[272] **viXra:1605.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 14:22:53*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Simple calculation shows early cosmological thoughts of Nikolai Kozyrev (1908-1983) basically correct. A prediction about revolution speeds of Pistol star, Eta Carinae, Mira, Alpha Herculis, 119 Tauri and VY Canis Majoris has been made.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[271] **viXra:1605.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 18:02:50*

**Authors:** Ralph Muha

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We analyze the difference equations between powers of successive integers to show why there is an infinity of integer solutions for c^n = a^n + b^n when n = 2, and suggest a simple direction for proving that there are no integer solutions for n > 2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[270] **viXra:1605.0314 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-20 22:58:10*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

NOTE: A new Appendix presents alternative solutions.
The famous "Problem of Apollonius", in plane geometry, is to construct all of the circles that are tangent, simultaneously, to three given circles. In one variant of that problem, one of the circles has innite radius (i.e., it's a line). The Wikipedia article that's current as of this writing has an extensive description of the problem's history, and of methods that have been used to solve it. As described in that article, one of the methods reduces the "two circles and a line" variant to the so-called "Circle-Line-Point" (CLP) special case: Given a circle C, a line L, and a point P, construct the circles that are tangent to C and L, and pass through P. This document has been prepared for two very different audiences: for my fellow students of GA, and for experts who are preparing materials for us, and need to know which GA concepts we understand and apply readily, and which ones we do not.

**Category:** Geometry

[269] **viXra:1605.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 10:35:22*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article disseminates a series of formulas that generate primes numbers as a product of the investigations of the author since the year 2011. This document describes general patterns on the entities primales and conceived an order in its distribution.

**Category:** Number Theory

[268] **viXra:1605.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 12:07:57*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 47 Pages. In French. Paper submitted to the Journal Algebra and Number Theory.

The paper gives a complete proof of the conjecture of BEAL followed by some numerical examples.

**Category:** Number Theory

[267] **viXra:1605.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 12:04:49*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In last sixty years, the scientists spent the tens billion dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydroelectric stations can in 2015.
The author offers two types (cumulative and impulse) the new, small cheap inertial thermonuclear reactors, which increases the pressure and temperature of its nuclear fuel by thousands of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, full constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Cumulative and impulse AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product.
Chief among them in cumulative reactor is using moving explosives (rocket thrust) and an electric descharge, which allows to accelerate the special piston to very high speed (more 20 km/s) which (as shown by integral computations) compresses the fuel capsule a million times and additional heating fuel by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature.
In impulse vertion of AB therbonucler reactor the gas fuel, praimery high compressed into a pellet heationg by an electric impulse up the needed temperature in hundred of millions degrees, produces the thermonucler reaction. Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors.
Author also is descussing the problems of converting the received thermonucler energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust.
Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition) for small artillery atomic projectiles and bomb.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[266] **viXra:1605.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 07:39:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to explain what happens to stars as they evolve.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[265] **viXra:1605.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 21:40:56*

**Authors:** S. J. Nettleton

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Mainstream computable general equilibrium analysis developed out of Lief Johansen's regional economic analysis based on the simultaneous settlement of commodity markets in quantity and price. The work of John von Neumann, Paul Samuelson, Wassily Leontief, Anne Carter, Michael Farrell and Thijs ten Raa has combined in an alternative bottom-up Integrated Assessment Model, which embodies Johansen attributes while exploiting the unique property of models having regions that trade and adjust to evolving natural advantages and environmental constraints through regional industry specialization. Such specialization has recently become a major focus in many nations seeking competitive niche business models in intermediate products and capital goods, which today comprise 70 per cent of the global supply chain. This research demonstrates a non-monetary or policy application of the Doctrine of Balanced Growth operates to equalize consumption growth at the policy nexus of international free-trade agreements and specialization of regional industry segments. Our knowledge of domestic industry policy and international trade policy is advanced by this demonstration that model results conform with a non-monetary Doctrine of Balanced Growth. This study is based on 2007 year data from the Global Trade Analysis Project.

**Category:** Climate Research

[264] **viXra:1605.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 02:14:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[263] **viXra:1605.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 08:08:56*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The author proposes a model of ball lightning based on a mechanistic interpretation of John Wheeler’s ideas. It is assumed that ball lightning is a quasi-particle that has the Planck mass and consists of closed contours, which in turn are based on the magnetic and gravity force balance. These contours are hard packed in a small volume of ball lightning, forming a multilayer capacitor containing a substantial charge and electrostatic energy. This paper provides calculations of characteristic parameters of ball lightning, which are well consistent with its phenomenology

**Category:** Classical Physics

[262] **viXra:1605.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 08:57:41*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We exhibit a serie slowly convergent for pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[261] **viXra:1605.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 09:01:57*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[260] **viXra:1605.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 10:04:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In principle, nothing that enters a black hole can leave the black hole. This has considerably complicated the study of these mysterious bodies, which generations of physicists have debated since 1916, when their existence was hypothesized as a direct consequence of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. There is, however, some consensus in the scientific community regarding black hole entropy—a measure of the inner disorder of a physical system—because its absence would violate the second law of thermodynamics. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[259] **viXra:1605.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 17:10:26*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Nowadays and in the near future the spaceflight to the planets and moons of our solar system is one of the great challenges of space-technology.
Whether robotic and manned to the Mars or on a large-scale exploration mission to the moons of Jupiter, a new kind of payload demands a next step in development of spaceflight technology. Not satellites but spacious ships have to bring extensive exploration equipment, landing vehicles, ground facilities or even human passengers to their interplanetary targets. Such space-vehicles need new kind of space-propulsion too; more than this, the development of adequate new propulsion is crucial for the realization of this kind of missions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[258] **viXra:1605.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation.
An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[257] **viXra:1605.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 19:47:39*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This paper introduces and illustrates the Stabilization Principle that provides a strategy for modeling post instability behavior in dynamics, including turbulence and chaos. It starts with investigation of different types of instability with the objective to demonstrate that stability is not a physical invariant since it depends upon the frame to which the motion of fluid is referred, upon the class of functions in which the governing equations are derived, est. The application of the Stabilization Principle to the Navier-Stokes equations is illustrated by closure of the Reynolds equations for the Poiseuille flow.
Introduction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[256] **viXra:1605.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 21:39:29*

**Authors:** S. J. Nettleton

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Presentation: The Australian Bureau of Statistics has projected that Australia's population will double to 46 million by 2075, which could be as early as 2058 under the high growth scenario. Melbourne and Sydney are expected to each have 7.9 million people by 2053. While efficiencies in energy utilisation may contribute to reducing demand by approximately 0.5%pa, the electrical generation capacity of the Eastern Australian market will need to expand considerably to meet the demands population growth, elimination of fossil fuels from the transport sector (eg through electric and hydrogen fuelled vehicles) and water desalination requirements. Renewable energy and passively safe Generation IV (fast breeder) nuclear power generators such as the “Power Reactor Innovative Small Module” (GE/Hitachi Prism Reactor) have the capacity to complement each other. For example, Generation IV nuclear has the ability to vary power to complement the low capacity factor of renewable energy and to operate at night to produce desalinated water and hydrogen by electrolysis. The complementarity between renewable energy and Generation IV (fast breeder) nuclear power is important for three reasons. The first reason is that these two energy sources have significant potential in providing a differentiated mix of energy production to assure East Australia's energy and water security and achieve a sufficient rate of decarbonisation to meet Australia's commitments under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement (April 2016). The second reason is improved economic efficiency. For example, the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission (February 2016) estimated that wholesale South Australian electricity prices would be 24% lower if a single, large, gigawatt-scale nuclear power plant complemented South Australia's predominantly renewable energy by 2030. The third reason is consideration of both the optimal use of land and the remoteness power production. For example, wind farms are necessarily geographically dispersed due to the need for propitious sites and a land area of approximately 300 times that of nuclear energy. Similarly for concentrated solar, which requires approximately 30 times the land area of nuclear energy.

**Category:** Climate Research

[255] **viXra:1605.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[254] **viXra:1605.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 10:43:19*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Einstein merged Space with Time hence Spacetime. Tesla has a Unified Theory based on Fields and Electromagnetism. The logical progression is to merge the two and suggest Frequential Spacetime in which the frequency of matter dictates the shape and speed of entanglement of matter in Spacetime.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[253] **viXra:1605.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[252] **viXra:1605.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 22:52:24*

**Authors:** Eric Stucky

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this document, we define a fully formalized notion of the ``Implied Integral'' which works for a broad variety of symbolic expressions. We show that it is equal to the ordinary integral up to a generalized constant term, and we show that this generalized constant is in some sense optimal.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[251] **viXra:1605.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 02:24:48*

**Authors:** Bradly Alicea

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 3 figures, 1 table

The self-organization and diversity inherent in natural and artificial language can be revealed using a technique called syllabic network decomposition. The topology of such networks are determined by a series of linguistic strings which are broken apart at critical points and then linked together in a non-linear fashion. Small proof-of-concept examples are given using words from the English language. A criterion for connectedness and two statistical parameters for measuring connectedness are applied to these examples. To conclude, we will discuss some applications of this technique, ranging from improving models of speech recognition to bioinformatic analysis and recreational games.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[250] **viXra:1605.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 11:55:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

"These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[249] **viXra:1605.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 12:14:20*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: My recent publication viXra 1605.0223 indicates that dark matter requires more energy than 34 GEV gamma radiation to annihilate: the best one can do is annihilate -H bosons with the aid of -Z bosons (2(H-Z)). The result doubles the number of -Z bosons very close to the centers of spiral galaxies. This lessens the energy needed to manufacture stars spiraling away from the center of the galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[248] **viXra:1605.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 12:26:25*

**Authors:** S.P.Srivastava

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Management theory has not kept pace with developments of concepts in other fields especially in science. As a result, managers have gone out of tune with modern paradigm. Gerald Holton, a noted philosopher has observed that “…science has always generated an important part of our symbolic vocabulary and provided some of the metaphysical bases and philosophical orientations of our ideology”, in this light, development of management theories has been analyzed in this article in the context of evolving scientific thoughts especially quantum mechanics. It has been argued that there is a need for a new management concept which does not follow traditional style in the classical sense of “control and supervision” but adopts a new style which is in tune with quantum mechanical concept and follow “cooperate and contribute” philosophy.

**Category:** Social Science

[247] **viXra:1605.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 02:10:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time and a linkage between quantum bits of information along the lines of what was done by Yan – Gang Miao, Ying- Jie Zhao , and compare it with quantum computing and cosmology which was brought up by Ganbini, Porto and Pullin. Namely the purported number of quantum computing operations. If the two are equivalent, there is an implied relationship to determine an optimal radial distance. Afterwards, we use that in conjunction with a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to come up with some fundamental cosmological phenomenology. In particular a first ever guess as to the value of an initial inflaton.
Key words, Quantum Computing , Cosmological constant, Modified HUP, inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[246] **viXra:1605.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 03:56:44*

**Authors:** Ivar Nielsen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The standing cosmological understanding of the galactic formation is insufficient. Both the Standard Model and the ideas derived from the Einsteinian hypothesis are inconsistent, contradictive and lacks natural logics. The linear cosmological model with the Big Bang almost demands skills of a mathemagician and all kinds of metaphysical speculations thrives in both areas. The natural and universal process of formation is cyclical, circuital and spherical and the formational process is governed by the electromagnetic forces and qualities, building everything together, dissolving it and re-building everything in eternity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[245] **viXra:1605.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 04:38:24*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[244] **viXra:1605.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 05:56:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

One of the most striking discoveries of quantum information theory is the existence of problems that can be solved in a more efficient way with quantum resources than with any known classical algorithm. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[243] **viXra:1605.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 06:50:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages. in Russian

Based on the Maxwell's equations and on the understanding of the electrical conductivity of the body of ball lightning, a mathematical model of ball lightning is built; the structure of the electromagnetic field and of electric current in it is shown. Next it is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a ball lightning the flow of electromagnetic energy can circulate and thus the energy obtained by a ball lightning when it occurs can be saved. Sustainability, luminescence, charge, time being, the mechanism of formation of ball lightning are briefly discussed. \\ На основе уравнений Максвелла и представления об электропроводности тела шаровой молнии строится математическая модель шаровой молнии, показывается структура электромагнитного поля и электротоков в ней. Далее показывается (как следствие этой модели), что в шаровой молнии может циркулировать поток электромагнитной энергии и таким образом может сохраняться энергия, полученная шаровой молнией при ее возникновении. Кратко рассматриваются также устойчивость, свечение, заряд, время существования, механизм образования.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[242] **viXra:1605.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 06:53:26*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Based on the Maxwell's equations and on the understanding of the electrical conductivity of the body of ball lightning, a mathematical model of ball lightning is built; the structure of the electromagnetic field and of electric current in it is shown. Next it is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a ball lightning the flow of electromagnetic energy can circulate and thus the energy obtained by a ball lightning when it occurs can be saved. Sustainability, luminescence, charge, time being, the mechanism of formation of ball lightning are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[241] **viXra:1605.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 20:38:21*

**Authors:** Yoshiro Nohara

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This work checks the Pauli equation with the description of the magnetic field
and found a possible missing term in it. We propose a fixed Pauli equation, where
the application in density functional theory explains the observed magnetic susceptibilities
for Al, Si, and Au with applying directly magnetic fields. The possible shape of the Lagrangian
describing the charged particle with an external magnetic field is also discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[240] **viXra:1605.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 21:54:50*

**Authors:** Wook Koh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The cosmological constant is a fundamental
problem in modern physics, and arises at the intersection between
general relativity and quantum field theory.
In this paper
we show how the cosmological constant problem can be solved by X-particles of dark energy with the repulsive force proportional to energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[239] **viXra:1605.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-27 05:25:24*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Universal Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[238] **viXra:1605.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 15:42:23*

**Authors:** José Fernández Caballero

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

For many centuries, a lot of sailors have insured sight luminous waters. In 1995, a boat registered on his logbook one of these sightings in the northwest Indian Ocean. After check it, some scientists have analyzed photographs taken by a satellite about the area where the luminescence was registered. Indeed, in the photographs they could see a large area of water with light. Applying appropriate filters, they managed to get a picture where the bright is more prominent. This was the first sighting of the so called milky sea from the space. The reason why this luminescence happens has been a mystery for sailors. To try to explain it, they related it to a phenomenon produced by influence of the Moon on the sea water. In this article I pretend to give the lie to this mistaken idea and expose the causes of this luminous water.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[237] **viXra:1605.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 10:03:03*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 1 Page. relativistic velocity redshift galaxies recessional expansion

This methods describes a new an direct way of establishing galactic relativistic velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[236] **viXra:1605.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[235] **viXra:1605.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 07:15:55*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme for ‘Positive And Negative Time Scaling And Time Portal Engineering’

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[234] **viXra:1605.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-29 16:09:19*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper is telling essentials of the story of the Hilbert Book Test Model without applying the mathematical formulas. The paper cannot avoid the usage of mathematical terms, but these terms will be elucidated such that mathematical novices can still understand most of the story. The Hilbert Book Test Model is a way to investigate the part of the foundation of physical reality that cannot be observed. This foundation is necessarily simple and it can easily be comprehended by skilled scientists. However, this paper is targeted to readers that are not skilled in math.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[233] **viXra:1605.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 02:16:32*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The atmosphere and water of Mars have once been forced out by an unknown comet to his internal area!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[232] **viXra:1605.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 03:13:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I correct a contribution in front, "a figure of gravity and the electromagnetic force".
This is a right figure.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[231] **viXra:1605.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 06:19:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[230] **viXra:1605.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 06:33:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[229] **viXra:1605.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 06:57:25*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the accepted notions of planetesimal formation are philosophically backwards. A simple correction of reasoning is provided via stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[228] **viXra:1605.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 07:12:14*

**Authors:** Iliyan Peruhov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The spin projection expectation value of electrons in magnetic field in direction perpendicular to the magnetic induction B depends on the magnitude of B and the time t, spent by the electron in the field. Consequently choosing the value of the product B.t one can have spin statistics biased to +1/2 or -1/2. The spin statistics of electrons from a quantity of EPR pairs is manipulated this way. The spin statistics of the partner electrons will show the opposite statistics, thus realizing teleportation of information without the use of a classical channel in contrast to the Bennett teleportation protocol [1].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[227] **viXra:1605.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-16 21:52:43*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 28 Pages. v4 contains an improved development of the Lagrangian and geodesic gauge conditions, and a new section 7 presenting an energy flux equation for both gravitational and electrodynamic sources.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldline of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to attractive and repulsive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity, without contradicting the latter’s well-corroborated experimental content. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[226] **viXra:1605.0257 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 05:06:09*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A so called EmDrive defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities.
According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic photon particle based waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Axion-Higgs field particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the Higgs field.
This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms.
As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets.
Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between.
The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[225] **viXra:1605.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 15:12:41*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Interplay and methodology

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[224] **viXra:1605.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 15:15:40*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Does any unification candidate necessitate the grand unification scheme?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[223] **viXra:1605.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-10 17:16:05*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages. thank you

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) predicts that all quantum
experimental results will vary with the difference
of scales between the source subject, and the effect observed.
TPB offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined
probability wavefunction Ψ”. In TPB,
time-divergence (perspective distortions in time), occur
in observations between classic scale and nano scales.
Explanations, resolutions and insights gained
from TPB
TPB explains all of the following mysteries with
beauty, simplicity and persuasion:
In nanoscales:
* The cloud appearance of electron orbits
* The gaps between electron orbits are very much
predicted
* The shapes of orbitals
* Collapse, as well as duality
* Why orbital density appears closest to nucleus
* Progression of energy states
* TPB suggests that information about energy states
and position can be gained from comparing observations
at two separate points in time.
In macroscales:
* Accelerated expansion
* Millisecond pulsars
* Galaxy outer rim rotation mysteries
* The nonuniform expansion of supernovae remnant
clouds
A great many mysteries are simply explained
by the single novel concept that events (durations
of time) appear to converge in macro scales and
diverge in nanoscales. The key is understanding
that the effect only occurs between scales of great
magnitude difference. Furthermore the effect is
nullified, in quantum mechanics, when these two
events are brought to the same scale by the introduction
of an apparatus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[222] **viXra:1605.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 13:30:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Spintronics In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[221] **viXra:1605.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 13:39:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980.
To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[220] **viXra:1605.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 07:23:45*

**Authors:** Andreas Knopken, Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 100 Pages. Bilingual text: Latin and Latvian

This work Commentary to the Epistle to Romans by Aadreas Knopken is translated From Latin into Latvian by Dainis Zeps.
I would like to thank Artūrs Hansons and Līva Bodniece both for their help, and severe criticism in the translation of this work.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[219] **viXra:1605.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-07 08:51:54*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[218] **viXra:1605.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 06:17:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Starting off with the Usual Energy Density for Electro-Magnetic fields, we adopt Padmanbhan’s Gravo – Electric and Gravo Magnetic field formulation to come up with an initial frequency, at the start of the universe, and then using work done by the author, take the inverse of this frequency as a way to initiate a practical time step, which will then be related to earlier work the Author did. The miminum time step iteratively relates to a “cosmological constant” initial value, and a range of initial GW frequencies which for a scale factor which would correspond to GW of about 10^36 Hertz, red shifted to 10^4 Hertz in the modern era. If the scale factor were of the order of 10^-55, the GW waves initially would be as high as 10^42 Hertz which would be red shifted to 10^10 Hertz, for relic GW. All this assumes that the graviton rest mass remains invariant about 10^-62 grams in the aftermath of the creation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] **viXra:1605.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 06:21:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Light waves could in principle be used to drive future transistors. Since the electromagnetic waves of light oscillate approximately one million times in a billionth of a second, i.e. at petahertz (PHz) frequencies, optoelectronic computers could attain switching rates 100,000 times higher than current digital electronic systems. [18]
Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[216] **viXra:1605.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 00:51:23*

**Authors:** Hajime Mashima

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is the expectation that "two or more of the natural number 4/n will be represented by the sum of the three unit fractions".

**Category:** Number Theory

[215] **viXra:1605.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-16 22:46:01*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Newton's second law and Newton's third law has proven to be wrong, then including the law of gravity into account, but also need make the appropriate modification. Following will be given the new formula the law of gravity, corresponding to the new calculations, a lot of specific data astronomical observations, may be subject to change. Such as mass of celestial bodies, and the size of gravity between celestial bodies, are likely to change. So far variety of astronomical data, should all be recalculated.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[214] **viXra:1605.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 13:23:29*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The new equation by the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
Arrow of time turns. In response to it, mass m changes with +1, 0, -1.
Arrow of time turns.
It is the same as the arrow of time of the Schrodinger equation.
Arrow of time turns.
It is the same as a material wave of the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
Current physics is always +mc²>0. Elementary particle mass m does not change.
A pulsation principle suggests a super-high-speed change of elementary particle mass m.

**Category:** Number Theory

[213] **viXra:1605.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-09 04:20:17*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[212] **viXra:1605.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 08:49:48*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this note we show continued radicals for some mathematical constants

**Category:** General Mathematics

[211] **viXra:1605.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 08:53:42*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[210] **viXra:1605.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 09:32:06*

**Authors:** Jianwen Huang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article, the high-order asymptotic
expansions of cumulative distribution function and probability
density function of extremes for generalized Maxwell distribution
are established under nonlinear normalization. As corollaries, the
convergence rates of the distribution and density of maximum are
obtained under nonlinear normalization.

**Category:** Statistics

[209] **viXra:1605.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 04:23:55*

**Authors:** I. V. Drozdov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The second-order approach to the entropy gradient maximization for systems with many degrees of freedom provides the dynamic equations of first order and light-like second order without additional ergodicity conditions like conservation laws.
The first order dynamics lead to the definition of the conserved kinetic energy
and potential energy. In terms of proper degrees of freedom the total energy conservation reproduces the Einstein's mass-energy relation.
The newtonian interpretation of the second order dynamic equations suggests the definition for general inertial mass and for the interaction potential.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[208] **viXra:1605.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 22:13:38*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 21 Pages. MINOR REVISION

The paper describes that science now has enough data on which a Theory of Everything. The data accrue from analysing cosmological, physics and philosophical information. However the Theory of Everything must imperatively be based on scientific information that explains the Theory of Everything, and on philosophical information that interprets the why of the Theory of Everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[207] **viXra:1605.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 14:15:00*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 355 Pages.

The 5th dimension is in the discontinuities of the real line, which grow as we look into smaller scales, till becoming infinite.
The 5th dimension creates different geometries for each different world.
From the human relative frame of reference, the observer has an Euclidean view of its scale, a hyperbolic view of smaller quantum systems and an elliptic view of larger gravitational worlds, according to the ratio between its informative curvature, Tƒ and length of its space quanta Sp.
The symmetries that web bidimensional planes of space with tall, cyclical frequencies of time create the 4D Space-time beings of the fractal Universe, constantly moving, generating, growing, reproducing, evolving new fractal scales of the 5th dimension.
But as time passes the densities of its frequency of time cycles, Tƒ, grow and the system curves in excess, ageing and finally completing a 0-sum closed curve,, ending a world cycle in which the topological transformations of the being, are seen as its 3 ages each one a phase of its r=evolution as a world-view.

**Category:** Topology

[206] **viXra:1605.0236 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-28 12:57:14*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present two proofs of theorems needed to the major work we are doing on existence and breakdown solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible case in n = 3 spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[205] **viXra:1605.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 18:39:09*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs and microprocessors are more similar than you may think. Here's a primer on how to program an FPGA and some reasons why you'd want to.
Small processors are, by far, the largest selling class of computers and form the basis of many embedded systems. The first single-chip microprocessors contained approximately 10,000 gates of logic and 10,000 bits of memory. Today, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide single chips approaching 10 million gates of logic and 10 million bits of memory...

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[204] **viXra:1605.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 18:44:43*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs enable everyone to be a chip designer. This installment shows how to design the bus interface for a generic peripheral chip.
When designing with an embedded microprocessor, you always have to take into account, if not begin with, the actual pinout of the device. Each pin on a given microprocessor is uniquely defined by the manufacturer and must be used in a specific manner to achieve a specific function. Part of learning to design with embedded processors is learning the pin definitions. In contrast, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices come to the design with pins completely undefined (except for power and ground). You have to define the FPGA's pins yourself. This gives you incredible flexibility but also forces you to think through the use of each pin...

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[203] **viXra:1605.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-20 21:29:55*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Note: The Appendix to this new version gives an alternate--and much simpler--solution that does not use reflections.
The beautiful Problem of Apollonius from classical geometry ("Construct all of the circles that are tangent, simultaneously, to three given coplanar circles") does not appear to have been solved previously by vector methods. It is solved here via Geometric Algebra (GA, also known as Clifford Algebra) to show students how they can make use of GA's capabilities for expressing and manipulating rotations and reflections. As Viète did when deriving his ruler-and-compass solution, we first transform the problem by shrinking one of the given circles to a point. In the course of solving the transformed problem, guidance is provided to help students ``see" geometric content in GA terms. Examples of the guidance that is given include (1) recognizing and formulating useful reflections and rotations that are present in diagrams; (2) using postulates on the equality of multivectors to obtain solvable equations; and (3) recognizing complex algebraic expressions that reduce to simple rotations of multivectors.
As an aid to students, the author has prepared a dynamic-geometry construction to accompany this article.

**Category:** Geometry

[202] **viXra:1605.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 20:17:30*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

Written as somewhat of a "Schaums Outline" on the subject, which is especially useful in robotics and mechatronics. Geometric Algebra (GA) was invented in the 1800s, but was largely ignored until it was revived and expanded beginning in the 1960s. It promises to become a "universal mathematical language" for many scientific and mathematical disciplines. This document begins with a review of the geometry of angles and circles, then treats rotations in plane geometry before showing how to formulate problems in GA terms, then solve the resulting equations. The six problems treated in the document, most of which are solved in more than one way, include the special cases that Viete used to solve the general Problem of Apollonius.

**Category:** Geometry

[201] **viXra:1605.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 20:23:04*

**Authors:** Philip Druck

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

A totally ordered set is identified with cardinality strictly between natural (N) and real (R) numbers. This set, denoted DS, is essentially an experimental finding, identified in unrelated patented research on nonuniform data sampling and self-stabilizing computer arithmetic. Its theoretical validation here will provide concrete proof that the Continuum Hypothesis (CH) is false. Note that this is distinct from determining whether CH can or cannot be proven from current axioms of set theory, which is settled. Also note that the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis is not addressed. First, Cantor diagonalization is applied isomorphically to prove that DS has strictly more than Cardinality(N) points. Then three (3) distinct proofs are provided to show that DS contains strictly fewer than Cardinality(R) elements. Each proof relies on a distinct property of primes. It is surmised that the considerable research efforts to-date on CH missed this result due to over-generalization, by considering all Alephi sets, i=0.., ∞. Those efforts thereby missed the impact of primes specifically on Aleph0/Aleph1 sets.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[200] **viXra:1605.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-25 09:17:33*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[199] **viXra:1605.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-07 15:21:17*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As non-trivial Riemann zero's grow larger on the 1/2 critical line so does the distance grow proportionally between 0 and 1. Therefore, a non-trivial Riemann zero will not be outside the critical strip or off of the critical line.My Visual Proof by Automorphism asserts Symmetry. If 1/2 10^13 is inside (0,1) then 1/2 10^100 is inside (0,1). In other words if there is Symmetry about the real axis and Symmetry about the critical line then there is Symmetry between 1/2 10^13 is inside (0,1) and 1/2 10^100 which is inside (0,1).

**Category:** Number Theory

[198] **viXra:1605.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[197] **viXra:1605.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-16 22:38:02*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This paper is Chinese

Newton the second laws with Newton the third laws have been wrong by the proof, include the law of gravity so in the inside, also should be amended accordingly. Below will give new formula of the law of gravity, opposite to new calculation, a lot of particular datas that astronomy observation, all may have the changes. For example celestial body the mass, and the size of the gravitation of heavenly body, all may have the changes. Thereby every kind of astronomy data up to the present, all want afresh the calculation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[196] **viXra:1605.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 16:11:11*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Abstract: The near-century-old Stern-Gerlach experiment played an important role in the philosophy of quantum mechanics. 50 years ago Bell drew drastic conclusions about the nature of reality based on a model of Stern-Gerlach, yet most detailed analysis of spin in nonuniform magnetic fields has occurred post-Bell. Recent focus on work in non-equilibrium thermo¬dynamics has potential significance for quantum mechanics so we develop a spin dynamical analysis of work in an inhomogeneous field. A small angle approximation analysis is performed. We derive a novel Stern-Gerlach gradient threshold relation and a decay rate for precession in a non-uniform field. The theory is compared to a quantum analysis and an experiment to test this theory is proposed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[195] **viXra:1605.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 00:47:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy - a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause.
And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward. [5]
The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[194] **viXra:1605.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 13:24:14*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimentally measured 68.3%/26.8% dark energy/fermion mass ratio matches cyclic universe, E8 symmetry theory to within 1/2% if dark matter annihilation gamma radiation energy is 2 x 33.81 GEV. This is the positive mass-energy of 2(H-Z) bosons, and indicates that the Z dark bosons were not not annihilated but were re-incorporated in positive energy form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[193] **viXra:1605.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 15:14:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Anderson et al. have found that experimental values for gravitational constant, G, are oscillatory with a period of P = 5.899 +- 0.062 yr and an amplitude of A = (0.001619 +- 0.000103) F, where F is a factor that is the inverse of the 11 powers of ten expressed in SI Base Units. The period P correlates with the 5.9 year periodic signal in length of day (LOD). Previously it was assumed that changes in LOD follow from fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. But the origin of the G/LOD correlation is still not explained. Next, Schlamminger et al. have found that corrections to the G data reported by Anderson et al. significantly weaken the G/LOD correlation. But in Table III there appears the fit sinusoidal function for G with period fixed at 5.93 year. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the periodic changes in LOD and the illusory changes in G and the origin of the experimental amplitude of G that is illusory as well. The calculated period of LOD and illusory period of G are both 5.941 yr whereas illusory amplitude of G is 0.00183 F. Here, the 5.941 year periodic signal in LOD we interpret as due to advection of the virtual cloud, composed of the virtual electron-positron pairs produced by Earth, caused by its interactions with the dark-matter (DM) structures that overlap with the Earth orbit. Such advection follows from the confinement and entanglement of virtual electrons and positrons and DM structures. The advection causes periodic increase in mass of Earth and measuring apparatus. The amplitude of the changes in mass of Earth follows directly from masses of nucleons (we must take into account the nuclear binding energy) and electrons. The changes in mass lead to the illusion of periodic changes in G. The SST results are consistent with experimental data. Moreover, SST shows that the real changes in G can be infinitesimal only.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[192] **viXra:1605.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 11:18:19*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The purpose of this paper is to share a simple way to solve a Sodoku in three steps. (P = NP ).

**Category:** Number Theory

[191] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-11 17:23:16*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed. and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[190] **viXra:1605.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 07:41:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[189] **viXra:1605.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 08:05:56*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

For many years, I dismissed the idea of intergalactic and time travel via black holes as science fiction. Then one day, I started playing around with E=mc^2 to see what else could be done with it. One of the results fits in with modern ideas in physics and mathematics. And there seems to be an emphasis here on references to Stephen Hawking. So I have to say thanks for changing my mind, Drs. Einstein and Hawking.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[188] **viXra:1605.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 08:29:13*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the fundamental constants is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time.Some scientists think the vaccum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing,too.I agree them.So I finish this paper to explain those experments and develop those guesses.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[187] **viXra:1605.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 08:44:16*

**Authors:** Aditya Guha Roy

**Comments:** 1 Page. This work is a work of mine and I have NOT taken help from any external sources for accomplishment of this work.

It is a great and quite useful thing to find bounds for various quantities and this method can work really effectively in some cases as in the case of proving the Least Common Multiple inequality for 5 terms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[186] **viXra:1605.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 20:24:35*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The challenge of this paper is to relate artificial intuition-based intelligence, represented by self-supervised systems, to solutions of NP-complete problems. By self-supervised systems we understand systems that are capable to move from disorder to order without external effort, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. It has been demonstrated, [1], that such systems exist in the mathematical world: they are presented by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation, but they belong neither to Newtonian nor to quantum physics since they are capable to violate the second law of thermodynamics. That suggests that machines could not simulate intuition-based intelligence if they are composed only of physical parts, but without digital components. Nevertheless it was found such quantum-classical hybrids, [1], that simulates some of self-supervised systems. The main achievement of this work is a demonstration that self-supervised systems can solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time by replacing an enumeration of exponentially large number of possible choices with a short cut provided by a non-Newtonian and non-quantum nature of self-supervised systems.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[185] **viXra:1605.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 23:27:18*

**Authors:** Asef Ghabeli, Mohammad Reza Besmiy

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The electromagnetic forces caused by short-circuits consisting of radial and axial forces
impose mechanical damages and failures to the windings. The engineers have tried to decrease
these forces using dierent techniques and innovations. Utilization of various kinds of winding
arrangements is one of these methods, which enable the transformers and fault current limiters
to tolerate higher forces without a substantial increase in construction and fabrication costs.
In this paper, a distributed winding arrangement is investigated in terms of axial and radial
forces during short-circuit condition in a three-phase FCL. To calculate the force magnitudes
of AC and DC supplied windings, a model based on the nite element method in time stepping
procedure is employed. The three-phase AC and DC supplied windings are split into multiple
sections for more accuracy in calculating the forces. The simulation results are compared
with a conventional winding arrangement in terms of leakage
ux and radial and axial force
magnitudes. The comparisons show that the distributed winding arrangement mitigates radial
and especially axial force magnitudes signicantly.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[184] **viXra:1605.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 01:14:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author lays down a Scheme helps one find the ‘Degree Of Truth’ of any statement of concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[183] **viXra:1605.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 10:50:15*

**Authors:** Stéphane Feye

**Comments:** 9 Pages. français

Le lecteur trouvera, dans le présent ouvrage, un très large éventail des commentaires les plus intéressants sur l’œuvre d’Homère, principalement orientés vers le sens physique et théologique de ses poèmes.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[182] **viXra:1605.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 10:52:25*

**Authors:** Hans van Kasteel

**Comments:** 22 Pages. français

En empruntant à Porphyre, pour intituler ce florilège, l’expression « questions homériques », nous entendons lui rendre son titre de noblesse. Il ne s’agit pas tant de savoir si l’Iliade et l’Odyssée sont l’œuvre d’un seul poète ou de plusieurs, ni si le nom d’Homère s’applique à un personnage historiquement existant ou non, que de percevoir l’intention de l’auteur dans tel vers ou tel passage.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[181] **viXra:1605.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 11:09:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[180] **viXra:1605.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 04:27:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[179] **viXra:1605.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 06:02:08*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The two preceding papers published recently in viXra [1] and in [2] are geometrically grounded and physically based on the following forces: gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (new phenomenon of Nature, hypothetically introduced
1980) [3]. The cosmology of a closed symmetric isotropic world model is treated, enlarging the Einstein theory, based on fundamental new field equations and conservation laws (additional terms), being the result of the projection onto the 4-dimensional space-time.
The physical basis of this world model is a two-component gas-mixture: mechanical dark-matter scalon-gas (particle: scalon) and electromagnetic
photon-gas. The numerical procedure by resolving the appearing system of equations yields: Urstart of the expansion (named by the author) without singularity (no Big Bang) [4]. This way leads to the acceleration effect of the cosmological expansion (about 8 billion years after Urstart), according to the empirical detection some years ago. Further correct rendering of the Hubble parameter. The age of finish of our world model yields 28 billion of years.
On such theoretical and (up to now) empirical basis we present here in this Paper 3 following results as hypotheses:
1. Gravitational-scalaric field of a sphere.
2. Geodetic equation and general equation of motion of a moving body.
3. Anomalous pioneer effect of moving space-crafts (departure from Newtonian behaviour).
4. Anomalous rotation curves of stars, moving around the centres of spiral galaxies (characteristic deviations from Newtonian mechanics).
5. Heat production in expanding moving bodies.
6. Reinterpretation of Maxwell-Faraday equations.
7. Status of Dark energy and accelerated cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1605.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 05:38:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A theoretical analysis examines the possibility that the black holes detected by LIGO serve as dark matter. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[177] **viXra:1605.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 03:44:25*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 22 equations, 9 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics. This describes the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged fermion (the electron). This gives another example of the applicability of our
divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, implementing the principle of gauge-covariant momentum-space quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[176] **viXra:1605.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 07:29:23*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Proof (article) for the Lehman expectation by Mr.Dobranju became the topic.
I think. A prime number and an illustration of commentary of the fusion of the physics make up for prism interpretation. (Mr.Dobranju)
Various wavelengths of the material wave appear as light (rainbow) of each color in the horizon (three-dimensional space).
The summary of the article is called 0 points of prism interpretation.
Light is branched into the light of various colors by a prism and is projected on a straight line.
The figure of prime number, physics fusion by the elementary particle pulsation principle is similar to 0 points of prism interpretation.
A material wave and the point of intersection with the horizon (straight line of Lehman) are zero points of the Lehman expectation.
A prime number and elementary particle pulsation principle hypothesis.(2).
(Fusion of a prime number and the physics. )

**Category:** Number Theory

[175] **viXra:1605.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 09:22:16*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I theorize a new method to create antibiotics using genetically modified organism

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[174] **viXra:1605.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 09:42:01*

**Authors:** V. A. Budarin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. MSC 76D09

The velocity field culculation method is based on the use of two special cases of the Newtonian fluid motion equations, not including the Navier-Stokes equation. Two shear stress calculation ways are considered. The first way is the differentiation on the velocity field equation, and the second one requires the solution of the first-order differential equation. The second way provides the distribution of shear stresses for any continuous medium, including Newtonian fluid.
Culculation equations for a laminar flow in a round pipe are found. It is shown that parabolic velocity distribution along the radius is a special case of more general equation.
The factors affecting the shear stresses for the three flow models are found. Stresses are determined by the linear velocity gradients in the laminar flow. In the 3D vortex, they can be found by various equations, which include vorticity. Total stresses for the averaged turbulent flow are culculated by summing the previously found stresses.
The equations of the method are incomplete and may be used for the accurate solution of simple problems.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[173] **viXra:1605.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 05:04:10*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mouse population in malaria-infected areas may contain antibodies, or antibiotics, and genetic sequencing could provide a cure

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[172] **viXra:1605.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-24 05:08:21*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

When an expanding uniform-density dust ball's radius doesn't sufficiently exceed the Schwarzschild value, its expansion rate will actually be increasing because the dominant gravitational time dilation effect diminishes as the dust ball expands. But such acceleration of expansion is absent in "comoving coordinates" because the "comoving" fixing of the 00 component of the metric tensor to unity extinguishes gravitational time dilation, as is evidenced in the "comoving" FLRW dust-ball model by the Newtonian form of its Friedmann equation of motion. Therefore we extend to all dust-ball initial conditions the singular Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation from "comoving" to "standard" coordinates which they carried out for a particular initial condition. In "standard" coordinates relativistic time dilation is manifest in the equations of motion of the dynamical radii of all of the dust ball's interior shells; the acceleration of expansion of the surface shell peaks when its radius is only fractionally larger than the dust ball's Schwarzschild radius. Even so, for a range of initial conditions a dust ball's expansion continues accelerating at all "standard" times, although that acceleration asymptotically decreases toward zero. Attempts to account for the observed acceleration of the
expansion of the universe by fitting a nonzero "dark energy" cosmological constant thus seem to be quite unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[171] **viXra:1605.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-01 00:46:59*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Honorable Pierre de Fermat was truthful. He could have squeezed the proof of his last theorem into a page margin. Fermat's last theorem has been proved on a single page. Three similar versions of the proof are presented, using a single page for each version. The approach used in each proof is exemplified by the following system: If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one will first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^n = a^n + b^n when n > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when n = 2, and note the necessary conditions in the solution for n = 2. The necessary conditions in the solutions for n = 2. will guide one to determine if there are solutions when n > 2.. For the first two versions, the proof is based on the Pythagorean identity (sin x)^2 + (cos x)^2 = 1; and for the third version, on (a^2 + b^2)/c^2 = 1, with n = 2, where a, b, and c are relatively prime positive integers. It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the n = 2 identity excludes all other n-values, n > 2, from satisfying the equation c^n = a^n + b^n. One will first show that if n = 2 , c^n = a^n + b^n holds, noting the necessary conditions in the solution; followed by showing that if n > 2 (n an integer), c^n = a^n + b^n does not hold. For the first version of the proof, the proof began with reference to a right triangle. The second version of the proof began with ratio terms without any reference to a geometric figure. The third version occupies about half of a page. The third version of the proof began without any reference to a geometric figure or ratio terms. The second and third versions confirmed the proof in the first version. Each proof version is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system. Perhaps, the proof in this paper is the proof that Fermat wished there were enough margin for it in his paper. With respect to prizes, if the prize for a 150-page proof were $715,000, then the prize for a single page proof (considering the advantages) using inverse proportion, would be $107,250,000.

**Category:** Number Theory

[170] **viXra:1605.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 08:47:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10]
A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1605.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 17:19:08*

**Authors:** Bernd Ganter

**Comments:** 12 pages. The paper is the condensed version in English translation of the German parent document viXra:1408.0018. Comments please to bernd.ganter.fsk@gmx.de

In order to explain the strongly differing forces of the fundamental interactions, we use optimal consecutive exponentiation (power towers) as mathematical instrument for the optimization of volumes or densities, and thus for information storage in the universe. From this approach it is possible to derive and exactly calculate the fine structure constant, the value of which has remained unexplained for over 100 years now, as 137.035999099611.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[168] **viXra:1605.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 09:38:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Computers are often described with "ones and zeros," referring to their binary nature: each memory element stores data in two states. But there is no fundamental reason why there should be just two. In a new study, researchers have designed a magnetic element that has six stable magnetic states, which paves the way toward realizing a six-state magnetic memory element. [13]
Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11]
In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[167] **viXra:1605.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:36:35*

**Authors:** Dimiter Dobrev

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Represented at 12 of May, 2016 at Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Sofia.

In this article we consider the questions 'What is AI?' and 'How to write a program that satisfies the definition of AI?' It deals with the basic concepts and modules that must be at the heart of this program. The most interesting concept that is discussed here is the concept of abstract signals. Each of these signals is related to the result of a particular experiment. The abstract signal is a function that at any time point returns the probability the corresponding experiment to return true.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[166] **viXra:1605.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:05:58*

**Authors:** Marcos Palomo Arroyo, Santiago Ormeño Villajos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The main objective of the present work was to obtain synthetic ETM+ images with improved temporal resolution using MODIS radiometry to expand the applicability of this method to environmental issues that require detailed monitoring over time. To do this, we needed to verify the consistency between the data provided by ETM+ and MODIS.
We used images from these sensors taken on different dates and in different test areas. We designed and validated a spatial resampling method based on statistical parameters and a linear interpolation method for diachronic data.
The results confirm the consistency between MODIS and ETM+ data and their dependence on the spatial variability of the information. They also show that it is possible to obtain images derived from MODIS
with the spatial resolution of ETM+ using a simple and robust linear interpolation method. Both results broaden the scope of these sensors’ application to environmental issues.

**Category:** Climate Research

[165] **viXra:1605.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:21:41*

**Authors:** Irfan Acikgoz, Figen Binbay, Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 131 (2016) 157.

Focusing on a fractal geometric ghost dark energy, we reconstruct the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-essence–type scalar field and find exact solutions of the potential and warped brane tension.We also discuss statefinders for the selected dark energy description to make it distinguishable among others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[164] **viXra:1605.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:51:08*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The Projective Unified Field Theory (PUFT) of the author is applied for a dark matter cosmos. Detailed results appeared recently in
two volumes [1]. The set of formulas needed for cosmology (including hypothetic empiric predictions) is presented in [2]. The main essence of this paper lays in following assumptions: dark matter basis of the mechanical
part of the cosmological gas component; taking into account the hypothetical scalarism phenomenon, introduced by the author at the GRG-congress 1980 in Jena [3]. One of our main results is the singularity-free beginning of the cosmos model investigated (Urstart instead of Big Bang). The occurring numerical result for the Hubble-parameter is physically full satisfactory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[163] **viXra:1605.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-17 06:52:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[162] **viXra:1605.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-17 08:17:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a scheme for 'Positive And Negative Time Scaling And Time Portal Engineering'.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[161] **viXra:1605.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-17 09:18:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[160] **viXra:1605.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 22:26:08*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

After understanding the subtle difference between comprehensive and complete coverage of an entity in an encyclopedia, the present article poses the question: For an encyclopedia service such as Wikipedia, what does it take to ‘comprehensively’ describe a particular state of India, covering in reasonable detail all its diversity? In line with this thought, a simple exercise, consisting for searching for the number of occurrences of each district name in the article about its home state, was carried out. This is done for all state mentions in the article about India, as well as each district of the 29 states in the respective articles, sorted out in seven zones: Himalayas, North, Centre, West, South, East and Sisters. The article in particular focuses on significance of the capital in each state, quantified as the Rajdhani Effect, as well as districts not being mentioned anywhere in the article, quantified as the Zero Effect. With these points in consideration, the article explores the Wikipedia articles of each of the 29 states in India, searching for and studying the number of times each district features therein. The result is a different perspective on the states and on the entire country of India, understanding and highlighting the districts that have made a mark significant enough to feature in the ‘comprehensive’ Wiki tale of twenty nine states.

**Category:** Social Science

[159] **viXra:1605.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 00:27:58*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Journal-Ref: Hadronic J. 39(2), 169-173 (2016)

It is first shown that there is no exchange of energy-momentum during planetary motion. Then, starting with the field equations, it is shown that the gravitational field does not exchange energy-momentum with any form of matter.
Conclusion: In general relativity, there is no gravitational energy, momentum, stress, force or power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[158] **viXra:1605.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 13:17:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theoretical chemists at Princeton University have pioneered a strategy for modeling quantum friction, or how a particle's environment drags on it, a vexing problem in quantum mechanics since the birth of the field. The study was published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. [11] Protons can tunnel in solutions and at temperatures above the boiling point of water, found scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[157] **viXra:1605.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 10:25:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[156] **viXra:1605.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 07:22:19*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 96 Pages. The Origin of Spin , The Why and How particles move

Point in E-Geometry , which is nothing and Dimensionless , is Zero can be derived from the
addition of a Positive (+) and a Negative (-) number while Material point has Dimension the
Segment ds = [⊕⊝] , and originates in the same way . Adding it to numbers i.e. to Monads ,
creates the Primary Particles and all the Rest-Gravity constituent and all Atoms of Periodic
System in Planck`s Space -Level . Monads are Spinning because of the inner Electromagnetic
Waves E,P which create the External Spin and again Spin creates the Inner Electromagnetic
Waves E,P in monads continuing this eternal cycle . It is shown Why , How , and where
this Rotational momentum , the Spinning , is conserved .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[155] **viXra:1605.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-22 08:43:02*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages. the text is checked by the most famous Editing service

you are a strong and powerful candidate for the US Presidency. But how you would try to win, if your nation does not distinguish between true and false? Therefore, you need my proof of the Bible, the proof of the Jesus Christ. Please, promote the text among the people. You can do it, brother in Christ, because you are rich, smart, brave and powerful!

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[154] **viXra:1605.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 00:04:42*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Recursive Scheme To Generate Prime Numbers

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1605.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 05:20:03*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Casimir effect is interpreted generally through the consideration of indeterministic quantum events that are justified by the indeterminacy principle and by the concept of quantum vacuum. That explanation is based on the hypothesis of existence of statistical fluctuations of energy around the point of zero energy that generate virtual pairs of particle-antiparticle. With this research let us intend to prove the Casimir effect can be explained by the interaction mass-mass of the symmetry MLM without the necessity to make use of virtual and probabilistic paradigms.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[152] **viXra:1605.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 13:50:08*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The STOE originally was a model to describe mysterious cosmological observations. The STOE has explained Young's Experiment and light as photons. It also predicted the result of The Hodge Experiment that differentiates between particles (photons) and waves going through the slits. The assumptions used in the STOE explanation and the computer simulation are many over several papers. This paper lists the assumptions used to form the equations. The advantages of the STOE are that it is one model of the big, the Newtonian scale, and the small of light and that it is more intuitive.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[151] **viXra:1605.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 07:19:58*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

Beta decay and neutrino theory was introduced in 1934 by Dr. Enrico Fermi and accepted by the main stream physics community because of his enormous personal influence after receiving the Nobel. This started the nonsense boson parade, leading all the way to the Higgs and the recent Nobel. This paper suggests that neutrinos are really not particles at all but rather fictitious constructions now tainting all of current physics.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[150] **viXra:1605.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 09:00:12*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By extending the classic concept of parallax as a system to triangulate distant stars, I propose that a displacement in spacetime can be used to triangulate distant galaxies.
Such an empirical experiment would also validate, or invalidate, conventional relative Doppler effect theory.
The practical procedure would involve measuring SNe1 supernovae data analysis from two separate spacetime reference frames, using two essentially) simultaneous observations, from different inertial reference frames. Both
rfs observe the same two supernovae events (a) and (b), such that (b) is twice the distance (x) from the Earth than (a).
I named this experiment ”Spacetime Parallax”, because the triangulation of distance x is from a displacement in spacetime and the resulting time dilation is compared.
This same format is then used for a quadratic accelerating reference frame, mimicking (g) force on the Earth’s surface.
If the difference in wavelengths (∆λ), as measured between the two rfs, is not in proportion to the distance between the two events (x b = 2x a ), it is then justified to assume some error is evident in conventional methods.
Correcting for such skewed Doppler shift observations has implications for all parameters of cosmology. This might include: dark energy, accelerated expansion, average density, the cosmic event horizon, as well as rotational velocities in general.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[149] **viXra:1605.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 03:57:58*

**Authors:** Dionysios G. Raftopoulos

**Comments:** 424 Pages.

The Theory of the Harmonicity of the Field of Light is an axiomatic theory motivated by the logical contradictions of Special Relativity Theory and based on two fundamental acceptances:
1. The adoption of the natural philosophy of Werner Heisenberg and the school of Copenhagen, according to which a consistent natural description of the Cosmos shouldn’t ignore the existence of the Observer or at least the instrument of observation and measurement and
2. The choice of the Projective Space as the Geometrical Space of its natural description. This choice is validated following the fundamental separation of the Perceptible Space, which is objective, and the Geometrical Space, that exists only in our minds. As all logically consistent Geometries are accepted in Mathematical Science, the adoption of a Geometrical Space by a Theory of Physics is free.
Further on, this theory adopts as its first fundamental hypothesis the second hypothesis of the Special Relativity Theory, properly modified. Then, during the study of the kinematics of the material point, the property of harmonicity of the field of light emerges practically automatically.
Via this theory Human Reason is restored.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[148] **viXra:1605.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-21 07:28:15*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper seeks to shine a light on some glaring economic problems of contemporary society. Too often economic issues are framed in the context of moral wedges that divide people. Here we select issues for discussion that likely can be solved and do not strictly require the resolution of any difficult moral quandaries. We show that certain popular debates are not so interesting because sufficient evidence exists to identify the relevant premises as true and false. We suggest an economic program based in part on hypothetical new energy resources that should guide the United States and the Earth's other national states towards a more equitable valley in the space of all economic configurations. This paper is intended to be persuasive and not purely expository.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[147] **viXra:1605.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 20:21:21*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

By using Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the expansions of comparative literature include: comparative social sciences clusters, comparative natural sciences clusters, comparative interdisciplinary sciences clusters, and so on. Among them, comparative social sciences clusters include: comparative literature, comparative history, comparative philosophy, and so on; comparative natural sciences clusters include: comparative mathematics, comparative physics, comparative chemistry, comparative medicine, comparative biology, and so on. In addition, comparative literature itself can also be expanded. Under the two main categories of research and practice, comparative literature can be expanded into: comparative literature research, comparative literature practice (including comparative essay, comparative fiction, comparative poetry, comparative drama, and so on), comparative literature research and practice, and so on. This paper discusses the applications of comparative method in comparative sciences clusters and their various branches. Point out that in the existing fields of social sciences and natural sciences, many sprouts of comparative sciences clusters can be found, but a wide range of the achievements of comparative sciences clusters, still are the virgin lands to be developed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[146] **viXra:1605.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 20:42:59*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I introduce a congruence that restates the characterization of primes that have 2 as a quadratic residue, non-residue.

**Category:** Number Theory

[145] **viXra:1605.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 21:39:22*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The commonly used units of measure have changed over the centuries. The numeric value for the speed of light was measured before it was known that light was an electromagnetic wave and how electromagnetic waves were produced. The scientific community adopted a set of units of measures that were originally developed for joint commercial, scientific and common use. There is an on going effort by the various metrology organizations to update them. There is no need to change the generally accepted units of measure for commercial and common use, but scientific units of measure need major improvements.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[144] **viXra:1605.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 02:34:43*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short paper presents a new form of the Liouville function. To the author's best knowledge, this relationship is previously unknown.

**Category:** Number Theory

[143] **viXra:1605.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 03:22:42*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

There are strong indications the general relativity theory is incomplete. Observational data that is taken as evidence for dark energy and dark matter could indicate the need for new physics. In this paper, general relativity is rewritten based on the X-particles of dark energy. The goal is to
help classical mechanics and general relativity to reconcile with the laws of quantum physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[142] **viXra:1605.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 14:20:12*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short paper I present a closed form formula for the right half of Pascal's triangle.

**Category:** Number Theory

[141] **viXra:1605.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 14:42:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[140] **viXra:1605.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:47:00*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The short reproduction of the Projective Unified Field Theory of the author (including empiric predictions) will be presented during the
subsequent time:
Fundamental 5-dimensional physical laws within the projective space and projection of these basic laws onto space-time.
Transition from this 4-dimensional complex of the physical laws to the (better understandable) 3-dimensional version with new additional physical terms, being prepared for a physical interpretation (influence of cosmological expansion).
Numerical presentation of the predicted astrophysical and cosmological effects: anomalous motion of bodies according to the pioneer effect, anomalous rotation curve of rotating bodies around
a gravitational centre. One should take note of my hypothetic result that the true origin of these both effects (pioneer effect and
rotation curve effect) seems to have the same cause, namely the overwhelming dark matter existing in our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[139] **viXra:1605.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:48:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. quantum gravity, classical gravity and HUP together.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. The strain value of h~10^-25 to 10^-27 are obtained. . Such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology. We conclude with statements as to comparing our basic results with those of Yan-Gang Miao, Ying-Jie Zhao as to their generalized HUP which gives support to the suppositions given in our comparison of the character of gravitons which are initially at the start of inflation versus those of our present era, as measured by the Tokamak

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[138] **viXra:1605.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-15 02:11:26*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** Pages. Published in "Global journal of physics", Vol 4 No 3

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[137] **viXra:1605.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 08:09:22*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 39 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 94, No. 4, P. 370-379 (2016).

The motion equations of matter in the gravitational field, acceleration field, pressure field and other fields are considered based on the field theory. This enables us to derive simple formulas in the framework of the gravitational equilibrium model, which allow us to estimate the physical parameters of cosmic bodies. The acceleration field coefficient and the pressure field coefficient are a function of the state of matter, and their sum is close in magnitude to the gravitational constant . In the presented model the dependence is found of the internal temperature and pressure on the current radius. The central temperatures and pressures are calculated for the Earth and the Sun, for a typical neutron star and a white dwarf. The heat flux and the thermal conductivity coefficient of the matter of these objects are found, and the formula for estimating the entropy is provided. All the quantities are compared with the calculation results in different models of cosmic bodies. The discovered good agreement with these data proves the effectiveness and universality of the proposed model for estimating the parameters of planets and stars and for more precise calculation of physical quantities.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[136] **viXra:1605.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 05:46:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Polarimeters Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[135] **viXra:1605.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 06:12:52*

**Authors:** Hossein Vahabi, Paul Lagree, Claire Vernade, Olivier Cappe

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In many web applications, a recommendation is not a single item sug- gested to a user but a list of possibly interesting contents that may be ranked in some contexts. The combinatorial bandit problem has been studied quite extensively these last two years and many theoretical re- sults now exist : lower bounds on the regret or asymptotically optimal algorithms. However, because of the variety of situations that can be considered, results are designed to solve the problem for a specific reward structure such as the Cascade Model. The present work focuses on the problem of ranking items when the user is allowed to click on several items while scanning the list from top to bottom.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[134] **viXra:1605.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-31 03:38:08*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Last update on: 31.07.2016

Dear readers, I appreciate your time and patience to read/try to read my article. However, this is not a simple article: as it describes the universe in informational terms (as it is a model of the universe; Bio-Info-Digital-Universe-Model [BIDUM]) and has almost 60 pages, it tends to be more like a manual in which I have reformulated a lot of classical and modern concepts of physics. Like any manual/book-like article, the abbreviations are inevitable, as I also try to impose new general concepts (together with their abbreviations which I try to propose too). If I had used the classical terms with a minimal abbreviational strategy, the phrases would become very complex and hard to read as the explanations have a lot of parenthesis (as I practice a tree-like multi-level phrase structures). The main abbreviations I have imposed is for fundamental physical concepts I try to present and I always first explain them (and mention them between parenthesis). These are the most frequent: (elementary) quantum particle ([E]QP), gauge-boson (GB), non-gauge particle (NGP), physical information (quantity/quanta) (PI[q/qua]), biological information (quantity/quanta) (BI[q/qua]), biophysical information (quantity/quanta) (BPI[q/qua]), physical observer (PO), biological observer (BO), Fine Structure Constant (FSC), GCC (gravitational coupling constant), fundamental forces/fields (FFs): strong nuclear force/field (SNF), weak nuclear force/field (WNF), electromagnetic force/field (EMF), (electro)gravitational force/field (EGF), super string theory (SST), M-theory (MT) etc. The majority of the rest of them are standard abbreviations used in standard physical language. I have also anticipated the difficulty of reading this manual-like article, that is why I have also created this separate file with all the abbreviations used in my BIDUM. Important remark: this update is also due Sergey G. Fedosin which I want to thank again as he convinced my once again that this table of abbreviations is a must to share with all my readers.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[133] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-17 13:04:53*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[132] **viXra:1605.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 19:50:22*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Every elementary particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts particle or wave to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
In this paper, we show that X-particles of dark energy can create the wave appearance of a quantum-scale particle, and argue that the particle is indeed a particle. Our theory is deterministic and local, and is based on classical mechanics. Double-slit experiment and quantum entanglement are explained by the X-particle interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[131] **viXra:1605.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 22:48:03*

**Authors:** Zhenming Zheng, Xiangtuan Xiong

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Fourier method is a convenient regularization method for solving a class of ill-posed
problems. This class of ill-posed problems can be also formulated as the problem of ill-posed
multiplication operator equation in the frequency domain. A recent work on the Morozov's
discrepancy principle for the Fourier method are discussed in [2]. In this paper, we investigate
the Fourier method within the framework of regularization theory thoroughly for solving the
severely ill-posed problems. Many ill-posed examples are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[130] **viXra:1605.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 22:50:22*

**Authors:** S. Abirami, S. Murugesan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The relationship between the intuitionistic fuzzy sets and the algebraic hyperstructures
is described in this paper. The concept of the quasi-coincidence of an intuitionistic fuzzy
interval valued with an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced and this is a
natural generalization of the quasi-coincidence of an intuitionistic fuzzy point in intuitionistic
fuzzy sets. By using this new idea, the concept of interval-valued (α, β) - intuitionistic fuzzy
sub - hypermodule of a hypermodule is defined. This newly defined interval-valued (α, β) -
intuitionistic fuzzy sub - hypermodule is a generalization of the usual intuitionistic fuzzy sub -
hypermodule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[129] **viXra:1605.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 23:13:57*

**Authors:** Rostam K. Saeed, Rebwar S. Muhammad

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, Reduced Differential TransformMethod (RDTM) has been successively used to find the
numerical solutions of the coupled Hirota system (CHS). The results obtained by RDTM are compared
with exact solutions to reveal that the RDTM is very accurate and effective. In our work, Maple 13 has
been used for computations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[128] **viXra:1605.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 03:51:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Using ultrashort laser pulses an international team at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has managed to manipulate the positions of atoms in hydrocarbon molecules in a targeted fashion. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] **viXra:1605.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 13:30:04*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 graph

The Great Oxygenation event can be explained inside of stellar metamorphosis. The encompassing theory includes a rapid rise in oxygen due to the star’s evolutionary timeline and physical characteristics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[126] **viXra:1605.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 10:15:25*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Broad occurrence of hypoxia- inducable factor in human body may suggest genetic memory to life in oxygen- low atmosphere.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[125] **viXra:1605.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 11:27:31*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article disseminates a new mathematical concept designed by the author in the year 2015 to which entitled: "Magic Dart", this mathematical entity has a property exquisite not before discovered by the mathematical community, which will be of great pleasure for those who are interested in the educational and recreational mathematics.
One of the activities that are carried out by the author in his daily work is the teaching practice and it is there where attempts to combine the objectives entrusted to him in the delivery of the classes with the implementation of the Recreational Mathematics, always seeking to expand and disclose in an entertaining way the mathematical knowledge that are manifest in a classroom.

**Category:** Number Theory

[124] **viXra:1605.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 12:00:15*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the following document shows a particular form of simplify the root of a sum as the sum of roots, through an algebraic expression entitled: "Camacho Identity".

**Category:** Algebra

[123] **viXra:1605.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-14 06:51:53*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Hebrews 1:3 states that He is "... sustaining all things by His powerful word." The General Grand Unification (GGU) (mathematical) model with its General Intelligent Design (GID) interpretation establishes the scientific rationality of this statement.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[122] **viXra:1605.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 09:05:17*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Equivalence principle is the basement of general relativity theory. It points out that the gravitational force is equivalent to the inertial force. However, the general relativity theory does not give the reason. In this paper, we assume the space is a kind of elastic media. The energy can take pressure on the space. It will make the space curved. The curved space-time produces gravitational force. This paper gives the mathematical calculation based on elasticity theory to show that this assumption is true. It also gives the accurate relationship between mass and gravitational force. The relationship is in line with the conclusion of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1605.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:10:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[120] **viXra:1605.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 19:39:00*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Online posting to YOUTUBE.
Einstein continued looking for four-dimensional space.
I discovered 4-dimensional space.
I upload it in 2010/09/02.
Contributor excellent Hikari368.
It is 215533 access (as of 2016.5.12).
As the key which realized a general theory, Einstein of later years continued looking for four-dimensional space, but was not able to carry it out. An elementary particle pulsation principle discovered the four-dimensional space. The elementary particle pulsates in the four-dimensional space.

**Category:** Number Theory

[119] **viXra:1605.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 20:59:21*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As an origin of dark energy, an X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy
density has been proposed [1]. In this paper, we will develop the X-particle theory
further, and postulate how dark energy could form a ubiquitous gravitational field and
inertial reference of frames, and why they might be the reason for the uncertainty
principle. Like photon, an X-particle has only relativistic mass, and acts like a particle
that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of
gravitational attraction and repulsion. However, unlike photon that travels in space, an
X-particle only needs to pass signals to its neighboring particles to form the ubiquitous
gravitational field. This model could explain how gravitational signals propagate at
the speed of light, how their values are stored in X-particles, and why the uncertainty
principle could arise from this.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[118] **viXra:1605.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 01:10:28*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Online posting to YOUTUBE.
When the mystery of the prime number is removed, the elementary particle pulsation principle will be recognized as the theory of all things.
I assume real number axis, cross axle an imaginary number axis with a vertical axis and insert a figure of elementary particle pulse motion principle energy wave pattern in the complex number coordinate which developed the non-self-evident zero point of a prime number and the zeta function.
I assumed the straight line that 0 points formed a line the horizon which showed the vacuum space of the figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern . I turn a prime number and a figure of that Mr. Sugimoto made which showed 0 points 90 degrees. Non-self-evident straight line and gap 1/2 with the imaginary number axis where 0 points form a line of the zeta function show energy density (zero point energy) of the vacuum space.
I set the top (a mountain and valley) of the wave pattern of the elementary particle pulsation with the prime number on the real number axis. Furthermore, I set it as if a wave pattern passes on a non-self-evident zero point.
I assumed a prime number an orbital pole in a period and assumed a point zero eigenvalue.
The wave (peculiar empty ¬ interval) of the material wave pulsating every 0 points accompanies it. This wave pattern shows elementary particle pulsation, and a minus number particle, a wave pattern do a horizontal state with a wave in the grain ¬ child whom the energy of the place centered on in the heap of wave patterns, the valley of the wave pattern and repeat particle (+mc²), wave (0)¬, conversion (pulsation) of minus number particle (-mc²) super in (Planck time) for a short time.

**Category:** Number Theory

[117] **viXra:1605.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 02:17:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[116] **viXra:1605.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 10:35:45*

**Authors:** H. de Lara

**Comments:** 1 Page.

3 different paradigms in XXth century emerge interconnected in XXI

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[115] **viXra:1605.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-16 07:35:02*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We observe that, starting from our families to all over the world, the unrest, intolerance, corruption, crimes and militancy etc. are continuously growing on day by day despite all our efforts starting from social, spiritual, administration levels to all the possible levels. It is because, the root cause that is responsible for all these, we never tried to find out. The day, every member of every family starts thinking about his/her ethical responsibilities towards all the rest of the members of his/her family, his/her neighbors, citizens of his/her city and country etc., applying his/her wisdom - a special and very important gift with which God has blessed we all the human beings, unrest, intolerance, corruption, crimes and militancy etc. all shall start decreasing in place of growing.

**Category:** Social Science

[114] **viXra:1605.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-25 08:22:53*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Azzarello

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The properties of symmetry of the Planck particle will be presented, and its magnetic charge will be
extracted. This particle unifies the gravitational force, the electric force and the magnetic force into a single one, referred to as superforce. The physical meaning of permeability of vacuum constants, of ℏc , and of zero-point energy will be shown.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[113] **viXra:1605.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 08:13:31*

**Authors:** Tian Bian, Haoyang Zheng, Likang Yin, Yong Deng, Sankaran Mahadevand

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used technique for assessing the risk of potential failure modes in designs, products, process, system or services. One of the main problems of FMEA is to deal with a variety of assessments given by FMEA team members and sequence the failure modes according to the degree of risk factors. The traditional FMEA using risk priority number (RPN) which is the product of occurrence (O), severity (S) and detection (D) of a failure to determine the risk priority ranking order of failure modes. However, it will become impractical when multiple experts give different risk assessments to one failure mode, which may be imprecise or incomplete or the weights of risk factors is inconsistent. In this paper, a new risk priority model based on D numbers, and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is proposed to evaluate the risk in FMEA. In the proposed model, the assessments given by FMEA team members are represented by D numbers, a method can effectively handle uncertain information. TOPSIS method, a novel multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is presented to rank the preference of failure modes respect to risk factors. Finally, an application of the failure modes of rotor blades of an aircraft turbine is provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[112] **viXra:1605.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 21:36:03*

**Authors:** Quang Nguyen Van

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have spotted an error of Euler's proof,so that the used infinite descent is impossible in his proof (case A).

**Category:** Number Theory

[111] **viXra:1605.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 01:09:29*

**Authors:** Jianping Mao

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Applied Physics Research Vol. 9, No. 6, 47-57 (2017)

The periodic table shape seems to coincide with a folding crystal structure of atomic nuclei, an orderly distribution of protons (nucleons) nearly the same as Lewis dot structure, which will grow vertical 4 A (representative), 4 B (transition) and 8 C (inner transition) α-clusters bound with valence neutrons (excess neutrons, ~ A﹣2Z) to stand a core (1st period) of likely expanding in Co, Ni, Rh and Pd. In a typical fission of 235U+n→137Ba+97Kr+2n, 137Ba and 97Kr mass difference is suggested to result from the 16 α-clusters cleft into 9:7 (±1 A α-cluster, 5 α × 2 = 40) and 2n release from valence neutrons in its cleft line; also, cleft into 15:1 implies to point to that α-cluster (1 C ≥ 4He, 1 B ≥ 12C, 1 A ≥ 20Ne) decay. To cross nuclei, atoms and molecules, here a way may enable us closer to nature of the periodic table, the periodic law of dominating their behaviors.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[110] **viXra:1605.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:12:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[109] **viXra:1605.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:47:07*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980.
To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
The author contributed the article that let a prime number and physics fuse. youtube (December, 2012).
This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Number Theory

[108] **viXra:1605.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:54:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists have devised a way to build a "quantum metamaterial"—an engineered material with exotic properties not found in nature—using ultracold atoms trapped in an artificial crystal composed of light. The theoretical work represents a step toward manipulating atoms to transmit information, perform complex simulations or function as powerful sensors. [11] An optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. An international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[107] **viXra:1605.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:37:34*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.

**Category:** Geophysics

[106] **viXra:1605.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 10:22:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from France, Russia and Finland has improved on the current design of an electronic turnstile, by replacing the conventional metallic "island" with a quantum dot. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes how the design works, why it is better than the conventional approach and how much the error rate was reduced. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[105] **viXra:1605.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:11:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 1 Page. Fig. 4 to accompany paper "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[104] **viXra:1605.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 09:31:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Electrons represent an ideal quantum bit, with a "spin" that when pointing up can represent a 0 and down can represent a 1. Such bits are small (even smaller than an atom), and because they do not interact strongly they can remain quantum for long periods. However, exploiting electrons as qubits also poses a challenge in that they must be trapped and manipulated. Which is exactly what David Schuster, a University of Chicago assistant professor of physics and his collaborators at UChicago, Argonne National Laboratory, and Yale University have done. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[103] **viXra:1605.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-21 11:04:35*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An equivalent form of the Goldbach Conjecture is stated using manipulation of characteristic equations and simple logical arguments that lead to an equation which restates the conjecture. A new form of the number of unordered partitions of an even number into two primes is presented.

**Category:** Number Theory

[102] **viXra:1605.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 06:12:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

IBM on Wednesday opened its quantum computer processor to anyone who wants to try what is expected to be a new kind of computing with enormously improved power and speed. [11]
Scientists and engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Western Australia have developed how to efficiently simulate a "quantum walk" on a new design for a primitive quantum computer. [10]
Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9]
By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1605.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:04:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists and engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Western Australia have developed how to efficiently simulate a "quantum walk" on a new design for a primitive quantum computer. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[100] **viXra:1605.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:12:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages. -

Formula relativity and more detailed consideration of the motion help to explain
the gravitational interaction using an electric interaction. The method was
considered even by Einstein, but he did not bring it to the end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[99] **viXra:1605.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:37:54*

**Authors:** Robert A. Martin

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We discuss the problem of finding an optimum linear seating arrangement for a small social network, i.e. approaching the problem put forth in XKCD comic 173 – for a small social network, how can one determine the seating order in a row (e.g at the cinema) that corresponds to maximum enjoyment? We begin by improving the graphical notation of the network, and then propose a method through which the total enjoyment for a particular seating arrangement can be quantified. We then discuss genetic programming, and implement a first-principles genetic algorithm in python, in order to find an optimal arrangement. While the method did produce acceptable results, outputting an optimal arrangement for the XKCD network, it was noted that genetic algorithms may not be the best way to find such an arrangement. The results of this investigation may have tangible applications in the organising of social functions such as weddings.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[98] **viXra:1605.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 18:28:08*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy density is postulated as an origin of dark energy. Like photon, the particle has only relativistic mass (zero rest mass), and acts like a particle that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of gravitational attraction and repulsion, where the repulsive force is postulated to be proportional to energy density. The model could be applied to explain the Lambda-CDM model of dark energy which is filling space homogeneously or to scalar fields such as quintessence whose energy density can vary in time and space.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[97] **viXra:1605.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 20:51:44*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

History, Examination, and Determination.

**Category:** Social Science

[96] **viXra:1605.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 23:11:51*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya

**Comments:** 02 Pages. Working Paper

A passive oxide layer forms on the surface of the stainless steel which protects it from corrosion.Alloying elements influence this passive layer. The rate of recovery and thickness of the film are significant factors.These films also posses semiconducting properties.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[95] **viXra:1605.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 13:36:32*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjo

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980.
To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
The author contributed the article that let a prime number and physics fuse. youtube (December, 2012).
This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1605.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 13:58:07*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article educational and recreational mathematics, broadcasts a new category of numbers designed by the author in the year 2014 to which I have called "Numbers Fresnillenses" which permeates this title to a sense of belonging because I have is a native from the city of Fresnillo Zacatecas Mexico. This new classification of numbers you have an exquisite property not previously discovered by the mathematical community; it will be a great pleasure for fans of the numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1605.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 14:09:27*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This article offers a solution in relation to the distribution of the primes, in this research we provide simple formulas and unpublished with a new approach that allow us to assimilate and conclude that the entities primales are sorted as regular as possible. We provide a new vision for addressing what that since ancient times has been a real challenge for the minds linked to the world mathematician, we deliver the reader a key to unravel the structure and behavior of the primes without open the door to the complexity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1605.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 14:30:22*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 2 figures, presented at the APS April Meeting Salt Lake City 2016

Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, and the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. By invoking a far-field L=0 photon-particle interaction cross section of piƛ2, with the inclusion of near-field effects, the model calculated elementary charge is q=1.602177x10^-19 C with a corresponding calculated inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1=137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[91] **viXra:1605.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-28 04:34:35*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Hilbert spaces can store discrete members of division rings and continuums that are formed by members of division rings in the eigenspaces of operators that reside in these Hilbert spaces. Only three suitable division rings exist. These are the real numbers, the complex numbers and the quaternions.
The reverse bra-ket method is an extension of the bra-ket notation that was introduced by P.M. Dirac. The reverse bra-ket method can create natural parameter spaces from number systems that are division rings and can relate the combinations of functions and their parameter spaces with eigenspaces and eigenvectors of corresponding operators that reside in non-separable Hilbert spaces. This also works for separable Hilbert spaces. The defining functions relate the separable Hilbert space with its non-separable companion. In this way, the method links Hilbert space technology with function technology, differential technology and integral technology. Quaternionic number systems exist in several versions that differ in the way that they are ordered. This is applied by defining multiple types of parameter spaces in the same Hilbert space. The set of closed subspaces of a separable Hilbert space has the relational structure of an orthomodular lattice. This fact makes the Hilbert space suitable for modelling quantum physical systems. The reverse bra-ket method is a powerful tool for generating quaternionic models that help investigating quantum physical models.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[90] **viXra:1605.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 11:15:36*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 8 Pages. was published in: Astronomy Reports, V.39, pp. 347-350, (1995)

Recurrent solutions of the population balance equations for some particular
cases are suggested. Obtained recurrent solutions are generalizations of the
compact and exact recurrent method of Seaton to the some important cases.
Namely we have extended the Seaton's method to the following cases:
1) Population is caused by blackbody radiation and formation (recombination)
of specie into i-th level.
2) Population is caused by collisions (with temperature Tc) and formation
processes.
3) Population of pure rotational levels of diatomic molecule in the arbitrary
radiation field out of LTE.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[89] **viXra:1605.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 12:41:46*

**Authors:** Jean-Luc Paillet, Andrew Meulenberg

**Comments:** 17 Pages. paper presented to the 11th Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals, Airbus-Toulouse (Fr.), 15-16 Oct. 2015

This work continues our previous work [1] and in a more developed form [2]), on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the EDO (Electron Deep Orbits) and on other works about deep orbits.
A first part recalls the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. At this occasion we highlight the difference of resolution of these problems between the relativistic Schrödinger equation and the Dirac equation, which leads for this latter, to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus.
In the second part, we consider the specific work of Maly and Va’vra [3], [4]) on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, so-called Deep Dirac Levels (DDLs). As a result of some criticism about the matching conditions at the boundary, we verified their computation, but by using a more complete ansatz for the “inside” solution. We can confirm the approximate size of the mean radii

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[88] **viXra:1605.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 08:08:13*

**Authors:** Nikitin V., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Moon - the core of the former comets that "brought" water on Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[87] **viXra:1605.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-14 17:53:43*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic (5.9 year) oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G which coincide with length of day (LOD) data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System (IERS). It is shown that the oscillations in G are dualistic with Gauss' gravitational constant k due to variations in the Earth's mean motion during the 5.9 year period. Falsifiable predictions are submitted to test the G/k duality hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1605.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 06:59:15*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1) A hypothesis of a prime number and the physics fusion.
The prime number is energy, mcc and a concentric circle. The center is 1/2.
2). The prime number is related deeply with Planck's constant, (h).
3). Natural number is 1* integer. The energy is h X integer.
4). I do it with integer, 1 = 1h.
In m, a radius is a circle of nh. The prime number can express a radius with the circle of the prime number.
5). The equation of the prime number. I accord with energy nh and the prime number of the prime number stairs n turn. (expectation).
6). The prime number distance of the prime number stairs n turn accords with distance of the nuclear resonance energy nh neighborhood. (expectation).

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1605.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 22:52:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a 2013 paper, Freeman Dyson presented thought experiments challenging the detectability of gravitons via LIGO interferometry and via the Gertsheshtein effect. Dyson assumed a distance of several light years would be required for detection of the interaction between gravitational waves (GWs) and tenuous B fields and photons, making gravitons experimentally undectable. In this paper, we present contrary theoretical evidence for detectability of near-field interaction of gravitons, photons, and a magnetic field. Our first example of 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working is due to a GW generated by a tokamak with a interaction of GW, B field, and photons, in a volume on the order of a few cubic meters. The 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working leads to gravitons interacting with a strong uniform magnetic field, resulting in photons which are detected by appropriate instrumentation. In addition, we will also comment upon another issue, that of relic GW, as may be generated by a new uncertainty principle as elucidated by the author. And how that effects relic considerations as to inflaton physics. I.e. the frequency range of the early universe GW (gravitons?) and those of gravitons (GW) produced by the Tokamak may be one and the same i.e. very pronounced overlap. And we explain why. Key words: Gertenshtein effect, LIGO, Octonionic, Pre Octonionic, Modified HUP( Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[84] **viXra:1605.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 01:14:33*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. the original article

The electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons is determined by
calculating the mean square amplitude of oscillation of an electron coupled to the
relic photon
fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Energy shift of electrons in
H-atom is determined in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.
The

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[83] **viXra:1605.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 02:26:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[82] **viXra:1605.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 03:39:01*

**Authors:** Luo Zhengda

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

According to the theory and opinion of natural external force and natural repulsive force, "gravitational wave" doesn't exist. Therefore, LIGO cannot detect gravitational wave produced by two black holes with stellar system level 1.3 billion years ago.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1605.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 03:37:47*

**Authors:** Sakshi Sharma, Pallavi Thakur

**Comments:** 5 Pages. International Journal of Exploration in Engineering and Technology, Vol.1 No. 5, ISSN: 2394-7918, May 2016, pg. 18-22

In this paper FIFB, FIEB and FISB Carry Save Adders and Wallace Tree Adders are designed, encoded in Verilog and simulated using Cadence Software. The 180 nm CMOS technology is used for implementation of adders.The simulation results are compared for power consumption, delay, silicon area and dynamic power dissipation. As the length of inputs increase, power dissipated, silicon area and delay increase in both Carry Save Adder and Wallace Tree Adder. Compared to traditional CSA, the proposed Wallace Tree Adder is found to have shorter delay, lesser power dissipation and lesser silicon area and hence more cost efficient and a better option for real-time applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[80] **viXra:1605.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 04:06:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the geometry of the holographic surface .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1605.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 09:56:20*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The existence of the bare mass and the bare charge in Quantum Electrodynamics is analyzed in terms
of the Standard Model of particle physics.
QED arises as a renormalized theory as a consequense of spontaneous symmetry breaking
by Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism as
$SU(3)_{C}\otimes SU(2)_{L}\otimes U(1)_{Y} \,\rightarrow \,SU(3)_{C} \otimes U(1)_{em}$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[78] **viXra:1605.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 04:41:30*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Here is the list of subheadings in this article -
1) TOPOLOGICAL UNIVERSE
2) ELECTROMAGNETISM FROM GRAVITY(REDEFINING THE BIG BANG, COSMIC INFLATION AND APPLICATION OF INFINITY TO THE UNIVERSE)
3) WAVE PACKETS
4) THE COMPLEX & THE IMAGINARY REDEFINE COSMOGENESIS & BIOGENESIS
5) POSITIVE GRAVITY/BLACK HOLES BALANCED BY NEGATIVE HYPERSPACE
6) DARK MATTER AND INVERSE SQUARE RESULT FROM HYPERSPACE
7) SUPERNOVAS, BLACK HOLES AND DARK ENERGY
8) REPELLING GRAVITY, OCEAN TIDES AND THE GROWING AU
9) RELATIVISTIC MUSINGS
10) INTERGALACTIC AND TIME TRAVEL VIA BLACK HOLES POSSIBLE BECAUSE E=mc^2 CAN TRANSFORM INTO (E=0) + (m=c^2)
11) WORLD PEACE AND IMMORTALITY
12) ENTANGLEMENT IN THE G-EM FIELD
13) DVD-TIME, REALITY WAVES AND BRAIN FOG

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1605.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 19:45:10*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Gabriele U. Varieschi and Zily Burstein in arXiv 1208.3706 showed that with Conformal Gravity Alcubierre Warp Drive does not need Exotic Matter. In E8 Physics of viXra 1602.0319 Conformal Gravity gives Dark Energy which expands our Universe and can curve Spacetime. Clovis Jacinto de Matos and Christian Beck in arXiv 0707.1797 said “... based on the model of dark energy a proposed by Beck and Mackey ... assume... that photons ... can exist in two different phases: A gravitationally active phase where the zeropoint fluctuations contribute to the [dark energy] cosmological constant /\, and a gravitationally inactive phase where they do not contribute to /\. ... this type of model of dark energy can lead to measurable effects in supeconductors,
via ... interaction with the Cooper pairs in the superconductor. ...
the transition between the two graviphoton’s phases ... occurs at the critical temperature Tc of the superconductor, which defines a cutoff frequency of opoint fluctuations ... Graviphotons can form weakly bounded states with Cooper pairs ... [which] ... form a condensate ...[in]... superconduct[ors] ... the cosmological cutoff frequency [could be measured] through the measurement of the spectral density of the noise current in resistively shunted Josephson Junctions ...”. Xiao Hu and Shi-Zeng Lin in arXiv 0911.5371 and 1206.516 showed that BSCCO superconducting crystals are natural Josephson Junctions. A Pentagonal Dipyramid configuration of 16 BSCCO crystals cannot close in flat 3-dim space, but can close if Conformal Dark Energy accumulated in the BSCCO Josephson Junctions curves spacetime. Such spacetime curvature allows construction of a Conformal Gravity Alcubierre Warp Drive that does not need Exotic Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1605.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 00:20:00*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Given a unification candidate which is both inefficient and non-optimal will the experimental physics have validity with all such candidates?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[75] **viXra:1605.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 02:55:23*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper possible completion of the Robinson non-Archimedean field *R constructed by Dedekind sections. As interesting example I show how, a
few simple ideas from non-archimedean analysis on the pseudo-ring *R_d gives a short clear nonstandard reconstruction for the Euler’s original proof of the Goldbach-Euler theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1605.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 13:47:14*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some hypotheses on the origin of life on earth

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[73] **viXra:1605.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 07:19:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Scheme To Find Primes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[72] **viXra:1605.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 08:59:02*

**Authors:** Victor Vaguine

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A systematic analysis of the simplest quantum optics experiment of linearly polarized photons with a beam-splitter leads to several quantum enigmas, which cannot be explained on the basis of quantum positivism or quantum optics. The fact that photons demonstrate under the "No-Click" conditions non-physical interactions at detector shows that quantum mechanics paradigm is deficient. The study raises philosophical, foundational, and paradigmatic issues with respect to limitations of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[71] **viXra:1605.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 14:20:51*

**Authors:** Katarina Barukčić, Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 13 Pages. C) Katarina Barukčić, Sofia, Bulgaria and Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 4, 1042-1053. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46109

Although many studies have found a kind of a relationship between an Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), a fundamental aspect of this relationship remain uncertain. What is the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS)? In this study, we re-analysed the data as published by Wandinger et al. and were able to establish the new insight that without an Ep-stein–Barr virus (EBV) infection no development of multiple sclerosis (MS) is possible. Furthermore, we determined a highly significant causal relationship between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and multiple sclerosis. Altogether, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of multiple sclerosis (p-value 0,0004251570).

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[70] **viXra:1605.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 09:23:19*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I hypothesize a common cure for genetic diseases and cancer

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[69] **viXra:1605.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 09:24:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Researchers from the Department of Applied Mathematics and the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo have developed a versatile new way of controlling quantum systems that can affect the reliability of experiments. [14] A team around Dr. Stephan Dürr from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Prof. Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now demonstrated in an experiment how an important gate operation – the exchange of the binary bit values 0 and 1 – can be realized with single photons. [13] A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[68] **viXra:1605.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 04:11:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team of researchers at CSIRO Manufacturing, in Australia has created several test quantum filters with arrays having as many as 20,000 Josephson junctions. In their paper published in Superconductor Science and Technology, the team describes their filters, how they were constructed, tuned and tested and several applications that they believe may benefit from their use. [27]
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[67] **viXra:1605.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 05:01:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] **viXra:1605.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 01:32:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A team around Dr. Stephan Dürr from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Prof. Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now demonstrated in an experiment how an important gate operation – the exchange of the binary bit values 0 and 1 – can be realized with single photons. [13] A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[65] **viXra:1605.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 02:24:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[64] **viXra:1605.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 20:10:49*

**Authors:** Adel Sadeq

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The simulation programs links are in color at the end of each section.

In This essay I shall derive the laws of nature from a simple mathematical system from a postulate that reality is indeed a mathematical structure. The system can be simulated by a computer program to generate many results that agree with Quantum mechanics. Also I will show that the system can be put in regular more familiar mathematical formalism. The postulate lead to assume particles are made of random lines were one end originates in a small region representing the particle and it extends to all other points in space and some ending on other particles. The points are really nothing but random numbers, hence reality is nothing but some relation between random numbers. Moreover, the lines are responsible for the interaction by a process of crossing or not crossing or meeting.The start point and the end point of these lines define space and the length of the line is interpreted as energy, time is just a change of state. The system unifies space, time, matter, energy and interaction, all in one coherent picture, so particles and the laws of nature governing them appear naturally. The simulations generate some basic Quantum Mechanics results and the 1/r law as in quantum field Theory. There are many other results such as the hydrogen 1s level where the universal constants like c, h, e and their relation that lead to Fine Structure constant automatically fall out of the simulation. Two such simulations are carried out; one is Bohr like model and the other Schrodinger like equations solution and show the equivalency. Also, the mass of the electron appear naturally using a simulation which is an extension of the Bohr model which in turn leads to the predicting the size of the proton. The system automatically displays the non-local behavior and explains the EPR in simple terms and shows the origin of spin. Some interesting formulas connecting proton to electron mass ratio, FSC and electron g-factor are produced. While it is shown that coulomb potential is produced by line crossing, Gravity appears when lines meet at a region of Planck's length(gravity needs more investigation).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1605.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 17:14:04*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We observe that the Standard Model's fermions can be mapped onto a 7-bit pattern, and that these bits can be used to calculate the various charges (color, weak isospin, hypercharge, and electromagnetic) for these particles. A geometrical object, the trihepton, is proposed as means of understanding where the pattern of fermions and the simple formulas for the charges come from. Its relationship with the Fano plane from projective geometry is considered. Issues and implications of the model are discussed. A fourth generation of fermions with spin 3/2 and absolute charge (2, 5/3, 4/3, 1) is hypothesized, and it is also suggested that there may be bosons associated with neutrino oscillation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[62] **viXra:1605.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 20:46:51*

**Authors:** Abhilash Janardhanan Pillai

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Weber’s equation of electrodynamics predicts a force which is proportional to the second order of relative velocity between charges in motion. However it is still debated on the existence of this force. This article proposes an experiment that could detect and measure this force.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1605.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 21:29:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: It has been almost a year since I updated the cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory. The best starting point is the big bang. At this point our universe was the smallest it could be because gravity was active but all matter was in the special-entity form of fermibosons, which had effectively zero mass, and no big crunch could take place. Instead, the universe grew until it reached its present gigantic size and the fermibosons mostly disintegrated back into fermions and negative mc^2 dark matter. The dark matter eventually annihilated, producing 40 GEV gamma radiation and simple expansion of space. Someday the expansion will end: there will be a contraction (not a crunch) of the universe and the cycle will repeat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1605.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 02:22:44*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

1)Equations of Euler product multiplied by PI, the equation for the area of a circle.
2) All these equations become concentric.
3) Is the Riemann Zeta function can be represented as a sum of an infinite number of simple sin, cos waves by Fourier transform.
4) And sine curve and cosine curve in circular motion, all in concentric circles that share the same center line.
5) Non-trivial Riemann zero was zero and area of a circle of sin and cosine curve that is equivalent to the Riemann Zeta-function
To be equivalent.
6) And the area of a circle of sine curve and cosine curve to zero all become concentric axis of rotation (1/2 straight).
7) This is Riemann's "line other than zero point does not exist" would prove that. And Honjo expected.

**Category:** Number Theory

[59] **viXra:1605.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 03:08:04*

**Authors:** Hans-G. Hildebrandt

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Electrons and positrons are elementary particles in the original sense of this word. There is a possibility to explain the whole world of particles and atomic nuclei by using electron and positron as elementary components. This dual particles interact at high energies to light particles, e.g. light mesons, which are the sub-structural particles of heavier particles and atomic nuclei. The result of this view is a consistent structure of all particles and atomic nuclei and explantion of their manifold interactions. Particles e.g. quarks do not have to be proven for validating this description of this part of reality.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[58] **viXra:1605.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 10:53:29*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent from their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be associated with an increase in their angular frequencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1605.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-02 15:22:33*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** 29 Pages. in Polish.

Kauffman hypothesis “Life on the edge of chaos” is here deeply reinterpreted and takes a new form “Life evolves in half-chaos”. Criticism of interpretative assumptions of Kauffman model is expressed. Also basis of expectation that living objects should be modelled as chaotic systems with strongly increased stability (“half-chaotic”), mainly by negative feedbacks, are shown. Using simulation is proved, that such systems exist and may be constructed. They simultaneously express in similar degree ordered and chaotic reaction on small perturbation. In this state there are only a very small and very large changes, there are no middle changes which defines a small change in a natural way. Using acceptation only a small changes of system functioning, evolution does not drive out of this state which defines the identity of the evolving object.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[56] **viXra:1605.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-07 06:39:50*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is all cycle case resolve.But sequence goes to infinity case I can not prove not possibillity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[55] **viXra:1605.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 18:31:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A diagram with explanation is given so that people understand where the bridges are formed with the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. The bridges will be expanded as theory development continues without any acknowledgement from establishment.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[54] **viXra:1605.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 06:40:52*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Version 7 in English.

This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1605.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 10:55:15*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we show how Einstein's relativity of simultaneity is fully consistent with anisotropic one-way speed of light. We get the same end result and observations as predicted by Einstein, but with a very different interpretation. We show that the relativity of simultaneity is an apparent effect due to an Einstein clock synchronization error, which is rooted in assuming that the one-way speed of light is the same as the well-tested round-trip speed of light. Einstein's relativity of simultaneity leads to several bizarre paradoxes recently introduced by Haug (2016a, 2016b).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1605.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 11:34:05*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A fusion of prime number and quantum physics.(1)
This figure shows a prime number of the Lehman expectation and the relations with 0 points.
The zeta function is expressed as the sum of simple sin function and cosine function.
The complicated period function is expressed for the sum of sin function and cosine function that are the mathematical expression of a simple wave.

**Category:** Number Theory

[51] **viXra:1605.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 11:57:44*

**Authors:** Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Damien Hanlon, Joao Coelho, Sean O' Brien, Henrik Pettersson, Jonathan Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

2D a-MoO3 was synthesized using a facile, inexpensive and scalable liquid-phase exfoliation method. 2D a-MoO3/SWCNT (85 wt%/15 wt%) composite films were manufactured by vacuum filtration and their energy storage properties were investigated in a LiClO4/propylene carbonate electrolyte in a 1.5 V to 3.5 V vs. Li+/Li electrochemical window. Cyclic voltammetry showed typical ion intercalation peaks of a-MoO3 and a capacitance of 200 F/g was achieved at 10 mV/s and 82 F/g at 50 mV/s. The composite electrodes achieved a capacitive charge storage of 375 C/g and a diffusion-controlled maximum charge storage of 703 C/g. The latter being superior to the charge storage achieved by previously reported mesoporous a-MoO3, produced using more cumbersome multi-step templating methods, and a-MoO3 nanobelts . This superior Li-ion intercalation charge storage was attributed to the shorter ion-transport paths of 2D a-MoO3 as compared to other nanostructures. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed a maximum charge storage of 123.0 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

**Category:** Chemistry

[50] **viXra:1605.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-11 10:14:37*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are postulated to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[49] **viXra:1605.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:05:38*

**Authors:** J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we design a model based on adjustable and mean potentiality approach to single valued neutrosophic level soft sets. Further, we introduce the notion of weighted single valued neutrosophic soft set and investigate its application in decision making.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[48] **viXra:1605.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:07:03*

**Authors:** Chunfang Liu, YueSheng Luo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Interval-valued neutrosophic set (INS) is a
generalization of fuzzy set (FS) that is designed for some practical situations in which each element has different truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function and falsity membership function and permits the membership degrees to be expressed by interval values.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[47] **viXra:1605.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:08:47*

**Authors:** Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper investigates an extended grey relational analysis method for multiple attribute decision making problems under interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic environment. Interval neutrosophic uncertain
linguistic variables are hybridization of uncertain linguistic variables and interval neutrosophic sets and they can easily express the imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent
information which normally exist in real life situations.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[46] **viXra:1605.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:09:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We have introduced for the first time the
degree of dependence (and consequently the degree of independence) between the components of the fuzzy set, and also between the components of the neutrosophic set in our 2006 book’s fifth edition. Now we extend it for the first time to the refined neutrosophic set considering the degree of dependence or independence of subcomponets.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[45] **viXra:1605.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:11:04*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Many results have been obtained on isolated
graphs and complete graphs. In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition will be proved for a single valued neutrosophic graph to be an isolated single valued neutrosophic graph.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[44] **viXra:1605.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:12:42*

**Authors:** Gaurav, Megha Kumar, Kanika Bhutani, Swati Aggarwal

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper employs a new soft computing based
methodology for identifying and analyzing the relationships among the causes and implications of the two challenging problems in India: unbalanced sex ratio and poverty.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[43] **viXra:1605.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:13:56*

**Authors:** Nouran Radwan, M. Badr Senousy, Alaa El Din M. Riad

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper reviews some of the multivalued
logic models which are fuzzy set, intuitionistic
fuzzy set, and suggests a new approach which is neutrosophic set for handling uncertainty in expert systems to derive decisions. The paper highlights, compares and clarifies the differences of these models in terms of the application area of problem solving.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[42] **viXra:1605.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:15:14*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Sania Afzal

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper we have defined neutrosophic ideals,
neutrosophic interior ideals, netrosophic quasi-ideals and neutrosophic bi-ideals (neutrosophic generalized bi-ideals) and proved some results related to them.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[41] **viXra:1605.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:16:41*

**Authors:** Nasir Shah, Asim Hussain

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose a new type of
graph called neutrosophic soft graphs. We have established a link between graphs and neutrosophic soft sets. Basic operations of neutrosophic soft graphs such as union, intersection and complement are defined here. The concept of strong neutrosophic soft graphs is also discussed in this paper.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[40] **viXra:1605.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:18:07*

**Authors:** Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper proposes neutrosophic soft
multi-attribute decision making based on grey relational projection method. Neutrosophic soft sets is a combination of neutrosophic sets and soft sets and it is a new mathematical apparatus to deal with realistic problems in the fields of medical sciences, economics, engineering, etc.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[39] **viXra:1605.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:22:55*

**Authors:** Huda E. Khalid

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article sheds light on the possibility of finding the minimum solution set of neutrosophic relational geometric programming with (max, min) composition. This work examines the privacy enjoyed by both neutrosophic logic and geometric programming, and how it affects the minimum solutions. It is the first attempt to solve this type of problems.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[38] **viXra:1605.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-12 19:47:20*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Lorentz transformation handles oblique frames of reference. Regarding to the oblique frame of reference system, investigation about scaling and distance is required for clear understanding how the Lorentz transformation can be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1605.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a new way to synchronize clocks distanced apart and a way to synchronize clocks between reference frames. Based on a simple synchronization thought experiment, we claim that relativity of simultaneity must be incomplete. Einstein's special relativity theory predicts relativity of simultaneity and that two events that happen simultaneously in one reference frame will not happen simultaneously as observed from another reference frame. Relativity of simultaneity is directly linked to a particular way of synchronizing clocks (Einstein-Poincar\'{e} synchronization) that again assumes that the one-way speed of light is isotropic and identical with the well-tested round-trip speed of light. In the new thought experiment introduced here, there is reason to believe that two distant events can happen simultaneously in both frames. Still, we agree that these events will not happen simultaneously as measured with Einstein synchronized clocks. The claim here is that Einstein synchronized clocks lead to apparent relativity of simultaneity due to a clock synchronization error rooted in the assumption of isotropic one-way speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1605.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 17:55:16*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Policy, Resolution, and Outcome.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1605.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 21:57:26*

**Authors:** Jiang-Min Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages. pedagogical lecture note for my quantum-mechanics course

Fermi's golden rule is of great importance in quantum dynamics. However, in many textbooks on quantum mechanics, its contents and limitations are obscured by the approximations and arguments in the derivation, which are inevitable because of the generic setting considered. Here we propose to introduce it by an ideal model, in which the quasi-continuum band consists of equaldistant levels extending from $-\infty $ to $+\infty $, and each of them couples to the discrete level with the same strength. For this model, the transition probability in the first order perturbation approximation can be calculated analytically by invoking the Poisson summation formula. It turns out to be a \emph{piecewise linear} function of time, demonstrating on one hand the key features of Fermi's golden rule, and on the other hand that the rule breaks down beyond the Heisenberg time, even when the first order perturbation approximation itself is still valid.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:1605.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:30:36*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The neutron is the kernel having an electron shell and positron contents

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1605.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:37:18*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Unilateral impact of the Sun on her is the reason of inadequacy of the parties of the Moon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[32] **viXra:1605.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:44:47*

**Authors:** Marian Dragoi, Ciprian Palaghianu

**Comments:** 8 pages, 4 figures, language: Romanian (abstract in English)

Group decision makers making process - an analytic hierarchy approach
The paper deals with a step-wise analytic hierarchy process (AHP) applied by a
group of decision makers wherein nobody has a dominant position and it is unlikely to
come to terms with respect to either the weights of different objectives or expected utilities
of different alternatives. One of the AHP outcomes, that is the consistency index is
computed for each decision maker, for all other decision makers but that one, and for the
whole group. Doing so, the group is able to assess to which extent each decision maker
alters the group consistency index and a better consistency index could be achieved if the
assessment procedure is being resumed by the most influential decision maker in terms of
consistency.
The main contribution of the new approach is the algorithm presented in as a flow
chart where the condition to stop the process might be either a threshold value for the
consistency index, or a given number of iterations for the group or decision maker,
depending on the degree to which the targeted goal has been decomposed into conflictual
objectives.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[31] **viXra:1605.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:43:15*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Illusion of abnormal increase in speed of the wind Venery is created due to reduction of thickness of her atmosphere and existence of a horizontal component of gravitation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[30] **viXra:1605.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:51:00*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The horizon of events of the Black hole is a power cover of the White hole.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[29] **viXra:1605.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 02:36:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1605.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 03:54:15*

**Authors:** James Russell Farmer

**Comments:** 115 Pages. A precursor to this work, of the same title, was published in the Toth-Maatian Review, Lubbock, Texas, Editor Harold Willis Milnes, in three installments, 1990-93. Quantisation via use of Fourier transform common to both papers.

Einstein explained Planck’s law by hypothesizing that a radiation field consists of photons, whose energy is in proportion to the frequency of the radiation and whose quantity is in proportion to the electromagnetic intensity. In this paper, classical electrodynamics has been quantized in this fashion by starting with the Fourier transform frequency spectrum and using the non-relativistic Doppler shift formulae.
Because this paper presents a quantum theory, it has been necessary to introduce the electromagnetic duality. It has been considered that insofar as an electron is a quantum of electric charge, the positron is a quantum of magnetic charge. Then the anti-matter solution of Dirac’s and Feynman’s QED becomes a magnetic monopole. Instead of just four equations of electromagnetism, we are forced to consider eight equations, and explain the consequences of this.
We then conclude that photons consist of fermions, (electrons, positrons) travelling on pilot electromagnetic waves. Although photons are therefore electrically or magnetically charged, they do not interact with electromagnetic fields, as the Lorentz force is negated insofar as the electric and magnetic amplitudes are orthogonal to each other and to the propagation vector.
Insofar as there are two kinds of Doppler shift, relativistic and non-relativistic, we show how the relativistic formulae relate to our frequency spectrum.
Chemical and biological consequences of the theory are examined, specifically in regard to the Diels-Alder [4+ 2] cyclo-addition reaction, (Chemistry), and the cowpea phosphatase functionality, (Biology).
4-vectors are discussed, and two new 4-vectors introduced, and it is shown that an electromagnetic flux tube, as observed in solar flares and in terrestrial electromagnetic circuits, is a consequence of the existence of the space-time 4-vector.
Finally, the weak and strong nuclear forces are introduced as thermodynamic consequences of the electromagnetic duality presented in this paper, the transfer of enthalpy and entropy. In this respect, we have the unification of particle physics and thermodynamics.
A final point of note is that insofar as photons consist of electric and magnetic quanta propagating on “pilot” electromagnetic waves, the speed of propagation can be ascertained from two of the Maxwell and Maxwell-dual equations, the electric divergence equation and the magnetic divergence equation. This is because, obviously, if we know the radius of an electron or positron, and we know the spin of these fermions from quantum mechanics, then we know the propagation velocity, c = 1 / (ε0μ0)½, where 1/ε0 is the proportionality constant for the electric divergence and μ0 is the proportionality constant for the magnetic divergence. In the non-dual classical electromagnetism of Maxwell, all four of the non-dual equations are required to ascertain the speed of the electromagnetic propagation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1605.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 08:10:28*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Five notes related with the number pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[26] **viXra:1605.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 17:43:15*

**Authors:** Donald Bowen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

When analyzing an Electron’s orbit’s and movements, a “classical” bare g-factor of “1” must be used, but when analyzing just the Electron itself, A bare g-factor and gyromagnetic ratio of twice the “classical” value is needed to fit reality. Nobody has yet explained this. By examining the electromagnetic nature of the electron it is possible to show a simple reason why it’s bare g-factor must be 2, without resorting to superluminal velocities or dismissing it as mystically intrinsic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1605.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 18:29:22*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What to do when there is a lack of bonding between D-variants?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[24] **viXra:1605.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:13:07*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 180 Pages.

We approach several themes of classical geometry of the circle and complete them with some original results, showing that not everything in traditional math is revealed, and that it still has an open character. The topics were chosen according to authors aspiration and attraction, as a poet writes lyrics about spring according to his emotions.

**Category:** Geometry

[23] **viXra:1605.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:14:32*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 151 Pages.

The purpose of this book is to show that the method of concatenation can be a powerful tool in
number theory and, in particular, in obtaining possible infinite sequences of primes.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[22] **viXra:1605.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:16:32*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 257 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time define a special type of fixed points using MOD rectangular matrices as operators. In this case the special fixed points or limit cycles are pairs which
is arrived after a finite number of iterations. Such study is both new and innovative for it can find lots of applications in mathematical modeling.

**Category:** Algebra

[21] **viXra:1605.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:17:45*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 202 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time introduce a special type of fixed points using MOD square matrix operators. These special type of fixed points are different from the usual classical
fixed points.

**Category:** Algebra

[20] **viXra:1605.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:19:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache - Editor-in-Chief

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics
that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[19] **viXra:1605.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 12:04:46*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An overview of gays in the military is given.

**Category:** Social Science

[18] **viXra:1605.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 12:46:50*

**Authors:** Slim hannachi

**Comments:** 133 Pages. Cloud Computer

IAAS

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[17] **viXra:1605.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 07:03:09*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[16] **viXra:1605.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 07:29:37*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain with Hesitancy degree. Hesitancy degree is the fourth component of Neutrosophic set. The goal is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[15] **viXra:1605.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 08:41:10*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The great economic growth paradox is unveiled, from a sustainable point of view.

**Category:** Social Science

[14] **viXra:1605.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 04:38:44*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The goal of an Image Retrieval System is to retrieve images that are relevant to the user's request from a large image collection. In this paper we present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain. The aim is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[13] **viXra:1605.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 05:34:51*

**Authors:** Yakov A. Iosilevskii

**Comments:** 34 Pages. An additional category is "Mathematics: Set Theory and Logic"

There are two presently common onamastic (onomatological) methods of logographically naming and thus concisely describing an algebraic system; both methods are often used simultaneously. According to one method, an algebraic system is equivocally denoted by an atomic logographic symbol that originally denotes a certain underlying set of elements, which is regarded as the principal one, while all other objects of the algebraic system, properly named, are kept in mind and are regarded as implicit properties of that set or of its separate elements. That is to say, according to this method, an algebraic system is its principal underlying set of elements together with all its properties, which are implied and are not mentioned explicitly. According to the other method, an algebraic system is regarded as an ordered multiple, whose coordinates properly denote the defining objects of the algebraic system, and consequently the ordered multiple name is equivocally used as a proper name of the algebraic system. Thus, in this case, the togetherness of all constituents of the algebraic system is expressed by the pertinent ordered multiple name in terms of its coordinate names. In my recent article available at http://viXra.org/abs/1604.0124¸ I have demonstrated that both above onomastic methods are inconsistent. Therefore, in that article and also in my earlier article appearing at http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.00328, I suggested and used another onomastic method of logographically naming the pertinent algebraic systems, namely that employing, as a name of an algebraic system, a complex logographic name the union of all explicit constituent sets of the system, namely, the underlying sets of elements, the surjective binary composition functions, and the bijective singulary inversion functions; a function is a set (class) of ordered pairs. In the present article, the latter onomastic method is substantiated and generalized in two respects. First, the set of explicit constituent sets of an algebraic system is now extended to include the injective choice, or selection, functions of all additive and multiplicative identity elements of the algebraic system, belonging to its underlying sets, so that all those elements are now mentioned by the logographic name of the system. A general definition of an algebraic system is elaborated in such a way so as to make the new onomastic method universally applicable to any algebraic system.

**Category:** Algebra

[12] **viXra:1605.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 03:36:15*

**Authors:** Shiwani Dod

**Comments:** 6 Pages. SSRN Electronic Journal

Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[11] **viXra:1605.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 22:04:42*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘The Forecasting
Model’ to predict One Step Evolution of any Dynamic State System with Large
Number of Parameters.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10] **viXra:1605.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 10:14:30*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Proposed short proof of the fallacy of the ABC assumption
conjecture on the finiteness of the number of "exceptional" triples for r = 2
( "Pythagorean" equation) and other equations, and provides a number of examples.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1605.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 10:16:44*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The proof of the fallacy of the assumption of the ABC conjecture. Russian language.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8] **viXra:1605.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 11:42:34*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The hypothesis of the pulsation principle leads a prime number and physical relations.
The horizon and the pulsation wave pattern of the figure of fusion include profound, enormous physical concepts.
The geometry of all things.
A figure of prime number, physical fusion.
I illustrate an uncertainty principle for the first time.
I solve the mystery of the double slit experiment.

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1605.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-27 08:37:07*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It may be hard to understand Lorentz transformation intuitively because it is derived inductively from the light speed constancy for every inertia systems. Specially the definition of space-axis (time zero line) is unclear although time-axis definition may be reasonable if the Lorentz transformation is recognized as a rotation of frame of reference on the Minkowski space. On such situation, Lorentz transformation may become understandable if the logic of space-axis definition becomes clear. And light speed constancy may not be an axiom, it should be what to be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1605.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:35:49*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.

**Category:** Geophysics

[3] **viXra:1605.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 00:22:18*

**Authors:** Kohji Suzuki

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We provide answers to two questions raised in Math Problems (Twitter: @mathprobs). Pertinent codes are also included.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[2] **viXra:1605.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 03:20:17*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 6 pages

We study the relation between the Kochen-Specker theorem (the KS theorem) and
quantum computing.
The KS theorem rules out a realistic theory of the KS type.
We consider the realistic theory of the KS type
that the results of
measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the controllability of quantum computing.
We have to give up the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the observability of quantum computing.
We discuss
the
inconsistency by using the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to a Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
the realistic theory of the KS type to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a significant specific case.
The realistic theory of the KS type can not depicture quantum detector.
In short, we have to give up both the observability and the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
Therefore the KS theorem is a precondition for quantum computing, i.e.,
the realistic theory of the KS type should be ruled out.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1605.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-02 10:28:42*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Spanish

The General Relativity is a nonlinear theory, this allows the equation of motion of a particle can be deduced from the field equations. The method was developed in 1938 by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann. We present this theory clarifying all calculations and demonstrating the theorems involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology