauge-theory, the standard model and its particles, the perturbative QCD (QCD/QED Feynman diagrams with results), QCD on-lattice with Wilson loops. Part B describes a new numerical QCD calculation method (direct minimization of QCD-QED-action) and its results for the first-generation (u,d) hadrons. Here we start with the standard color-Lagrangian LQCD=LDirac+Lgluon , model the quarks qi as parameterized gaussians, and the gluons Agi as Ritz-Galerkin-expansion. We minimize the Lagrangian with parameters par=(par(q),{αk},par(Ag)) for first-generation hadrons (nucleons, pseudo-scalar mesons, vector mesons). The resulting parameters yield the correct masses, correct magnetic moments for the nucleons, the gluon-distribution and the quark-distribution with interesting insights into the hadron structure.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[430] viXra:1905.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 13:11:33

The Robustness of the Spectral Properties of the V4 Wave Function

Authors: Nok Zgrgl
Comments: 4 Pages. This is a real paper on a fake universe.

A simple model known as the V4 wave function is studied for a simple (non-equivalent) wave function, which describes the in-medium oscillations of the space-time. The new model is employed for the detailed study of the spectral properties of the V4 wave function, and one of the upcoming projects is to use it to study the spectral properties of the strongly interacting quark-gluon interaction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[429] viXra:1905.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 17:41:36

Refutation of Condition/decision Duality and the Internal Logic of Extensive Restriction Categories

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The equations for condition/decision duality are not tautologous, hence refuting what follows as internal logic of extensive restriction categories. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[428] viXra:1905.0468 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-28 18:53:14

Crazy proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Bambore Dawit Geinamo
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper magically shows very interesting and simple proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem. The proof identifies sufficient derivations of equations that holds the statement true and describes contradictions on them to satisfy the theorem. If Fermat had proof, his proof is most probably similar to this one. The proof does not require any higher field of mathematics and it can be understood in high school level of mathematics. It uses only modular arithmetic, factorization and some logical statements.
Category: Number Theory

[427] viXra:1905.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 20:55:41

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Saturn and Jupiter to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. Includes EA (Earth Age) in case total Earth age changes

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as 4.5 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Saturn and Jupiter are.
Category: Astrophysics

[426] viXra:1905.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 22:25:58

Twin Paradox

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The paradox of the twins. The decision with the help of the Theory of Relativity Poincare. Language is Russian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[425] viXra:1905.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 00:50:46

Nuclear Barnett Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Nuclear Barnett Effect Using a different method from that employed by Barnett, two researchers at NYU observed an alternative version of this effect called the nuclear Barnett effect, which results from the magnetization of protons rather than electrons. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[424] viXra:1905.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 01:22:36

A New Hypothesis of the Relation Between Momentum and Energy

Authors: Chen Zhipeng
Comments: 11 Pages.

The combination of Newton momentum and Einstein's mass-energy relation will cause many difficulties. A new hypothesis of the relation between energy and momentum is proposed to solve these difficulties. At the same time, the relation is validated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[423] viXra:1905.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 01:25:15

A New Proton Structure Model

Authors: Tian Hansong
Comments: 3 Pages.

Proton is one of the most important particles. Though the precise values of the mass and the radius of proton have been figured out, the quark model of proton fails to connect these two values. However, we discover that a new proton structure model may realize this goal, which may help us know the internal structure of proton in a better way. The new model is different from the quark model which has been used to explain proton structure, it may have influence on the current particle standard model system.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[422] viXra:1905.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 02:43:24

Configuration of Nanoscopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[421] viXra:1905.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 03:19:35

Geometry of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Basel have shown for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. [31] A team of researchers from Canada, France and Poland has found that electrons inside of some ceramic crystals appear to dissipate in a surprising, yet familiar way-possibly a clue to the reason for the odd behavior of "strange metals." [30] To provide the data necessary to improve these products, a team of engineers and scientists from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a new pinhole-based diffraction technique they call PIND. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[420] viXra:1905.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 03:48:39

How Electrons Fatten

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Spanish scientists fabricated a nanoscale artificial material manipulating atoms one after the other and discovered that electrons can become heavier. [32] Physicists at the University of Basel have shown for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. [31] A team of researchers from Canada, France and Poland has found that electrons inside of some ceramic crystals appear to dissipate in a surprising, yet familiar way-possibly a clue to the reason for the odd behavior of "strange metals." [30] To provide the data necessary to improve these products, a team of engineers and scientists from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a new pinhole-based diffraction technique they call PIND. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[419] viXra:1905.0459 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-05 20:09:20

Collision Space-Time. Unified Quantum Gravity. Gravity is Lorentz Symmetry Break Down at the Planck Scale.

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 27 Pages.

We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory [23]. Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy. The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and quantum mechanics unified under the same theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[418] viXra:1905.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:12:21

Supersymmetry by ATLAS

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

If these superpartners exist and are not too massive, they will be produced at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and could be hiding in data collected by the ATLAS detector. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[417] viXra:1905.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:21:01

28 Excited Electron by Lan Theory with Relativistic Effect Introduction with Corroborated Data and Detection of Errors in Bibliography

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 41 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Article is centred in Relation of Riquelme de Gozy that is part of relations fulfilled by electrons excited (LAN Theory). Article exposes a new concept of excitation lines based on orbital quantum number and, after relativistic effect inclusion, progressively increases sensitivity in energetic values of electronic jumps to be able to predict said values and discern possible errors included in the references.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[416] viXra:1905.0456 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-26 00:51:05

The Contemporary Global Economic Crises

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

A resolvable trade dispute...
Category: Economics and Finance

[415] viXra:1905.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 02:26:52

Particle Physics Based on ``focal Point'' Representation of Particles

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 16 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the name of the author.

The present work is based on a model where subatomic particles are represented as focal points of rays of Fundamental Particles (FPs) that move from infinite to infinite. FPs are emitted by the focal point and at the same time regenerate it. Interactions between subatomic particles are the product of the interactions of the angular momenta of the FPs. The interaction between two charged subatomic particles tend to zero for the distance between them tending to zero, allowing to place the zero of the potential energy at the distance zero. Atomic nuclei can thus be represented as swarms of electrons and positrons that neither attract nor repel each other. As atomic nuclei are composed of nucleons which are composed of quarks, the quarks can also be seen as swarms of electrons and positrons. This allows a completely new interpretation of the interactions between quarks and the corresponding energy states.
Category: Classical Physics

[414] viXra:1905.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 03:48:16

Highest-Temperature Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

University of Chicago scientists are part of an international research team that has discovered superconductivity-the ability to conduct electricity perfectly-at the highest temperatures ever recorded. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[413] viXra:1905.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 04:49:59

Cancer in a New Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Using the latest advances in imaging and computing, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have developed a framework that's able to reveal the structural and functional changes in the blood vessel network required for growth of a tumour. [33] Medical physicist Dr. Aswin Hoffmann and his team from the Institute of Radiooncology-OncoRay at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a proton beam, thus demonstrating for the first time that in principle, this commonly used imaging method can work with particle beam cancer treatments. [32] Washington State University researchers for the first time have shown that they can use electrical fields to gain valuable information about the tiny, floating vesicles that move around in animals and plants and are critically important to many biological functions. [31] Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[412] viXra:1905.0452 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 10:52:54

Nature of Light: What Hidden Behind Young's Double-Slit Experiment?

Authors: Xiuqing Huang
Comments: 6 Pages.

We experimentally prove that the famous single- and double-slit experiments are merely the scattered-light phase transition by slit edges rather than the conventional view of the transmitted-light effect by slits. The nature of the wave-particle duality of light quanta can be well understood with the help of the hypothesis of the quantized chiral photons having an intrinsic dual-energy cyclic exchange property. With the suggested theoretical framework, the experimental diffraction pattern of a single slit is analytically determined and numerically confirmed.
Category: Classical Physics

[411] viXra:1905.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 08:29:58

Quantum Interferometry Phonon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Keio University investigated the excitation and detection of photogenerated coherent phonons in polar semiconductor GaAs through an ultrafast dual pump-probe laser for quantum interferometry. [26] Karimi's team has successfully built and operated the first-ever quantum simulator designed specifically for simulating cyclic (ringed-shaped) systems. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[410] viXra:1905.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 08:58:15

Wildfire Suppression Technology: Exploration for a Directed Energy Beam (Deb) Attenuating Electron Transfer by Cyclical Vacuum Subduction of Dioxygen Dication Species, O22+

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Salvatore Giandinoto, Sabah E Karam
Comments: 57 Pages. Preprint: IOP J Phys Conf Series 2019, R L Amoroso, D M Dubois, L H Kauffman, P Rowlands (eds) Advances in Fundamental Physics: Prelude to Paradigm Shift, 11th International Symposium Honoring Mathematical Physicist J-P Vigier, 2018 Liege, Belgium

Modeling wildfire suppression technology, inspired by Einstein’s long quest for a final theory, is based on a Unified Field Mechanical (UFM) Ontological-Phase Topological Field Theory (OPTFT) derived from modified M-theory, parameters of the Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Interpretation, with combined extensions of a de Broglie-Bohm Implicate Order super-quantum potential as a unified field force of coherence control factor. The device is multiphasic. Operationally, O2 electron transfer attenuation occurs by nonlocal matter-wave phase adduction/subduction interference nodes in dynamic-static Casimir-Polder resonant interactions pertinent to bumps and holes within a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum as the most salient feature of dioxygen dication, O22+ coupling to mirror symmetric nonlocal antispace (vacuum), rather than neutral molecular species in local 3-space as demonstrated in experimental studies of dioxygen dication, O22+. Additionally, beam emission requires a new dual class of nonlocal OCHRE (Oscillation Coupled Helicoid Resonance Emission) in tandem with localized OCRET (Optically Controlled Resonance Energy Transfer) to produce ballistic-like conduction of vacuum energy by the summation of cyclical resonant incursive oscillations within the structure of cellular Least Units tessellating spacetime as a means of mediating the additional dimensionality (XD) of brane topological phase transitions in the Bulk. Finally, device operation requires an M-theoretic form of scalable universal quantum computing (UQC), a paradigm shift beyond confines of the locality-unitarity basis of presently standard Copenhagen quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[409] viXra:1905.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 09:03:03

Quantum Shannon Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Information theory, which was developed by Claude Shannon starting in the late 1940s, deals with questions such as how quickly information can be sent over a noisy communications channel. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a "quantum battery" that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[408] viXra:1905.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 09:46:49

Learning Magnets Data Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In a new study, physicists at Radboud University have demonstrated that this could also be achieved by using chips whose operation is inspired by that of the human brain. [29] A team of researchers from the University of Münster, the University of Oxford and the University of Exeter has built an all-optical neural network on a single chip. [28] Physicists from Petrozavodsk State University have proposed a new method for oscillatory neural network to recognize simple images. Such networks with an adjustable synchronous state of individual neurons have, presumably, dynamics similar to neurons in the living brain. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[407] viXra:1905.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 10:20:18

Preliminary Study for Developing Instantaneous Quantum Computing Algorithms (Iqca)

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 25 Pages. Preprint: IOP J Phys Conf Series 2019, R L Amoroso, D M Dubois, L H Kauffman, P Rowlands (eds) Advances in Fundamental Physics: Prelude to Paradigm Shift, 11th International Symposium Honoring Mathematical Physicist J-P Vigier, 2018 Liege, Belgium

Since the mid-1990s theoretical quadratic exponential and polynomial Quantum Computing (QC) speedup algorithms have been discussed. Recently the advent of relativistic information processing (RIP) introducing a relativistic qubit (r-qubit) with additional degrees of freedom beyond the current Hilbert space Bloch 2-sphere qubit formalism extended theory has appeared. In this work a penultimate form of QC speedup – Instantaneous Quantum Computing Algorithms (IQCA) is proposed. Discussion exists on passing beyond the quantum limits of locality and unitarity heretofore restricting the evolution of quantum systems to the standard Copenhagen Interpretation. In that respect as introduced in prior work an ontological-phase topological QC avails itself of extended modeling. As well-known by EPR experiments instantaneous connectivity exists inherently in the nonlocal arena. As our starting point we utilize Bohm’s super-implicate order where inside a wave packet a super-quantum potential introduces nonlocal connectivity. Additionally EPR experiments entangle simultaneously emitted photon pairs by parametric down-conversion. Operating an IQCA requires a parametric up-conversion cycle an M-Theoretic Unified Field Mechanical (MUFM) set of topological transformations beyond the current Galilean Lorentz-Poincairé transforms of the standard model (SM). Yang- Mills Kaluza-Klein (YM-KK) correspondence is shown to provide a path beyond the semi-quantum limit to realize the local-nonlocal duality required to implement IQCA.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[406] viXra:1905.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 10:27:29

Integrated Circuits Chaotic Signals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have found a simple, yet highly versatile way to generate "chaotic signals" with various features. [30] In a new study, physicists at Radboud University have demonstrated that this could also be achieved by using chips whose operation is inspired by that of the human brain. [29] A team of researchers from the University of Münster, the University of Oxford and the University of Exeter has built an all-optical neural network on a single chip. [28] Physicists from Petrozavodsk State University have proposed a new method for oscillatory neural network to recognize simple images. Such networks with an adjustable synchronous state of individual neurons have, presumably, dynamics similar to neurons in the living brain. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[405] viXra:1905.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 12:02:07

Refutation that Strawson’s Presupposition is Different from Russell’s Entailment

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Strawson’s presupposition and Russell’s entailment are of the same form, equivalent, and hence not different. These conjectures form a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[404] viXra:1905.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 14:34:51

1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science . Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[403] viXra:1905.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 17:04:42

Błąd Lorentza I Einsteina

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 1 Page.

Analiza eksperymentu myślowego Einsteina i pokazanie błędu w założeniach.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[402] viXra:1905.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 18:19:33

Refutation of Replacing Classical Logic with Free Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluated 12 equations for the assertions with none tautologous. Therefore this conjecture is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[401] viXra:1905.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 19:35:05

Cross-Double-Slit Experiments and Wave-Particle Duality

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 5 Pages. thanks very much for consideration of my paper

We report observations of Cross-Double-Slit Experiment and Which-Path-Cross-Double-Slit experiment. Cross-Double-Slit apparatus contains two double-slit, where first double-slit is perpendicular to second double-slit. The first double-slit and the second double-slit generate not only their own interference pattern perpendicular to each other, but also generate “Cross-interference-patterns”. When we do which-way experiment with one of two double-slit, say first double-slit, then its interference pattern disappeared, i.e., photons behave as particles; but the second double-slit’s interference pattern and the cross-interference-pattern still exist; which implies an significant phenomenon that in the same experiment, photons behave as both wave and particle, which is first time caught on film. Thus we suggest to re-study wave-particle duality, which is the basic mystery of quantum mechanics. We postulate that the particle nature of photons is intrinsic; while the wave-like of photons is manifest-behavior.
Category: Quantum Physics

[400] viXra:1905.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 19:39:26

Simulated Discoveries

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Research is based on a theory, and the results of calculations/experiments/observations/predictions can provide the necessary proof for that theory. But if you simulate what you are looking for with data in order to find what you are looking for, or in order to test the computers and the researchers, then the definite proof cannot be based on data alone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[399] viXra:1905.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 21:44:39

Refutation of Rooted Hypersequent Calculus for Modal Logic S5

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two example equations as not tautologous, thereby refuting the rooted hypersequent calculus for modal propositional logic S5. The sequent calculus forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[398] viXra:1905.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:20:18

The Electron Charge Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 376 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The electron charge explained “The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!” Adrian Ferent “The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron” Adrian Ferent “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent Scientists do not understand the electron that is why they say the photon is absorbed by the atom not by the electron. “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about electric Charge is wrong. When they can not explain something, they said it is a Fundamental Property like the electric Charge! “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors that the Electric charge is the Physical Property of matter! This Physical Property of matter causes to experience a force when is placed in an electromagnetic field. The elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant. The elementary charge of the electron, e, is about 1.6 × 10^(-19) coulombs. An electric charge has an electric field and if the charge is moving it also generates a magnetic field. “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent Charge quantization means the charge of any object is an integer multiple of the elementary charge (exceptions are quarks). An electron is under the influence of electromagnetic radiation. The photons of this radiation would interact with the electron; the electron absorbs the photon and the electron gain energy. “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent DMe is the Dark Matter inside the electron DMp is the Dark Matter inside the positron 223. I am the first who discovered that the photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge 224. I am the first who discovered that an electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. 225. I am the first who discovered that the Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron 226. I am the first who discovered that the Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right 227. I am the first who discovered that if an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy 228. I am the first who discovered that the electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron 229. I am the first who discovered that due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[397] viXra:1905.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:35:05

Influence of the Biofield Energy Therapy on the Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Sulfamethoxazole

Authors: Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 7 Pages.

Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic, which inhibits the bacteria by interfering in its folic acid synthesis mechanism. The objective of this study was to analyze the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the phys-icochemical and thermal properties of sulfamethoxazole by using modern analytical techniques. The sulfamethoxaz-ole sample was classified as control and treated samples. The control sample did not receive the Biofield Treatment, while the treated sample received the Biofield Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi. The particle sizes of the treated sample were significantly reduced by 7.99% (d10), 3.05% (d50), 3.80% (d90), and 3.03%{D(4,3)}; whereas, the specific surface area of the particles was increased by 5.19% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were altered ranging from -70.86% to 52.36% and -6.01% to 75.34%, respectively; whereas the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 27.28% in the treated sulfamethoxazole compared with the control sample. The sample residual amount and maximum thermal degradation temperature were increased by 2.13% and 4.21%, respectively, in the treated sample compared to the con-trol sample. The decomposition temperature and latent heat of decomposition were increased by 3.26% and 19.36%, respectively, in the treated sample compared to the untreated sample. The Biofield Treated sulfamethoxazole might con-vert to a novel polymorph of the drug, with reduced particle size, increased surface area, and improved thermal stability. This can be helpful in improving the solubility, bioavailability, and stability of the sulfamethoxazole and would be more efficacious for the treatment of infections in the ear, urinary tract infections, traveler’s diarrhoea, bronchitis, shigellosis, and pneumonia, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[396] viXra:1905.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:35:53

Impact of Biofield Energy Treated DMEM on Mitochondrial Biogenesis Using Myoblast Cell Line, C2C12: Implications for Metabolic Disease

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 7 Pages.

Mitochondria play an important role in the body, and its dysfunction lead to the defective cellular energy production results to heterogeneous group of disorders such as early aging, type-2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and many more metabolic diseases. The study was aimed to examine the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based DMEM on myoblasts cells (C2C12) for mitochondrial mass content. The test item, DMEM was divided into three parts. First part did not receive any sort of treatment and defined as the untreated DMEM group. The second and third portions were treated with the one-time and two-times Biofield Energy Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and coded as the one-time Biofield Energy Treated DMEM (BT-I) and two-times Biofield Energy Treated DMEM (BT-II) groups, respectively. Cell viability of the test items by MTT assay showed more than 72% viable cells, which suggested that the test items were nontoxic and safe in nature. Moreover, the mitochondrial mass content in terms of fluorescence unit (FU) was significantly (p≤0.05) increased by 43.11% and 64.16% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively in C2C12 cells compared to the untreated DMEM group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that two-times treated DMEM (BT-II) was found more significant improvement in mitochondrial mass content compared with the one-time treated DMEM (BT-I) group and results in better respiratory capacity. Thus, data envisaged that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM has a potential to improve respiratory activity, which could be used against various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[395] viXra:1905.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 01:50:13

Fundamental-Methods-Of-Mathematical-Economics-by-Kevin-Wainwright-Professor-Alpha-C-Chiang

Authors: Kevin
Comments: 1 Page.

Fundamental-Methods-Of-Mathematical-Economics-by-Kevin-Wainwright-Professor-Alpha-C-Chiang
Category: Algebra

[394] viXra:1905.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 05:14:45

Extracellular Disease Diagnosis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A research team led by the University of Notre Dame is working to cut the test time for disease biomarkers. The new timeline-30 minutes instead of 13 hours-uses even smaller sample sizes to offer a new liquid biopsy option. [32] A new focused ultrasound approach-low-energy, rapid, short-pulsed ultrasound-can open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using microbubbles and deliver drugs more uniformly and more safely than methods based on long ultrasound pulses. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[393] viXra:1905.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:08:01

Crucial Cellular Switches Protection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have used CRISPR technology to probe the mechanisms that guide the developmental trajectories of stem cells in the brain.
Category: Physics of Biology

[392] viXra:1905.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:18:00

27 Orbital Angular Momentum of All Orbitals L and Lz Fluyiep Explanation

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 41 Pages.

Bohr atomic model is developed with electronic extremes of Victoria Theory. Toyi mechanism is focused on explaining orbital angular and spin movement of electronic extremes. This article summarizes first part of Toyi Mechanism and then proceeds with individualized explanation of angular momentum for all orbitals (named as Fluyiep Explanation). Finally, paper concludes with fundamental relations between angular momentum of all orbitals.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[391] viXra:1905.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 08:05:19

Uncover the Logic of Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Jianfei Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, author introduced two theories, energy spiral as a unified field and dual resonance for energy transfer. This paper is based on these theories. Through studying formation process of particles, as was indicated that: vacuum particles and 12 basic particles are existing in the vacuum, which will become protons or electrons. In the hydrogen atomic, the external vacuum energy affects on the energy spiral of the electron, then revolution energy and rotation energy of the electron are determined, finally the parameters of Bohr structure are determined. And logical value of Fine Structure constant is obtained. [alpha=sqrt[4]{2}pi/512]. This data is supported by the calculation results of experimental data.Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[390] viXra:1905.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:35:58

The Heavy Neutrino Leads to an Accurate Critical Value for Hubble's Constant ho of 78.20 Vs. 74.03 (Km/s)/Mps for the Latest Measurement

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: Today is my 95th birthday and this is my most important 1 page note to date.

Abstract: A highly accurate critical value of Hubble's constant of 78.20 (Km/s)/Mps has been found including the 4430 MeV heavy Majorana 4th neutrino.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[389] viXra:1905.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:18:35

New Short-Term Prognosis of Strong Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions According to Daily Indexis of Solar Activity

Authors: A.M.Eigenson, I.B.Bazylevych, M.S.Shevchenko
Comments: 1 Page.

Recently we have made the prognosis of such terrestrial events for the period between April 22 and May 2, 2019. This forecasting is confirmed. Now we do the same prognosis for the next 2 weeks, from May 19 until June 2, 2019. During this period new great catastrophes are expected to occur on our Earth. In our days, we see from Fig. 1 that the dangerous area lies between May 19 and June 2, 2019. (Addition: earthquakes 6+ are noted as circle’s, earthquakes 7+ as ellipsis and volcanic eruptions as crosses). So, the people of seismic zones: BE CAREFUL!
Category: Geophysics

[388] viXra:1905.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:26:40

1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science. Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[387] viXra:1905.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:53:56

Josephson Junction Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

The Josephson junction is one of the most important elements in turning quantum phenomena into usable technology. [42] The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[386] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-22 06:22:15

The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to seek an explanation to the following questions: “What is the Great Filter?” and “When it will arrive?”. Creating a theoretical model capable to provide an objectively valuable solution over those issues, it is also possible to hypothesize a valid solution for the Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The ultimate aim of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[385] viXra:1905.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:01:42

Computer Model of the Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 14 Pages.

The article presents the method of modelling the atomic structure of the nucleus of various elements. This way of modelling ensures that the modelled atoms be have similarly to real atoms. In nature, the vast majority of isotopes decay but some of them, due to the properties of protons and neutrons, remain stable.
Category: Classical Physics

[384] viXra:1905.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:32:01

Quantum Communication Two from One

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[383] viXra:1905.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 14:56:46

The Reformulation of Faraday's Law Using Electric Displacement Instead of Electric Field

Authors: Krishna Srinivasan
Comments: 8 Pages.

In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell formulated a set of electromagnetic equations to describe the interactions between electric and magnetic fields, now known as Maxwell's equations in his honor. In this paper, it will be shown using a thought experiment, Faraday's law formulated using electric displacement, instead of electric field, is a better formulation, consistent with the definitions of electric field and electric displacement. Maxwell's equations will be reformulated to satisfy the constituent relations, reflecting the change in the formulation of Faraday's law.
Category: Classical Physics

[382] viXra:1905.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 16:42:25

What is Gravity?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez
Comments: 4 Pages.

We present a proposal, alternative to the curved spacetime of Einstein, which we replaced by the curved quantum vacuum, caused by its gravitational interaction with the masses of the stars, as the source of Newtonian anomalies of celestial mechanics, restoring gravity as one of the fundamental forces of nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[381] viXra:1905.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 17:02:21

What is Spacetime?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez
Comments: 28 Pages.

The author discusses the theory of the time-space fluid that results from the supposed gravitational waves that would have detected LIGO, and reaffirms the spacetime as a structural geometric property of the dynamic matter, now with the strong argument that in an unnatural way, the physicists and philosophers of science confer the conception of the author to that ridiculous material spacetime, while depriving matter, of the intrinsic spacetime. In addition, he warns about the conceptual contradiction existing between NASA and Caltech over gravitational waves, being absurd the concept of Caltech, operator of LIGO, since gravitational waves would propagate in five non-detectable dimensions. NASA validly recognizes that they would be waves of space; therefore, there are no spacetime waves that correspond to gravitational waves that, according to the great current of relativistic physicists, would exist. Finally, the author reaffirms that quadrupole waves detected by LIGO are waves of quantum vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[380] viXra:1905.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:57:50

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Neptune and Uranus to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Neptune and Uranus are. It was previously predicted that Neptune and Uranus are 2 and 2.1 billion years old respectively via the General Theory, by using a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[379] viXra:1905.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:18:58

Third Degree Polynomials Masses Force

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you had an elastic ball and a nonelastic ball you could call these two forms of masses as the activity of a mass thid is a new quality now the other two stuff that describes what we are talking about here is the force and the masses of the two masses these are literaly the three stuff that exist in the universe the force the masses weight and the quality of the mass and these are the arbitary values inside a polynomial of the third degree and since there are no other stuff that exist within the universe we could say that there is no polynomial of the fourth degrees values solution
Category: Classical Physics

[378] viXra:1905.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:25:53

Explanation of Theory of Relativity

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

so the main idea of relativity is that motion is relative to get a feel for that lets look at point A and point B and a car moving from one to the other now lets say that point A is moving away from point B you would need more speed to achieve the same velocity of the car originally and if point A goes nearer to point B you would need less velocity to reach with the car from point A to point B
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[377] viXra:1905.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 03:20:09

Division by Zero Calculus and Pompe's Theorem

Authors: Tsutomu Matsuura, Hiroshi Okumura, Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we will introduce the application of the division by zero calculus to geometry and it will show the power of the new calculus.
Category: General Mathematics

[376] viXra:1905.0406 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-30 02:53:48

Reclamation of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (Copr) Involving Recovery of Chromate Salt, Detoxification and Fabrication of Clay Brick

Authors: Unchol Kim, Yongnam Kim, Ryongjin Jon, Song Kim, Cholmin Kim, Myongchol Ryu
Comments: 9 Pages.

We studied on the methods involving the recovery of chromate salt from COPR, the sequential detoxification of COPR and the reclamation of the detoxified COPR. The results of leaching experiments showed that it is possible to recover Cr (VI) existed in COPR using an inexpensive method, in which ca. 84% of Cr (VI) extraction rate could be under the following condition; seawater as leaching solution, 25% of solid content, leaching period of 30min, intermittent agitation, gravitational sedimentation as solid/liquid separating mode, repetition number of up 5. Cr (VI) contained in leaching liquor was recovered as chrome yellow, followed by recirculating the Cr (VI)-depleted supernatant to the leaching process. For the detoxification of post-leach COPR (plCOPR), plCOPR was mixed with sodium sulfide as a single reductant in a mixer and was discharged from the mixer without retention time for reduction. Cr (VI) content in the mixture became lower than cleanup criteria by US EPA with the Na2S/Cr (VI) mass ratio of 6 at the reaction time of 36h. Also, the results of the experiment with the detoxified plCOPR as a substitution for sand in fabricating clay brick shows that acceptable compression strength (52N/mm2) is obtained when the detoxified COPR accounts for '30% in raw material mixture, with the Cr (VI) content of 0.5mglkg-bricks below cleanup criteria by US EPA .
Category: Chemistry

[375] viXra:1905.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 06:17:00

Emergence of Cancer by Exchanging Fields of Microgravity Between Earth's DNA and Dark Dnas in Extra Dimensions

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 21 pages, 10 figures

Recently, it has been shown that in the absence of gravity, microgravity let us to explore some new fields which have direct effects on the communications between cells and their growth. We show that the origin of these fields may be some DNA-like structures interior of the earth's core. These structures have a long around $10^{9}$ times the diameter of the earth which are compacted in very smaller places like the core of the earth. This compacting is very similar to the compacting of DNAs interior of cells and leads to the emergence of high temperature and pressure. We measure temperature around DNA-like structures and show that it is in good agreement with predicted temperature of core. Also, we calculate number of microstates of DNA-like structures in microgravity. We will show that DNA-like structures of the core exchange microstates and fields with dark part of DNA in extra dimensions. This dark DNA includes missing genes that are needed for the animal's life and their chemical products can be observed in the activity of body. In microgravity, the absence of gravity lets to DNA-like structures to recover more states of dark DNAs. These extra states accelerate the production of extra cells and may lead to the cancer. To show this, we inject tumor cells into two fertilized eggs and incubate them for 58h. Then, we put one of them in a devices similar to clinostat and try to provide the conditions of incubation in microgravity. We consider the growth of tumor cells under microgravity and compare with normal conditions. We observe that fields of microgravity increase the velocity of production of tumor cells. This experiment confirms our theory that in the absence of gravity, communications between DNA-like structure of the earth and dark DNA leads to the an increase in number of microstates of cancerous cells.
Category: Physics of Biology

[374] viXra:1905.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 06:58:44

The Way to Develop of Atomic Nuclei//Дорога развития атомных ядер

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 16 Pages.

The article presents one of the many ways to develop atomic nuclei. The nuclei of the same isotope may have a different structure. They may differ from each other in that the main components of the structure in the form of ALPHA particles are connected to each other in a different way. The road of development of atomic nuclei presented in the article is only an example of how the addition of the following protons and neutrons to the structure contributes to the appearance of other chemical elements and their isotopes.// В статье представлена одна из многих дорог развития атомных ядер. Ядра одного и того же изотопа могут иметь различную структуру. Они могут отличаться друг от друга в том отношении, что основные компоненты структуры в виде частиц АЛЬФА соединены друг с другом различным способом. Представленная в статье дорога развития атомных ядер является только примером того, как присоединение к структуре следующих протонов и нейтронов способствует возникновению других химических элементов и их изотопов.
Category: Classical Physics

[373] viXra:1905.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 07:18:53

Ultrasound Drug Delivery to the Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new focused ultrasound approach-low-energy, rapid, short-pulsed ultrasound-can open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using microbubbles and deliver drugs more uniformly and more safely than methods based on long ultrasound pulses. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[372] viXra:1905.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 07:57:00

Computer Model of the Atomic Nucleus//Компьютерная модель атомного ядра

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 15 Pages.

The article presents a method for modeling the structure of the atomic nucleus of various chemical elements. This mode of simulation ensures that the modeled atoms behave like real atoms. In nature, the vast majority of isotopes decay, but some of them, due to the properties of protons and neutrons, remain stable.// В статье представлен метод моделирования структуры атомного ядра различных химических элементов. Этот способ моделирования гарантирует, что моделируемые атомы ведут себя подобно реальным атомам. В природе подавляющее большинство изотопов распадается, но некоторые из них, благодаря свойствам протонов и нейтронов, остаются стабильными.
Category: Classical Physics

[371] viXra:1905.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 09:43:07

Black Holes Axion as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter. [28] Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[370] viXra:1905.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 10:33:29

Quantum Cloud Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Quantum Cloud Computing With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. [27] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology teamed up with colleagues from the U.S. and Switzerland and returned the state of a quantum computer a fraction of a second into the past. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[369] viXra:1905.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 10:57:38

Polariton Nano-Laser Operating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

A room temperature polariton nano-laser has been demonstrated, along with several related research findings, regarding topics such as polariton physics at the nanoscale and also applications in quantum information systems. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[368] viXra:1905.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 13:58:55

The Physical Nature of Time

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 12 Pages.

One of the greatest mysteries of the present physics is the physical nature of ‘time’. In this paper the author demonstrates that the ageing of a composite, multi-particle system is a general expression for the loosening of the internal coherence of its basic particles, which is mathematically expressed as the increase of its entropy. In that way, the ‘time’ of a given particle system can be expressed by the relation between the increase of its entropy and the increase of the entropy of a particle system with a steady entropy increase, that is taken as a time standard or "clock". It is thereby demonstrated that this definition of the ‘time’ leads in a self-evident way to the time dilation of high speed particle systems, which is demonstrated to be a real physical phenomenon. And this leads on its turn to Einstein’s gravitational time dilation and to the time contraction with ageing.
Category: Classical Physics

[367] viXra:1905.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 15:25:09

Electric Fields on the Moon

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 16 Pages.

With the primitive-virtual negative (PVN) charge of the Moon, which generates the inherent electric field of the moon, lunar electrical environment can be understood naturally why the electric charge accumulations should be on the surface and above the moon in the circumstance of space plasma, such as solar wind plasma, UV radiation, etc. Especially, the lunar dust levitation and the horizontal transport on the dayside surface of the moon are discussed, which are crucial elements to understand the glowing effect above the horizon and the streamers at the terminator of the moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[366] viXra:1905.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-09 22:07:37

The Relationship of the Fine Structure Constant and Pi

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper, the fine structure constant is derived from a geometric ratio of surface areas, as a result of vibrations in a lattice with a body-centered cubic arrangement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[365] viXra:1905.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 19:09:53

Pyramid Subatomic Particled Smacher

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

maybe you could do a particle smasher with a pyramid of tip point proton accelerated tonhit another pyramids tip point proton to increasr the time of contact
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[364] viXra:1905.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 20:20:13

Particle Wave Duality is False

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you push a mass to the speed of light it takes a lot of work now if you push a larger mass it take a larger work to push it at a time larger by the larger mass/mass coefficient velocity here is all that matters do you think electromagnetic waves has inertia if it has mass do waves have inertia? arent waves propagation of momentum? waves are because of masses hitting each other and inertia of these masses in some way there is nothing called a wave so the principle of mass wave duality is wrong
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[363] viXra:1905.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:06:32

Neutron Shines on Dark Chocolate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Looking for improvements, researchers Fernanda Peyronel from the University of Guelph, Ontario, and David Pink from St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, used a combination of neutrons and x-ray scattering at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne National Laboratories to better understand how tempering affects chocolate's microstructure and, consequentially, how that relationship impacts taste. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[362] viXra:1905.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:09:42

The New Periodic Table of Chemical Elements According to the Deterministic Quantum Model

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 9 Pages.

The current periodic table of chemical elements presents numerous problems because of the presence of many elements that are in actuality out of the periodic classification of groups, like transition elements that are about the half of chemical elements. Here we propose a new table that searches for solving many problems, even if not all. It is supposable hence that in future also this table can undergo changes and improvements because of a greater theoretical understanding and of a further experimental examination of chemical elements. The most important aspects of the new table consist in the 10+1 new groups in place of the present 7+1 and in the 15 periods in place of the present 7 periods. It allows to include inside the new table the numerous elements of transition that at present are out of a coherent classification.
Category: Quantum Physics

[361] viXra:1905.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:37:07

Orbital and Spin - Toyi Mechanism - Bohr model with Victoria Equation

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 24 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Bohr model coupled with Victoria Theory proposes that electron is separated into electronic extremes, achieving currently accepted electronic cloud, geometry and probability. Toyi mechanism is centred on movements of electronic extremes (orbital and spin).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[360] viXra:1905.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:48:37

Garden-Variety Iron-Based Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In the pantheon of unconventional superconductors, iron selenide is a rock star. But new experiments by U.S., Chinese and European physicists have found the material's magnetic persona to be unexpectedly mundane. [30] Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[359] viXra:1905.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:51:53

Methionine Production by Coryneform Bacteria Through Fermentation

Authors: Venkata Narayana A1, Vamsi Priya A1, Venkata Nadh R, Swami AVN2, Sumalatha B3, Vijaya Leela M4
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Production of L-methionine by Cornybacterium glutamicum MTCC 2745 was assessed in batch fermentation by varying parameters viz., initial glucose concentration, initial nitrogen concentration, fermentation time, temperature, pH, initial shaking rate. Nynhydrin test and paper chromatography were used to identify methionine. Methionine estimated by using nitroprusside method. Effect of nitrogen sources on methionine production was examined. The parameters such as concentrations of glucose, ammonium sulphate, K2HPO4, MgSO47H2O, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and Yeast extract are optimized and maximum yield was 5.6 g of methionine/L.
Category: Chemistry

[358] viXra:1905.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:53:58

Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Authors: Muvvala Subrahmanya Sudhir1, Pavuluri Madan Mohan, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

For estimation of the Febuxostat in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms, an ultra violet – spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated. The method employed 0.1 N NaOH as solvent. At 275 nm, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with correlation coefficient value of 0.998 in the concentration range of 10 – 70 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.239 μg/ ml and 0.725 μg/ml respectively. The results demonstrated that the pro-cedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[357] viXra:1905.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:55:52

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nicergoline Through Ion-Pair Complexation Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Two simple, sensitive, selective, accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods (A and B) have been described in the present work for the determination of Nicergoline in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). Methods – A/B are based on the formation of orange red / yellow colored ion-association complexes between Nicergoline and Tropaeolin ooo (TPooo) / Alizarine Red S (ARS) in acid medium followed by their extraction with chloroform, exhibiting absorption maxima at 490nm / 430nm, and obeying Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2.5– 12.5μg/ml. Statistical analysis of the results of the proposed methods reveals high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods could be
Category: Chemistry

[356] viXra:1905.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:57:26

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Lapatinib in Tablet Dosage form using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as an Internal Standard

Authors: K. K. Kumar, K. E. V. Nagoji, R. V. Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse‑phase high‑performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of lapatinib in tablet using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C‑18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d. ×250 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The drug was monitored at 232 nm. The retention times for lapatinib and gemcitabine hydrochloride were found to be 4.25±0.05 and 6.10±0.05 min, respectively. The method produced linear responses in the concentration range of 2‑60 μg/ml of lapatinib. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.265 and 0.884 μg/ml, respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[355] viXra:1905.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:59:03

Kinetics of Oxidation of Myo-Inositol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar 2, R. Venkata Nadh, P.s. Radhakrishnamurti 2
Comments: 4 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of myo-inositol by potassium periodate both in alkaline and acid media were studied. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate in both media. In the case of base catalyzed reactions, a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. An inverse fractional order with respect to substrate in alkaline shows the substrate inhibition. A positive fractional order was observed for substrate in acid catalyzed reactions. The dependence on hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions was found to be inverse fractional order. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for both the reactions conducted in acid and alkali media. Plausible mechanism is postulated based on experimental results.
Category: Chemistry

[354] viXra:1905.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:00:10

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk Drugs

Authors: Sudhir S Muvvala1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Rama RaoNadendla3
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

An accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of Febuxostat in bulk forms has been developed and validated. Chromatographic separation is conducted on Nucleosil C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm) column at ambient temperature using mixture of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (buffer of pH 4.0 adjusted with 0.2% triethyl amine) and acetonitrile in the ratio (15: 85, v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.2 ml / min, while UV detection is performed at 275nm. The retention time for Febuxostat is found to be 3.45 ± 0.05 min. The method is found to be linear in the range of 50.0 – 400.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for Febuxostat are found to be 9.98 and 30.23 μg /mL respectively. Analytical recovery is 99.29 %. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method is found to be less than 2%. The method is validated as per the ICH guidelines and applied for the quantitative analysis of Febuxostat in bulk forms.
Category: Chemistry

[353] viXra:1905.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:02:31

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Melphalan in Tablet Dosage Forms

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of melphalan in tablet. The analyte was resolved by using a mobile phase (Acetonitrile, water and 1% ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 70:27:3 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1 ml/min on an isocratic HPLC system (PEAK) consisting UV-Visible detector, ODS C-18, RP column (4.6 mm i.d x250 mm) at a wavelength of 275 nm. The linear dynamic range for melphalan was 2.0 μg/mL – 14.0μg/mL. The limit of detection [LOD] and Limit of quantification [LOQ] for melphalan was 0.5μg/mL and 1.5μg/mL respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[352] viXra:1905.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:04:47

Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Estimation of Nicergoline in Marketed Formulations

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, accurate, and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for estimation of nicergoline in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on a C18column (ODS, C18, 5μ, 250×4.6 mm i.d.) with mobile phase containing methanol, acetonitrile and 1.0 % ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 80:18:2 v/v/v. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and effluent was monitored at 265nm. The retention time was 3.128min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity curve was found to be linear over 1.0 - 6.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.3 μg /ml and 0.9 μg /ml respectively. The proposed method was successfully used to determine the drug content of marketed formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[351] viXra:1905.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:08:24

Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Satranidazole in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was carried out on a isocratic ODS - C18 (250 x 4.6mm i.d.,5 μ) column with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile , 0.025M Ammonium phosphate buffer and 1.0% Ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 65:35:5 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1.2mL/min. Detection was carried out at 318nm using UV lamp visible detector. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[350] viXra:1905.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:10:10

Refutation of Lattice Effect Algebra

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

A seminal definition of lattice effect algebra is not tautologous. This refutes lattice effect and lattice pseudoeffect algebras along with the chain effect of quasiresiduation. The conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[349] viXra:1905.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:11:11

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages.

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),
Category: Chemistry

[348] viXra:1905.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:13:11

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Vanadium (V),

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of iodide ion by Vanadium (V),
Category: Chemistry

[347] viXra:1905.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:14:13

Kinetic Studies of Thiocyanate and Iodide Oxidation with 2,6-Dichloro-Quinone-4-Chloro-Imide: a Novel and a New Oxidising Agent,

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Kinetic Studies of thiocyanate and iodide oxidation with 2,6-dichloro-quinone-4-chloro-imide: A novel and a new oxidising agent,
Category: Chemistry

[346] viXra:1905.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:15:47

Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monoethanolamine and Benzylamine by Chloramine-T

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monoethanolamine and benzylamine by chloramine-T
Category: Chemistry

[345] viXra:1905.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:17:44

Kinetics of Oxidation of Aniline, P-Aminobenzoic Acid and P-Nitroaniline by 2,6-Dichloro Quionone-4-Chloro-Imide

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of aniline, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-nitroaniline by 2,6-dichloro quionone-4-chloro-imide
Category: Chemistry

[344] viXra:1905.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:20:22

Kinetics of Reduction of Substituted Cobaloximes by Iron(ii)

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Kinetics of reduction of substituted cobaloximes by iron(II)
Category: Chemistry

[343] viXra:1905.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:21:46

Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monethanolamine and Benzylamine by N-Bromosuccinimide,

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monethanolamine and benzylamine by N-bromosuccinimide,
Category: Chemistry

[342] viXra:1905.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:42:36

Glyphosate and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: no Causal Relationship

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 29 pages. Copyright © 2019 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Objective: Herbicides are used worldwide by both residential and agricultural users. Due to the statistical analysis of some epidemiologic studies the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (GS) in 2015, as potentially carcinogenic to humans especially with respect to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In this systematic review and re-analysis, the relationship between glyphosate and NHL was re- investigated. Methods: A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between GS and NHL was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship, the method of the conditio per quam relationship, the method of the exclusion relationship and the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k were used to proof the hypothesis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: The studies analyzed do not provide any direct and indirect evidence that NHL is caused GS. Conclusion: In this re-analysis, no causal relationship was apparent between glyphosate and NHL and its subtypes. Keywords: Glyphosate, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, no causal relationship
Category: Statistics

[341] viXra:1905.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 07:27:30

Design and Calculation of 25MW Steam Turbine Course

Authors: UnChol Ri, GumChol Ri, YongSong Kim, WonZhu Kim
Comments: 13 Pages.

今天,随着科学技术的迅速发展,人类对能源的需求也越来越增加。 在火力电站的发电当中汽轮机是不可或缺的特别重要的发电设备。 在小论文中,计算了对目前在我们国家现在运行的25MW蒸汽轮机的更精确的热计算
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[340] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 13:49:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. replacing because I had Mercury written in Mars' spot.

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[339] viXra:1905.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 09:40:59

The Generation of Mass and Its Directivity

Authors: Yongqiang Zhao
Comments: 7 Pages.

The mass of matter includes the mass of elementary particles and the interaction mass between the particles. So far there has been a great deal of research on the origin of the mass of the elementary particles, but there are few studies on the origin of the interaction mass. In this paper, we show that the electric field of a uniformly accelerating point charge in vacuum is curved toward the opposite direction of acceleration. When a positive charge system is accelerated, the interaction forces between its charges cannot cancel each other out; therefore the charge system will produce a self-action force opposite to the acceleration, thus generating interaction mass. The interaction mass is not constant, but varies with the direction of the acceleration. Finally, we conclude that the mass of object is related to its self-action and has directivity.
Category: Classical Physics

[338] viXra:1905.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 10:24:22

On the Decay of Atoms//О распаде атомов

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 10 Pages.

The article presents the main reason leading directly to the spontaneous disintegration of atoms and mediocre to the forced disintegration of atoms. The article presents a method of computer modeling of the structures of atomic nuclei and the process of disintegration of these nuclei. The presented method, due to the limited capabilities of the author in creating computer simulation programs, is simplified, but indicates the direction in which studies of the structure of atoms and chemical compounds may develop in the future.// В статье представлена основная причина, приводящая непосредственно к самопроизвольному распаду атомов и посредственно к вынужденному распаду атомов. В статье представлен метод компьютерного моделирования структур атомных ядер и процесс распада этих ядер. Представленный метод из-за ограниченных возможностей автора в создании программ компьютерного моделирования упрощен, но указывает направление, в котором исследования структуры атомов и химических соединений могут развиваться в будущем.
Category: Classical Physics

[337] viXra:1905.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 12:15:20

Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 10 Pages. Published on: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2018, 4, 510-518

The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: α=q^2/(2ε_0 hc)=0.0072973525664 (1) Being q the elementary charge, εo the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2]. In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: cos⁡(α^(-1) )=e^(-1) (2) being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: α=0.0072973520977 (3) This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: Difference=(α(1)-α(3))/(α(1))·100=0.00000642% (4) This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation. As the cosine function is periodical, the equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility. It will also be shown that another elegant way to show equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): e^(i/α)-e^(-1)=-e^(-i/α)+e^(-1) (5) Having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[336] viXra:1905.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-26 05:54:55

The L/R Symmetry and the Categorization of Natural Numbers

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 21 Pages.

“Every natural number, with the exception of 0 and 1, can be written in a unique way as a linear combination of consecutive powers of 2, with the coefficients of the linear combination being -1 or +1”. According to this theorem we define the L/R symmetry of the natural numbers. The L/R symmetry gives the factors which determine the internal structure of natural numbers. As a consequence of this structure, we have an algorithm for determining prime numbers and for factorization of natural numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[335] viXra:1905.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 16:23:26

Expansion of Terms Squared, Square of a Binomial, Trinomial, Tetranomial and Pentanomial.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 12 Pages.

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new square potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the square of a binomial, trinomial, tetranomial and pentanomial.
Category: Algebra

[334] viXra:1905.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 23:58:42

A Possible Holarchy Representing Morphic Resonance as One Side of the Poised Realm

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The theory of morphic resonance is unified with warm-body quantum mechanics following the ontological basis that describes the poised realm that depicts a balancing act involving quantum coherence and decoherence. Morphic resonance more properly belongs to the side of quantum coherence, leaving the other side the place where classical mechanics applies. This equally turns time into something two-sided, leaving open the possibility that proto-emotion sources the middle-term that holds the sides together.
Category: Mind Science

[333] viXra:1905.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 23:17:32

An Interesting Insight Into Polyhedra Computation Based on Ppl[(parma Polyhedra Library in C++)/imagej/jiprolog/jikesrvm/java/eclipse-Ide] in the Context of Software Development Involving R&D of [ai+complex Systems+cryo-em Informatics] Using Iot/hpc Frame

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication

AN INTERESTING INSIGHT INTO POLYHEDRA COMPUTATION BASED ON PPL[(Parma Polyhedra Library in C++)/ImageJ/JIProlog/JikesRVM/Java/Eclipse-IDE] IN THE CONTEXT OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT INVOLVING R&D OF [AI+COMPLEX SYSTEMS+CRYO-EM INFORMATICS] USING IoT/HPC FRAMEWORK. [ Probing Numerical Abstractions in Engineering/Physics/Biology/Image Processing Domains ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[332] viXra:1905.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:17:30

Proposal of Replacing Classical Logic with Free Logic for Reasoning with Non-Referring Names in Ordinary Discourse

Authors: Bornali Paul
Comments: 9 Pages.

Reasoning carried out in ordinary language, can not avoid using non-referring names if occasion arises. Semantics of classical logic does not fit well for dealing with sentences with non-referring names of the language. The principle of bivalence does not allow any third truth-value, it does not allow truth-value gap also. The outcome is an ad hoc stipulation that no names should be referentless. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how far free logic with supervaluational semantics is appropriate for dealing with the problems of non-referring names used in sentences of ordinary language, at the cost of validity of some of the classical logical theses/ principles.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[331] viXra:1905.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:46:04

Entanglement Inside Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[330] viXra:1905.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:49:55

The Henstock-Kurzweil-Feynman-Pardy Integral in Quantum Physics

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 Pages. The original ideas published in reputable journals

The Feynman integral is generalised so as to involve the random fluctuations of vacuum, from this integral the generalized Schroedinger equation is derived and the energy spectrum for the Coulomb potential determined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[329] viXra:1905.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 02:23:58

Righteousness and the Merciful Act

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 6 Pages.

The permanent desolation of the Christian hierarchy.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[328] viXra:1905.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:38:46

Live and Lifeless Physics Eyes

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 6 Pages. -

Physical distinction of live and lifeless objects is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[327] viXra:1905.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:00:19

From Pythagorean Theorem to Cosine Theorem.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 2 Pages.

Easy and natural demonstration of the cosine theorem, based on the extension of the Pythagorean theorem.
Category: Geometry

[326] viXra:1905.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:47:20

Biological Nanometer Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30]
Category: Physics of Biology

[325] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[324] viXra:1905.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:13:18

Laser of Sound Promises

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Most people are familiar with optical lasers through their experience with laser pointers. But what about a laser made from sound waves? [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[323] viXra:1905.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:11:46

Cholesterol Destruction Code

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A team of UNSW scientists at the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences led by Professor Andrew Brown have shown how a key enzyme that contributes to cholesterol production can be regulated-and destroyed-using a particular molecule. [33] Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[322] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[321] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Stellar Metamorphosis: Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[320] viXra:1905.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:10:51

The Complete Theory of Everything: a Proposal

Authors: Rahula T.R. Latchman, Gemma F. Lopez
Comments: 44 Pages.

This paper presents a model that bridges the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics by providing a new understanding of space and time. The core principle of this formulation is impermanence, the fact that energy is never static, which has non-obvious consequences at the quantum level and leads to a formulation of quantum gravity. The results allow for a new interpretation of black holes and a resolution of the black hole information paradox. The model also presents the causes leading to the Big Bang as well as the Universe evolution, offering a new perspective on galaxy formation and a natural explanation to the origin of dark matter, dark energy and the matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[319] viXra:1905.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 15:08:29

Conjecture Sur Les Familles Exponentielles

Authors: Idriss olivier BADO
Comments: 5 Pages.

in this article we will establish some properties of random variables and then we will propose a conjecture related to the exponential family. This conjecture seems interesting to me. Our results are based on the consideration of continuous random variables $X_{i}$ defined on the same space $\Omega$ and the same super-extra density law of parameter $\theta_{i} $ and canonique function $T$ Let $n\in \mathbb{N}^{*}$ Considering the random variable $J$ and $I$ a subsect of $\{1,2,..n\}$ such that : $ X_{J}=\inf_{i\in I}(X_{i})$ we show that : $$\forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{\theta_{i}\prod_{j\in I}c(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}\theta_{j}}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$. We conjecture that if the density of $ X_{i}$ is $ c(\theta_{i})e^{-\theta_{i}T(x)}\mathbf{1}_{\Omega}(x)$ Hence $\exists h,r$ two functions h such that $$ \forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{r(\theta_{i})\prod_{j\in I}h(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}r(\theta_{j})}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$
Category: Statistics

[318] viXra:1905.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48

The Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and the Alpha Variation

Authors: Tony Bermanseder
Comments: 40 Pages.

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits. An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory. Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity. The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'. Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately? Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap? Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe? This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[317] viXra:1905.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 00:38:30

The Secret of the Neutron-Revealed//Тайна нейтрона раскрыта

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents a physical mechanism that provides a stable arrangement of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.// В статье представлен физический механизм, который обеспечивает стабильное расположение протонов и нейтронов в ядре атома.
Category: Classical Physics

[316] viXra:1905.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:28:38

More On Reality

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

Reality is existence, fact, truth. As intelligent beings, we are always concerned with reality or the truth and abhor lies, fakeness, falsity. But we are also not averse to using falsity and lies to deceive others in order to achieve our objectives. Who has never lied before? As the interpretation of reality has a tendency to be subjective it is often difficult to differentiate between the real, the truth, and the unreal, the false. This paper is a continuation of the author’s earlier paper “Reality”; it probes further into reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[315] viXra:1905.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:47:28

Design, Synthesis and Anti-Tumour Activity of New Pyrimidine-Pyrrole Appended Triazoles

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Yamini Bobde ⁠c, Balaram Ghosh ⁠c, Kondapalli Venkata Gowri Chandra Sekhar
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

The new pyrimidine-pyrrole scaffolds (7a–7m) with substituted 1,2,3-traizole moiety were synthesized in good to mild yields and subjected for anti-cancer activity against melanoma and breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The compounds 7f and 7m exhibited highest anti-cancer activity against both the tested cell lines in in vitro assay. The molecular docking analysis provided the insights of binding orientation of pyrimidine-pyrrole nucleus of current ligands and their crucial interactions with Cys797 and other residues of the EGFR tyrosine kinase active site. The interactions of triazole and its various substituted groups with EGFR tyrosine kinase have been discussed
Category: Chemistry

[314] viXra:1905.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:53:49

Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin Using Charge Transfer Complex

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram, Kishore VNV
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of gemigliptin present in bulk drug and tablet formulation. It involves an indirect method of charge transfer complex formation in presence of NBS, metol and suphanilic acid. Gemigliptin was subjected to oxidation with excess amount of oxidant (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS oxidizes metol to give p-N-methylbenzoquinone monoamine (PNMM) which in turn forms a charge transfer complex with sulphanilic acid. Then validated the above developed method as per the current ICH guidelines. An excellent correlation coefficient (> 0.999) was found for the obtained regression equation (y = –0.0302x + 0.928) in the range of 2.0–30.0 μg mL-1. The method was found to be simple and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range 99.92 – 100.08.
Category: Chemistry

[313] viXra:1905.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:55:32

Oxidative Coupling Reaction for the Determination of Lurasidone

Authors: M. S. Sudhira, R. Venkata Nadh, H. Manjunatha
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, highly reproducible and economical, visible spectrophotometric method for the determination lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method is based on the formation of an oxidative coupling product by the reaction of lurasidone with 3-methylbenzothiazolin- 2-one hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent in presence of ferric chloride. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship within the concentration range of 0–100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.9997. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.6 and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The method was tested and validated according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (RSD < 2%).
Category: Chemistry

[312] viXra:1905.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:58:01

Novel Pyrazolyl Benzoxazole Conjugates: Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking Studies and in vitro Anticancer Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Narayana Murthy Ganta3
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Abstract: Background: Nowadays, hybrid drugs have gained a significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Most of the hybrid molecules with different heterocyclic moieties were proved to be potent anti-tumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Hence, the present study is aimed at the evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of novel hybrid molecules (pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates) and to investigate their anticancer activity by molecular docking studies. Methods: Designed, synthesized and characterized the novel pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates. Anticancer activity of these compounds was determined by SRB assay. Then molecular docking studies were carried out against proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (ATP-Src, PDB: 2BDF), a putative target for cancer. Results: All the synthesized compound derivatives were evaluated against MCF-7, KB, Hop62 and A549 cancer cell lines. Compounds 9b and 9c exhibited excellent anticancer activities with GI50 values of <0.1 μM against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Compound 9e exhibited good antitumor activity on MCF-7 and A-549 with GI50 values of 0.12 μM and 0.19 μM respectively. Compound 9g showed better anticancer activity on A-549 cancer cell line with GI50 value of 0.34 μM. Conclusion: The two-hybrid molecules 9b and 9c are found to be comparably potent with the standard drug doxorubicin and may act as drug lead compounds in medicinal chemistry aspect. The present docking investigation proved that having benzoxazole of compound 9c at benzofuran of reference compound N-acetyl pyrazoline derivative might be valid for contributing to anti-cancer activity.
Category: Chemistry

[311] viXra:1905.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:00:27

Determination of Riociguat by Oxidative Coupling Using Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram, Sireesha Malladi 3
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A simple spectrophotometric method was developed to determine riociguat in bulk and tablet formulation. The present method lies on the oxidation of MBTH by Fe+3 ions in acidic medium to form active coupling species and followed by its coupling with riociguat to form the chromophore having lmax 660 nm. Validated the proposed method as per the existing guidelines of ICH. Good linearity (r~ 0.999) was observed for calibration curve in the studied concentration range (6.25 – 37.50 μg mL-1). Reproducibility, accuracy and precision of the method were confirmed from low values of % RSD.
Category: Chemistry

[310] viXra:1905.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:02:00

Determination of Satranidazole Through Ion-Associative Complex Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar, R.Venkata Nadh, M. Siva Kishore1, G. Giri Prasad3
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric method has been described for determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method involves the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complex of satranidazole with Tropaeolin OOO (TPooo). The extracted colored complex showed absorbance maximum at wavelength 484 nm and obeying Beer′s law in the concentration 4-20 μg mL-1 with the correlation coeffiecent of 0.9998. The results of statistical analysis of the proposed method reveals high accuracy and good precession. Thus, the proposed method can be used commercially for the determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[309] viXra:1905.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:03:35

Ninhydrin Based Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Ven kata Nadh RATNAkaram, Sireesha Malladi 3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

A simple method is described to determine the amount of gemigliptin in bulk and tablet formulation by visible spectrophotometry. Basis of the proposed method is the reaction of the primary amine present on gemigliptin with ninhydrin in alkaline pH (alkaline borate buffer) medium to produce a purple color (Ruhemann’s purple) which has maximum absorption at 558 nm. The method was validated as per the current ICH guidelines. The obtained regression equation (y = 0.0148x+0.0011) in the range of 5-30 μg mL-1 has a good correlation coefficient (> 0.999). As the method does not require any separation, it is rapid and simple. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range of 99.73 – 99.96. This method is a green method as it no organic solvents were employed.
Category: Chemistry

[308] viXra:1905.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:05:22

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ulipristal Acetate using Naphthol Blue Black

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Ulipristal acetate is used to treat uterine fibroids and for emergency birth control. The present study is a first report on development of a visible spectrophotometric method for determination of Ulipristal acetate present in bulk and tablet formulation. The method involves the sequential addition of HCl (0.1 N) and Napthol Blue Black solution to Ulipristal acetate. Cation formed on tertiary amine group of Ulipristal acetate attracts anion of naphthol blue black (an acid dye) to develop a coloured ion-association complex. From the aqueous phase, the chromophore is extractable into chloroform, which exhibits λmax at 640 nm. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (2.50 – 15.00 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 99.80 – 100.72 range. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.007 – 0.560, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 1 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of Ulipristal acetate (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) without requirement of expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[307] viXra:1905.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:07:35

Piperacillin Estimation by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Kiran Kumar Katari3
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a simple, validated, and affordable visible spectrophotometric method for determination of piperacillin (PIP) present in bulk and powder for injection formulation. Methods: In the present method, cobalt thiocyanate (CTC) was used as a chromogenic reagent where it forms 2:1 ion pair complex at pH 2 with PIP which is having secondary and tertiary amine groups. Results: The formed bluish-green colored ion pair between PIP and CTC is quantitatively extractable into nitrobenzene with an absorption maximum of 665 nm. Regression analysis (r=0.9996) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (3–18 μg/mL). Low values of relative standard deviation (<2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate, and precise. Conclusions: As per the existing guidelines of ICH (international council for harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use), various parameters of the proposed method were tested for validation and can be used method of choice for routine analysis in industrial quality control laboratories, especially in developing countries.
Category: Chemistry

[306] viXra:1905.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:11:37

Ion Associative Complex Formation for the Stimation of Piperacillin

Authors: Giri Prasad G, Venkata Nadh R, Kiran Kumar K
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Ion associative complex formation for the stimation of piperacillin
Category: Chemistry

[305] viXra:1905.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:13:33

Determination of Mianserine Using Fe3+-Phenanthroline by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 4 Pages. OK

Mianserin is used as an antidepressant medication. A visible spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Mianserine present in bulk and tablet formulation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 484 nm) in presence of Fe3+-Phenanthroline. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. The proposed method does not require a pre-treatment process. The method has the advantage of simple, reproducible, selective and sensitive. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (1 – 6 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 98.00 – 99.66 range. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.181 – 0.530 and -0.135 – 0.408 respectively, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis of Mianserine (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) in quality control laboratories, as an alternative to the methods which require expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[304] viXra:1905.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:16:43

Determination of Mianserin Using Tropaeolin-Ooo by Ion Pair Formation

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objective: The present study was aimed at the development of a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the assay of mianserin, a drug used for the treatment of depression. Methods: The method was developed using tropaeolin-ooo (TPooo) as an ion associative complex forming a chromophore. Developed the chromophore by sequential mixing of aqueous solutions of mianserin, hydrochloric acid, and TPooo. Chromophore was extracted into an organic solvent (chloroform) and absorbance values of organic layers were measured. As per the existing guidelines of an international conference on harmonization (ICH), various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Results: At the optimized reaction conditions, the formed chromophore (λ max Conclusion: Due to lack of pre-treatment process for this method, it was simple. All the tested parameters of the method were validated as per ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[303] viXra:1905.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:19:27

Pharmacological Review of Caralluma r.br: A Potential Herbal Genus

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu, M. Sreenivasulu
Comments: 13 Pages. OK

In history, medicinal plants were proven as a source of active compounds with therapeutic applications, and at present, they are an important collection for the discovery of novel drug leads. Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. The present article thoroughly reviewed about the classification of Caralluma into subgenera, number of its species, its distribution in different parts of the world, and pharmacological activities exhibited by different species of Caralluma.
Category: Chemistry

[302] viXra:1905.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:21:12

Diazo Coupling for the Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study were to develop a spectrophotometric method for the assay of selexipag (selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations so that it will be an alternative quantitative method to chromatographic methods which require large quantities of organic solvents, where some are with hazardous and toxic properties. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the diazo coupling of selexipag with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable green-colored and water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. Results and Discussion: Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity of 3.33 × 104 L/mol/cm. The limit of detection was 0.35 μg/mL and limit of quantification was 1.0 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusions: This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to the current ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[301] viXra:1905.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:22:38

Ion-pair Formation for the Determination of Mianserin Using Fast Sulphon Black F

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Sireesha Malladi
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Aim: The objective of the current study is to develop a colorimetric method for the determination of mianserin, an antidepressant drug. Materials and Methods: Fast Sulphon Black F, an acidic dye was used to develop a soluble colored ion-pair complex. The complex was extracted into an organic solvent and absorbance was measured. Results: Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain a sensitive and stable chromophore (λmax 554 nm) in dichloromethane. Good linearity was observed for the calibration curve plotted in the studied concentration range (4–14 μg/mL) with regression analysis (r > 0.9997). High percentage recovery values (98.25–101.40) show that the method is accurate. Reproducibility of the method is evident from lower relative standard deviation (<2%) for both intra- and inter-day precision studies. Conclusions: The proposed method is validated as per the existing ICH guidelines. This method is simple as it does not require any pre-treatment process.
Category: Chemistry

[300] viXra:1905.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:34:18

Oxidative Coupling: A Tranquil Approach for Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study is a first report on development of a spectrophotometric method for determination of selexipag (used to cure pulmonary arterial hypertension) in bulk and tablet formulation and its validation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 600 nm) in presence of acidic ferric chloride by oxidative coupling reaction between selexipag and MBTH (3-methylbenzo-thiazolin-2-one hydrazone) solution. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (5 – 30 μg mL-1). As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise.
Category: Chemistry

[299] viXra:1905.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:35:59

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu, T. Pullaiah
Comments: 13 Pages. OK

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus
Category: Chemistry

[298] viXra:1905.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:37:23

Synthesis and Antitumor Activity Evaluation of 2-Aminothiazoles Appended 5-Methylisoxazoline and Pyridine-Piperazine Hybrid Molecules

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Durgaprasad Yennity
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

A highly efficient and milder protocol for the syntheses of novel series of 2-aminothiazoles bearing 5-methylisoxazoline and pyridine-piperazine hybrid molecules has been developed. The target compounds 13a-e were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activity against various tumor cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT-116 (colorectal carcinoma), Jurkat (human Tcell leukemia) and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia). The bioactive assay showed most of the new compounds exhibited promising results in comparison with the parental Sunitinib. The synthesized compounds could well be used in the future as lead anticancer drugs in drug development studies. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral data.
Category: Chemistry

[297] viXra:1905.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:39:52

LC-MS Compatible Stability Indicating RP-Uplc Method for the Estimation of Ester Prodrug of Mycophenolic Acid in Injection Formulation

Authors: 58.G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, Muralee Krishna, Ravi Kumar Bellam, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

LC-MS compatible stability indicating RP-UPLC method for the estimation of ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid in injection formulation
Category: Chemistry

[296] viXra:1905.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:41:23

A Study on Extraction of Plant Based Bio Colours

Authors: P.Vijetha, R. Venkata Nadh, K. Ramesh Naidu, T.Swapna Sundari
Comments: 3 Pages. OK

Most of the synthetic colours are carcinogenic. Many natural colours are thought to play- a significant role in preventing or delaying the onset of many diseases. Optimized conditions were arrived for the extraction of plant based biocolours based on the literature survey. In the present study, extraction of bixin from annatto seeds was carried out using ethyl acetate and ethanol. A pure bixin is obtained by precipitating from petroleum ether. A simple method for preparing butter colour from annatto seeds is tested using castor oil and groundnut seed oil. Lycopene was extracted from tomatoes using ethyl acetate as a solvent and further purified by successive recrystallisation from ethyl acetate and ethanol. A stable oleoresin of lycopene was prepared in soybean oil. Purity of extracted colours is established from spectral studies.
Category: Chemistry

[295] viXra:1905.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:42:54

In-Vivo Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Nanospheres: Biodistribution and Mycobacterium Screening Studies

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Krupanidhi S, Venkata Nadh R
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres are formulated with a specific goal in order to decrease the dose, adverse effects and to enhance targeted drug delivery. Rifampicin nanospheres were prepared and evaluated by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vivo bio distribution studies reveal that there was a long term accumulation of rifampicin nanospheres in the lungs over other organs. The increase in Cmax values confirmed that inhalable PLGA nanospheres are suitable for targeting and providing sustained release of antitubercular drugs to lungs. So inhalation is a selected administration route of Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres. The in vivo screening of M. tuberculosis showed good activity as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres as an attractive drug dosage form for the therapy of tuberculosis. It can be concluded that there is a significant potential for effective oral delivery as well as nasal delivery of the Nanospheres for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Category: Chemistry

[294] viXra:1905.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:44:25

Development and Validation of Uplc Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine in the Presence of Degradation Products Using Doe Concept

Authors: Nukendra Prasad Nadella, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, N. Srinivasu
Comments: 11 Pages. OK

A methodical design-of-experiments were performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to establish a design-space for simultaneous and rapid quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine by UPLC in the presence of degradation products. Response-surface, central-composite design, and quadratic model were employed for statistical assessment of experimental data using the Design-Expert software. Response variables such as resolution and retention time were analyzed statistically for chromatographic screening. During DoE study, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D and design-space plots were considered for method optimization. The method was developed using C8 [100 � 2.1 mm, 1.8 μ] UPLC column, mobile phase comprising 0.5% triethylamine buffer [pH 6.4] and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v, the flow rate of 0.4 mL minute−1 and UV detection at 285 nm for both Carvedilol and Ivabradine. The method was developed with a short run time of two minutes. The method was found to be linear in the range of 25.0–199.9 μg mL−1 and 8.9–21.3 μg mL−1 for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 in each case. The recovery values were found in the range of 99.7–100.8% and 98.9–100.9% for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[293] viXra:1905.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:46:27

Novel Hybrid Molecules of Quinazoline Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal3
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Background: A new series of quinazoline linked chalcone conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods: The quinazoline-chalcone derivatives (13a-r) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes (12a-r) with substituted l-(4-(3,4- dihydroquinazolin-4-ylamino)phenyl)ethanone (11a-b) in the presence of aqueous NaOH. Three potential compounds 13f, 13g and 13h exhibited cytotoxicity against leukemia (GI50 value of 1.07, 0.26 and 0.24 μM), Non-small lung (GI50 values of 2.05,1.32 and 0.23 μM), colon (GI50 values of 0.54, 0.34 and 0.34 μM) and breast (GI50 values of 2.17, 1.84 and 0.22 μM) cell line, respectively. Results and Conclusion: Based on these biological results, it is evident that compound 13h has the potential to be considered for further detailed studies either alone or in combination with existing therapies as potential anticancer agents.
Category: Chemistry

[292] viXra:1905.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:48:05

Novel Hybrid Molecules of Isoxazole Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Kishore Kaushal3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Background: Now-a-days, the model of “hybrid drugs” has acquired recognition in medicine due to their significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Methods: We have synthesized new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m) by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of suitable substituted acetophenones with isoxazole aldehydes (12a-d). In vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was studied against four different selected human cancer cell lines by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. Results: The adopted scheme resulted in good yields of new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m). Potent cytotoxic activity was observed for compounds -14a, 14b, 14e, 14i, 14j and 14k against prostate DU-145 cancer cell line. Conclusion: The observed potent cytotoxic activities were due to the presence of 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenyl group.
Category: Chemistry

[291] viXra:1905.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:49:37

Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Lasiantha for Scientific Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu4, T. Pullaiah5
Comments: 15 Pages. OK

Caralluma lasiantha is used as a traditional medicine in India to heal body heat and inflammations. In order to find out a scientific validation for the Indian traditional knowledge, antibacterial activity of C. lasiantha extracts was studied against inflammation causing bacteria (viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Sp., Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae) along with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Solvents with different polarity were used for extraction from dry roots and stems. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also studied. Differential antibacterial activity was exhibited by extracts and higher inhibition potential against Gram-positive bacteria was explained. The observed antibacterial activities were correlated with the chemical structures of phytochemicals present in C. lasiantha. Anti-inflammation activities are related to C. lasiantha extracts through their antibacterial activities.
Category: Chemistry

[290] viXra:1905.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:52:32

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity Studies of 2, 4 di Substituted Furan Derivatives

Authors: S. Malladi, R.Venkata Nadh, K.Suresh Babu, P.Suri Babu
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 2, 4- di substituted furan derivatives
Category: Chemistry

[289] viXra:1905.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:56:11

Utilization of Agro-Waste for Removal of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium: Surface Interaction and Mass Transfer Studies

Authors: R. P. Mokkapati, V. N. Ratnakaram, J. S. Mokkapati
Comments: 12 Pages. OK

Abundantly available agricultural waste materials (banana bunch, sorghum stem and casuarinas fruit) are processed with negligible cost and are found to be highly suitable as biosorbents for chromium(VI) removal from aqueous environment due to high surface area and functional groups of adsorbents. The equilibrium data have been analyzed for the adsorbate–adsorbate/adsorbent interactions and found to be fitted to the data in the order, Hill–de Boer C Fowler–Guggenheim % Frumkin[Kiselev. To determine the characteristic parameters for process design, mass transfer studies have been carried out using two-parameter isotherm models (Harkins–Jura, Halsey, Smith, El-Awady and Flory–Huggins) and three-parameter isotherm models (Redlich–Peterson and Sips) which are applied to the experimental data. The fitness of the isotherms describes that both mono- and multilayer adsorptions occur in the present studied three biosorbents in preference to the latter. The mechanism of adsorption has been studied using diffusion kinetic models (viz. liquid film diffusion, Dunwald–Wagner intra-particle diffusion model and moving boundary model) and described the possibility of diffusion in the order of banana bunch–stem powder[ sorghum stem powder[casuarinas fruit powder in terms of diffusion coefficients. In essence of all the results, the selected adsorbents can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Category: Chemistry

[288] viXra:1905.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:59:03

A Convenient New and Efficient Commercial Synthetic Route for Dasatinib (Sprycel®)

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Durgaprasad Yennity
Comments: 12 Pages. OK

A new and efficient synthetic route for dual-Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib (Sprycel®), an anticancer drug, is described. This commercially viable process yields dasatinib monohydrate free of potential impurities with consistent yield of 68% in route A and 61% in route B with HPLC purity >99.80% over four stages.
Category: Chemistry

[287] viXra:1905.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:01:17

Quality-by-Design-Based Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Uplc Method for Quantification of Teriflunomide in the Presence of Degradation Products and Its Application to Invitro Dissolution

Authors: Nukendra Prasad Nadella, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, N. Srinivasu
Comments: 11 Pages. OK

A systematic design-of-experiments was performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to determine design space for rapid quantification of teriflunomide by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method in the presence of degradation products. Response surface and central composite quadratic were used for statistical evaluation of experimental data using a Design-Expert software. The response variables such as resolution, retention time, and peak tailing were analyzed statistically for the screening of suitable chromatographic conditions. During this process, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D, and design space were studied. The method was developed through UPLC BEH C18 2.1 � 100 mm, 1.7-μ column, mobile phase comprised of buffer (5 mM K2HPO4 containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 6.8), and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v), the flow rate of 0.5 mL min 1 and UV detection at 250 nm. The method was developed with a short run time of 1 min. Forced degradation studies revealed that the method was stability-indicating, suitable for both assay and in-vitro dissolution of a drug product. The method was found to be linear in the range of 28–84 μg mL 1, 2.8–22.7 μg mL 1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 1.000 for assay and dissolution, respectively. The recovery values were found in the range of 100.1–101.7%. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[286] viXra:1905.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:03:10

Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Prescence of Potential Impurities in Injection Formulations

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao G., Ravi B., Jalandhar D., Manoj P., R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 16 Pages. OK

In the present study, two cancer therapeutic drugs (docetaxel and bortezomib) were separated from their potential impurities on a chromatographic platform by utilizing CO2 gas (supercritical state) and quantified. The chromatographic separations were achieved on two short columns BEH-2EP (100mm 3mm, 1.7 mm) and CHIRALPAK AD-3 (100 mm 4.6 mm, 3 mm) for docetaxel and bortezomib, respectively. The present work describes the role of organic modifiers in the separation of polar compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography. The two new methods were fully validated in accordance with the current ICH (International Council for Harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use) guidelines. The stability indicating power of the methods was demonstrated from the stress studies conducted on the injection formulations of the two compounds. The methods are precise with % RSD of 0.4, linear with the correlation coefficient of r2 $ 0.999 and accurate in the range of 50–150% of the target assay concentration. The two methods can be equally employed for the assay determination of docetaxel and bortezomib APIs as well.
Category: Chemistry

[285] viXra:1905.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:04:38

Phytochemical Screening of Caralluma Lasiantha Isolation of C21 Pregnane Steroid

Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Phytochemical screening of Caralluma lasiantha was carried out and one C21 pregnane steroid was isolated from chloroform extract. Based on spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS) the isolated compound is 3b,14b-dihydroxy-14b-pregn-5-en-20-one which was earlier isolated from other species.
Category: Chemistry

[284] viXra:1905.0310 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-19 22:47:28

Refutation of Tarski’s Geometric Axioms and Betweenness

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages.

Of 13 equations evaluated, five are tautologous and eight are non tautologous. This refutes Tarski’s geometric axioms and betweenness which form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[283] viXra:1905.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:52:21

Phytochemical Investigation of Caralluma Lasiantha: Isolation of Stigmasterol, an Active Immunomodulatory Agent

Authors: Malladi S1, Ratnakaram VN, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Stigmasterol, a phytosteroid was isolated for the first time from C. lasiantha using n-hexane as a solvent. Stigmasterol was characterized on the basis of physical, chemical and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1HNMR, DEPT-45, 90 & 135, and MS) analysis as well as by comparing them to their literature data. A sequence of steps was adopted like saponification, fractional crystallization and gradient elution column chromatography to isolate stigmasterol because some phytosterols possess identical physical properties which makes it difficult to isolate the constituents.
Category: Chemistry

[282] viXra:1905.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:53:53

Caralluma Lasiantha: a Review on It’s Vital Role in Indian Traditional Medicine

Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K3, Pullaiah T4
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. Caralluma lasiantha is medicinally important due to existence of pregnane glycosides, which may possess various biological activities. This article thoroughly reviewed about the usage of C. lasiantha in traditional medicinal system, phytochemicals present in it, profile identification studies, anti-hyperglycemic effect, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.
Category: Chemistry

[281] viXra:1905.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:55:23

Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Plerixafor and Related Substances in an Injection Formulation

Authors: G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, B. Ravi1, M. Sunil Kumar1, P. Manoj1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 14 Pages. OK

Plerixafor (PLX) injections are administered to patients with cancers of lymphocytes (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) and plasma cells (multiple myeloma). The main objective of the current study was to develop a short reverse phase chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of PLX and its impurities, in an injection formulation, to reduce the time required for these quality tests. Furthermore, the present work describes the role of nonalkyl branched nonquaternary ion pair reagent in improving the peak shape and reducing column equilibration time. The separation of PLX and its related substances is pH dependent (optimum pH = 2.50) and was achieved on an octadecylsilyl (C18) column. The method was validated for its intended purpose in accordance with the current regulatory guidelines for validation. The proposed method can be applied for quality control, release, and stability analyses of active pharmaceutical ingredient, PLX, as well as finished products, PLX injections.
Category: Chemistry

[280] viXra:1905.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:57:15

Novel Coumarin Isoxazoline Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

A highly efficient and mild protocol for the syntheses of ethyl-3- [7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4- isoxazole carboxylates and ethyl-3-[7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-2- oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4-isoxazole carboxylates in good yields via [3 þ 2] cycloaddition of in situ–generated nitrile oxides from 7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides and 7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides respectively with ethyl-3-aryl prop-2-enoate has been developed. The new compounds are screened for antibacterial activity.
Category: Chemistry

[279] viXra:1905.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:59:11

Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies on Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi, Mokkapati Jayasravanthi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh,
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Removal of Cr(VI) by biosorption on two agro waste materials, casuarinas fruit powder (CFP) and sorghum stem powder (SSP), has been investigated. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR and BET. These biomaterials effectively removed Cr(VI) with a maximum removal of 93.35% and 63.75% using 15 gL−1 and 5 gL−1 of CFP and SSP, respectively, at 60 oC with 20mgL−1 initial Cr(VI) concentration in solution. In both cases of adsorbents, kinetic data of adsorption fitted well in pseudo-second-order in terms of correlation coefficient (R2). This helps in proposing the process of adsorption as chemical coordination, which is correlated with the thermodynamic study results conducted at different values of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were evaluated for description of metal sorption isotherms. Values of coefficients of intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer have also been determined at different values of temperature.
Category: Chemistry

[278] viXra:1905.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:01:07

Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamics Investigation on Adsorption of Divalent Copper Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Musa Acuminata, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Ramya Prasanthi Mokkapati1, Jayasravanthi Mokkapati, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP), sorghum stem powder (SSP) and banana stem powder (BSP) were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II) from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the effi ciency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-fi rst and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II) from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.
Category: Chemistry

[277] viXra:1905.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:02:43

Mucoadhesive Targeted Pulmonary Delivery of Nanoparticulated Dry Powder Insufflators a Revolt in TB Therapy

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram1, Venkata Nadh R, Krupanidhi S1, Gnana Prakash K3
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) due to misuse of second-line anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. Due to this concern nanoparticle-based systems have significant potential for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxic ity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs ) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Pulmonary administration of inhaled nanoparticles in the form of dry powder inhalers offer particular advantages for pulmonary administration of anti tubercular drugs (ATDs). Present review comprehensively about different approaches of nanobased drug delivery, devises and techniques for pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated ATD.
Category: Chemistry

[276] viXra:1905.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:09:31

A Novel Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Potential Impurities of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Hydrochlorothiazide in a Fixed Dosage Form

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, D Jalandhar, G. Gnanadev, P. Manoj, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

In the present study 12 impurities of bisoprolol fumarate (BISO) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were separated simultaneously in a single HPLC method. Out of these 12 impurities, five are potential degradants, which are validated as per The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. As the two active drug substances BISO and HCTZ have different solubilities and polarities, the most critical parameters in resolving the components from each other are pH, temperature, and solvents. The method is precise (RSD < 1.0%), accurate, linear (r2 > 0.999), robust, and stability indicating in the range of limit of quantification (LOQ) to 150%. The HPLC method is then migrated to ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) to further reduce the run time and solvent consumption, and increase the sample throughput.
Category: Chemistry

[275] viXra:1905.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:10:49

Kinetics of Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Oxidation of Monoethanolamine by N-Bromosuccinimide

Authors: R. Venkata Nadh, B. Syama Sundarb, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtic
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Abstract—Kinetics of uncatalyzed and ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of monoethanolamine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) has been studied in an aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of sodium acetate and perchloric acid, respectively. In the uncatalyzed oxidation the kinetic orders are: the first order in NBS, a fractional order in the substrate. The rate of the reaction increased with an increase in the sodium acetate concentration and decreased with an increase in the perchloric acid concentration. This indicates that free amine molecules are the reactive species. Addition of halide ions results in a decrease in the kinetic rate, which is noteworthy. Both in absence and presence of a catalyst, a decrease in the dielectric constant of the medium decreases the kinetic rate pointing out that these are dipole—dipole reactions. A relatively higher oxidation state of ruthenium i.e., Ru(V) was found to be the active species in Ru(III) catalyzed reactions. A suitable mechanism consistent with the observations has been proposed and a rate law has been derived to explain the kinetic orders.
Category: Chemistry

[274] viXra:1905.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:12:31

Shift of Reaction Pathway by Added Chloride Ions in the Oxidation of Aromatic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Role of added chloride ions on the shift of reaction pathway of oxidation of aromatic ketones (acetophenone, desoxybenzoin) by dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric acid medium. Participation of enolic and protonated forms of ketones in the rate determining steps is manifested from zero and first orders with respect to the oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions, respectively. Positive and negative effects of acid and dielectric constant on the reaction rate were observed. The observations deduce plausible mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining formation of enol from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rapid formation of molecular chlorine species from HOCl (hydrolytic species of DCICA) in the presence of added chloride ions, which then interacts with SH+ in a rate-determining step prior to the rapid steps of product formation. The order of Arrhenius parameters substantiate the proposed plausible mechanisms based on order of reactants both in presence and absence of added chloride ions.
Category: Chemistry

[273] viXra:1905.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:14:22

Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Sugar Alcohols by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.
Category: Chemistry

[272] viXra:1905.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:16:03

Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction from Coffee Processing Waste Water a Comparative Study on Usage of Biosorbents Prepared from Agricultural Wastes

Authors: Ramya P.M., Jayasravanthi M., Dulla B.J., Venkata N.R.
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

The utilization of t hree novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, namely c asuarina fruit powder CFP s orghum stem powder SSP ) and b anan a stem powder ( as low cost adsorbents for reducing chemical oxygen demand ( COD levels of coffee industry waste water has been examined. Prepared adsorbents were characteriz ed by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM), Energy dispersive x ray spectros copic ( and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy The effects of parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, temperature agitation rate and time of adsorption on the reduction of COD levels were analyzed for each adsorbent individually and the efficiency order is CFP>SSP>BSP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/ Langmuir adsorption isotherm and different models ( pseudo first order and second order , Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), simultaneous occurrence of chemis orption and physi sorption was proposed. Based on the observations, it is proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sor bent, intra particle d iffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. As these three adsorbents exhibit adsorption capacity more than 80%, the adsorbents prepared from agricultural wastes have promising role towards reduction of COD from industrial waste water to contribute envi ronmental protection .
Category: Chemistry

[271] viXra:1905.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:18:13

Kinetics and Mechanism of ru (Iii) Catalysed and Uncatalysed Oxidation of DL-Alanine by N-Bromosuccinimide

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, M.Sireesha
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

The kinetics of Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidation of DL-alanine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) was studied in aqueous acetic acid and in the presence of perchloric acid and Hg (II). In both Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidations, the kinetic orders were: first order in NBS, fractional order in substrate. The rate of the reaction decreased with the increase in perchloric acid concentration and addition of halide ions. The reactions were of fractional order with respect to Ru (III). Addition of Os(VIII) had no effect on the rate of oxidation of DL-alanine by NBS. The presence of catalysis with Ru (III) and the absence of catalysis with Os(VIII) in NBS oxidations was traced to different factors. A factor other than complexation could be a more powerful oxidant species like Ru (V) which accelerates the NBS oxidations. The effect of temperature was also investigated. By varying the solvent composition it was found that the reaction rate decreased with the decrease in dielectric constant of the solvent. All kinetic features were explained by postulating suitable mechanisms and rate laws.
Category: Chemistry

[270] viXra:1905.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:20:14

Role of Added Chloride Ions in Alteration of Reaction Pathway in the Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid— A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Effect of added chloride ions on kinetics and pathway of reaction between cyclic ketones (five to eight membered rings) and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchlo ric acid medium. Formation of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids as the end products demonstrates the ring cleav age oxidation. Positive effect of acid and negative effect of dielectric constant on the reaction rate reveals a interaction between positive ion (oxidant in the form of H2OCl+) and dipolar substrate molecule. Zero and first orders by oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions illustrates the participation of substrate as enolic form of ketone and protonated ketone, respectively, in the rate determining steps. The observed order of reactivity of cyclic ketones (cyclohexanone > cyclooctanone > cyclopentanone > cycloheptanone) was explained on the bases of ring strain, change of hybridization and conformational considerations. The envisaged plausible mechanism based on order of reactants in presence and absence of added chloride ions was substantiated by the order of Arrhenius parameters.
Category: Chemistry

[269] viXra:1905.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:22:25

Reactions of Enolisable Ketones with Dichloroisocyanuric Acid in Absence and Presence of Added Chloride Ions – a Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone) with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine) in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation.
Category: Chemistry

[268] viXra:1905.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:24:35

Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Presence of Potential Impurities

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a B. Ravi, a Ch. Rajsekhara Reddy, a RajKumar Gurjar, a P. Manoj, a R. Venkata Nadh, Gnana dev Gudipatia
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

In the present study, supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) chromatographicmethods were developed and validated for the quantitative assay determination of two cancer therapeutic substances, fulvestrant and azacitidine, using a UPC2 system. Fulvestrant was separated from six potential impurities, while impurities of azacitidine were separated using a 150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D., a chiral column and 5 mm, particle size. Both drugs were analysed simultaneously in a single sequence using multiple channels in the system and respective methods. These new methods were validated for their intended purpose in accordance with the current ICH guidelines. The method exhibited excellent intra- and inter-day precision. A precision with RSD 1% and 1.6% was achieved for fulvestrant and azacitidine, respectively. A linear relationship r2 > 0.999 was achieved between the concentration and detector response over a range of 25–150% of the target concentrations for both compounds. The two compounds were well quantified from their unspecified impurities obtained from stress studies. The method can be employed for routine quality control testing and stability analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[267] viXra:1905.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:26:34

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as Internal Standard

Authors: Kiran Kumar KATARE, Venkata Nadh RATNAKARAM, Nagoji K.E.V.
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard, an accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of bendamustine in bulk and dosage forms. The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines (2005) and can be applied for the quantitative analysis of bendamustine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was performed on ODS C-18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d x 250 mm) at ambient temperature using a mixture of methanol : water (50:50 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min, while UV detection was performed at 232 nm. The retention times of gemcitabine and bendamustine were in the ranges of 6.647–6.797 and 11.66–12.49 minutes, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1 – 10 μg/ml. The LOD and LOQ for bendamustine were found to be 0.0422 and 0.1279 µg/ml respectively. Analytical recovery varied from 98.9% to 99.13%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%.
Category: Chemistry

[266] viXra:1905.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:29:59

Green Approach Toward the Synthesis of N-Substituted Anilines via Smile Rearrangement Using Amberlite IR-400 Resin

Authors: H. Sudhakar1, G. Pavana Kumari2, R. Venkata Nadh, Naveen Mulakayala
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A new method for the synthesis of N-alkyl anilines from phenols using silica sulfuric acid as a catalyst is described via smiles rearrangement. The synthesized anilines are handy intermediates in the organic synthesis.
Category: Chemistry

[265] viXra:1905.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:31:34

Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Pure and Dosage Forms by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Authors: Katare Kiran Kumar1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study is aimed to develop visible spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Bendamustine hydrochloride. The developed methods involve the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complexes of Bendamustine hydrochloride with tropaeolineo-oo (Method A) and Alizarin Red S (Method B). The chloroform extracted coloured complexes showed absorbance maxima at wavelengths 480 and 460nm in methods A and B respectively. Beer’s law obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5–12.5 μg/mL in both the cases. Correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9991 and 0.9998 for methods A and B respectively. In addition molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity and the optimum conditions for quantitative analysis of the Bendamustine hydrogenchloride were determined. The developed ion-association complex methods were rapid, simple and economically viable compared to other reported analytical methods which require expensive instruments and are not available in common laboratories. Thus the proposed methods for Bendamustine determination in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations can be used in commercial laboratories.
Category: Chemistry

[264] viXra:1905.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:33:49

Antibacterial Activity of Some Newer 1,2,3 – Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonication in Solvent – Free Conditions

Authors: S.S. Muvvala1, V.N. Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Many of the classical synthetic methodologies have broad scope but generate copious amounts of waste. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been subjected to increasing pressure to minimize or, preferably, eliminate this waste. In the present study a series of some newer 1,2,3–benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized under ultrasonicated and solvent–free conditions. Newer “1–(1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole–1–carbonyl) derivatives” (5A – 5P) were synthesized from “1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) by optimizing the reaction conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by spectral studies. The anti bacterial activities of these compounds were screened in vitro against different strains of bacteria i.e. Gram negative organism (Pseudonomous aureginosa, MTCC – 1035) and Gram positive organisms (Bacillus cereus, MTCC – 430, Bacillus subtilis, MTCC – 441, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC – 737, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MTCC – 3086) by paper disc diffusion method. Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity against various bacteria.
Category: Chemistry

[263] viXra:1905.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:35:10

Substrate Inhibition: Oxidation of DSorbitol and DMannitol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Abstract—In the oxidation of Dsorbitol and Dmannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline mediam, sub strate inhibition was observed with both the substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of peri odate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxi dation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.
Category: Chemistry

[262] viXra:1905.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:36:32

Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Umbellata Haw Used in Traditional Medicine by Indian Tribes

Authors: K. Suresh Babu1, Sireesha Malladi2, R. Venkata Nadh, S. Siva Rambabu
Comments: 16 Pages. OK

Aims: To find out a scientific validation for the traditional knowledge of tribals of Chittoor District, India for their usage of Caralluma umbellata Haw to cure stomach disorder and pain. Methodology: Antibacterial activity of Caralluma umbellata Haw was studied on a few Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The dry roots and stems were extracted using hexane, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol and were tested for their antibacterial activity. Results: The root extracts were found to be effective against most of the organisms than the stem extracts. The extracts were highly effective against Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Chloroform extracts of both roots and stems exhibited good antibacterial activity againstConclusion: The demonstration of antibacterial activity of C. umbellata against Gram positive (B.subtilis and B.cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (E.coli) provides the scientific basis for its use in the traditional treatment of stomach disorder.
Category: Chemistry

[261] viXra:1905.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:37:40

Diazo-Coupling: A Facile Mean for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Rasagiline Hemitartrate

Authors: Muvvala Subrahmanya Sudhir1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

A simple, precise, accurate, high reproducible and economical visible spectrophotometric method of analysis for the synthesized rasagiline hemitartrate was developed and validated. The proposed method involves diazotization of sulphanilic acid under acidic conditions in presence of sodium nitrite, followed by its coupling with rasagiline in alkaline medium. The absorption spectra of the yellow colored chromophore formed between rasagiline and positive diazonium ion has absorption maximum at 440 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship (r = 0.99937) with in the concentration range of 0 – 10 μg mL-1. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.033 μg mL-1and 0.1 μg mL-1 respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[260] viXra:1905.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:40:04

Development of Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatographic Stability Indicating Assay Method for the Determination of Clofarabine in Injection

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a Jalandhar D, a Gnana dev G, a Rajendar Bandari, a Manoj P, a Dhananjay Da, Venkata Nadh R
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study reports the development and validation of a stability indicating assay method for clofarabine in injection on a UPC2 (ultra performance convergence chromatography) instrument, which utilizes the unrealized potential of supercritical fluid chromatography. The use of UPC2 provides a single viable technique that is a sustainable, reduced cost, and green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify clofarabine in the presence of its potential impurities and other degradants. The separation was achieved on a BEH-2-ethyl pyridine (BEH 2EP) column (100 mm 3.0 mm I.D. with an average pore diameter of 1.7 mm) by using methanol as a cosolvent and carbon dioxide as a mobile phase in the ratio of 30 : 70. The detection is carried out at a wavelength of 254 nm. We are able to achieve the separation of clofarabine from its potential impurities and other degradants in less than 6 minutes with a low amount of solvent consumption. The new method is validated in accordance with the ICH-guidelines and exhibited good intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and linearity (r2 $ 0.999) over a range of 50% to 150% of target concentration.
Category: Chemistry

[259] viXra:1905.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:42:03

Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography for the Separation and Determination of Fulvestrant Diastereomers

Authors: Ganipisetty Venkata Narasimha Rao, a G. Gnanadev, a Bellam Ravi, a D. Dhananjaya, a P. Manoj, a B. Indua, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

UltraPerformance convergence chromatography (UPC2) is a new category of separation science which utilizes the unrealized potential of the supercritical chromatography phenomenon. UPC2 is a standalone, viable technique that is cost effective, sustainable, and uses green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust supercritical liquid-based UPC2 method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify the diastereomers of fulvestrant. The two isomers of fulvestrant were well separated on a chiral column (150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D.) by applying a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (9.5 : 0.5) as the co-solvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75%). The detection was carried out at 280 nm. We were able to achieve a threefold reduction in retention with an isocratic mode as compared to the United States Pharmacopoeias (USP) normal phase method. This new method was validated in accordance with the ICH guidelines; it exhibited good intra- and inter-day accuracy, precision, and the results were linear over a range of 25% to 150% of the target concentration. The method could be successfully applied for the determination of the diastereomeric ratio of fulvestrant as an API and in fulvestrant injectable finished products.
Category: Chemistry

[258] viXra:1905.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:44:34

Antifungal Activities of Novel 1,2,3-Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonic and Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Muvvala S. Sudhir a, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Sugreevu Radhik
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Objectives: To evaluate the antifungal activities of novel 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives synthesized by ultrasonic and solvent-free conditions. Methods: Newer “1-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carbonyl) derivatives” (5Ae5P) were synthesized by using“1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) as the startingmaterial underultrasonicated and solvent-free conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by melting points and spectral studies. All the products were assayed for antifungal activity for various pathogenic fungi. Results: Excellent antifungal activity was shown by derivative-5L against Candida albicans (MTCCe 3018)whereas other compounds have shown comparable activity. Except derivative- 5P, all synthesized compounds have shown mild activity against Candida glabrata (MTCC e 3019). Towards Aspergillus niger (MTCCe 2638) and Aspergillus flavus (MTCC e 2737) most of the compounds were inactive and some were feebly active. All the synthesized derivatives were inactive against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC e 170). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the most of the synthesized 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives for these fungi were found to be 62.5 mg/ml. Conclusions: Some of the newer 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives synthesized under solventfree and ultrasound irradiation with noteworthy advantages viz., shorter reaction times, operational simplicity, simple work-up, and eco-friendly nature, have shown antifungal activities against selected pathogenic strains. Attachment of phenyl or phenyl with electron withdrawing substituents to either nitrile or azo functional group can be attributed to the substantial antifungal activity of these benzotriazoles.
Category: Chemistry

[257] viXra:1905.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:46:36

Rasagiline Hemitartrate: Synthesis, Characterization and RP-HPLC Validation for Its Estimation in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S. Sudhir, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objectives: To develop a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for validation and quantitative estimation of the synthesized drug rasagiline hemitartrate in bulk form. Methods: Rasagiline hemitartrate was synthesized and characterized by spectral (Infrared, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass) as well as elemental analysis. Chromatographic separation was conducted on Agilent TC-C18 (2504.6mm,5 mm) columnat ambient temperature using mixture of 20mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.0): methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio (30:30:40 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while UV detection was performed at 285 nm. In addition to LOD and LOQ, other analytical parameters viz., linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness were detected by following the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization) guidelines. Results: The retention time for rasagiline hemitartrate was found to be 4.30 0.05 min. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10e50 mg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for rasagiline hemitartrate are found to be 0.651 and 1.972 mg/mL respectively. Analytical recovery was 100.47%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9952. Conclusion: In this study, simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable RP-HPLC method was developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines for the determination of the synthesized drug rasagiline hemitartrate in bulk form.
Category: Chemistry

[256] viXra:1905.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:48:13

Evaluation of in Vitro Anthelmintic Activities of Novel 1,2,3 e Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized in Ultrasonic and Solvent Free Conditions

Authors: M.S. Sudhir, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objectives: To determine anthelmintic activity of the synthesized novel 1,2,3 e benzotriazole derivatives under ultrasonication in solvent free conditions. Methods: Newer “1e(1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carbonyl) derivatives” (5Ae5P) were synthesizedby using“1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1)as the startingmaterialunder ultrasonicated and solvent-free conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by melting points and spectral studies. All the products were assayed for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma using albendazole and mebendazole as reference compounds. Results: All the newer 1,2,3 e benzotriazole derivatives synthesized by ultrasound activation in solventefree condition were obtained in moderate to good yields in the range of 71e82%. The data interpretation of the spectral values with reference to standard values confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. Out of the sixteen synthesized derivatives, four compounds (5B, 5F, 5J and 5N) showed anthelmintic activity in dose-dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis and death with different concentrations of the derivatives. Among these four derivatives, 5J showed superior activity. Conclusion: Out of the sixteen synthesized derivatives, four compounds (5B, 5F, 5J and 5N) containing p-nitrophenyl substituent attached to azo group of benzotriazole moieties exhibited equal or comparable anthelmintic activity with reference to albendazole. The superior activity of compound 5J might be due to attachment of additional p-nitrophenyl substituent to the cyano group.
Category: Chemistry

[255] viXra:1905.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:50:15

Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Lurasidone in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S Sudhir, Ratnakaram V Nadh
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method of analysis for lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method employed acetonitrile as solvent and the drug shows maximum absorbance at 263 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of lurasidone, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value (r2 = 0.999). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with in the concentration range of 10 – 60 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 1.25316 μg/ ml and 3.797468 μg /ml respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[254] viXra:1905.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:17:27

Prove that Electromagnetic Waves Are Masses

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you jump from a planet you hit the floor while you jump and hit the floor again as you fall now you could deduce that the masses need to hit each other to move if you make this deduction you could say that the first thing that caused all the masses to move in the universe is a mass or electromagnetic waves are masses
Category: Condensed Matter

[253] viXra:1905.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:31:10

Macroscopic Electron Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A team of researchers at the Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (C2N, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Saclay) has experimentally achieved the coherent propagation of electrons in circuits over macroscopic distances through a novel nano-engineering strategy. [20] Researchers in Madrid, Spain, have now observed the quantization of electron energy levels in copper similar to the effects of confinement within a nanostructure, but in a copper sample with no nanoscale dimensions in the plane of the observed effects. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[252] viXra:1905.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:01:37

Single Molecule Magnetometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[251] viXra:1905.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:50:29

On the Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are masses that oscillate both ways(up and down and to the sides at the same time perpendicular to its direction of motion
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[250] viXra:1905.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 09:44:55

Refutation of Counterpart Theory Via Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of seven examples for counterpart theory, none is tautologous. In fact, a translation is not tautologous in the counterpart model or in QMT, but rather shares the same truth table result. Two definitions of intensionality are also not tautologous and hence refuted. Therefore counterpart theory forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[249] viXra:1905.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 10:56:36

Programming Primitive Recursive Functions and Beyond

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 17 Pages. The details given here relate to document viXra: 1905.0221

In addition to the publication 'The Snark, a counterexample for Church's thesis?' examples and details are offered in the form of two appendices C6 and C7 that allow for better understanding of the general method and the particular problem related to Church's thesis. The author has developed an approach to logics that comprises, but also goes beyond predicate logic. The FUME method contains two tiers of precise languages: object-language Funcish and metalanguage Mencish. It allows for a very wide application in mathematics from recursion theory and axiomatic set theory with first-order logic, to higher-order logic theory of real numbers etc. The most usual approach to calculative (effectively calculable) functions is done by register machines or similar storage-based computers like the Abacus or Turing machines. Another usual approach to computable functions is to start with primitive recursive functions. However, one has to find a way to put this into a form that does not rely on a pre-knowledge about functions and higher logic. The concrete calcule LAMBDA of decimal pinitive arithmetic allows for such an access. It is based on a machine that is completely different from the storage-based machines: the PINITOR does not use storages but rather many microprocessors, one for each appearance of a command in the code of primitive recursive functior. the codes are decimal numbers, called pinons , where only the characters 0 1 2 8 9 appear. There are four kind of commands only: 0 nullification, 1 succession, 2 straight recursion and 8 composition. The PINITOR is a calculator which means that there is no halting problem. Computers have halting problems, per defintion calculators do not. Appendix C6 gives the programming of the codes of most of the usual primitive function and goes even farther, e.g. it introduces generator technique that allows for the straight-forward calculation of so-called processive function, that are not primitive recursive. The most famous examples of Ackermann and other hyperexponential functions are programmed. Appendix C7 turns to the Boojum-function and the Snark-function that have been introduced as calculative functions in the above publication in connection with Church's thesis. A list is provided that gives the lowest values for these functions and gives some more insight into these functions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[248] viXra:1905.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 12:01:57

Supplementary Notes Pertaining to a Specific Quaternion Analogue of the Cauchy-Goursat Theorem.

Authors: Stephen C. Pearson.
Comments: 20 Pages.

This particular submission contains (inter alia) a copy of the author's original paper, which was completed on 6th March 2019 and thus comprises a total of 16 handwritten A4 pages. Subsequently, in view of its contents, it is being presented as an addendum to the author's previous set of submissions, namely - "A Supplementary Discourse on the Classification and Calculus of Quaternion Hypercomplex Functions - PARTS 1/10 to 10/10", which have been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[247] viXra:1905.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:25:44

Spaceships

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

you get magnets spinning in a magnets chamber through electricity and the kinetic energy produced is transformed into heat and the magnets are dipped inside water that evaporates and makes more electricity and some magnets tied to the spaceship and others let to fly through propelling them with air maybe even propelling all the magnets through other heat chambers you get chambers that are huge enough to let the water cooldown and then the water streams back to the magnet heat water bank and before that electricity is maintained through dripping water but you need large spaceships to carry the heat you could build colonies on the heat tanks you could put ice too inside the spaceship and make the tank parts of the spaceship out of thermos
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[246] viXra:1905.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:28:39

Neural Network Study Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[245] viXra:1905.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:54:52

Three Fundamental Mistakes of "Scientists" //Три фундаментальные ошибки "ученых"

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article is devoted to the correction of three fundamental errors in theoretical physics. e three errors relate to gravity, the law of conservation of energy and mass. The author exposes errors and indicates how to fix them.// Статья посвящена исправлению трёх фундаментальных ошибок в теоретической физике. Эти три ошибки касаются гравитации, закона сохранения энергии и массы. Автор разоблачает ошибки и указывает, как можно их устранить.
Category: Classical Physics

[244] viXra:1905.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 15:12:11

Zeros of Gamma

Authors: Wilson Torres Ovejero
Comments: 16 Pages.

160 years ago that in the complex analysis a hypothesis was raised, which was used in principle to demonstrate a theory about prime numbers, but, without any proof; with the passing Over the years, this hypothesis has become very important, since it has multiple applications to physics, to number theory, statistics, among others In this article I present a demonstration that I consider is the one that has been dodging all this time.
Category: Number Theory

[243] viXra:1905.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 17:43:20

Ecriture Détaillée Des Equations de la Relativité Générale :Cas D’Une Métrique Diagonale

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 22 Pages. In French.

In this note, we study Einstein equations (EE) of general relativity considering a manifold M with a diagonal metric g_{ij}. We calculate the expression of the components of Ricci and Riemann tensors and the value of the scalar curvature R. Then we give the expression of the (EE) : -a- for the case where g_{ii}=g_i=g_i(x_i); -b- for the case where g_1=g_1(x_1=t) and g_i=g_i(t,x_i) for i=2,3,4$; -c- for the case (b) with x_4=z_0=constant.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[242] viXra:1905.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 18:35:35

Cross-Double-Slit Apparatus

Authors: HuiPeng
Comments: 3 Pages.

We propose the Cross-Double-Slit apparatus for studying wave-particle duality and postulate that the particle nature of photons is intrinsic, while wave-like is an appearing behavior due to observation apparatus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[241] viXra:1905.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 02:10:45

Machine Learning of Fusion Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are using ML to create a model for rapid control of plasma-the state of matter composed of free electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions-that fuels fusion reactions. [22] Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[240] viXra:1905.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 02:34:33

Manipulating Atoms One at a Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[239] viXra:1905.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 04:59:02

Disruptive Gravity

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 35 Pages. language: English and French

Gravity is currently understood as a space-time curvature. If gravity was a force, it quantization would be much easier. Then what if gravity was a force able to bend space-time? We will see that gravity can be seen as such and what it would imply. We’ll then derive a new space-time bending equation thanks to a new principle equivalent to Einstein’s Equivalence Principle in low intensity fields. Thanks to quantum mechanics studies in curved space-time we can then blend gravity in quantum mechanics in a coherent way. Eventually, we'll see that applying these principles to cosmology, we can explain what we current call Dark Energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[238] viXra:1905.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:05:17

Chip-Scale Atomic Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and partners have demonstrated an experimental, next-generation atomic clock-ticking at high "optical" frequencies-that is much smaller than usual, made of just three small chips plus supporting electronics and optics. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology-a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today-a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[237] viXra:1905.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 05:45:37

A Theory with Consolidation: Linking Everything to Explain Everything

Authors: Gaurav Biraris
Comments: 64 Pages.

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[236] viXra:1905.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 06:42:05

AI Teach us about Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers in Berlin and Heidelberg have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[235] viXra:1905.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 06:45:34

Lucidity Yellowpaper

Authors: Miguel Morales
Comments: 34 Pages.

In this paper we present an implementation of a trustless system of measurement and enforcement of advertising metrics. Specifically, our implementation uses a sidechain composed of a decentralized consortium of verifiers. This implementation provides a decentralized and democratically governed mechanism for the codification of measurement standards. This implementation enforces the standards for computing advertising metrics based on signals received from disconnected programmatic supply chain participants. A simple standard could be codified that enforces the computation of an attribution. It also enables a mechanism in which supply-chain participants may be paid using cryptocurrency safely and at scale. Thus, the system we describe implements the trifecta of blockchain-based tracking and billing of programmatic advertising: campaign insertion orders, supply-chain transparency, and payments. In this paper, we will describe the management of participant identities, a Plasma based sidechain architecture, and support for payments. We also describe a Proof-of-Stake consensus along with a rewards and penalties system used to perpetually incentivize and enforce the correct function of the network.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[234] viXra:1905.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:00:04

The Flight Anomaly-This is no Longer a Mystery//Пролётная аномалия-это уже не загадка

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The flight anomaly can be explained on the basis of the effects of accelerations in the region of potential shells.// Пролётную аномалию можно объяснить на основе воздействия ускорений в области потенциаловых оболочек.
Category: Classical Physics

[233] viXra:1905.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:01:34

Machine Learning of Porous Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[232] viXra:1905.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:23:12

Facial Recognition Fears

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A ban on facial recognition for law enforcement in San Francisco highlights growing public concerns about technology which is seeing stunning growth for an array of applications while provoking worries over privacy. [26] Researchers in Berlin and Heidelberg have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[231] viXra:1905.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:42:51

Superfast Computing by Light Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Superfast data processing using light pulses instead of electricity has been created by scientists. [27] Yao-Lung (Leo) Fang, an assistant computational scientist with the Quantum Computing Group in Brookhaven's Computational Science Initiative and a co-author of the paper, explained that a particle occupying a stable bound state is confined in space, such as an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom. [26] MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[230] viXra:1905.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 08:00:31

Laser in Biopsy Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

To a patient, the analysis of a tissue biopsy sample to check for something like cancer may seem like a relatively simple process, even if it does mean giving up a small piece of flesh to be tested. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[229] viXra:1905.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 08:59:09

Refutation of Forcing to Change Large Cardinal Strength

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The seminal theorem of the dissertation states a cardinal is greatly inaccessible if and only if it is Mahlo. Three non trivial equations of the proof are not tautologous, thereby refuting theorems derived therefrom. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[228] viXra:1905.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 09:45:07

Theory of Tracer Diffusion in Concentrated Hard-Sphere Suspensions

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin
Comments: 20 Pages.

A phenomenological theory of diffusion and cross-diffusion of tracer particles in con- centrated hard-sphere suspensions is developed within the context of Batchelor's theory of multicomponent diffusion. Expressions for the diffusion coeffcients as functions of the host particle volume fraction are obtained up to the close-packing limit. In concen- trated systems the tracer diffusivity decreases because of the reduced pore space available for diffusion. Tracer diffusion, and segregation during sedimentation, ceases at a critical trapping volume fraction. The tracer diffusivity can be modelled by a Stokes-Einstein equation with an effective viscosity that depends on the pore size. The tracer cross- diffusion coeffcient increases near the glass transition and diverges in the close-packed limit.
Category: Condensed Matter

[227] viXra:1905.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:00:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. Dedicated to James Hutton, the Geologist.

It has been recently researched that Venus's D/H ratio is on the order of 100-150 times higher than the Earth. As a general rule of thumb, as the D/H ratio increases, the object increases in age. The youngest stars have D/H ratios of lower than 1* 10-5 (1D/100,000H), the ocean world/Earth aged stars 1* 10-4 to 1.6 *10-4 (1D/10,000H to 1H/6,250H respectively), and the old/dead stars and stellar remains 1* 10-3, (1D/1000H). Venus's is 1.6 * 10-2 to 2.5 * 10-2, (1D/62.5H) to 1D/40H). What this tells us is that Venus, according to the general theory is at least 100 to 156 times older than the Earth, because its deuterium ratios are 100 to 156 times higher. This is subject to change as more information is gathered, but places Venus in the class of extraordinarily old objects, which has never been done before.
Category: Astrophysics

[226] viXra:1905.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:10:59

Second Edition: The Twin Power Conjecture

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 5 Pages.

We consider a new conjecture regarding powers of integer numbers and more specifically, we are interesting in existence and finding pairs of integers: n ≥ 2 and m ≥ 2, such that nm = mn. We conjecture that n = 2, m = 4 and n = 4, m = 2 are the only integral solutions. Next, we consider the corresponding generalizations for Hypercomplex Integers: Gaussian and Lipschitz Integers.
Category: Number Theory

[225] viXra:1905.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:34

Le Découpage Cartographique International

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French.

This note concerns the international cartographic division. It gives how is organized the numbering of sheets at different scales ranging from 1/500 to 1/50000 and their sizes and surfaces.
Category: Geophysics

[224] viXra:1905.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:52

Solution of a Vector-Triangle Problem Via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

As a high-school-level application of Geometric Algebra (GA), we show how to solve a simple vector-triangle problem. Our method highlights the use of outer products and inverses of bivectors.
Category: Geometry

[223] viXra:1905.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 00:22:53

Physical Foolishness//Физический пустяк

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents electrostatic phenomena and the physical mechanism of their development.// В статье представлены электростатические явления и физический механизм их развития.
Category: Classical Physics

[222] viXra:1905.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 01:29:32

Entangled Photon Gyroscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[221] viXra:1905.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-21 03:59:26

EM Drive Thruster by Anti Maxwell Monopole Tubular Field Reduction Around a Conductor.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 20 Pages.

Abstract. A so called EmDrive ( Electro Magentic Drive) defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities. According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) however, the magnetic field is build on two monopole rigid string particles in the form of curved radiation trajectories, ( North and South) mostly cooperating opposing each other. Thus, the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped curved monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder pattern loss close to direct currents in a wire, it is postulated, that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel locally parallel to each other inside the vacuum Axion/Higgs field, with a strong field reduction or even fading away as a result. These field reductions (or dipping) are observed to be concentrated in a tubular form around the current in the wire. There are two possible levitation principles, using the field reduction around a current in a conductor. 1: Levitation by dual conductor-magnet interference. 2: Levitation by dual conductor-conductor interference. Ad 1, The Lorentz levitation force will become a non symmetric ( reduced) form, with a one sided reduced reaction force of the Anti Maxwell area around conductor coils on a local magnet ( figure 5) The magnet will create a normal Lorentz force on the electrons in the wire for levitation, but the magnets do not “feel” locally the opposing magnetic Standard Maxwell field around the current in the wire. The EM Drive as the result. Ad 2, The Lorentz levitation force will become a non symmetric ( reduced) form, with a one sided reduced reaction force created by the Anti Maxwell dipping area around the conductor coil with larger diameter conductor tubes, for effective screening of a second conductor coil with smaller diameter tubes conductors. ( figure 6) The configuration of both systems (of 1 and 2) are suggested to most effective in the form of a disc, however the middle disc section of such a disc can be left out for easy manufacturing.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[220] viXra:1905.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 02:37:22

Spin Orbit Interactions in Copper Oxide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

The scientists of Ural Federal University conducted a study in which they found that one of the copper oxides with a structure of a rare mineral spinel-CuAl2O4-is a material with unusual magnetic properties and structure due to significant spin-orbit interactions. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[219] viXra:1905.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 03:16:09

Effects of Radiation on DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists from TSU's Laboratory of Experimental High Energy Physics and their colleagues from the University of Bordeaux are studying new ways of modeling the effects of low doses of radiation at the cellular level. [19] Nanocages are highly interesting molecular constructs, from the point of view of both fundamental science and possible applications. [18] DNA flows inside a cell's nucleus in a choreographed line dance, new simulations reveal. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[218] viXra:1905.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 03:59:04

Iron-Based Superconductor Stabilized

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[217] viXra:1905.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 04:19:21

Correction Concours Bceas 2019

Authors: Idriss Olivier Bado
Comments: 16 Pages.

Dans cet article il s'agira pour nous de corriger le sujet BCEAS 2019
Category: General Mathematics

[216] viXra:1905.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 04:27:48

Shuffling Public Keys (A Peer-to-peer Voting Algorithm)

Authors: Santi J. Vives
Comments: 27 Pages.

A peer-to-peer, permisionless cryptographic voting system that relies only on the existence of generic digital signatures and encryption.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[215] viXra:1905.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 05:06:34

Atomic Wave Function Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new way to obtain the essential details that describe an isolated quantum system, such as a gas of atoms, through direct observation. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[214] viXra:1905.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 05:56:05

Gravitoethertons.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND LHC EXPERIMENTATION.

EXOTIC DARK FLUID SWIRLING AND WHIRLING GIVING THE TOPOLOGY OF CURVED SPACE TIME OF EINSTEIN.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[213] viXra:1905.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 06:00:03

Some Thoughts on Romans 13:1-7: Submission to Authorities

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Many Bible scholars confused the words "submitting" and "obeying" regarding Romans 13:1-7 - leon elshout, 15 may 2019, roodgoudvanparvaim.nl
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[212] viXra:1905.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 07:53:54

Centralization Cryptocurrency Mining

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Design and his collaborators developed a novel approach to untangle the centralization phenomena in blockchain mining. [42] Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. [41] In a step forward for information security for the Internet of Things, a team of researchers has published a new paper in the online edition of Nano Letters in which they have engineered a new type of physically unclonable function (PUF) based on interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy (IAE). [40] Researchers from Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden have proposed a new device concept that can efficiently transfer the information carried by electron spin to light at room temperature-a stepping stone toward future information technology. [39] Now writing in Light Science & Applications, Hamidreza Siampour and co-workers have taken a step forward in the field of integrated quantum plasmonics by demonstrating on-chip coupling between a single photon source and plasmonic waveguide. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[211] viXra:1905.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:05:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: Flipping the pH Scale to Apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The pH scale just needs to be spun 180 degrees to apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The star when it is in younger gas giant stages will have a much more basic atmosphere. As the gas giant evolves and loses its atmosphere, it will become more acidic. So what this means is that to start life, you start with a more basic atmosphere, to sustain life it needs to be more towards a pH of 7. The oceans on Earth have a pH of about 8.2, so we're still good. They were much more basic though earlier in Earth's evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1905.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:19:33

Quantum Simulators can be Robust

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Digital quantum simulators might help, but until now they are drastically limited to small systems with few particles and only short simulation times. [32] 'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[209] viXra:1905.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:38:44

Quantum Light on Cave Art

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Leslie Van Gelder, a well-known American-born archeologist has been working with Dr. Harald Schwefel, and other physicists at Otago University to develop a lamp that mimics the flickering torch light that paleolithic cave artists worked by many thousands of years ago. [33] Digital quantum simulators might help, but until now they are drastically limited to small systems with few particles and only short simulation times. [32] 'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[208] viXra:1905.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:39:24

A Methodology for Urban Sustainability Indicator Design

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 19 Pages.

In recent times we have witnessed proliferation of indicators and models for measuring sustainability. This reveals the lack of common and shared scientific paradigm/common framework from which to confront the issue of quantitatively assessing the sustainability of our society. With the aim of moving forward the definition of such common framework, in this article we explain an easy formal methodology for designing urban sustainability indicators based on Fuzzy Logic / Fuzzy Sets Theory. The interest of this methodology is threefold: Firstly, formal procedures enable easier testing, a most fundamental issue forgotten in many current proposals of sustainability indicators. Secondly, a formal procedure is easily understandable and can become a common language allowing shared use of the indicators and facilitating their continuous improvement. And thirdly, fuzzy logic is widely used in computing and artificial intelligence, thus facilitating the progressive automation of our sustainability monitoring models. To help understand the procedure, the design of two indicators is reviewed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[207] viXra:1905.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 09:45:43

Holographic Quantum Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In conventional holography a photographic film can record the interference pattern of monochromatic light scattered from the object to be imaged with a reference beam of un-scattered light. [38] The scientists used the quantum nature of the electron-light interaction to separate the electron-reference and electron-imaging beams in energy instead of space. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[206] viXra:1905.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 10:08:33

Capturing Single Photons for Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Yao-Lung (Leo) Fang, an assistant computational scientist with the Quantum Computing Group in Brookhaven's Computational Science Initiative and a co-author of the paper, explained that a particle occupying a stable bound state is confined in space, such as an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom. [26] MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[205] viXra:1905.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 10:35:29

New Concept of Gravity

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures

For more than a hundred years, discussion has been going on in physics: is gravity a force or a curvature of space? This article shows that gravity is both a force and a curvature of space simultaneously. The forcefield of gravity and space are synonyms. Gravity, like other potential forcefields, has allowed different energy levels.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[204] viXra:1905.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 12:56:08

The Heavy Majorana Neutrino Has Been Overlooked Leading to a Falsely Low Value of Hubble's Constant

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Because of misidentity, the heavy Majorana neutrino has been mistaken for the tetraquark, resulting in a falsely low value of Hubble's constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[203] viXra:1905.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-18 12:48:22

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 4

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such type is called 1/f noise and is the most likely measure of subtle degradation occurring in materials. This measurement is done using random vibration methods. It is important to determine if this is the likely region of the spectrum related to degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations that can be associated with entropy in materials. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy frame work for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we suggest two thermodynamics models that might be used to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise, help to identify the region of the spectrum related to degradation, and use it to do prognostics. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[202] viXra:1905.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 18:33:17

Refutation of Jaccard Index

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The definition of the Jaccard index is not tautologous, hence refuting it with derivations and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[201] viXra:1905.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 02:08:57

Exploring Extra Dimensions by the Help of Dnas of the Egg Cell and the Earth

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

In this research, we introduce two natural telescope for detecting events of extra dimensions. First, we will show that missing genes which are needed for keepping the animals alive, could be existed in extra dimensions. These genes could act like the receiver or sender of radio waves and transmit information from extra dimensions into our universe. These genes could lead to some changes in radiated waves of egg cells and missing some electrons. Thus, by considering evolutions of egg cells, we can obtain some information about biological events interior of extra dimensions. For example, if we put a fertilized egg and a non-fertilized egg interior of an inductor and produce a magnetic field, we can observe that non-fertilized egg obtains some properties of fertilized egg. It seems that sperms are teleported via extra dimensions into non-fertilized eggs. However, this system can only send us a report of biological events and for considering cosmological events, we need to a bigger object. We show that earth has a system similar to the DNAs in egg cell however with the cosmological size and can communicate with objects in extra dimensions. This DNA-like shell is located interior of the earth's core and leads to the emergence of high temperature. Exchanging information between the earth's DNA like shell and objects in extra dimensions leads to the production of some extra matters around the core, unstability interior of the earth's layers and the emergence of some earthquakes. Also, DNA-like object interior of the core has a direct effect on the water, ions and charged particles around the earth. In fact, this object induced some properties into water in clouds via extra dimensions and for this reason, water of rain is very different from normal water. For example, water of rain can communicate with DNA of plants very better of other waters.
Category: Astrophysics

[200] viXra:1905.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 03:15:48

The Snark, a Counterexample for Church's Thesis ?

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In 1936 Alonzo Church put forward his thesis that recursive functions comprise all effectively calculative functions. Whereas recursive functions are precisely defined, effectively calculative functions cannot be defined with a rigor that is requested by mathematicians. There has been a considerable amount of talking about the plausibility of Church's thesis, however, this is not relevant for a strict mathematical analysis. The only way to end the discussion is obtained by a counterexample. The author has developed an approach to logics that comprises, but goes beyond predicate logic. The FUME method contains two tiers of precise languages: object-language Funcish and metalanguage Mencish. It allows for a very wide application in mathematics from recursion theory and axiomatic set theory with first-order logic, to higher-order logic theory of real numbers and so on. The concrete calcule LAMBDA of natural number arithmetic with first-order logic has been defined by the author. It includes straight recursion and composition of functions, it contains a wide range of so-called compinitive functions, with processive functions far beyond primitive recursive functions. All recursive functions can be represented in LAMBDA too. The unary Snark-function is defined by a diagonalization procedure such that it can be calculated in a finite number of steps. However, this calculative function transcends the compinitive functions and presumably the recursive functions. The defenders of Church's thesis are challenged to show that the Snark-function is recursive. Another challenge asks for an example of a recursive function that cannot be expressed as a compinitive function, i.e. without minimization.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[199] viXra:1905.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 03:28:34

Summary of my Research Work

Authors: Savyasanchi Ghose
Comments: 10 Pages.

This document is for the readers who would like to look at my research work, the summary has been written in a brief format.
Category: Quantum Physics

[198] viXra:1905.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 04:19:51

The Flow of Chern

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We propose a flow over a Kaehler manifold, called the Chern flow.
Category: Geometry

[197] viXra:1905.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:05:42

The Shame of Relativists-Stupidity in the Palm//Стыд релятивистов-глупость на ладони

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents an experiment that shows that the renowned formula E=m*c^2 is not worth the "pound of wool".// В статье представлен эксперимент, который показывает, что известная формула E=m*c^2 не стоит "фунта шерсти".
Category: Classical Physics

[196] viXra:1905.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:31:01

Three, Four and N-Dimensional Swastikas & their Projections

Authors: Sascha Vongehr
Comments: 10 pages, Six Figures, Keywords: Higher Dimensional Geometry; Hyper Swastika; Reclaiming of Symbols; Didactic Arts

Difficulties with generalizing the swastika shape for N dimensional spaces are discussed. While distilling the crucial general characteristics such as whether the number of arms is 2^N or 2N, a three dimensional (3D) swastika is introduced and then a construction algorithm for any natural number N so that it reproduces the 1D, 2D, and 3D shapes. The 4D hyper swastika and surfaces in its hypercube envelope are then presented for the first time.
Category: Geometry

[195] viXra:1905.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:34:37

The Electric Field of Uniformly Accelerating Point Charge

Authors: Yongqiang Zhao
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we find the electric field of a uniformly accelerating point charge in vacuum when v<<c. We show that the electric field is curved toward the opposite direction of acceleration, and it is not a conservative field. //在本文中我们求出了当 v<<c 时真空中匀加速直线运动点电荷的电场。我们证明此电场是向加速度的反方向弯曲的,并且它不是保守场。
Category: Classical Physics

[194] viXra:1905.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:54:57

Refutation of Intutionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory (Izf), de Jongh’s Theorem, and CZF

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the nine axioms for intutionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (IZF). None is tautologous. This refutes IZF and its use in blended models and denies De Jongh’s classical theorem and similar results for constructive ZF (CZF). These segments form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[193] viXra:1905.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 08:46:23

Single Photons for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[192] viXra:1905.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 09:13:05

ATLAS Constraints Supersymmetric Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Both results place strong constraints on important supersymmetric scenarios, which will guide future ATLAS searches. Further, they provide an example how novel reconstruction techniques can help improve the sensitivity of new physics searches at the LHC. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[191] viXra:1905.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 10:04:53

Accelerating Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[190] viXra:1905.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 14:10:00

Modelling Passive Forever Churn via Bayesian Survival Analysis

Authors: Gavin Steininger
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper presents an approach to modelling passive forever churn (i.e., the probability that a user never returns to a game that does not require them to cancel it). The approach is based on parametric mixture models (Weibull, Gamma, and Log-normal) for return times. The model and data are inverted using Bayesian methods (MCMC and DIC) to get parameter estimates, uncertainties, as well as determine the return time distribution for retained users. The inversion scheme is tested on three groups of simulated data sets and one observed data set. The simulated data are generated with each of the parametric models. Each data set is censored to six time horizons, creating 18 data sets. All data sets are inverted with all three parametric models and the DIC is used to select the return time distribution. For all data sets the true return time distribution (i.e., the one that is used to simulate the data) has the best DIC value; for 16 inversions the true return time distribution is found to be significantly better than the other options. For the observed data set inversion, the scheme is able to accurately estimate the \% of users that did return (before the game transitioned into open beta) to given 14 days of observations.
Category: Statistics

[189] viXra:1905.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 15:29:38

Riemann Hypothesis Yielding to Minor Effort--Part II: A [Generalizing] One-Line Demonstration

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. trilinear

A set of minimalist demonstrations suggest how the key premises of RH may have been inspired and could be qualified, by proposing a linkage between the critical strip (0..n) and Re(s)=x-1/2 interior of candidate solutions. The solution density may be concentrated around the focal areas amid the lower and upper bound revealing rarefied or latent representations. The RH might overlook some of the ontological structure while confining search to phenomena while failing to distinguish between apparently concentrated versus seemingly non-distinct candidates.
Category: Number Theory

[188] viXra:1905.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 15:26:39

Athanasius Kirchner's "Harp" Like Atlantis Map

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Athanasias Kirchner's famous Atlantis map looks like David's harp. And it is an inversion of the Sea of Galilee. - by leon elshout, 14 may 2019, (roodgoudvanparvaim.nl) (aurichalcum2018 (at) protonmail.com
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[187] viXra:1905.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 16:18:25

Do We Really Need de Broglie’s Waves?

Authors: Raffaele santoro
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article we refer to what was already stated in [1, pp. 153-156] and, moreover, we propose a particle model that excludes the de Broglie model that associates a wave with each particle. Instead, it we claim that each particle, and in particular the electron, is a corpuscle not perfectly spherical (but which could potentially have a wavy surface), to justify the same results obtained with the classic experiments that are brought to confirm the model of de Broglie. No need, therefore, to refer to the indeterminacy principle and to that of complementarity. What would now be required is the translation this proposal into a solid mathematical model that can make quantitative predictions according to the experimental data, provided that young physicists capable of doing it do not encounter the same ostracism encountered by others for 90 years. Finally, we propose to repeat the experiment of Merli, Missiroli and Pozzi [3] in a fog chamber or similar, to confirm the hypothesis that the single electron follows a very precise trajectory, against the widespread interpretation of Copenhagen.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[186] viXra:1905.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 19:40:27

Machine Systematics in Dayton Miller’s “Ether Drift” Interferometer Revealed by Analysis of Variance

Authors: Simon WW Manley
Comments: 16 Pages.

The copious data records from Dayton Miller’s heroic experiments have been analyzed and re-analyzed for nearly a century by authors wishing to reinstate some version of an ether theory with a preferred frame of reference. These authors claim that a small but significant signal at the period of half a rotation in the Miller data represents anisotropy in the propagation of light, the “ether drift” effect sought in Michelson and Morley’s 19th century experiment. The analysis of variance presented in this paper, however, shows a component at the period of a full rotation, which can only be a systematic in the machine or the observer. The magnitude of the systematic matches that of the component at the half-rotation period. The remarkable aspect of the story is that the implications of the full rotation systematic, which comprehensively invalidates the claim that the data reveals an “ether drift,” or any other meaningful physics, has gone virtually unnoticed for nearly 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1905.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 01:03:03

New Type of Spin Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this latest study, the German-Chinese research team describes a type of twisted magnon for which the twist or the winding number is protected against damping. [35] In a recently published paper in Science, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), were able to both excite and detect spin waves in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, demonstrating a new platform to investigate some of the possibilities of this promising material. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[184] viXra:1905.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 01:22:52

Laser-Based Image Full Eye in 3-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers supported by the EU-funded photonics innovation incubator ACTPHAST 4.0 have introduced "a swept light source technology that makes it possible to take full 3-D OCT [optical coherence tomography] images of the eye," says a news release posted on the project website. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[183] viXra:1905.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:03:25

The Monopolar Quantum Relativistic Electron an Extension of the Standard Model and Quantum Field Theory

Authors: A Bermanseder
Comments: 121 Pages. ISSN: 2153-8301

Abstract: Despite the experimental success of the quantum theory and the extension of classical physics in quantum field theory and relativity in special and general application; a synthesis between the classical approach based on Euclidean and Riemann geometries with that of 'modern' theoretical physics based on statistical energy and frequency distributions remains to be a field of active research for the global theoretical and experimental physics community. In this paper a particular attempt for unification shall be indicated in the proposal of a third kind of relativity in a geometric form of quantum relativity, which utilizes the string modular duality of a higher dimensional energy spectrum based on a physics of wormholes directly related to a cosmogony preceding the cosmologies of the thermodynamic universe from inflaton to instanton. In this way, the quantum theory of the microcosm of the outer and inner atom becomes subject to conformal transformations to and from the instanton of a quantum big bang or qbb and therefore enabling a description of the macrocosm of general relativity in terms of the modular T-duality of 11-dimensional supermembrane theory and so incorporating quantum gravity as a geometrical effect of energy transformations at the wormhole scale. Using the linked Feynman lecture at Caltech as a background for the quantum relative approach; this paper shall focus on the way the classical electron with a stipulated electromagnetic mass as a function of its spacial extent exposes the difficulty encountered by quantum field theories to model nature as mathematical point-particles without spacial extent. In particular, a classical size for the proton can be found in an approximation ½Re.X = Rp for a classical electron radius Re and where the factor X represents the symmetry equilibrium for a ß = (v/c} = f(A) velocity ratio distribution for the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron and evolving real solutions for the electron parameters from a quasi-complex space solution for its rest mass meo. Using the ß2 distribution in a unitary interval, then bounded in a function of the electromagnetic fine structure constant alpha; the SI-CODATA value for the rest mass of the electron is derived from first inflaton-based principles in the minimum energy Planck-Oscillator Eo=½hfo in a conformal mapping of the M-Sigma relation applied to the Black Hole Mass to Galactic Bulge ratio for the alpha bound. The M-Sigma ratio so can be considered as a scaling proportion between the interior of a Black Hole mapped holographically and radius-conformally as the internal monopolar volume of the electron as a basic premise of the quantum gravitational approach in quantum relativity and in scaling the Schwarzschild solution onto the electron. A unification condition in a conformal mapping of the alpha fine-structure α onto X described by X ⇔ α in ℵ(Transformation) = {ℵ}3 : X → α{#}3 → # → #3 → (#2)3 → {(#2)3}3 is applied in this context to indicate the relative interaction strengths of the elementary gauge interactions in proportionality: SNI:EMI:WNI:GI = SEWG = #:#3:#18:#54. For the symmetry equilibrium, the electric potential energy and the magnetic action energy are related for an electron velocity of veX = 0.78615138.c and an effective mass energy of mef = γme = mecf = 1.503238892x10-30 kg*. This mass-velocity relationship is supplemented by the Compton constant as: meRe = Compton constant = αh/2πc = lplanck.α.mplanck = mecrec , which proportionalises the quantum relativistic size of the electron with its mass. The Compton constant ensures Lorentz invariance across all reference frames in cancelling the length contraction with the relativistic mass increase in the product of the proper length lo and the proper rest mass mo as lo.mo=loγ.mo/γ in special relativity (SR) in the self-relative reference frame of the monopolar electron. Subsequently then for an electron speed veX and for rec = αh/2πcmecf = 1.71676104x10-15 m* as a decreased self-relative classical electron radius given by the Compton constant, we calculate a relatively negligible monopolar velocity component in (vps/c)2 = 1/{1+rec4/([2πα]2rps4)} = 1.55261006x10-35 and characteristic for any substantial velocity for the electron. The analysis then defines a maximum velocity for the electron with a corresponding quantum relative minimum mass in the form of the electron (anti)neutrino in ve|max = (1 - 3.282806345x10-17) c and m(νe)=m(ντ)2 = 0.00297104794 eV* (0.002963740541 eV) respectively. At this energy then, no coupling between the electron and its anti-neutrino would be possible and the W- weakon could not exist. Subsequently, we shall indicate the effect of the Compton constant and of the quantum relativistic monopolar electron to calculate all of the neutrino masses from first principles in setting mν = mneutrino = me.(rneutrino)/Re and where rv naturally applies at the limit of the electron's dynamical self-interaction as indicated, that is the electron's quantum relativistic mass approaches that of the instanton of the qbb. This leads to: mνElectronc2 = mv(νTauon2)c2 = mν(νMuon2+νHiggs2)c2 = μo{Monopole GUT masses ec}2rps/4πRe2 and where vHiggs is a scalar (anti)neutrino for the mass induction of the (anti)neutrinos in tandem with the mass induction of the scalar Higgs boson in the weak Goldstone interaction. For the electrostatic electron the ß distribution at A=½, the Compton constant gives mecrec = meRe for ß2 = 0 and at A=1, the Compton constant gives mecrec = ½me.2Re for ß2 = X and as the mean for a unitary interval is ½, the electron radius transforms into the protonic radius containing monopolar charge as internal charge distribution in Rp = ½XRe and proportional to the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron. For the proton then, its 'charge distribution' radius becomes averaged as Rproton = 0.85838052x10-15 m* as a reduced classical electron radius and for a speed of the self-interactive or quantum relativistic electron of vps = 1.576125021x10-17 c. This monopolar quantum relativistic speed reaches its quantum relativistic {v/c = 1-} limit and its maximum QR monopolar speed of 0.0458 c at the instanton boundary and defines a minimum quantum monopolar relativistic speed for the electron at vpse = 1.50506548x10-18 c for its electrostatic potential, where Ue=∫{q²/8πεor²}dr = q²/8πεoRe = ½mec2 for a classical velocity of ve=0 in a non-interacting magnetic field B=0. 2Ue = mec2 so implies a halving of the classical electron radius to obtain the electron mass me = 2Ue/c2 and infers an oscillating nature for the electron size to allow a synergy between classical physics and that of quantum mechanics. A reduced classical electron size is equivalent to a decrease of the Compton wavelength of the electron, rendering the electron more ‘muon like’ and indicates the various discrepancies in the measurements of the proton’s charge radius using Rydberg quantum transitions using electron and muon energies. The calibration for the classical electron radius from the electron mass from SI units to star units is (2.81794032x10-15).[1.00167136 m*] = 2.82265011x10-15 m* and differing from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* in a factor of (2.82265011/2.777777…) = 1.01615404. A reduction of the classical electron radius from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* to (2.777777778x10-15).[0.998331431 m] = 2.77314286x10-15 m, then gives the same factor of (2.81794032/2.77314286) = 1.01615404, when calibrating from star units. The units for the Rydberg constant are 1/m for a Star Unit* – SI calibration [m*/m] = 0.998331431… for a ratio [Re/SI ]/[Re/*] = (2.77314286/2.777777) = (2.81794032/2.82265011) Reducing the classical electron radius Re from 2.81794032 fermi to 2.77314286 fermi in a factor of 1.01615404 then calibrates the effective electron mass me to Re in the Compton constant Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.77777778x10-15).(9.29052716x10-31) = 2.58070198x10-45 [mkg]* with Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.81794033x10-15).(9.1093826x10-31) = 2.56696966x10-45 [mkg] with [mkg]* = (1.00167136)(1.00375313)[mkg] = 1.00543076 [mkg]. Using this reduced size of the electron then increases the Rydberg constant by a factor of 1.01615404 Using the Rydberg Constant as a function of Alpha {and including the Alpha variation Alpha|mod = 60πe2/h = 60π(1.6021119x10-19)2/(6.62607004x10-34) = 1/137.047072} as Ry∞ = Alpha3/4πRe = Alpha2.mec/2h = mee4/8εo2h3c = 11.1296973x106 [1/m]* or 11.14829901x106 [1/m] defines variation in the measured CODATA Rydberg constant in a factor 10,973,731.6x(1.01615404).(137.036/137.047072)3 = 11,148,299.0 Subsequently, using the Rydberg energy levels for the electron-muon quantum energy transitions, will result in a discrepancy for the proton's charge radius in a factor of 10,973,731.6/11,148,299.0 = 0.98434134… and reducing a protonic charge radius from 0.8768 fermi to 0.8631 fermi as a mean value between 0.8768 fermi and 0.8494 fermi to mirror the unitary interval from A=½ to A=1 for the electron’s relativistic ß distribution. The local geometry related to the Compton radius h/2πm is shown to manifest in a linearization of the Weyl wormhole wavelength λps = λweyl of the qbb in the photon-mass interaction as a quantum gravitational limit proportional to the mass of the electron in rweyl = λweyl/2π = 2GoMc/c2 = h/2πcmps for a curvature mass Mc = hc/4πGomps conformally transforming Mc = 6445.79 kg* into 2.22..x10-20 kg* quantum gravitationally and in a corresponding increase of a sub Planck length linearization of rcplanck = 2Gomps/c2 = 5.4860785x10-47 m* (star units calibrated to the SI mensuration system) to the wormhole scale of the quantum big bang as a quantum geometric curvature effect. The qbb results from a Planck scale conformal transformation of fundamental parameters in the inflaton, descriptive of energy transformations between five classes of superstrings culminating in the Weyl-Eps wormhole as the final superstring class of heterotic symmetry 8x8 to manifest the supermembrane EpsEss as the wormhole of the 'singularity creation', which is a derivative from a monopolar Planck-Stoney cosmogenesis. Recircularizing the Compton radius into a Compton wavelength in a {photon - gauge photon} interaction labeled as electromagnetic monopolar radiation or {emr - emmr}, then is shown to define the quantum energy of the vacuum per unit volume as a horn toroidal space-time volumar in Vortex-PE = VPEps = ZPEweyl = 4πEps/λps3 and completing the encompassing energy spectrum in integrating the electric-, magnetic- and monopolar field properties in {½melectric + ½mmagnetic(v/c)2 + δmmonopolic}c2 = mc2. The self-interaction of the electron in energy, so crystallizes its monopolar super brane origin in the addition of a quantum self-relative magnetic energy acting as a 'hidden' electromagnetic monopolar field in the volume of spacetime occupied by the electron as a conformal transformation from the inflaton epoch. A Planck-Stoney 'bounce' of the electronic charge quantum established the interaction potential between charge and mass energy to break an inherent supersymmetry to transform string class I into string class IIB in modular conformal self-duality of the monopole supermembrane. Following this initial transformation relating displacement to electric charge in the magneto charge of the monopole; a heterosis between string classes HO(32) and HE(64) enabled the bosonic superstring to bifurcate into fermionic parts in a quark-lepton hierarchy from the HO(32) superstring to the HE(64) superstring of the instanton of the qbb and who is called the Weyl or wormhole boson Eps in this paper. We shall also indicate the reason for the measured variation of the fine structure constant by Webb, Carswell and associates; who have measured a variation in alpha dependent on direction. This variation in alpha is found in the birth of the universe as a 'bounce' or oscillation of the Planck length as a minimum physical displacement and becomes related to the presence of the factor γ3 in the manifestation of relativistic force as the time rate of change of relativistic momentum prel. Furthermore, the mass-charge ratio {e/meo} relation of the electron implies that a precision measurement in either the rest mass moe or the charge quantum e, would affect this ratio and this paper shall show how the electromagnetic mass distribution of the electron crystallizes an effective mass me from its rest mass resulting in meoγ = me'γ2 related to the coupling ratio between the electromagnetic (EMI) and the strong nuclear interaction (SNI), both as a function of alpha and for an asymptotic (not running) SNI constant defined from first principles in an interaction transformation between all of the four fundamental interactions. Since {1-ß2} describes the ß2 distribution of relativistic velocity in the unitary interval from A=0 to A=1, setting the quantum relativistic mass ratio [moe/me]2 = {1-ß2} equal to a cosmological MSigma ratio conformally transformed from the Planck scale, naturally defines a potential oscillatory upper boundary for any displacement in the unit interval of A. An increase or decrease in the 'bare' electron mass, here denoted as moe can then result in a directional measurement variation due to the fluctuating uncertainty in the position of the electron in the unitary interval mirroring the natural absence or presence of an external magnetic field to either decrease or increase the monopolar part of the electron mass in its partitioning: melectric + mmagnetic + δmmonopolar = mec{½+½[v/c]²} + δpsmec = mec with mec2√{1 + v2γ2/c2} = mec2γ = mecc2 for m = mec from the energy-momentum relation E2 = Eo2 + p2c2 of classical and quantum theory. The cosmic or universal value of alpha so remains constant in all cosmological time frames; with the fluctuation found to depend on a constant #= α in a strong interaction constant as a function of alpha. At the core of physical consciousness lies quantum consciousness; but there it is called selfinteraction of a particle or dynamical system in motion relative to its charge distribution. We shall indicate, that it is indeed the charge distribution within such a system and quantized in the fundamental nature of the electron and the proton as the base constituent of atomic hydrogen and so matter; that defines an internal monopolar charge distribution as a quantum geometric formation minimized in the classical size of the electron and the energy scale explored at that displacement scale. Finally we describe the particles of the Standard Model and including a quantum geometric explanation for the CP violation of the weak interaction, from their genesis in the inflaton and a grand unification symmetry in a transformation of supermembranes and cosmic strings appearing today in a spectrum of cosmic rays: SEWG------------------------SEWg--------SEW.G---------SeW.G--------S.EW.G------------S.E.W.G Planck Unification I----------IIB----------HO32------------IIA-----------HE64---------Bosonic Unification
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[182] viXra:1905.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:51:24

Supermassive Black Holes Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

It is believed that the formation and growth of most galaxies across the history of the universe has been fueled by supermassive black holes growing together with their host galaxy as they collect matter to attain millions of solar masses. [27] Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[181] viXra:1905.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 07:18:48

Blockchain for Science: Bloxberg

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Securing scientific information online and worldwide with no risk of manipulation is now possible, thanks to the decentralized blockchain infrastructure Bloxberg. [26] A new type of money that allows users to make decisions based on information arriving at different locations and times, and that could also protect against attacks from quantum computers, has been proposed by a researcher at the University of Cambridge. [25] Shortcomings of security breach notifications, best practices for phishing warnings and lessons learned from the use of analytics to improve student performance are among several studies University of Michigan researchers will present beginning this weekend in the United Kingdom. [24] But moral questions about what data should be collected and how it should be used are only the beginning. [23] A self-driving vehicle has to detect objects, track them over time, and predict where they will be in the future in order to plan a safe manoeuvre. [22] In order to improve world food conditions, a team around computer science professor Kristian Kersting was inspired by the technology behind Google News. [21] Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is one of a number of biophysical techniques used for determining the structural characteristics of biomolecules. [20] A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as-and sometimes better than-today's best automated methods or even human experts. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[180] viXra:1905.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 09:06:47

Dark Matter Direct Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[179] viXra:1905.0200 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 08:30:24

Systèmes de Référence, Systèmes Projectifs

Authors: Henri Marcel Dufour, Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 27 Pages. In French. It is an-update version of a paper dated 1979 with comments of the second author.

Many geodetic works currently exist on the surface of the globe, which have developed through regional networks, usually each having a fundamental point, where the astronomical data (\phi= latitude,\lambda=longitude,Az=azimuth) of a reference are confused with the counterparts geodetic data. The comparison of 2 networks, and, step by step, of all the connectable networks, can be done by the analysis of the coordinates of their common points. To this end, we can use 3 types of coordinates: - Geographical coordinates = simple method, but not very convenient for different ellipsoids. - Three-dimensional cartesian coordinates, the most rigorous method in the case where the so-called geoid correction has been made. - Coordinates in conformal projection. An analysis of the main formulas that can be used is studied by the first author in this article.
Category: Geophysics

[178] viXra:1905.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 10:56:14

Two-Qubit Calculation in Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

For the first time ever, researchers have measured the fidelity-that is, the accuracy-of two-qubit logic operations in silicon, with highly promising results that will enable scaling up to a full-scale quantum processor. [36] These exotic particles can, for example, emerge as quasi-particles in topological superconductors and represent ideal building blocks for topological quantum computers. [35] This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[177] viXra:1905.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 11:20:48

AI in the next Election Decide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

If trust in our politicians is at an all time low, maybe it's time to reconsider how we elect them in the first place. Can artificial intelligence (AI) help with our voting decisions? [27] In January 2017, IBM made the bold statement that within five years, HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/health/" health professionals could apply AI to better understand how words and speech paint a clear window into our mental health. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[176] viXra:1905.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 11:31:13

Relationship Between Napier Number e and pi Without I

Authors: Yuji Masuda
Comments: 1 Page.

The length √x, that x is a prime number, can be set in a geometric pattern composed of circles with a diameter 1. And in many lines or curves through the center of circles of prime, some limited conditions, which is on the center of the circles of x=3 and 7(Fig.1), shows some graphs. Especially, graph of Gauss’ prime number theorem. which meets the limited condition, shows relationship between Napier number e and π without imaginary number i.
Category: General Mathematics

[175] viXra:1905.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:04:56

Solution to the Poisson Boltzmann Equation Involving Various Spherical Geometries

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 6 Pages.

The distribution of free charges within fluids or plasma is often modeled using linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE). However, this author has recently shown that the usual boundary conditions (BC), namely the Dirichlet condition and the Neumann condition cannot be used to solve the PBE due to some physical reasons. This author has used the BC of `mixed' type to obtain the physical solution to the 1-D PBE and derived the charged density distribution $\rho_e$ within {\it rectangular} and {\it cylindrical} geometries before. Here the 1-D formulae of $\rho_e$ (i) within, (ii) between and (iii) outside {\it spherical} geometries has been derived. The result shows that the electric field is high at the surface of small objects, immersed in electrolyte solution. These formulae could be very useful in explaining similar physical situations that are found in nature or made in the laboratories.
Category: Condensed Matter

[174] viXra:1905.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:10:48

Refutation of Reverse Mathematics and Nets

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate four definitions for reverse mathematics (3) and nets (1). None is tautologous. This refutes reverse mathematics and nets. Therefore these definitions form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[173] viXra:1905.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:12:22

Whitepaper V.1.2

Authors: Lucidity
Comments: 17 Pages.

The digital advertising ecosystem isn’t in a great place. While growth in digital is booming, the most essential members of the ecosystem (namely advertisers and publishers) are frustrated and powerless in the face of an increasingly apparent reality: digital advertising has a transparency problem. In an age where measuring the performance of ad campaigns is paramount, marketers are unable to fully understand the value they deliver. As has become true for most industries, data is the key to measuring performance. But in advertising, data is trapped and siloed in black box technologies, causing data disagreements and opening the door for fraudulent activities. The end result? Waste. Wasted money. Wasted time. Lucidity has built a blockchain-based solution (with five patents filed) that solves these issues. We provide advertisers with a unified set of data, free of discrepancies and fraud, that they can use to gauge their effectiveness. We provide publishers with a way to prove the value of their inventory and avoid identity theft. And we’ve built the only advertising focused blockchain technology to-date that doesn’t require advertisers and agencies to change their work flow or set up integrations. In the following whitepaper, we will outline in detail the problems we’re solving, how we solve it, and the team that’s bringing it all together.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[172] viXra:1905.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 16:03:16

A New Proposal that Completes and Verifies, Newton’s Gravity and the Law of the Universal Attraction

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract Gravity: Could there ever be, a physical phenomenon simpler that of watching an apple falling downwards? However, the initial explanation given for this phenomenon, i.e., that the Earth is the center of the Universe and as all bodies are attracted towards this center, they will be attracted towards the Earth, was erroneous. The correct explanation that: all material bodies are attracted to one another, as well as towards the Earth, which is a material body too, has been formulated by Newton and it was a very simple, correct and successful explanation. Since then, many changes have been made in physics disputing some of Newton’s beliefs about gravity and the Law of the Universal Attraction, as defined by Newton. These changes, I describe in the present paper, adding a new proposal, as well, which completes, verifies and confirms, Newton.
Category: Classical Physics

[171] viXra:1905.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-25 14:00:34

Stochastic, Granular, Five-Dimensional Space-Time:a Root Model for Both Relativity and Quantum Mechanics,and a New Interpretation of Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 30 Pages.

Abstract A stochastic model is presented for the Planck-scale nature of space-time. From it, many features of quantum mechanics and relativity are derived. As mathematical points have no extent, the stochastic manifold cannot be tessellated with points (if the points are independently mobile) and so a granular model is required. For Lorentz invariance, the grains cannot have constant dimensions but instead, constant volumes. We treat both space and time stochastically and thus require a new interpretation of time to prevent an object being in multiple places at the same time. As the grains do have a definite volume, a mechanism is required to create and annihilate grains (without leaving gaps in space-time) as the universe, or parts thereof, expands or contracts. A 'rolled-up' fifth dimension provides the mechanism. As this is a 'root' model, it attempts to explicate phenomena usually taken for granted, such as gravity and the nature of time. From geometric considerations alone, both the General Relativity field equations (the master equations of Relativity) and the Schrödinger equation (the master equation of quantum mechanics) are produced.
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1905.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-16 02:00:50

Why Democratic Socialism Has Met Its Permanent Demise

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 8 Pages.

There's no going back for political economics.
Category: Economics and Finance

[169] viXra:1905.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 21:33:19

Temporal Curvature, Murphy’s Law, etc

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a brief discussion why temporal curvature is not accepted by convention as an explanation for gravitation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[168] viXra:1905.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-22 07:06:06

The New Perspective For The Superconductor

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 28 Pages.

The superconductor theory based on the electron pair is reviewed and several viewpoints are proposed. A demonstrated case reveals the speed of each electron in the electron pair at Fermi level about 1.82x10^6 m/s in Pb. However, the fastest longitudinal and transverse speeds of crystal waves in Pb at 0 K are 2.18x10^3 m/s and 1.29x10^3 m/s in [100] direction, respectively. It seems to be very hard even impossible that the mediated phonon can real-time transfer momentum and energy between two so high-speed and antiparallel-momentum electrons in the superconducting state. In this research, we focus on single electron based on the experiments of Transmission Electron Microscopy. The new fitting temperature-dependent model for the London penetration depth is proposed. This model is much better than the one- and two-gap models and matches three experimental data much well. Then it further gives the temperature-dependent effective electron mass for the Nb superconductor film. Finally, the expression for the resistivity is deduced which can explain why the resistance is almost zero in the superconductor. All these new results are obtained by using the concept of single electron.
Category: Condensed Matter

[167] viXra:1905.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 01:50:58

DNA Sequencing Informatics Framework Using [CoqTP/q*cert/CRSX-HACS/Java/Ocaml/JikesRVM/(RVM-Research Virtual Machine)] in the Context of [IoT/HPC/Cloud Computing/JIProlog/Owl] Hi-End Complex Environments

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages. Short Communication

DNA Sequencing Informatics Framework Using [CoqTP/q*cert/CRSX-HACS/Java/Ocaml/JikesRVM/(RVM-Research Virtual Machine)] in the Context of [IoT/HPC/Cloud Computing/JIProlog/Owl] Hi-End Complex Environments – An Interesting insight into the Technically Challenging R&D domains involving Nano-Bio Systems. [ Towards AI/ML/DL based Interfacing of Engineering/Physics/Biology/Medicine Domain Platforms ]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[166] viXra:1905.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 05:25:31

Optical Microring Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[165] viXra:1905.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 07:09:28

2-D Ferromagnetic Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[164] viXra:1905.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 08:24:28

Laser Copper Oxide Photocathodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Copper oxide has a band gap of two electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. [33] Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[163] viXra:1905.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 08:58:16

On Evaluation of Certain Gaussian-type Integrals

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we evaluate certain Gaussian-type integrals via contour integration in the complex plane along with the application of Cauchy-Goursat theorem.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[162] viXra:1905.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 09:36:43

Single Atom Nanozymes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Nanozymes-catalytic nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics-offer the advantage of low cost, high stability, tunable catalytic activity and ease of mass production. [34] Copper oxide has a band gap of two electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. [33] Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[161] viXra:1905.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 10:20:09

Space Telescope Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[160] viXra:1905.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 11:34:21

On Einsteins Equivalence Princple

Authors: Nikhil Karth, Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

this paper talks about the mass energy equivalence theorythis is how we derived some aspects of the equivalence its known that work is the force*distance or w=fd and that energy is work multiplied by time or E=wt now E=fdt which is equal to E=madt which is equal to E=m(d^2)/t which looks like E=m (x^2)/t which is equal to the equivalence principle E=mc^2
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[159] viXra:1905.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 12:16:16

Wojciech H. Zurek . Decoherence and the Transition from Quantum to Classical - Revisited (in Russian)

Authors: V. Kasimov
Comments: 26 Pages. in Russian

If the Universe is considered to be a comprehensive and integral closed system (and otherwise it cannot be: for a complete system it is difficult to imagine the existence of any other entities that affect the integrity), then, according to the quantum paradigm, its evolution can be described by the vector of Hilbert space. The dimension of this space is not regulated by anything and it depends only on what fragment of integrity is described. Of course, the final form of this state vector will never be presented explicitly. However, the presented ideology makes it possible to state unambiguously that we live in the quantum world and according to quantum laws. Again revives insight Wheeler's: all from qubit quantum substrate! Article about it This article about that we live in a quantum world and how decoherence "glues" the visible world, and everything else is a facts from the qubits of pramatter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[158] viXra:1905.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 13:35:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Aluminum

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain aluminum and it is a main building block of the crusts of highly evolved stars like the Earth. A conceptual bridge is built using aluminum as an important element in the evolution of a star, into its life hosting stages and beyond. Water, hydroxides, iron, hydrogen are all included in this bridge paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[157] viXra:1905.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 19:12:17

The Relativity of Lost Energies

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 14 Pages.

When a physical system loses energy instead of gaining it, another kind of relativity holds, that of lost energies and, as we will see, the atom will give us a numerical proof of all that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[156] viXra:1905.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 20:56:58

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 8 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such noise type called 1/f noise is likely the leading indicator. It is important to identify the noise frequency region of the spectrum associated with degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations and models related to degradation between materials and the measurement environment. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in a broad sense in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy framework for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we then suggest two thermodynamics models that one might use to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise by using a different framework in terms of thermodynamic degradation processes. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials and likely the associated spectral signatures. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for 1/f noise reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time. We also suggest using standardized spectral identification methods.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[155] viXra:1905.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 23:34:42

Refutation of the Barwise Compactness Theorem Via Sublanguage la

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

A definition with variant to establish a sublanguage in support of the Barwise compactness theorem is not tautologous. By extension the theorem is also refuted. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[154] viXra:1905.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 04:26:12

Quanton Based Model of Space Fabric Interactions

Authors: Ayman Kassem
Comments: 178 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in space and in time , the relationship between space and time varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside a Planck scale entity : the quanton as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the fundamental forces are generated this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , the evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed until the stable state is reached the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the evolution of the quanton the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using basic physics concepts , it shows that the origin many of the physical phenomena can be traced back to the Planck scale world
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[153] viXra:1905.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 05:51:35

Millikan's Oil Drops, Electron Charge, and Cooked Data// Милликана капли масла, заряд электрона, и приготовление результатов

Authors: Неизвестный
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article tells about the fraud of Millikan.\\ В статье рассказывается о мошенничестве Милликана.
Category: Classical Physics

[152] viXra:1905.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 06:49:56

AI Develops Human-Like Number Sense

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

All the successful computational approaches to detecting objects in images work by building up a kind of statistical picture of an object from many individual examples – a type of learning. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[151] viXra:1905.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 07:20:36

Mechanic and Electrician Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In strongly correlated materials such as cuprate high-temperature superconductors, superconductivity can be controlled either by changing the number of electrons or by changing the kinetic energy, or transfer energy, of electrons in the system. [34] Researchers have seen intrinsic superconductivity up to a temperature of 0.72 K in the transition metal dichalcogenide niobium telluride (NbTe2). [33] Researchers in France and Japan have demonstrated a theoretical type of unconventional superconductivity in a uranium-based material, according to a study published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:1905.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 07:58:09

Optical Network Mimics Brain Neurons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A prototype artificial neural network (ANN) that uses only light to function has been unveiled by researchers at the University of Münster in Germany and the University of Exeter and University of Oxford in the UK. [26] Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have developed a biomedical device for cell immune-isolation (microcapsules) with luminescence for in vivo tracking. [25]
Category: Mind Science

[149] viXra:1905.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 08:37:38

Particle Manipulation Methods

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University have discovered a surprising phenomenon that changes how we think about how sound can move particles. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[148] viXra:1905.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:07:00

The sixth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 13 Pages.

Assume mass and electric current are Fifth and sixth dimensions in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[147] viXra:1905.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:10:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain carbon and it is the main building block for all life in the universe. In the general theory, the carbon of a star combines with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (as well as many others) in various combinations during its evolution, forming all biological molecules. This of course takes billions of years (alongside the evolution of life itself, which happens later on) and the carbon molecules increase in complexity as the stars' interiors evolve. For this paper some new ideas that have never been considered before are presented using the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[146] viXra:1905.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 13:46:12

Левитация во время катастрофы на Саяно-Шушенской ГЭС.(RU) ==== Levitation During the Disaster at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.

Authors: A.V. Antipin
Comments: 23 Pages. Language: Ru

В статье обосновывается предположение, что происшедший во время катастрофы на Саяно-Шушенской ГЭС 17-08-2009, факт «полёта» гидроагрегата №2, начальным весом, порядка 2690т на высоту не менее 15 м, можно объяснить только в предположении о его спонтанной левитации. Предложены три обсуждаемых, но неподтверждённых эффекта, могущих вызывать левитационные эффекты для инженерных конструкций, типа гидротурбина с электрогенератором. Отдельно обращено внимание на возможность генерации ионизирующего излучения кавитационным жгутом, возникающим в отсасывающей трубе при работе гидроагрегатов. Рекомендовано безотлагательно провести замер гравитационного потенциала в районе подобных гидроагрегатов в рабочем режиме, т.к. подтверждение факта уменьшения их веса, помимо научного значения, имеет критически важное прикладное значение при проектировании и эксплуатации ГЭС. Также рекомендовано провести замеры радиационного фона на крышке турбины и в машинном зале ГЭС, т.к. подтверждения этого возможного явления потребует перевода ГЭС в специальный режим работы персонала. ==== During the disaster at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP, 17-08-2009, recorded the fact of "take-off" of the hydraulic unit №2, weighing 2690t, to a height of 15 m. The article substantiates the opinion that this FACT can be explained only by the assumption of spontaneous levitation. Three discussed but unconfirmed effects that can cause levitation effects for engineering structures, such as a hydro turbine with an electric generator, are proposed. Special attention is paid to the possibility of generating ionizing radiation by a cavitation harness that occurs in the suction pipe during the operation of hydraulic units. It is recommended to immediately measure the gravitational potential in the area of such hydraulic units in the operating mode, as confirmation of the fact of reducing their weight, in addition to scientific importance, is of critical importance in the design and operation of hydroelectric power plants. It is also recommended to measure the background radiation on the cover of the turbine and in the engine room of the HPP. Confirmation of this phenomenon will require the transfer of HPP in a special mode of staff.
Category: Classical Physics

[145] viXra:1905.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 19:24:48

Why Charge is Lorentz Invariant But Relativistic Mass and a Charge-Current Density is Not?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Conclusion of (1)Relativistic transformation of electrical current. (2) Charge is constant from frame to frame (3) Lorentz transformation of a charge-current density
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[144] viXra:1905.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 19:27:34

Confirmation of VŁ4 as Complete

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Logic VŁ4 is defined as a bivalent classical logic that maps quantifiers to modalities as a tautology making VŁ4 complete. Paraconsistent, non bivalent, vector logics are defined as non tautologous fragments of VŁ4 as a universal logic.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[143] viXra:1905.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 07:49:34

Mistery of Majorana Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[142] viXra:1905.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 08:20:10

Quasi-Particles Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

These exotic particles can, for example, emerge as quasi-particles in topological superconductors and represent ideal building blocks for topological quantum computers. [35] This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[141] viXra:1905.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 08:38:27

Calculating Black Hole Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Sean McWilliams, an assistant professor at West Virginia University, has developed a mathematical method for calculating black hole properties from gravitational wave data. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[140] viXra:1905.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 10:13:55

Atomic Nuclei and Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Collisions of lead nuclei take place under extreme physical conditions. Their course can be described using a model which assumes that the transforming, extremely hot matter—the quark-gluon plasma—flows in the form of hundreds of streaks. [44] Physicists recently investigated the behavior of particles in a dusty plasma at a temperature below 2 degrees K. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[139] viXra:1905.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 12:06:17

Can a Page and Wootters’ Mechanism (Paw) Inspired Particle Model Fulfill Mach’s Principle?

Authors: eva K deli
Comments: 11 Pages.

Page and Wootters’ mechanism (PaW) predicts that quantum entanglement leaves the state of the universe static. We satisfy the principle by dividing the cosmos into compact and non-compact dimensions, by insulating the wave function from space and gravity. In this scenario, entangled sister particles satisfy conservation principles independently of distance but modify the local volume. Either pressure or vacuum generates an orthogonal transformation (interaction) to restore symmetry. Over time space contracts or expands to develop curvature. The universe degenerates into poles, two-dimensional black holes, and four-dimensional white holes, connected by a smooth topology. Dimensional anisotropy turns gravity into a bipolar force. The verifiable and elegant hypothesis supersedes general relativity by satisfying Mach’s principle; it also offers a possible path for unification with quantum mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[138] viXra:1905.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 18:37:20

The Thot-Queen Paradox

Authors: Analytic Birb
Comments: 2 Pages.

The apparent contradiction of the status of women as both thots and queens, as expressed by the sentences ‘if she breathes, she’s a thot’ and ‘all women are queens’ is examined. The problem is formalized using the law of the excluded middle and a counterexample to the assertion is provided. The implications of the lack of a paradox are discussed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[137] viXra:1905.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-13 23:52:05

Infinite Virtual Superpositions Forming the Fundamental Particles, Radical Proposals Requiring Neither Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Nor Inflation for the Evolution of the Universe.

Authors: Julian Williams
Comments: 127 Pages. This paper specifically addresses Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws without dark matter

Dark matter and dark energy are auxilliary hypotheses added to the standard cosmology model to explain both Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws and accelerating expansion. This paper looks at a different mechanism to Einstein's general relativity (GR) that explains the warping of spacetime as a direct consequence of the forming of fundamental particles from blue, green and red spin zero virtual preons in groups of eight. At solar system scale it obeys GR, at galaxy scale it obeys Milgrom, and at cosmic scale it accelerates expansion. Space has to be flat on average with no need of inflation or a critical density. It does this in a manner that fits closely with key observational phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[136] viXra:1905.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 00:38:42

Speed Of Light From Motion Of Light Source

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative motion between a pair of observers represents a reflection symmetry. In the rest frame of first observer, the second observer moves at a distance away. In the rest frame of the second observer, the first observer moves with the same speed at an identical distance away but in the opposite direction. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time in each observer's rest frame is conserved in both rest frames. The light takes the same elapsed time to move between two observers in both rest frames. However, the distance traveled by the light is different in different rest frame. With identical elapsed time but different distance, the speed of light is proved to be different in different reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[135] viXra:1905.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 05:28:10

Mixing Manure with Charcoal – Effects on Seedling Growth

Authors: Magnus Carlsson
Comments: 1 Page.

Charcoal can be used for carbon sequestration in soil. Here we investigated if there were some benefits of mixing charcoal with manure.
Category: Climate Research

[134] viXra:1905.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 05:25:20

Nanoparticle on Mirror Displays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[133] viXra:1905.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 11:51:39

Multiphoton Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The team created the quantum states in a silicon nanophotonic spiral waveguide to produce bright, tunable, stable and scalable multiphoton quantum states. [20] Researchers in Madrid, Spain, have now observed the quantization of electron energy levels in copper similar to the effects of confinement within a nanostructure, but in a copper sample with no nanoscale dimensions in the plane of the observed effects. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[132] viXra:1905.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 12:18:21

Neural Network on Single Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Münster, the University of Oxford and the University of Exeter has built an all-optical neural network on a single chip. [28] Physicists from Petrozavodsk State University have proposed a new method for oscillatory neural network to recognize simple images. Such networks with an adjustable synchronous state of individual neurons have, presumably, dynamics similar to neurons in the living brain. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[131] viXra:1905.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 12:36:53

Map the Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The earliest known light in our universe, known as the cosmic microwave background, was emitted about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. [26] Technology originally developed for CERN's Large Hadron Collider and then flown in space by ESA is now being used to analyse historic artworks, helping to detect forgeries. [25] Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[130] viXra:1905.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 13:34:47

Single-Atom Imaging Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

A new technique to enable the detection of a hypothetical process called neutrinoless double beta decay has been developed by an international team of physicists. [39] Determining features of the elusive particle known as a neutrino-through the observation of an extremely rare nuclear process called neutrinoless double-beta decay (The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[129] viXra:1905.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:01:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Mass-Age Relation for Solar Mass, Orange, Yellow and Red Dwarf Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two hand drawn graphs show two transformation curves for young stars between 1 and .5 solar mass, and .5 to .1 solar mass. It conforms to the general theory, and brings a new perspective of stars. They can have their ages roughly determined by their masses. This is in direct opposition to the establishment's version of stellar evolution. To them stars do not evolve down transformation curves, but stay put. They were born with the same mass they die with. The observations of stars in all mass ranges contradicts the establishment's claim. In fact, the stars lose mass as they evolve, therefore their masses (when they are young) can be used to determine how old they are.
Category: Astrophysics

[128] viXra:1905.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:27:47

The Finite Speed of Gravity and Heat from the Big Bang Era can Explain Dark Energy

Authors: Michael C Dickerson, Charles Dickerson
Comments: 8 Pages. American Mathematical Society Presentation 2013

The standard cosmological model calculates the gravitational mass-energy contribution of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) to the mass of the Universe from the single energy density currently observed. The model assumes a homogeneous energy distribution at zero red shift and applies the energy density across the Universe. After reviewing the Friedmann equations for a matter dominated universe and Lematre extension of the space time metric to relativistic energy, we offer an alternative mathematical calculation of the gravitational mass-energy of the CBR component. A complete propagation history of the photons comprising the CBR is used rather than only the current energy density. Because the effects of gravity travel at the speed of light (according to general relativity), and using hot big bang cosmology, we suggest that the higher energy states of the CBR photons in the past also contribute to the currently observed gravitational effects. In our alternative calculation, the CBR energy density is integrated over a range of red shifts in order to account for the gravitational effects of the radiation energy density as it was in the past. By accounting for propagation effects, the resultant gravitational mass-energy calculated for the CBR radiation component almost exactly equals the amount attributed to dark energy. The calculation suggests an extension of the standard cosmological model in which co-moving distance at higher red shift increases with red shift more slowly than it does in the standard model. When compared with Type 1A Supernova data (in an available range of red shift from z = 0.4 to z = 1.5), distance predictions from the extended model have reasonable agreement with observation. The predictions also compare closely with the standard model (up to z = 1.0). Further observations are needed for z > 1.5 to make a final comparison between the standard model and the proposed extended model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[127] viXra:1905.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:53:08

(LFs and Gravity Working Paper Variant 1.0 7 Pages 13.04.2019) Life Forms, "Hybrid" Causality, Gravity and Hierarchical Parallel Universes

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper proposes a new definition of life forms in relation to a new type of “hybrid” causality, gravity and the possible existence of hierarchical parallel universes. Keywords: life forms, gravity, hierarchical parallel universes;
Category: Mathematical Physics

[126] viXra:1905.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 20:18:38

Wave-particle Duality of Macroscopic Particles

Authors: Mingshan Ye
Comments: 4 Pages. Quantum effect exists in macroscopic world

Different schools have different explanations for the wave-particle duality of microscopic particles. Hidden variable interpretation, pilot wave interpretation, stochastic processes interpretation and so on all think that the generation of wave-particle duality has deeper reasons. According to these interpretations, macroscopic objects can also exhibit significant wave-particle duality. The authors performed a "round-hole diffraction experiment of powder particles": some powder particles of the same mass and shape are freely dropped to a plane one by one through a circular hole. At first, the powder particles are distributed disorderly on the plate in the box. With the increase of the number of falling powder particles, a diffraction pattern composed of several concentric rings is gradually presented. This implies that wave-particle duality is not unique to microscopic particles, and it is also exhibited by macroscopic objects. The experimental results help to reveal the nature of wave-particle duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[125] viXra:1905.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 21:47:40

宏观物质颗粒的波粒二象性

Authors: 叶明山
Comments: 4 Pages. 宏观物质颗粒的波粒二象性

对于波粒二象性的本质,不同的学派有不同诠释。其中的隐变量诠释、导波诠释、随机过程诠释等都认为波粒二象性的产生有更深层的原因。根据这些诠释推论,宏观物体也可以呈现明显的波粒二象性。作者做了“粉末颗粒的圆孔衍射实验”:使一些质量相等、形状相同的粉末颗粒一颗一颗地通过一个圆孔自由下落到一个平面上,起初粉末颗粒在箱内平板上杂乱无章的分布,而随着落下的粉末颗粒数量增多,就逐渐呈现出由几个同心环组成的图样。实验结果表明波粒二象性不是微观粒子独有的特性,宏观物体也可以有波粒二象性。这个实验结果有助于揭示波粒二象性的本质。
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1905.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 21:52:58

Possible Traces of Resonant Signaling in the Genome

Authors: Ivan Savelyev, Max Myakishev-Rempel
Comments: 26 Pages.

Since so far, there is no published evidence for the resonant genomic signaling, we attempted searching for its traces in the genome computationally. Since we believe that the majority of repetitive sequences in the genome are involved in meaningful resonant signaling, we hypothesized that some of the unique (non-repetitive) sequences in the genome might have evolved to resonate with the genomic repeats. Accordingly, we hypothesized that it is not necessary for the unique sequence to be identical to the repeat, that for resonance, it might need to be only superficially similar to the sequence of the repeat: for example, it is possible that some oscillations involve primarily the electron clouds of the aromatic rings (Savelyev et al., 2019). This way only purine-pyrimidine structure of the resonating sequences should be similar and their primary sequences could be different. This simplification of the sequence from the primary sequence to the purine-pyrimidine sequence is further called "purine code". Similarly, for the oscillations which involve primarily the proton clouds of the delocalized protons of the hydrogen bonds in basepairs, only the patterns of these bonds should be similar and the primary sequence could be different. This simplification of the sequence from primary to strong/weak (3 bonds /2 bonds per base pair) is further called "strong code".
Category: Physics of Biology

[123] viXra:1905.0137 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-29 04:06:52

A Proof of Sophie Germain Primes Conjecture

Authors: Marko V. Jankovic
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper a proof of the existence of an infinite number of Sophie Germain primes, is going to be presented. In order to do that, we analyse the basic formula for prime numbers and decide when this formula would produce a Sophie Germain prime, and when not. Originally very difficult problem (in observational space) has been transformed into a simpler one (in generative space) that can be solved by elementary math.
Category: Number Theory

[122] viXra:1905.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 03:28:49

Gravitational Waves Leave Mark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

"But we've seen a lot of exciting things already with gravitational waves, and we will see a lot more. There are even plans to put a gravitational wave detector in space that would be sensitive to different sources than LIGO," Flanagan said. [27] Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[121] viXra:1905.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 07:13:51

New Material Quasiparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers at PSI have investigated a novel crystalline material that exhibits electronic properties that have never been seen before. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1905.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 08:28:37

Green Technology

Authors: Sumedha, Anush Bhatia
Comments: 15 Pages. The above manuscript is a technological combine of many related research papers and other related sources. so the reference credit goes to related areas.

Build an IoT soil moisture monitor using Arduino with an IFTTT alert system Food and water are very precious and driving forces in sustaining our lives. Production in agriculture and optimal use of water both are need of the hour. Efficient irrigation watering helps in saving water, getting better plant yields, reduce dependency on fertilizers and improve crop quality. Various methods, both laboratory, and field including remote sensing are available to measure soil moisture content, but the quickest and better one is with the use of soil moisture sensor electronic devices. For successful irrigation, it is necessary to monitor soil moisture content continuously in the irrigation fields. The selection of soil moisture probes is an important criterion in measuring soil moisture at different soil moisture sensors. They have their own advantages and disadvantages. The soil moisture sensors are used intensively at present because it gives real-time readings. With that use of renewable resources like solar cells will reduce cost.
Category: Climate Research

[119] viXra:1905.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 09:16:46

Bell's Inequality Superconducting Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

The efficient generation of entanglement between remote quantum nodes is a crucial step in securing quantum communications. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[118] viXra:1905.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 09:23:51

Noether’s Symmetry in Bosonic String σ-Model of (P=1)-Brane Polyakov Action Under Poincare Transformation

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown using very few steps that under Poincare transformation, the Polyakov action is invariant and thus, globally symmetric. It is only over this argument that the local symmetries of bosonic strings such as diffeomorphism and Weyl symmetry can be discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[117] viXra:1905.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 10:25:29

Water is Magnetized

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Water is Magnetized Physicists in the US have shown that rotating matter at high speeds can magnetize atomic nuclei-104 years after physicist Samuel Barnett showed the same could be done with electrons. [16] After all, it promises the discovery of new magnetic phenomena that may even be used for quantum computers in the future. [15] But for fast things like biomagnetic fields produced by firing neurons, we need to do better than that, or we might miss out on some information." [14] U.S. Army-funded researchers at Brandeis University have discovered a process for engineering next-generation soft materials with embedded chemical networks that mimic the behavior of neural tissue. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[116] viXra:1905.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 10:41:54

About Magnetic Matter

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

The article discusses the properties of hypothetical magnetic matter consisting of magnetic monopoles and methods of production. The atoms of magnetic matter are bound together by magnetic forces. Electric forces are only sinusoidal. Therefore magnetic matter does not interact with ordinary matter. These qualities play a far-reaching role in technical development in the future. For example, bearings with no friction and wear, massless spacecraft, transportation systems with a very tiny consumption of energy, etc.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[115] viXra:1905.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 13:08:00

Number of Microstates of Dark Dnas in Extra Dimensions for Normal and Cancerous Cells

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 17 Pages.

Recently, Hargreaves ( New Scientist, Volume 237, Issue 3168, March 2018, Pages 29-31 ) has argued that some animal genomes seem to be missing certain genes, ones that appear in other similar species and must be present to keep the animals alive. He called these apparently missing genes by “dark DNA”. On the other hand, Sepehri and his collaborations ( Open Physics, 16(1), pp. 463-475) has discussed that some biological events like DNA teleportation and water memory may be due to existence of some extra genes in extra dimensions. Collecting these results, we can conclude that origin of some cancers may be evolutions of dark DNA in extra dimension. To show this, we propose a model for calculating number of microstates of a DNA for a chick embryo in extra dimension and compare with experimental data. We show that number of microstates in extra dimension for a normal chick embryo is liss than number of microstates for a cancerous chick embryo. In fact, extra microstates are transformed to four dimensions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[114] viXra:1905.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 20:12:22

The Mass, Size, and Equilibrium Density of the Universe in a Rotating Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Big Bang theory basically states that the universe is expanding and that there is point that there could be a critical density at which the universe could go on expanding forever or crunch. The theory of a rotating universe can also have a red shift, but the equations are different and the critical density is different for rotating universe. In fact, the particular rotating universe that this theory deals with is that our universe may be in equilibrium with neither contraction or expansion but with kinetic and potential energy. In Sphere Theory of the Universe, the universe is rotating. This rotating universe has mass where parts of it are moving at familiar velocities and some are moving at relativistic velocities. Size itself is confused, in that nothing really travels in a straight line, and therefore we are trying to weed out these problems in calculating the size of the universe. It appears that light itself travels in a spiral, which is controlled by gravitational forces. The observed quantities of particles are further complicated in that the relativistic velocities make the quantities of particles look higher. The concentrations of particles are highest at the center of the sphere, but the rotation imparts energy that makes things look like the concentration is mostly uniform. This paper tries to sort out these problems and present a Mass, Size, and Equilibrium Density of the Universe. The mass of the universe, which would include matter, dark matter, and dark energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[113] viXra:1905.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 22:21:53

[coqtp-Q*cert-Ocaml-Fortran-Simple] Image Processing Software Based Informatics Framework for Electron Microscopy(em) Images – a Novel Suggestion to Interface Fortran with Ocaml in the Context of Cryo-em Image Processing Tasks.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication on Fortran & Ocaml

[CoqTP-q*cert-Ocaml-Fortran-SIMPLE] Image Processing Software based Informatics Framework for Electron Microscopy(EM) Images – A Novel Suggestion to interface Fortran with Ocaml in the Context of cryo-EM Image Processing Tasks. [ Exploring Theorem Proving & Ocaml - Fortran Interfacing & Image Processing ]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[112] viXra:1905.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 02:25:12

Mirror Letter of Leonardo da Vinci

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

The prediction and partly planning of world events in the Economist magazine is stated in the form of symbols which is required to be solved.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[111] viXra:1905.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 03:41:37

Quantum Nanoconfinement Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers in Madrid, Spain, have now observed the quantization of electron energy levels in copper similar to the effects of confinement within a nanostructure, but in a copper sample with no nanoscale dimensions in the plane of the observed effects. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:1905.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-13 03:41:26

The Conscious Undivided Multiverse,

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 54 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything, also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical Big Bang into 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric copy universes. The Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy multiverse entangled particles. Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 8 or 12 CP symmetric copy particles located inside 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric universal bubbles at long distance in raspberry shape. Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles. The Quantum FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for such consciousness theories of everything. David Bohm suggested in the "Copenhagen interpretation", that reality is not created by the eye of the human observer, and second: elementary particles should be "guided by a pilot wave" inside an “UNDIVIDED UNIVERSE” In this Quantum-FFF Theory translated into: an “ UNDIVIDED MULTIVERSE” with multi universal instant entanglement between CP symmetric mirror strings)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[109] viXra:1905.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 09:45:28

The Burnside Q-Algebras of a Monoid

Authors: Pierre-Yves Gaillard
Comments: 4 Pages.

To each monoid M we attach an inclusion A --> B of Q-algebras, and ask: Is B flat over A? If our monoid M is a group, A is von Neumann regular, and the answer is trivially Yes in this case.
Category: Algebra

[108] viXra:1905.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 10:45:52

Graphene Plasmons Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Vienna and the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona have shown that tailored graphene structures enable single photons to interact with each other. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[107] viXra:1905.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 11:09:48

Why is Fundamental Physics in a Big Crisis?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Many physicists claim that physics is in crisis but the followers of the dominant theories in physics still accept the unreal/pseudoscientific ideas because they were introduced by great physicists. It is time to give up ideas that contradict common sense.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[106] viXra:1905.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 11:22:46

Whirlpools of Electrons Twisting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

But now, scientists from the lab of Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL have demonstrated that it is possible to use light to dynamically twist an individual electron's wave function. [38] The scientists used the quantum nature of the electron-light interaction to separate the electron-reference and electron-imaging beams in energy instead of space. [37] A holographic acoustic tweezers (HAT) system has been used to suspend up to 25 objects in mid-air simultaneously. [36] Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/information+processing/" information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[105] viXra:1905.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 12:00:02

About Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages

The hypothesis of intrinsic magnetic monopoles states that these are elementary particles with magnetic charges and electric spins. Magnetic monopoles can be generated by splitting a photon in a strong magnetic field. According to this concept at least a magnetic lepton, magnetic baryon, magnetically neutral monopole and its antiparticles exist. This article discloses the basic properties of intrinsic magnetic monopoles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[104] viXra:1905.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 12:15:52

ATLAS adds to Higgs Boson Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Higgs boson was discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS Experiments at CERN, but its coupling to other particles remains a puzzle. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[103] viXra:1905.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 15:52:46

Refutation of Pascal’s Wager

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The antecedent and consequent of the thought experiment of Pascal’s wager are not tautologous. However, to determine gain by one wager or the other is tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of Pascal’s wager as ultimately not allowing reason to determine faith. In other words, the “existence of God is possible to prove by human reason”. What follows furthermore is that the existence of God is more profitable from this thought experiment. Therefore the conjecture forms a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[102] viXra:1905.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:41:22

A Note About Dufour-Fezzani Formula

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French.

In this note, we review the Dufour-Fezzani formula concerning the comparison of two geodetic networks. This formula is developed for ellipsoidal models.
Category: Geophysics

[101] viXra:1905.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:40:00

Blackholes and Gravity .

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 1 Page.

This is an article that I made , I wish to read your reactions too.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1905.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:54:27

Newtonian Origin of Relativity

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity has got a Newtonian origin.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[99] viXra:1905.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 21:06:53

Openly Addressing American Scientist Magazine, "Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily", by Kevin Heng

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper serves as an open address to American Scientist Magazine's article written by Kevin Heng, "Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily." https://www.americanscientist.org/article/why-does-nature-form-exoplanets-easily
Category: Astrophysics

[98] viXra:1905.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-17 04:41:10

De Wiskunde van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 194 Pages. U kunt dit bestand naar een lokale print-shop brengen. Deze dienstverlener kan er dan een betaalbaar en gemakkelijk leesbaar A4-formaat ringband boek van maken.

Het belangrijkste onderwerp van dit boek is een puur wiskundig model van de fysieke werkelijkheid. Het boek fungeert als een overzicht van het Hilbert Book Model project. Het project betreft een goed gefundeerd, puur wiskundig model van fysische realiteit. Het project berust op de overtuiging dat de fysieke werkelijkheid zijn eigen soort van wiskunde bezit en dat deze wiskunde de uitbreiding van het fundament tot meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur en het gedrag van de fysieke werkelijkheid begeleid en inperkt. Dit resulteert in een model dat meer en meer lijkt op de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen kunnen observeren. Het boek behandelt verschillende onderwerpen die rechtstreeks verband houden met het hoofdonderwerp. Het boek introduceert nieuwe fysica en nieuwe wiskunde.
Category: Quantum Physics

[97] viXra:1905.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 03:25:11

Ultra-Secure Virtual Money

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A new type of money that allows users to make decisions based on information arriving at different locations and times, and that could also protect against attacks from quantum computers, has been proposed by a researcher at the University of Cambridge. [25] Shortcomings of security breach notifications, best practices for phishing warnings and lessons learned from the use of analytics to improve student performance are among several studies University of Michigan researchers will present beginning this weekend in the United Kingdom. [24] But moral questions about what data should be collected and how it should be used are only the beginning. [23] A self-driving vehicle has to detect objects, track them over time, and predict where they will be in the future in order to plan a safe manoeuvre. [22] In order to improve world food conditions, a team around computer science professor Kristian Kersting was inspired by the technology behind Google News. [21] Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is one of a number of biophysical techniques used for determining the structural characteristics of biomolecules. [20] A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as-and sometimes better than-today's best automated methods or even human experts. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1905.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 04:06:14

Silicon Switches to Compute

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Logic and memory devices, such as the hard drives in computers, now use nanomagnetic mechanisms to store and manipulate information. [47] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[95] viXra:1905.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-09 00:35:52

The AASTS Archives

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 13 Pages.

An experiment of correspondence...
Category: Social Science

[94] viXra:1905.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 07:57:19

Sense Theory

Authors: Egger Mielberg
Comments: 21 Pages.

Cognitive processes of human brain are strongly tied to such a well-known part of the brain as cortex. All psychological, logical or illogical solutions made by a human being are the result of the cortex. Thus, the maximum approximation of mathematical theory to the processes of the cortex can become a good trampoline to the creation of a self-learning intellectual system, a Real Artificial Intelligence. We propose a new concept of mathematical theory which gives a possibility to form, find and separate senses of two or more objects of different nature. The theory encompasses the knowledge of cybernetics, linguistics, neurobiology, and classical mathematics. The Sense Theory is not a part of traditional mathematics as we know it now, it is a new paradigm of how we can formalize complex cognitive processes of the human brain.
Category: General Mathematics

[93] viXra:1905.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 09:06:04

Том Третий: "Операционно-аналитический аппарат философии диалектического материализма"

Authors: Райков Александр Геннадьевич
Comments: 63 Pages. Работа "Том Третий. Операционно-аналитический аппарат философии диалектического материализма" является составной частью "Курса лекций. Всеобъемлющие начала и механизмы действительности" в 3-х томах.

Работа посвящена изложению основ операционно-аналитического аппарата философии диалектического материализма и его применения к описанию фундаментальных и частных форм, состояний и процессов материи.

Эпоха теоретического развития науки на основе оперирования количественными элементами счётных структур, и, которая является единственной на настоящий момент формой аппарата современной математики, исчерпана.

Создана новая операционно-аналитическая форма математического мышления и инструментально-символического языка в сфере научной коммуникации, которые отвечают требованиям адекватного отображения в естествознании объективных качественно-количественных причинно-следственных связей и отношений взаимодействия и взаимоперехода форм материи друг в друга. В книге сконцентрирован весь необходимый и достаточный объём сведений о беспредпосылочном источнике мироздания и материи, причине всеобщего движения и его формах (процессах материи). Работа содержит примеры решения фундаментальных вопросов современной физики на основе нового, объективно-аналитического аппарата философии.

Дан анализ причины трёхфазовой линейности и трёхфазовой радиальности материальных форм и процессов (трёхмерности пространства и трёхмерности времени). В силу вечности, постоянства и неисчерпаемости беспредпосылочного источника мироздания, законы возникновения, развития и угасания любых материальных форм и процессов, представленные в операционно-аналитической форме аппарата философии диалектического материализма, распространяются на все материальные следствия развития беспредпосылочного субстрата действительности. Книга подводит итог развития научного познания на долгом пути поиска человечеством источника и причины мира. Даёт завершённое и окончательное решение вопроса о происхождении законов природы и их сущности.

Особое внимание обращено на разъяснение смысла фундаментальных законов мира. При малом объёме, книга безальтернативный первоисточник и руководство по всем отраслям знания современной науки. Обеспечивает науку объективно-материалистическим знанием, которое должно послужить началу нового этапа и витка развития всех отраслей науки. Выводит человечество на высший уровень знаний и социально-нравственных норм жизни.

На сегодня книга единственное фундаментальное руководство по подготовке специалистов всех отраслей науки, в основе которого знание об универсальных и всеобъемлющих законах действительности. Работа будет способствовать глубокой перестройке и унификации всей системы знаний, обучения и образования.


Category: General Science and Philosophy

[92] viXra:1905.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 11:47:28

Holographic Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The scientists used the quantum nature of the electron-light interaction to separate the electron-reference and electron-imaging beams in energy instead of space. [37] A holographic acoustic tweezers (HAT) system has been used to suspend up to 25 objects in mid-air simultaneously. [36] Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/information+processing/" information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1905.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 13:26:19

Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Researchers have developed a simple and stable device to generate the quantum states necessary for quantum key distribution. [41] A collaborative team, led by scientists from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), developed a highly-sensitive nano-thermometer that uses atom-like inclusions in diamond nanoparticles to accurately measure temperature at the nanoscale. [40] Imagine being able to shape a pulse of light in any conceivable manner-compressing it, stretching it, splitting it in two, changing its intensity or altering the direction of its electric field. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[90] viXra:1905.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 15:08:18

Heat Unified Field Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

is absorbing heat produce magnetism and producing heat producing gravitation?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[89] viXra:1905.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 15:37:29

Heat Unified Field Theory0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

heat is the production of gravity and magnetism together termed as electromagnetic radiation if you shoot electromagnetic radiation at the electrons they absorb it vibrating and produce magentism if an electron emits an electromagnetic wave they produce gravity what if you just make heat pumped out of any hot object absorbed by any other object and sustain the heat?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[88] viXra:1905.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 16:04:20

Energy Carriers

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

you could get a mass and heat it and do pressure on it and then when it cools down heat it up with the heat produced at the beggining carreied by water in a thermo thats a way to keep those atoms carrying energy through midstate vibration of atoms
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[87] viXra:1905.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 16:48:48

New Cubic Potentiation Algorithm

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 7 Pages.

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new cubic potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the cubic of a binomial.
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1905.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 21:21:49

Refutation of a Fast Algorithm for Network Forecasting Time Series from Definition of Visibility Graph

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate a definition of the visibility graph as not tautologous to deny a fast algorithm for forecasting time series. Hence the conjecture of a forecasting algorithm is denied. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4. However, we resuscitate the conjecture using the Kanban cell neuron network (KCNN), a linear step-wise function, for the desired conjecture without injected data.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[85] viXra:1905.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 01:02:08

Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 7 Pages.

This article contains the germinal idea of an attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe using classical concepts
Category: Classical Physics

[84] viXra:1905.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 02:40:43

Atlantis as Jerusalem

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 2 Pages.

Atlantis as a dualistic island was mirrored mirrored from both End times Babylon AND Jerusalem. Since the third temple of the antichrist (Matthew 24:15) corresponds with the temple of Poseidon. By leon elshout, 7 may 2019, aurichalcum (at) protonmail.com (roodgoudvanparvaim.nl; roodgoudvanparvaim.wordpress.com)
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[83] viXra:1905.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 05:25:54

An Experiment for Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction

Authors: Özgen Ersan
Comments: 4 Pages. S. Hawking had said that “Philosophers have not kept up with modern developments in science. Particularly physics.” However/in my opinion, nature scientists also miss the inferences of philosophy and cognitive evolution, At first the concept of “managin

If length contraction is real, the electrical resistance value of a conductive cable must change in accordance with its different directions because of the Earth’s universal motion. Trouton-Rankine experiment was replicated and reinterpreted by managing of precision in accordance with current methodology and cosmological knowledge. Our electrical resistance based experiment did not indicate an evidence for the length contraction; all measured values are isotropic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[82] viXra:1905.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 10:12:42

Antimatter Quantum Interferometry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers in Italy and Switzerland have performed the first ever double-slit-like experiment on antimatter using a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a positron beam. [26] Two new experiments at CERN, ALPHA-g and GBAR, have now started their journey towards answering this question. [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[81] viXra:1905.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 10:25:05

Расширение Вселенной-величайшее заблуждение в истории науки

Authors: Акованцев Пётр Иванович
Comments: 11 Pages.

В статье изложена связь космологического красного смещения с температурой среды распространения излучения. На сплошной спектр видимого излучения далѐких галактик накладываются фраунгоферовы линии поглощения определѐнной частоты водородом-средой распространения. Эти линии смещаются в длинноволновую сторону, что говорит об изменении свойств водорода, как среды распространения, а не свойств самого излучения (изменении длины волны) и связаны эти изменения, прежде всего с температурой. А это, в свою очередь говорит о том, что Вселенная в своѐм эволюционном развитии нагревается.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[80] viXra:1905.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 11:28:39

Stellar Metamorphosis: Interpreting Why the Deuterium/Hydrogen Ratios are Different on Different Celestial Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, one from ESA

For this paper a simple graph is provided by the ESA (European Space Agency) of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios of different celestial bodies in our solar system. To interpret the graph in a meaningful fashion, all that is needed is that the graph needs to be spun 90 degrees clockwise and then compared to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The sizes/masses of the objects are not representative, only the ages/ratios of D/H are compared. In essence, as the objects age and evolve/disintegrate, the D/H ratio of the material rises. This means the most pristine D/H ratio that is representative of any star or stellar remains is contained in the youngest of stars, to the very left hand side of the diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[79] viXra:1905.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 12:03:39

Protein Structures from Tiny Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Using x-rays to reveal the atomic-scale 3-D structures of proteins has led to countless advances in understanding how these molecules work in bacteria, viruses, plants, and humans—and has guided the development of precision drugs to combat diseases such as cancer and AIDS. [24] How did life arise on Earth? Rutgers researchers have found among the first and perhaps only hard evidence that simple protein catalysts—essential for cells, the building blocks of life, to function—may have existed when life began. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[78] viXra:1905.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 12:20:10

Biomedical Devices with Fluorescence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have developed a biomedical device for cell immune-isolation (microcapsules) with luminescence for in vivo tracking. [25] Using x-rays to reveal the atomic-scale 3-D structures of proteins has led to countless advances in understanding how these molecules work in bacteria, viruses, plants, and humans—and has guided the development of precision drugs to combat diseases such as cancer and AIDS. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[77] viXra:1905.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 17:04:39

Via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra: Equation for Line of Intersection of Two Planes

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 6 Pages.

As a high-school-level example of solving a problem via Geometric Algebra (GA), we show how to derive an equation for the line of intersection between two given planes. The solution method that we use emphasizes GA's capabilities for expressing and manipulating projections and rotations of vectors.
Category: Geometry

[76] viXra:1905.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-14 20:13:36

True Logick

Authors: Christopher Perez
Comments: 9 Pages.

Mathematics is a pure, logickal mind existing beyond the confines of reality, contemplating itself without beginning or end. True Logick is is Neohermetic Pythagoreanism for the modern era. True Logick is presented as the writings of The Hierophant, the keeper and interpreter of sacred mysteries and esoteric principles. It is an inclusive philosophy of mathematics based on Pythagoreanism and Hermeticism, the latter of which was a great influence on the Scientific Revolution. It is also the manifesto of a fake math cult and mathematics collective of the same name which puts this philosophy into practice with a series of Esoteric Math Circles we hold every month at a café/bar/venue in Chicago. For more information, see truelogick.org.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[75] viXra:1905.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 19:53:34

Constants Theory

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 176 Pages.

The basic idea is to write the special relativity theory in 11 dimension Using basic physical quantities as a dimensions And the conclusion of transfers of basic physical quantities And constants that change from frame to frame With a change in the speed of light in different dimensions With proof that all quantities become constant at the speed of light Basic physical quantities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[74] viXra:1905.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 20:35:22

Questioning the Conclusion of Michelson-Morley's Experiment

Authors: Simon Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is a test of light, a representation of reality, there is no right and wrong in it. And people will get different conclusions under different assumptions: under the assumption that the speed of light is affected by inertia, the experimental results are completely consistent with the expectation; on the contrary, under the assumption that the speed of light is not affected by inertia, the assumptions and experimental results Inconsistent, for this reason people have made Lorentz-style accommodation, making this assumption seem more satisfactory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[73] viXra:1905.0083 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-25 16:13:55

A Physical Explanation for Particle Spin

Authors: Dirk Pons, Arion Pons, Aiden Pons
Comments: 25 Pages. Citation: Pons, D.J., Pons, A.D., and Pons, A.J., A physical explanation for particle spin Journal of Modern Physics, 2019. 10(7): p. 835-860 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2019.107056

CONTEXT - The spin of a particle is physically manifest in multiple phenomena. For quantum mechanics (QM), spin is an intrinsic property of a point particle, but an ontological explanation is lacking. In this paper we propose a physical explanation for spin at the sub-particle level, using a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) theory. APPROACH - Mechanisms for spin were inferred from the Cordus NLHV theory, specifically from theorised structures at the sub-particle level. RESULTS – Physical geometry of the particle can explain spin phenomena: polarisation, Pauli exclusion principle (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox), excited states, and selective spin of neutrino species. A quantitative derivation is provided for electron spin g-factor g = 2, and a qualitative explanation for the anomalous component. IMPLICATIONS - NLHV theory offers a candidate route to new physics at the sub-particle level. This also implies philosophically that physical realism may apply to physics at the deeper level below QM. ORIGINALITY – The electron g-factor has been derived using sub-particle structures in NLHV theory, without using quantum theory. This is significant as the g-factor is otherwise considered uniquely predicted by QM. Explanations are provided for spin phenomena in terms of physical sub-structures to the particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[72] viXra:1905.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 22:51:41

The Explanation of The Moving Bright Areas In The First M87 Black Hole Images

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 3 Pages.

After reading the papers about the first M87 event horizon telescope results, we find the moving bright areas in the observation images from Apr. 5 to Apr. 11 and the conclusion about that the south is brighter than the north is incorrect. We propose an explanation to initially explain the movement of the bright areas as the animation reveals.
Category: Astrophysics

[71] viXra:1905.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-13 00:13:47

The Golden Ratio Time Algorithm

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 16 Pages.

The idea that time is concordant to our perception in our frame of temporal reference yet different to another person’s frame dependent on motion, as Einstein outlined in his work of general and special relativity, is essentially stating that we are conscious according to the parameters of space-time and how that flows dependent on what our reference of relative motion is. Yet is there a scientific mathematical link between frames of time as a relativity of time in space? Surely in not considering how each frame of time reference can be linked mathematically, all the facets of physical reality in time as “equations” of time will not match up, such as most basically gravity and electromagnetism? This paper, a follow-on from seven previous papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] will present firstly the historical notions we have of time in science, as applied to scientific congress, and then discuss those problems that have been presented to us in using that axiom of time definition, most importantly that not knitting together those temporal notions presents us with a mathematics of space and mass and energy that are never knitted as mathematical equations in time yet only in using Einstein’s equation of e = mc2. So, a new axiom for time is presented as an algorithm that can knit together much of what we know of physical scientific data, including Einstein’s well-known equation. The quest of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to marry up electromagnetism with gravity using a common mathematical “function” for time universal in space, as temporal relativity, despite it offering a new set of equations for known physical data. Then finally a process of “proof” is offered for this new regard for time, as gravity emerging from electrodynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[70] viXra:1905.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 01:08:11

A Fast Algorithm for NetworkForecasting Time Series

Authors: Fan Liu, Yong Deng
Comments: 7 Pages.

Time series has a wide range of applications in various fields. Recently, a new math tool, named as visibility graph, is developed to transform the time series into complex networks. One shortcoming of existing network-based time series prediction methods is time consuming. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new prediction algorithm based on visibility graph and markov chains. Among the existing network-based time series prediction methods, the main step is to determine the similarity degree between two nodes based on link prediction algorithm. A new similarity measure between two nodes is presented without the iteration process in classical link prediction algorithm. The prediction of Construct Cost Index (CCI) shows that the proposed method has the better accuracy with less time consuming.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[69] viXra:1905.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 03:17:40

Unified E/m Waves Theory

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 7 Pages.

The accelerated electron creates the inductive-inertial phenomenon, whose the forces act on the electric units of dynamic space, forming the grouping units, namely the electric charges or forms of the electric field. This phenomenon is the precondition to construct E/M waves, while the cause for the generation of E/M formations is the spin oscillations of the electron.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[68] viXra:1905.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 07:01:16

The Universal Profinitization of a Topological Space

Authors: Pierre-Yves Gaillard
Comments: 4 Pages.

To a topological space X we attach in two equivalent ways a profinite space X' and a continuous map F: X --> X' such that, for any continuous map f: X --> Y, where Y is a profinite space, there is a unique continuous map f': X' --> Y such that f'oF = f.
Category: Topology

[67] viXra:1905.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 09:21:22

Quantum Light at the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

A collaborative team, led by scientists from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), developed a highly-sensitive nano-thermometer that uses atom-like inclusions in diamond nanoparticles to accurately measure temperature at the nanoscale. [40] Imagine being able to shape a pulse of light in any conceivable manner—compressing it, stretching it, splitting it in two, changing its intensity or altering the direction of its electric field. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1905.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-01 09:46:50

Generation of Baryons from Electromagnetic Instabilities from Vacuum.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: The analysis on pages 3 and 4 has been improved.

Baryons are generated from perturbations of magnetodynamic origin built upon a background sea of excitations at about 3.7 GeV adopting the proton state as a “substrate”, as proposed by Barut. To simulate perturbations from such a state a sum over the energy spectrum of excitations is necessary. A Zeta-function regularization procedure previously adopted for the Casimir Effect is applied to eliminate divergences when the sum upon the energy spectrum states is carried out. States of negative energy compared to the background state are obtained and represent the baryons. The periodic behavior of the baryons masses with confined magnetic flux is reproduced with no further forms of energies required besides the magnetodynamic terms. This treatment implicitly supports the concept that quarks and leptons might be treated on similar theoretical grounds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[65] viXra:1905.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 10:08:07

Diamonds for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Nanodiamonds doped with such elements could be applied to quantum information science—a rapidly expanding field that includes quantum communication and quantum computing. [41] A collaborative team, led by scientists from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), developed a highly-sensitive nano-thermometer that uses atom-like inclusions in diamond nanoparticles to accurately measure temperature at the nanoscale. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[64] viXra:1905.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 10:53:38

The Theory of Relativity and the Origin of the Cosmos

Authors: Enrico Cavallo
Comments: 2 Pages. translation of the article in english, the original one is in Italian

Big bang or long bang? What the theory of relativity says about it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[63] viXra:1905.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 12:13:08

Possible Origin of Magnetism

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

magnetism occurs when you achieve high vibration altitudes of masses
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[62] viXra:1905.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 12:55:51

Том Второй: "Философия исправления математики. Счётные структуры и вычисления"

Authors: Райков Александр Геннадьевич
Comments: 74 Pages. Язык русский. Работа "Том Второй. Философия исправления математики. Счётные структуры и вычисления" является составной частью "Курса лекций. Всеобъемлющие начала и механизмы действительности" в 3-х томах.

В течение 300 лет теоретическое развитие операционного аппарата высшей математики опиралось на абстракции и аксиомы, формируемые на основе логики ассоциативной формы мышления. Однако единственной научной формой мышления и исследований является объективно-аналитическое мышление и методология познания.

Цель данной работы очистить операционный аппарат математики от закоренелых ошибок абстрактно-идеалистической логики и способов исчисления. Дать аналитическое обоснование понятийного и операционного аппарата объективной математики на базе физически статусного структурно-алгебраического метода. Заложить теоретические основы объективно-аналитической формы математического мышления и инструментально-символического языка в сфере научной коммуникации, которые отвечают требованиям адекватного отображения в естествознании объективных качественно-количественных причинно-следственных связей и отношений взаимодействия и взаимного перехода форм материи друг в друга.

Книга содержит достаточно полное и доступное изложение приёмов вычисления методом структурной иерархии алгебраических групп. Раскрыты причинные источники «постоянства формальных законов» математики. Настоящее сочинение должно помочь учителям школы, преподавателям ВУЗов и теоретикам естествознания обрести твёрдую теоретическую основу возвращения математического мышления на позиции объективного знания. Овладеть приёмами структурно-алгебраического метода преобразований и вычислений. Книга будет способствовать глубокой переструктуризации математических знаний и их унификации.

Для широкого круга читателей.


Category: General Mathematics

[61] viXra:1905.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-09 07:22:19

Classical Mechanics Reloaded

Authors: Hervé Le Cornec
Comments: 9 Pages.

The first postulate of the classical mechanics, stating that the position and the time are independent, is demonstrated as false, and replaced by a theorem stating that the position and the time are always related by a bijection, accordingly to the experiment. Introducing this theorem instead of the first postulate inside the calculus of variation, provides new equations of motion, close to those of Lagrange, but giving more information on the allowed trajectories. The velocity of a classical mobile appears as the addition of one or many of only two elementary uniform velocities, of rotation and translation, in a typical Fourier series fashion. The addition of a single elementary rotation and a single elementary translation, leads to the Keplerian motion, as expected. This approach can be used for any physical parameter, an illustration is given by the forecast of the Boltzmann’s entropy, the ideal gas law and the equations driving the chemical kinetics.
Category: Classical Physics

[60] viXra:1905.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 17:02:10

خطأ النظرية النسبية لآينشتاين وبديلها الشامل

Authors: سامي عمر محمود
Comments: 232 Pages. البحث وافق عليه العديد من المتخصيين في السودان واليمن

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ملخص كتاب خطأ النسبية وبديلها الشامل نهدف من هذا الكتاب إلى إثبات خطأ النظرية النسبية، ومن ثم تقديم تفسير جديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء المحيرة التي لوحظت أواخر القرن التاسع عشر، وهو تفسير سيؤدي إلى بناء فيزياء جديدة متكاملة تحل محل فيزياء النسبية. أولاً: إثبات خطأ النسبية الخاصة: كان برهان النسبية على ثبات سرعة الضوء هو قدرة تحويل لورنتز على الانتقال من معادلة كرة ضوئية منتفخة بسرعة الضوء بالنسبة لنظام إحداثيات إلى معادلة كرة منتفخة بسرعة الضوء في نظام إحداثيات آخر. وكان يبدو ألا وجود لأي إشكال من الناحية الرياضية في هذا البرهان؛ فالمعادلة الأولى معادلة كرة، والمعادلة النهائية التي وصلنا إليها بعد التعويض بالتحويل وخلط وترتيب الحدود هي معادلة كرة، ولكن يظهر الإشكال من الناحية الفيزيائية، إذ كيف يمكن لراصدين في نظامي إحداثيين أن يريا نفسيهما في مركز نفس النبضة الضوئية رغم وجود سرعة نسبية بينهما؟! ذاك هو المستحيل الذي لا يمكن أن يجيزه أي تصور علمي صحيح! فكيف أجازت الرياضيات النسبوية ذلك المستحيل؟! ثانياً: التفسير الجديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء: يرجع سبب ثبات سرعة الضوء عند قيمة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وكذلك ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم إلينا من الأجرام الفلكية المختلفة من الاتجاهات المختلفة عند قيمة ، إلى وجود ذلك الوسط الذي تتطلبه الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، وهذا الوسط لابد أن يكون ملتصقاً بالأرض ومحيطاً بها ومتحركاً معها في حركتها الكونية تماماً كما يحيط المجال المغناطيسي بمغناطيس ويتحرك متنقلاً معه من مكان إلى آخر، وهذا الوسط بهذا الوصف لن ينطبق إلا على المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية، والذي ثبت أن له تأثير على أمواج الضوء يوازي تأثير أي وسط على أمواجه التي تنتشر فيه، من حيث إجباره لأمواج الضوء على أن تعبره دائماً بنفس السرعة بغض النظر عن حركة المصدر، وهذا ما أثبته الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه في تجربته التي أجراها عام 1963، ففيها انطلقت فوتونات جاما بسرعة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض غير متأثرة بسرعة المصدر المنطلقة منه والتي بلغت نصف سرعة الضوء، والذي جعلنا نستنتج أن المجال الجاذبي هو الوسط المرجح لانتشار الضوء وجود تأثير ملموس للمجال الجاذبي على أمواج الضوء، والأدلة على هذا التأثير هي تلك التي اعتُبِرت من أدلـة النسبيّـة العامّـة؛ مثل انحراف صور الأجرام الفلكية عن مواقعها الحقيقية، والزحزحـة التثاقليّة الحمراء، وظاهرة شابيرو .. إن الانحراف في أشعة الضوء القادم من النجوم عند مرورها بالقرب من قرص الشمس دليل جلي على أن الضوء تأثر بالمجال الجاذبي للشمس، لا كمجال قوة، بل كوسط انتشار، أثرت شدته المتغيرة تدريجياً على سرعته فحرفته عن مساره تماماً كما يحدث في ظاهرة السراب أو انكسار الضوء، أما تأخر إشارات الرادار في ظاهرة شابيرو فدليل أن العلاقة بين سرعة الضوء وشدة المجال الجاذبي هي علاقة عكسية؛ كلما زادت شدة المجال الجاذبي قلت سرعة الضوء فيه، وعليه فهي بالقرب من سطح الأرض، وأكبر من عند القمر، وأقل من عند الشمس . بهذا الشكل سيكون المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية مجال قوة بالنسبة للكتلة يؤثر عليها بتسارع ثابت تعتمد قيمته على شدة المجال، ووسط انتشار بالنسبة للأمواج الكهرومغناطيسية يؤثر عليها بسرعة ثابتة تعتمد قيمتها أيضاً على شدة المجال .. إن ثبات سرعة الضوء التي أسفرت عنها تجربة مايكلسون ومورلي يرجع إلى أن الضوء انتشر في وسطه المحيط بسطح الأرض والساكن بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير لا يتناقض مع نتيجة تجربة الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه، فالضوء فيها انتشر في وسطه الساكن بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وثبات سرعته الدائم عند قيمة رغم حركة المصدر دليل على الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، فالأمواج وحدها من يحتفظ بسرعة ثابتة لا تتأثر بحركة المصدر .. أما ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم من الأجرام الفلكية عند قيمة فيرجع إلى أن وسط انتشاره الساكن والملاصق للأرض كان يفرض عليه دائماً تلك السرعة، سواء كان الضوء قادماً من جرم ساكن بالنسبة للأرض أو متحركاً بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير الأخير يفرض علينا اشتقاق صيغة مختلفة عن صيغة دوبلر لحساب مقدار الانزياح نحو الأحمر لتلك الأجرام المتباعدة، حيث ستكون أوساط انتشار الضوء (المجالات الجاذبية) متداخلة ومنسحبة من بعضها البعض،
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[59] viXra:1905.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 17:47:36

Process Delay Sedimentation – Aspects of Business Transactions Analogous to Physical Conservation Laws.

Authors: Tariq Khan
Comments: 2 Pages.

Sedimentation: noun, the process of settling or being deposited as a sediment. "Sedimentation occurs when the droplets sink to the bottom." Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation: … the force is proportional to the product of the two masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Category: Economics and Finance

[58] viXra:1905.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 18:00:59

Stellar Metamorphosis: Correction of Radiometric Dating Assumptions of Solar System Formation, Addressing Radio-geocentrism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper a few assumptions are corrected in light of the general theory concerning radiometric dating methods. Those assumptions include the idea of Earth being the same age as all solar system bodies, and the assumption that meteoroids that land on Earth (meteorites) are leftover remains of the solar systems formation. These changing assumptions should naturally leave reinterpreted data available to give a more accurate tale of what the bodies in our solar system are actually up to. A new term called, "radio-geocentrism" is put forth, to classify all the assumptions into one main issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[57] viXra:1905.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 19:56:20

Cellular Automaton Graphics(7)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 73 Pages.

Developping a regular polyhedron on a plane, setting discrete coordinates on the development and applying a boundary condition of regular polyhedron to it, we realize a symmetrical graphics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[56] viXra:1905.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 21:01:35

Antena Magnecom

Authors: Carlos Alejandro Chiappini
Comments: 3 Pages. Lea las precauciones antes de probar la antena.

ANTE TODO: Esta antena tiene continuidad galvánica entre sus dos terminales (corto circuito para corriente continua). Recomiendo no probarla sin la bajada de cable coaxial. Y recomiendo probarla inicialmente con muy poca potencia de salida en el equipo. CARACTERÍSTICAS: Con un tamaño total de 32 cm, la Antena Magnecom logra un rendimiento excelente en transmisión y recepción. Personalmente la uso con una bajada de 17,35 m de cable coaxial RG6, cuya impedancia característica es 75 ohm, distinta de los 50 ohm del conector de antena del equipo. Igualmente el rendimiento es muy bueno. Quien desee preguntar detalles que no constan en el archivo pdf que se descarga en este sitio, puede enviar un email a unegeso@gmail.com.
Category: Classical Physics

[55] viXra:1905.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 23:23:21

Refutation of Provability Logic GL and Japaridze’s Derived Polymodal (GLP)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate eight equations for provability logic (GL) and the derived polymodal logic of Japaridze (GLB, GLP). None is tautologous, hence refuting provability logic. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[54] viXra:1905.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 23:24:52

Refutation of Non Sahlqvist Formulas by Three Counter Examples

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate three equations as examples of non Sahlqvist formulas. None is tautologous. What follows is that Fine’s theorem and monotonic modal logic are refuted. Therefore those conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[53] viXra:1905.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 01:28:24

Blessed is the Man that Walketh not in the Counsel of the Ungodly

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 5 Pages. -

Russian symbolical designations
Category: Linguistics

[52] viXra:1905.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 02:41:16

Of Recognizing the Trefoil Knots in a Price Chart of a Security in the Financial Markets

Authors: Han Do
Comments: 9 Pages. The article has send to U.S. Copyright Office

The Trefoil knots in a price chart of a security of financial markets are recognized. The paper also shows how to use the knots to be timing the financial markets.
Category: Economics and Finance

[51] viXra:1905.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 03:18:10

An Insight Into [erlang – Java Interface Jikesrvm(research Virtual Machine) – Yanni] Based Informatics Platform for Telecom R&D.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication

An Insight into [Erlang – Java interface -JikesRVM(Research Virtual Machine) – YANNI] based Informatics Platform for Telecom R&D. [ Erlang/OTP/Hardware/Software/Firmware based Co-Design of Intelligent Telecommunication Systems ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[50] viXra:1905.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 03:10:00

Реквием по теории?

Authors: Неизвестный
Comments: 5 Pages.

История появления теории относительности - сущий детектив. Доводы фабриковались,возражения игнорировались - короче говоря, во имя Науки творилось форменное безобразие. Так считают двое современных немецких исследователей, опубликовавшие недавно во Франкфурте-на-Майне свою книгу "Реквием по частной теории относительности".
Category: Classical Physics

[49] viXra:1905.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 03:21:58

Семья гравитационных явлений

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 17 Pages.

В статье представлена семья гравитационных явлений, которые связаны с вращательными и орбитирующими движениями гироскопов.
Category: Classical Physics

[48] viXra:1905.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 08:52:16

Particle Simulation Quantum Leap

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A group of scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermilab has figured out how to use quantum computing to simulate the fundamental interactions that hold together our universe. [47] Phonons, or more specifically, surface acoustic wave phonons, are proposed as a method to coherently couple distant solid-state quantum systems. [46] Now a Rochester Institute of Technology researcher has teamed up with experts at the University of Rochester to create a different kind of laser-a laser for sound, using the optical tweezer technique invented by Ashkin. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[47] viXra:1905.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 09:25:18

Laser-Driven Spin Dynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1905.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 09:45:10

Nanopillars Shape Light Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Imagine being able to shape a pulse of light in any conceivable manner—compressing it, stretching it, splitting it in two, changing its intensity or altering the direction of its electric field. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter

[45] viXra:1905.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 10:27:21

Refutation of Isabelle / H O L Prover Assistant

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

A meta-rule for structural induction in the prover assistant Isabelle/HOL is not tautologous. This refutes the assistant and denies it can effect a cross-fertilization of computer science and metaphysics. Therefore Isabelle/HOL is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[44] viXra:1905.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 10:31:40

Photons Quantum Sensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1905.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 10:53:37

Artificial Neural Networks Brain Activity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

MIT neuroscientists have performed the most rigorous testing yet of computational models that mimic the brain's visual cortex. [31] For people with hearing loss, it can very difficult to understand and separate voices in noisy environments. This problem may soon be history thanks to a new groundbreaking algorithm that is designed to recognise and separate voices efficiently in unknown sound environments. [30]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[42] viXra:1905.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-15 07:38:26

Geometric Thermodynamics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 19 Pages.

Here we introduce a non-commutative extension to statistical physics granting it the ability to associate an entropy to arbitrary space-times. Generally speaking, statistical physics connects a set Q of 'microstates' (a.k.a the microscopic description) to a set of functions on Q (a.k.a. the bulk state) by the use of Lagrange multipliers, and under the principle of maximum entropy. In the present case, the 'microscopic' object of study is the space-time event, the bulk state is the space-time curvature, and the Lagrange multiplier is the speed of light. A partition function of such events can be constructed by using generators of the Clifford algebra. These generators ascribe geometric properties to the equation of state of such a system. Finally, the Einstein field equations are obtained by applying the principle of stationary action to the equation of state. The framework provides numerous new insight regarding the passage of time; for instance, the arrow of time becomes an arrow of space-time, and also from an entropy standpoint; specifically, the future is the region of space-time hidden from the observer by an entropy. We end the paper with a discussion of these insights.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[41] viXra:1905.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 17:53:30

النسبية العامة و الكم

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 14 Pages.

فكرة لتوحيد النسبية العامة وميكانيكا الكم
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1905.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 02:26:01

Multiverse Shrinkage

Authors: Dan Ivan
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. Confirmation of the image is not confirmation of reality. We evaluate reality, dividing the universe into macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for distance and masse relative .The multiverse is composed of forces that are not the quantities that measure an action that produce to a object : a change in speed, direction, shape or pressure. The forces being in fact the change of speed, direction, shape, the pressure. Objects and particles, and their characteristics, such as mass, volume and density, are only images of these changes, not representing reality.The shrinkage velocity of the multiverse is C =299 792 458 m / s. Our image for multiverse shrinkage is radiation. The speed of light, c, is in fact the shrinkage speed of the multiverse, C. The fact that this velocity is the same for all observers and can not be exceeded, was the basis of the theories of modern phisics . But also the shrinkage of the C-speed multiverse lead to the mathematical and experimental results of these theories. Moreover, gravity is the effect of the accelerate motion of the shrinking three-dimensional multiverse, imagined so far as a curvature of the four-dimensional space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[39] viXra:1905.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 11:23:13

Machine Learning Quantum Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Bristol have reached new heights of sophistication in detecting magnetic fields with extreme sensitivity at room temperature by combining machine learning with a quantum sensor. [25] Physicists in the US have used machine learning to determine the phase diagram of a system of 12 idealized quantum particles to a higher precision than ever before. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[38] viXra:1905.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 12:02:10

Phonon-Mediated Qubit Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Phonons, or more specifically, surface acoustic wave phonons, are proposed as a method to coherently couple distant solid-state quantum systems. [46] Now a Rochester Institute of Technology researcher has teamed up with experts at the University of Rochester to create a different kind of laser-a laser for sound, using the optical tweezer technique invented by Ashkin. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1905.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 12:38:19

A Final Tentative of The Proof of The ABC Conjecture - Case c=a+1

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 9 Pages. Submitted to the journal Monatshefte für Mathematik. Comments welcome.

In this paper, we consider the abc conjecture in the case c=a+1. Firstly, we give the proof of the first conjecture that c1, then for \epsilon \in ]0,1[ for the two cases: c rad(ac). We choose the constant K(\epsilon) as K(\epsilon)=e^{\frac{1}{\epsilon^2}). A numerical example is presented.
Category: Number Theory

[36] viXra:1905.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 12:32:22

Electroacoustic Magnon Computer Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Computer memory could become faster and cheaper thanks to research into a promising class of materials by University of Arkansas physicists. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[35] viXra:1905.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 13:21:25

Black Hole Neutron Star Merger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been detected for the first time. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1905.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 13:39:14

Refutation of the Language of Sets for Model Theory = Universal Algebra + Mathematical Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

A first order language of sets is proposed, but the first example A⊂B iff (x∈A then x∈B) is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of model theory = universal algebra + mathematical logic, which forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[33] viXra:1905.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 13:44:46

Plasma Shock Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32] viXra:1905.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:19:28

Masses vs Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

waves can contain energy in any volume of space while masses contain the smallest volume possible
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[31] viXra:1905.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:45:24

Compton Aand Photoelectric Effect in Atomic Ticles

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you increase the energy of a mass it would take more volume in space and then when it ejects the energy it ends up having more volume inside of it if the rate by which the ejection takes place is faster than the rate of the particle returning to its original form due to other electromagnetic waves pushing onto the particle
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[30] viXra:1905.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 20:53:26

Stellar Metamorphosis: White Dwarfs are not Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper a simple graph is shown that places white dwarfs at the beginning of stellar evolution. This means that any and all stellar evolution models dreamed up in the 1930's forward to before 2011 are wrong. This has a serious implication for understanding what causes fusion, and how heavy elements can be made. As well, it places stellar birthing as reliant on processes not involving purely gravity alone, but processes that somehow rip the electrons off atoms, so that they can sit close to one another.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1905.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 21:58:51

The Photon Inside the Electron, Inside the Volume, Gives the Electric Charge to Electron

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 370 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who discovered what is inside the Electron and what is the Electron Charge” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) the electric Charge is not the fundamental property of forms of matter that reveal electrostatic attraction or repulsion” Adrian Ferent “The electrons have the same charge because the photon inside the electron has the energy ~ 0.5 MeV and frequency ~10^20 Hz” Adrian Ferent “Wave–particle duality of electrons, because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) explains Gravitation and Electricity” Adrian Ferent “Conservation of electric charge - the electron is a photon around Dark Matter that is why the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself” Adrian Ferent “Electrons should take on a continuous range of energies, but because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the photon has discrete energies hf” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle” Adrian Ferent “Relativistic invariance - because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and the speed of light is the same for all inertial frames, any particle that has charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The high energy Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter keep the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent I explained why the electrons have the same charge: “The electrons have the same charge because the photon inside the electron has the energy ~ 0.5 MeV and frequency ~ 10^20 Hz” Adrian Ferent Electron can be described not only as a particle, but also as a wave. “Wave–particle duality of electrons, because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) the electric Charge is not the fundamental property of forms of matter that reveal electrostatic attraction or repulsion” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about electric Charge is wrong. When they can not explain something, they said it is a Fundamental Property like the electric Charge! The photon has no charge and no mass but has electric and magnetic fields as well as energy. “The photon wavelength is 2πr, r the electron radius” Adrian Ferent This means: λ = 2πr, r = λ / 2π Because how the photon ‘oscillate’, inside the electron, r << λ. “The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge” Adrian Ferent An easy way to calculate the electron charge: The total energy per unit volume stored in the electric field: The total energy U stored in the electric field in a given volume V, the electron volume: U=hf I consider an average value for E as constant: If f = 10^20 Hz Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge! “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent Conservation of electric charge, another proof for FQG theory! “Conservation of electric charge - the electron is a photon around Dark Matter that is why the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself” Adrian Ferent Electrons have discrete energies, another proof for FQG theory! “Electrons should take on a continuous range of energies, but because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the photon has discrete energies hf.” Adrian Ferent The superposition principle, another proof for FQG theory! “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle” Adrian Ferent Relativistic invariance, another proof for FQG theory! This means that the electron with the charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q. “Relativistic invariance - because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and the speed of light is the same for all inertial frames, any particle that has charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q” Adrian Ferent I discovered these things, about electrons and electric Charge, without any access to particle collider, without any access to special technology, without any access to any physics laboratory…Today the discoveries are done by people who have access to particle collider, who have access to special technology, who have access to sophisticated laboratory! 212. I am the first who discovered that the photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron 213. I am the first who calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge 214. I am the first who discovered what is inside the Electron and what is the Electron Charge 215. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) the electric Charge is not the fundamental property of forms of matter that reveal electrostatic attraction or repulsion 216. I am the first who discovered that the electrons have the same charge because the photon inside the electron has the energy ~ 0.5 MeV and frequency ~10^20 Hz 217. I am the first who discovered the Wave–particle duality of electrons, because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter 218. I am the first who discovered that Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) explains Gravitation and Electricity 219. I am the first who discovered the Conservation of electric charge - the electron is a photon around Dark Matter that is why the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself 220. I am the first who discovered that the Electrons should take on a continuous range of energies, but because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the photon has discrete energies hf 221. I am the first who discovered that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle 222. I am the first who discovered the Relativistic invariance - because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and the speed of light is the same for all inertial frames, any particle that has charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[28] viXra:1905.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-06 04:05:34

The Ancient Philosophers

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

They're ancient history...
Category: Social Science

[27] viXra:1905.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 22:25:09

Foundations of Conic Conformal Geometric Algebra and Simplified Versors for Rotation, Translation and Scaling

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Stephen J. Sangwine
Comments: 15 Pages. submitted to Topical Collection of Adv. in Appl. Clifford Algebras, for Proceedings of FTHD 2018, 21 Feb. 2019, 1 table, 1 figure.

This paper explains in algebraic detail how two-dimensional conics can be defined by the outer products of conformal geometric algebra (CGA) points in higher dimensions. These multivector expressions code all types of conics in arbitrary scale, location and orientation. Conformal geometric algebra of two-dimensional Euclidean geometry is fully embedded as an algebraic subset. With small model preserving modifications, it is possible to consistently define in conic CGA versors for rotation, translation and scaling, similar to [https://doi.org/10.1007/s00006-018-0879-2], but simpler, especially for translations. Keywords: Clifford algebra, conformal geometric algebra, conics, versors. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010). Primary 15A66; Secondary 11E88, 15A15, 15A09.
Category: Geometry

[26] viXra:1905.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-05 22:47:11

Why the Field Equation of General Relativity is Compatible with the Aether

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

I demonstrate that the centre piece of General Relativity, the Einstein Field Equation, is completely compatible with the concept of an Aether type field, and that a simple rearrangement of the terms in that equation changes the meaning such that variable geometry space-time is removed and an energy field filling flat Euclidean space is described by the equation. Such a field will, by the very definition of the Field Equation, have the same observed (and verified) properties as that used by General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1905.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 04:10:04

The Neglected Challenge for Practitioners to Practice Requirement Prioritization Methods

Authors: Ji Yuan
Comments: 99 Pages.

Background: Though the academic has been studying the requirement prioritization methodology, the industry still encounters challenges of the requirement prioritization in real world. Most academic models only study requirement prioritization under some limited contexts. Unexpected factors induce the challenges when practicing a requirement prioritization method. Objectives: The objective of this study is to find what challenges to practice requirement prioritization methodologies commonly need to be improved or have been neglected. Methods: We used systematic mapping study and interview-based survey. The systematic mapping study conducts the overview and generalization on the present requirement prioritization techniques in the academic. The survey does the interview on the actual status of practicing requirement prioritization in real world. The data of both methods is qualitatively analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Through the systematic mapping study on 17 articles, we found some characters common in the design of the academic requirement prioritization models, about the usual workflow step, advantage and limitation. Then through the survey with 14 interviewees, we studied what method the practitioner is most using and what challenge exists to practice the requirement prioritization in real world, mainly related to the workflow and limitation of these practical methods. Finally, based on the contrast of results above, we find what challenge for practitioners between the academic and practical methods worth to be improved or studied further. Besides, according to the acquired empirical insights, we proposed some potential future trends. Conclusions: This study elicited the challenges and insights to practice requirement prioritization methods, which brings the value to inspire the industry for designing and applying more productive requirement prioritization method. Besides, based on the empirical result, we proposed 2 new definition (Practicable Requirement Prioritization Engineering and Modularized Requirement Prioritization Model) and 1 potential situation (Requirement Prioritization of Compounded-Business Software) worth to be studied for the future trend.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] viXra:1905.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-11 06:44:00

Cubic Curves and Cubic Surfaces from Contact Points in Conformal Geometric Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Dietmar Hildenbrand
Comments: 11 Pages. accepted for M. Gavrilova et al (eds.), Proceedings of Workshop ENGAGE 2019 at CGI 2019 with Springer LNCS, April 2019, 1 table, corrections: 03+11 May 2019.

This work explains how to extend standard conformal geometric algebra of the Euclidean plane in a novel way to describe cubic curves in the Euclidean plane from nine contact points or from the ten coefficients of their implicit equations. As algebraic framework serves the Clifford algebra Cl(9,7) over the real sixteen dimensional vector space R^{9,7}. These cubic curves can be intersected using the outer product based meet operation of geometric algebra. An analogous approach is explained for the description and operation with cubic surfaces in three Euclidean dimensions, using as framework Cl(19,16). Keywords: Clifford algebra, conformal geometric algebra, cubic curves, cubic surfaces, intersections
Category: Geometry

[23] viXra:1905.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 06:59:59

Quantum Bits with Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago have made two breakthroughs in the quest to develop quantum technology. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1905.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 07:24:57

Data Privacy at Human Computer Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Shortcomings of security breach notifications, best practices for phishing warnings and lessons learned from the use of analytics to improve student performance are among several studies University of Michigan researchers will present beginning this weekend in the United Kingdom. [24] But moral questions about what data should be collected and how it should be used are only the beginning. [23] A self-driving vehicle has to detect objects, track them over time, and predict where they will be in the future in order to plan a safe manoeuvre. [22] In order to improve world food conditions, a team around computer science professor Kristian Kersting was inspired by the technology behind Google News. [21] Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is one of a number of biophysical techniques used for determining the structural characteristics of biomolecules. [20] A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as-and sometimes better than-today's best automated methods or even human experts. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[21] viXra:1905.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 08:45:58

Fast Frame Rate Up-conversion Using Video Decomposition

Authors: Nikhil Singh, Saumik Bhattachary
Comments: 7 Pages.

Video is one of the most popular media in the world. However, video standards that are followed by different broadcasting companies and devices differ in several parameters. This results in compatibility issues in different hardware while handling a particular video type. One of such major, yet important parameter is frame rate of a video. Though it is easy to reduce the frame rate of a video by dropping frames at a particular interval, frame rate up-conversion is a non-trivial yet important problem in video communication. In this paper, we apply video decomposition algorithm to extract the moving regions in a video and interpolate the background and the sparse information separately for a fast up-conversion. We test our algorithm for different video contents and establish that the proposed algorithm performs faster than the existing up-conversion method without producing any visual distortion.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20] viXra:1905.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 08:45:19

Smart Particles Image

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Now the Nano Antioxidants project is ready to be launched on the SpaceX's Dragon supply spacecraft this week from Cape Canaveral, in the United States, towards the International Space Station. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19] viXra:1905.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 08:54:31

Weights at the Gym and the Irrationality of Zeta(2)

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is an easy approach to proving zeta(2) is irrational. The reasoning is by analogy with gym weights that are rational proportions of a unit. Sometimes the sum of such weights is expressible as a multiple of a single term in the sum and sometimes it isn't. The partials of zeta(2) are of the latter type. We use a result of real analysis and this fact to show the infinite sum has this same property and hence is irrational.
Category: Number Theory

[18] viXra:1905.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 09:14:45

Biomarkers Accuracy Boost

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers have created a system that can detect and quantify small and rare biological molecules that are important for detecting disease early. [33] Now the Nano Antioxidants project is ready to be launched on the SpaceX's Dragon supply spacecraft this week from Cape Canaveral, in the United States, towards the International Space Station. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31]
Category: Physics of Biology

[17] viXra:1905.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 09:20:17

The Constructive Field Theory-Briefly and Step by Step// Конструктивная теория поля-коротко и шаг за шагом

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 20 Pages.

Fundamentals of constructive field theory (CFT) are the result of synthetic developent of many physical phenomena. In these phenomena the author of CFT saw simplest physical properties of matter, thanks to which there are so very different characteristics of different physical phenomena. Based on the results of many experiments that were previously carried out by many researchers, the author came to the conclusion that the world of nature and the phenomena occurring in it can logically be described using the properties of the three types of fundamental particles. CFT changes the action of atoms. But these changes are occurring in the minds of people who know and understand what CFT represents. There follows an understanding that all physical phenomena have their origin from parameters of the fundamental constituents of matter - centrally symmetric fields - called briefly particles. These centrally symmetric fields is a distribution of potentials in space - they are just constituents of matter. In the distribution of fields potentials - particles, can be distinguished gravitational component and structural component. This second component occurs in the form of a plurality of spherical formations that have different radii and concentrically surround the central point of the fundamental particle. These spherical formations have been named the potential shells and with their participation there are created stable structures of matter, and with their participation occur any changes in matter. // Основы конструктивной теории поля (КТП) являются результатом синтетического развития многих физических явлений. В этих явлениях автор КТП видел простейшие физические свойства материи, благодаря которым так сильно различаются характеристики разных физических явлений. Основываясь на результатах многих экспериментов, которые ранее проводились многими исследователями, автор пришел к выводу, что мир природы и происходящие в нем явления логически можно описать, используя свойства трех типов фундаментальных частиц. КТП меняет действие атомов. Но эти изменения происходят в умах людей, которые знают и понимают, что представляет собой КТП. Отсюда следует понимание, что все физические явления происходят от параметров основных составляющих материи - центрально-симметричных полей, называемых кратко частицами. Эти центрально-симметричные поля являются распределением потенциалов в пространстве - это просто составные части материи. В распределении потенциалов полей - частиц, можно выделить гравитационную составляющую и структурную составляющую. Этот второй компонент встречается в форме множества сферических образований, которые имеют разные радиусы и концентрически окружают центральную точку фундаментальной частицы. Эти сферические образования были названы потенциальными оболочками, и с их участием создаются устойчивые структуры материи, и с их участием происходят любые изменения в материи.
Category: Classical Physics

[16] viXra:1905.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-12 10:11:02

Weyl Symmetry from the Minimal Fractal Manifold

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages. First draft.

A number of recent studies hint that Weyl symmetry plays a key role in the gauge theory of gravitation, as well as in the phenomenology of cosmic inflation and Dark Matter. Here we point out that Weyl symmetry follows naturally from the minimal fractality of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. In particular, Weyl symmetry provides a field theoretic framework for the interpretation of Dark Matter as Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1905.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 09:45:11

Promising Role of Fractional Calculus in Biomedicine and Biophysics

Authors: Hosein Nasrolahpour
Comments: 2 Pages.

The study of complex systems and investigation of their structural and dynamical properties have attracted considerable interests among scientists in general and physicists, biologists and medical scientists in particular. Complex systems can be found almost everywhere however the highest level of complexities are related to living and biological organisms and systems. Due to the lack of a reliable and effective tool to investigate such systems, we have not reached to the complete understanding and comprehensive pictures of the phenomena and processes which occur in these systems. Of course a comprehensive knowledge of biological and biomedical complex phenomena will be achieved when we employ simultaneously different field of science and engineering including: biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering and so on.
Category: Physics of Biology

[14] viXra:1905.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 10:41:57

The Easy Way to Cherenkov-Compton Effect

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 11 Pages. the original article

The two-photon production by motion of a charged particle in a medium is considered. This process is called Cherenkov-Compton effect because the production of photons is calculated from the Feynman diagram for the Compton effect in a medium. This process is not forbidden in quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media.The cross section of this process in Mandelstam variables is calculated for pair of photons with one moving at the opposite direction to the electron motion and the second one inside the Cherenkov cone. The opposite motion is not caused by the collision with a particle of a medium. The relation of this process to the CERN experiments is considered.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1905.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 11:33:18

Refutation Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate two versions of Arrow’s impossibility theorem with disjunctive or conjunctive results. Both as rendered are not tautologous. This means Arrow’s framework is refuted, hence coloring the conjecture of Arrow’s theorem before pivotal voters or dictators can be derived. Therefore Arrow’s impossibility theorem forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[12] viXra:1905.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 12:22:23

LHC Confirms CFTG-P//БАК подтверждает КТПГ-П

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

Initial explanation: LHC is the Large Hadron Collider, and CFTG-P is the Constructive Field Theory of the Galileo-Pinopa. Today, physicists do not know how to explain the strange results of experiments that are conducted at the LHC. These results can be logically explained on the basis of CFTG-P.// Вначале объяснение: БАК это Большой адронный коллайдер, а КТПГ-П это Конструктивная теори поля Галилея-Пинопы. Сегодня физики не умеют объяснять странные результаты экспериментов, какие проводятся на БАК. Эти результаты могут быть логически объяснены на основе КТПГ-П.
Category: Classical Physics

[11] viXra:1905.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 12:49:25

Modeling the Interior of Black Holes Utilizing a 4-D Spatial Blackbody Radiation Model with an Exponential Distribution

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 31 Pages.

This is a second follow up paper on a model, which treats the black hole as a 4-D spatial ball filled with blackbody radiation. For the interior radiative mass distribution, we employ a new type of truncated probability distribution function, the exponential distribution. We find that this distribution comes closest to reproducing a singularity at the center, and yet it is finite at 4-D radius, r=0. This distribution will give a constant gravitational acceleration for a test particle throughout the black hole, irrespective of radius. The 4-D gravitational acceleration is given by the expression, g^((4))=-.1c^2 λ=-.2λ GM_R/R , where R is the radius of the black hole, M_R is its mass, and λ is the exponential shape parameter, which depends only on the mass, or radius, of the black hole. We calculate the gravitational force, and the entropy within the black hole interior, as well as on its surface, the event horizon, which separates 3-D from 4-D space. Similar to a truncated Gaussian distribution, the gravitational force increases discontinuously, and dramatically, upon entry into the 4-D black hole from the 3-D side. It is also radius dependent within the 4-D black hole. Moreover, the total entropy is shown to be much less than the Bekenstein result, similar to the truncated Gaussian. For the gravitational force, we obtain, F_(G,r)^((4))=-.1c^2 λ〖 M〗_r , where M_r is the radiative mass enclosed within a 4-D volume of radius r. This unusual force law indicates that the gravitational force acting upon a layer of blackbody photons at radius r is strictly proportional to the enclosed radiative energy, M_r c^2, contained within that radius, with .1 λ being the constant of proportionality. For the entropy at radius, r, and on the surface, we obtain an expression which is order of magnitude comparable to the truncated Normal distribution. Tables are presented for three black holes, one having a mass equal to that of the sun. The other two have masses, which are ten times that of the sun, and 〖10〗^6 solar masses. The corresponding λ parameters are found to equal, (λ_A,λ_B,λ_C )=(.039569,.0037996,3.01229*〖10〗^(-8)), respectively. We compare these results to the truncated Gaussian distribution, which were worked out in another paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1905.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 14:07:09

A Mathematical Overview of Mass and Energy Conservation in Modern Physics

Authors: Dang Dang
Comments: 28 Pages.

The idea of energy, matter, and motion has perplexed many philosophers and physicists from antiquity to modern physics, from Plato to Einstein. New and developing physical theories raise different interpretations of energy and matter but no complete theory of everything exists at present. However, there is a law we can almost take for granted: the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed although it can be transformed from one form to another. After establishing the foundational theory and history of conservation of energy, this literature review aims to provide an overview of the concept of mass and energy conservation in two of the most fundamental physical theories - quantum mechanics and general relativity. Consequences and challenges of mass-energy conservation and equivalence - dark energy - is studied in an introductory manner
Category: Mathematical Physics

[9] viXra:1905.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 17:44:36

Refutation of Overlap Algebras Constructively to Prove Complete Boolean Algebras

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate four equations which are not tautologous, but in fact produce the equivalent logic table values result. This means that the stated problem of applying singletons to the powerset is equivalent to proving singletons are atoms and that every subset satisfying a singleton is also an atom. Hence, overlap algebras do not constructively prove complete Boolean algebras. Therefore that conjecture for intuitionistic logic forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[8] viXra:1905.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 18:09:11

Second Edition: Polar Hypercomplex Integers

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 7 Pages.

We introduce a special class of complex numbers, wherein their absolute values and arguments given in a polar coordinate system are integers, which when considered within the complex plane, constitute Unicentered Radial Lattice and similarly for quaternions.
Category: Number Theory

[7] viXra:1905.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 20:20:09

Igin of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are waves that are produced after sound waves are inside a mass they are produced as an effect of producing sound waves then negating them with other sound waves
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1905.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 20:40:00

An Interpretation of the Identity $ 0.999999...... =1$

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 4 Pages. In this short paper, we will give a very simple and important interpretation for the identity: $ 0.999999......=1$, because we have many questions for the identity from general people. Furthermore, even mathematicians and mathematics teachers will see an

In this short paper, we will give a very simple and important interpretation for the identity: $ 0.999999......=1$, because we have many questions for the identity from general people. Furthermore, even mathematicians and mathematics teachers will see an interesting interpretation in this paper.
Category: General Mathematics

[5] viXra:1905.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 05:37:15

Arguments that Prehistorical and Modern Humans Belong to the Same Species

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 3 Pages.

I argue that the evidence of the Out-of-Africa hypothesis and the evidence of multiregional evolution of prehistorical humans can be understood if there has been interbreeding between Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens at least during the preceding 700,000 years. These interbreedings require descendants who are capable of reproduction and therefore parents who belong to the same species. I suggest that a number of prehistorical humans who are at present regarded as belonging to different species belong in fact to one single species.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[4] viXra:1905.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 01:29:06

An Invitation to Research Einstein’s Cosmos: Comparing the Success/failure System with the Theory of Planetary Evolution

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau
Comments: 6 Pages.

Einstein is one among a select few in humanity. Einstein’s cosmos is the main subject of the modern science of the twenty-first century. Herein, we discuss Einstein’s scientific thoughts on the cosmos and principle theory. We also present a comparison of two theories of the mesocosmos: the success/failure system as part of Einstein’s principle theory, and the theory of planetary evolution based on the ideas of Feynman, Polanyi, and Weinberg. The aim of this paper is to exalt Einstein by urging the general public, scientists, and philosophers to participate in researching Einstein’s cosmos, either directly or indirectly. We believe that Einstein’s scientific teachings represent a blessing to humanity and comprise one of humanity’s highest sources of intellectual wisdom. Our work on Einstein’s scientific thoughts includes principle theory, the success/failure system, and the cosmos. These concepts deserve widespread attention, investigation, and experience, and should be the focus of scientific discovery and credit.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1905.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 03:30:13

For Physicists the Experiments of Anatoly Dovzhenko // Физикам Эксперименты Анатолия Довженко

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The experiments of Anatoly Dovzhenko show that the studies that Michelson and Morley conducted were conducted in inappropriate conditions. For that reason, their theoretical conclusions were fake and academic physics still indulges in this fake.// Эксперименты Анатолия Довженко показывают, что исследования, которые провели Майкельсон и Морли, были проведены в неподходяших условиях. По той причине их теоретические выводы были фальшивые и академическая физика до сих пор балуется этой фальшивкой.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1905.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 04:23:57

Quantum Gravimeter into the Hills

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists in California have loaded a bunch of ultracold caesium atoms into the back of a van and driven them up a hill to demonstrate how quantum interference can be used to measure gravity outside the laboratory. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1905.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 05:38:52

Vacuum Energy.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 8 Pages. GRAVITOETHERTON SUPERFLUID.

vacuum energy catastrophe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology