[82] **viXra:1104.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 4 pages

The SRT frequency shift, time dilation and energy equivalence formulas are
derived from wave structure of matter concepts. The derivation shown removes Einstein’s
requirement for the constancy of the speed of light between reference frames, which is not
necessary in producing the results of the Lorentz transforms. Also, the photon is revealed
to be the interaction between two electron wave centers, not a separate particle, showing a
preference for Tetrode’s concept of a photon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1104.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 9 pages

The cosmological redshift is described by the intersection of
two Hubble spheres, where a Hubble sphere is defined as a
range over which spherical, quantum-waves interact,
specifically Ru = 1.9 x 10^{26} m.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[80] **viXra:1104.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 May 2011*

**Authors:** Diego L Rapoport

**Comments:** 15 pages

We introduce logophysics at the foundations of biology and stereochemistry,
and discuss its bearing in biomembranes and quantum torsion tensegrity structure for
cell biology, proposing a unified logophysics paradigm integrating topological
chemistry and cell biology. We discuss the relations with the differentiation waves in
embryogenesis, and a quantum geometry tensegrity model for the cell splitter,
proposing a codification of the embryological differentiation in terms of the Klein bottle
logic of the genetic code. We propose a new understanding to evolution in terms of the
hyperKlein bottle.

**Category:** Mind Science

[79] **viXra:1104.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-07 10:17:53*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Version-3 removed mistakes in interpretation.

In version-1 for the first time an announcement was made in this paper to have found fundamental evidence for the flyby-anomalies of six satellites earlier investigated by John Anderson and co-workers of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena USA. The central part of this theoretical evidence exists of a ‘dark matter flow’ being the cause of a velocity-change for satellites during their ‘flyby’ along the earth. A formula is given to calculate the velocity-change caused by the dark matter flow. The origin of the evidence is related to a ‘dark energy force formula‘, which is a new force in a new proposed cosmological model describing dark energy and dark matter in a double torus geometry. Version-2 replaces version-1, because I read about new investigation of GPS satellites, which predict dark matter surrounding the earth-equator. In version-2 I cleared an expression without an effect on the original end-result of version-1 and I extended it with the calculation of the energy satellites are feeling from dark matter around the earth-equator. Version-3 makes much better clear that satellites can be used to calculate the dark energy density flow around the earth-equator from the perspective of a new cosmological model: The Double Torus Universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[78] **viXra:1104.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 3 pages

Some people do not believe in Jesus Christ, because he/she does not believe in the New
Testament. He/she thinks that the New Testament contains human voice and does not
belong to God. Here are a few simple arguments discussing why one can trust the New
Testament, and then why one can and should believe in Jesus Christ. This article is intended
to those people who until now postpone their faith because they do not think that the
Scripture is reliable. We hope that you will make up your mind soon after you read this
article, or at least you will begin considering Jesus Christ seriously. This article is presented
in small sections.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[77] **viXra:1104.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 6 pages

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of
FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a
consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to
convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to
explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning
bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[76] **viXra:1104.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 5 pages

In special experiments on slowing down soft electrons from
the energy *E*_{1} at the entry of a narrow slit down
to *E*_{2}<*E*_{1} in the exit there was drawn a conclusion that
the source of the retardation radiation with the energy
Δ*E*_{12}=*E*_{1}–*E*_{2} in the opening
of the narrow slit is not the passing by electrons, but a radiation due to inverse photoelectric
effect of valence electrons in the stationary structure of the edge of the hole. Here we consider
only central-axial flight of electrons via a narrow slit (of the width <0.2 μm) which
generates quanta of light with the energy Δ*E*_{12}. If with the aid of
external electrodes inside a wider slit (>2 μm) to create a field with the same
retardation potential φ=Δ*E*_{12} then despite of the same slowing
down in it of central-axial flying by electrons there will be observed no emission of light
quanta with the energy Δ*E*_{12}. This enables us to interpret in a
different way the mechanism of induced radiation of matter under quantum transitions in it
of particles. It looks such that the flying by electrons excites around themselves spherical
zones of nonlinearity with radius ∼ 0.2 μm. The orbitals (with
energies *E*_{1} and *E*_{2}<*E*_{1})
of stationary valence electrons in the edge of the narrow orifice (of the width < 0.2 μm), falling
in these zones, in accord with the Ritz combination rule gives from the difference of
terms ν_{1}=*E*_{1}/*h* and ν_{2}=*E*_{2}/*h* the
observed in experiments monochromatic radiation of the
frequency ν_{12}=ν_{1}– ν_{2}. The passing of center-axial
electrons via a wider gaps (>2 μm) is not affected by the nonlinearity zones of the orbitals
of stationary valence electrons in the edge of the slit. Thence, despite of the dragging by the
external field of the diaphragm φ=Δ*E*_{12} in this case the flying by
electrons does not radiate at the frequency ν_{12}=Δ*E*_{12}/*h*.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1104.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 May 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 14 pages

The fundaments of quantum physics are still not well established. This paper
tries to find the cracks in these fundaments and suggests repair procedures. This
leads to unconventional solutions and a new model of physics. As part of this
enterprise an underpinning of the existence of strands is provided. Another
innovation is the derivation of a curvature field from the superposition of all
other fields. The most revolutionary introduction is the representation of
dynamics by a sequence of separable Hilbert spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1104.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 16 pages

A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by
a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and
the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. As
a useful way of purchasing, there are many norms and rulers for it in the
purchasing guides of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank,..., also
in contract conditions of various consultant associations. In China, there is
a law and regulation system for tendering and bidding. However, few works
on the mathematical model of a tendering and its evaluation can be found in
publication. The main purpose of this paper is to construct a Smarandache
multi-space model for a tendering, establish an evaluation system for bidding
based on those ideas in the references [7] and [8] and analyze its solution by
applying the decision approach for multiple objectives and value engineering.
Open problems for pseudo-multi-spaces are also presented in the final section.

**Category:** Geometry

[73] **viXra:1104.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 26 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces
equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and
spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on
characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is
on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups,
multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and
multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an
n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including
those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries,
in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as
a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book
considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the
relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for
p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are
clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for
reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of
interested readers (part IV)

**Category:** Geometry

[72] **viXra:1104.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 74 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces
equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and
spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on
characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is
on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups,
multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and
multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an
n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including
those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries,
in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as
a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book
considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the
relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for
p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are
clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for
reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of
interested readers (part III)

**Category:** Geometry

[71] **viXra:1104.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 78 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces
equipped with some different structures for an integer n &t; 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and
spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on
characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is
on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups,
multirings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and
multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an
n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including
those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries,
in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as
a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book
considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the
relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for
p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are
clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for
reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of
interested readers.

**Category:** Geometry

[70] **viXra:1104.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 47 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces
equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and
spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on
characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is
on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups,
multirings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and
multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an
n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including
those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries,
in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as
a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book
considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the
relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for
p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are
clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for
reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of
interested readers.

**Category:** Geometry

[69] **viXra:1104.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 9 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2,...,An
with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache
multispaces with classical metric spaces, the conception of multi-metric space is
introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-metric space are obtained and
Banach’s fixed-point theorem is generalized in this paper.

**Category:** Geometry

[68] **viXra:1104.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 7 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2,...,An
with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multispaces
with linear vector spaces in classical linear algebra, the conception
of multi-vector spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-vector
space are obtained in this paper.

**Category:** Geometry

[67] **viXra:1104.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 8 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2,...,An
with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multispaces
with rings in classical ring theory, the conception of multi-ring spaces
is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-ring space are obtained in this
paper

**Category:** Geometry

[66] **viXra:1104.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 8 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces
A1,A2, ... ,An with some additional conditions holding. Combining classical
of a group with Smarandache multi-spaces, the conception of a
multi-group space is introduced in this paper, which is a generalization
of the classical algebraic structures, such as the group, filed, body,...,
etc.. Similar to groups, some characteristics of a multi-group space are
obtained in this paper.

**Category:** Geometry

[65] **viXra:1104.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 16 pages

As we known, the Seifert-Van Kampen theorem handles
fundamental groups of those topological spaces (see paper)

**Category:** Geometry

[64] **viXra:1104.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 16 pages

For an integer m > 1, a combinatorial manifold fM is defined to be
a geometrical object fM such that for(...) there is a local chart (see paper)
where Bnij is an nij -ball for integers 1 < j < s(p) < m. Integral theory
on these smoothly combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical
results, such as those of Stokes’ theorem and Gauss’ theorem are generalized to
smoothly combinatorial manifolds in this paper.

**Category:** Geometry

[63] **viXra:1104.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 37 pages

For an integer m ≥ 1, a combinatorial manifold fM is defined to be
a geometrical object fM such that for (...), there is a local chart
(see paper)
where Bnij is an nij -ball for integers 1 ≤ j ≤ s(p) ≤ m. Topological
and differential structures such as those of d-pathwise connected, homotopy
classes, fundamental d-groups in topology and tangent vector fields, tensor
fields, connections, Minkowski norms in differential geometry on these finitely
combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results are generalized
to finitely combinatorial manifolds. Euler-Poincare characteristic is discussed
and geometrical inclusions in Smarandache geometries for various geometries
are also presented by the geometrical theory on finitely combinatorial
manifolds in this paper.

**Category:** Geometry

[62] **viXra:1104.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 27 May 2011*

**Authors:** Philip Carter

**Comments:** 23 pages, Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License

A brief history of the ether (aether) is presented, leading up to the proliferation of space-filling fields required
by the current Standard Model of particle physics. The excessive number of fields, along with the
mathematical inconsistency of Quantum Field Theory and the grossly wrong space-density calculation, lead us
to conclude that Quantum Field Theory is built upon a faulty paradigm. An alternative physical model is
presented whereby quantum fields are associated with quantum attributes rather than particle species. This
model is shown to illuminate the mathematical process of quantum measurement while corresponding to
ancient esoteric teachings concerning the classical elements and the ether.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1104.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Philip Carter

**Comments:** 29 pages, Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License

On the basis of acknowledged quantum facts it is argued that the quantum state is extended in four spatial
dimensions in a 4D space interpenetrating our 3D space. The notion of branes is borrowed from M/String
Theory to conceptualize the spatial arrangement. Euclidean spacetime is reinterpreted as the spatial
geometry of the 4-brane, with “imaginary time” reinterpreted as the fourth (imaginary) spatial dimension.
The imaginary axis of the quantum state is identified as its fourth spatial dimension, yielding a natural
union of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics and the emergence of time. Spatial properties are
shown to explain quantum nonlocality, while time in the 3-brane emerges from motion of or through the
imaginary dimension in the 4-brane. A consciousness-model is introduced which conforms to the spatial
configuration while providing mechanisms for resolution of the Measurement Problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1104.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 94 pages, 2 figures. Chapter 3 (considering observable gravitational effects) has been considerably revised.

We consider a system of two free bodies in de Sitter invariant quantum mechanics.
De Sitter invariance is understood such that representation operators satisfy commutation
relations of the de Sitter algebra. Our approach does not involve quantum
field theory, de Sitter space and its geometry (metric and connection). At very large
distances the standard relative distance operator describes a well known cosmological
acceleration. In particular, the cosmological constant problem does not exist and
there is no need to involve dark energy or other fields for solving this problem. At
the same time, for systems of macroscopic bodies this operator does not have correct
properties at smaller distances and should be modified. We propose a modification
which has correct properties, reproduces Newton’s gravity, the gravitational redshift
of light and the precession of Mercury’s perihelion if the width of the de Sitter momentum
distribution δ for a macroscopic body is inversely proportional to its mass m.
We argue that fundamental quantum theory should be based on a Galois field with a
large characteristic p which is a fundamental constant characterizing laws of physics
in our Universe. Then one can give a natural explanation that δ = constR/(mG)
where R is the radius of the Universe (such that λ = 3/R^{2} is the cosmological constant)
and G is a quantity defining Newton’s gravity. A very rough estimation gives
G ~ R/(m_{N}lnp) where mN is the nucleon mass. If R is of order 10^{26}m then lnp is of
order 10^{80} and therefore p is of order exp(10^{80}). In the formal limit p → ∞ gravity
disappears, i.e. in our approach gravity is a consequence of finiteness of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] **viXra:1104.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 25 pages, submitted to Int. Jour. Mod. Phys A.

We explore the many novel physical consequences of Born’s reciprocal Relativity
theory in flat phase-space and to generalize the theory to the curved phase-space
scenario. We provide with six specific novel physical results resulting from
Born’s reciprocal Relativity and which are not present in Special Relativity.
These are : momentum-dependent time delay in the emission and detection of
photons; energy-dependent notion of locality; superluminal behavior; relative
rotation of photon trajectories due to the aberration of light; invariance of
areas-cells in phase-space and modified dispersion relations. We finalize by
constructing a Born reciprocal general relativity theory in curved phase-spaces
which requires the introduction of a complex Hermitian metric, torsion and
nonmetricity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] **viXra:1104.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 17 pages.

The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of decay
observable in nature. Time is a measure by which things happen, the yardstick of
causality and is a fundamental property of the universe. We can deduce from E = mc2 it
is mass that gives an arrow to time and energy that gives it a rate of flow. Flexi-time is
the square root of the energy of the universe divided by its mass (matter less antimatter).
As mass is responsible for gravity, it can be re written as flexi-time is the square root of
the energy of the universe divided by its gravity. The speed of light in a vacuum without
the influence of gravity is infinite. In the real universe, gravity ‘slows’ the photons down.
It is this ‘slowing’ down of photons by gravity that we call time. Time is the notches on
the yardstick of entropy. Gravity is a manifestation of the universe trying to reach its
ground state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1104.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 15 pages.

A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one
Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two
different ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only
invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n-manifold is a
n-manifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provided a construction
for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a
more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces, called map geometries
was presented by the author in [9]-[10] and [12]. However, few observations
for cases of n ≥ 3 are found on the journals. As a kind of Smarandache
geometries, a general way for constructing dimensional n pseudo-manifolds are
presented for any integer n ≥ 2 in this paper. Connection and principal fiber
bundles are also defined on these manifolds. Following these constructions,
nearly all existent geometries, such as those of Euclid geometry,
Lobachevshy-Bolyai geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geometry, Kähler
geometry and Finsler geometry, ...,etc., are their sub-geometries.

**Category:** Geometry

[56] **viXra:1104.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 19 pages.

Combinatorics is a powerful tool for dealing with relations among
objectives mushroomed in the past century. However, an more important work
for mathematician is to apply combinatorics to other mathematics and other
sciences not merely to find combinatorial behavior for objectives. Recently,
such research works appeared on journals for mathematics and theoretical
physics on cosmos. The main purpose of this paper is to survey these thinking
and ideas for mathematics and cosmological physics, such as those of
multi-spaces, map geometries and combinatorial cosmoses, also the
combinatorial conjecture for mathematics proposed by myself in 2005. Some
open problems are included for the 21th mathematics by a combinatorial
speculation.

**Category:** Geometry

[55] **viXra:1104.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 16 pages.

Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry
and its behaviors can be gotten by one’s intuition. But in a planar map
geometry, a kind of the Smarandache geometries, the situation is complex
since it may contains elliptic or hyperbolic points. This paper concentrates on
the behaviors of parallel bundles in planar map geometries, a generalization of
parallel lines in plane geometry and obtains characteristics for parallel bundles.

**Category:** Geometry

[54] **viXra:1104.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 19 pages.

On a geometrical view, the conception of map geometries is introduced,
which is a nice model of the Smarandache geometries, also new kind of
and more general intrinsic geometry of surfaces. Some open problems related
combinatorial maps with the Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries
are presented.

**Category:** Geometry

[53] **viXra:1104.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 21 pages.

In 1994 we discovered the new arithmetic function
*J*_{2}(*ω*). Using it we proved
the binary Goldbach’s theorem [1]. In this chapter
we yield the more detailed proofs of the binary
Goldbach’s theorem using only partial primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1104.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Laurence J. November

**Comments:** 36 pages.

We consider electro-optical constructions in which the Casimir force is
modulated in opposition to piezo-crystal elasticity, as in a stack of alternating tunably
conductive and piezo layers. Adjacent tunably conducting layers tuned to conduct,
attract by the Casimir force compressing the intermediate piezo, but when subsequently
detuned to insulate, sandwiched piezo layers expand elastically to restore their original
dimension. In each cycle some electrical energy is made available from the quantum
zero point (zp). We estimate that the maximum power that could be derived at
semiconductor THz modulation rates is megawatts/cm^{3} !
Similarly a permittivity wave generated by a THz acoustic wave in a single crystal
by the acousto-optic effect produces multiple coherent Casimir wave mode overtones
and a bulk mode. We model the Casimir effect in a sinusoidally graded medium finding
it to be very enhanced over what is found in a multilayer stack for the equivalent
permittivity contrast, and more slowly decreasing with scale, going as the wavelength
1/λ^{2}. Acoustic waves give comparable theoretical power levels of
MW/cm^{3} below normal crystal damage thresholds. Piezo thermodynamic relations
give conditions for effective coupling of the Casimir bulk mode to an external electrical
load. Casimir wave modes may exchange energy with the main acoustic wave too, which may
partially account for THz attenuation seen in materials. We outline feasibility issues
for building a practical crystal power generator.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1104.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 1 page.

The antimatter has not disappeared; it could be anywhere in the universe and in the
same proportion as the matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1104.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 31 pages.

One is reminded in this paper of the often overlooked fact that the geometric
straight line, or GSL, of Euclidean geometry is not necessarily
identical with its usual Cartesian coordinatisation given by the real
numbers in **R**. Indeed, the GSL is an abstract idea, while the Cartesian,
or for that matter, any other specific coordinatisation of it is but
one of the possible mathematical models chosen upon certain reasons.
And as is known, there are a a variety of mathematical models of GSL,
among them given by nonstandard analysis, reduced power algebras,
the topological long line, or the surreal numbers, among others. As
shown in this paper, the GSL can allow coordinatisations which are
arbitrarily more rich locally and also more large globally, being given
by corresponding linearly ordered sets of no matter how large cardinal.
Thus one can obtain in relatively simple ways structures which
are more rich locally and large globally than in nonstandard analysis,
or in various reduced power algebras. Furthermore, vector space
structures can be defined in such coordinatisations. Consequently,
one can define an extension of the usual Differential Calculus. This
fact can have a major importance in physics, since such locally more
rich and globally more large coordinatisations of the GSL do allow
new physical insights, just as the introduction of various microscopes
and telescopes have done. Among others, it and general can reassess
special relativity with respect to its independence of the mathematical
models used for the GSL. Also, it can allow the more appropriate
modelling of certain physical phenomena. One of the long vexing issue
of so called “infinities in physics” can obtain a clarifying reconsideration.
It indeed all comes down to looking at the GSL with suitably
constructed microscopes and telescopes, and apply the resulted new
modelling possibilities in theoretical physics. One may as well consider
that in string theory, for instance, where several dimensions are supposed
to be compact to the extent of not being observable on classical
scales, their mathematical modelling may benefit from the presence of
infinitesimals in the mathematical models of the GSL presented here.
However, beyond all such particular considerations, and not unlikely
also above them, is the following one : theories of physics should be
not only background independent, but quite likely, should also be independent
of the specific mathematical models used when representing
geometry, numbers, and in particular, the GSL.
One of the consequences of considering the essential difference between
the GSL and its various mathematical models is that what appears to
be the definitive answer is given to the intriguing question raised by
Penrose : “Why is it that physics never uses spaces with a cardinal
larger than that of the continuum ?”.

**Category:** Geometry

[49] **viXra:1104.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 pages.

In this study, we present a proof of the Menelaus theorem for
quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, and a proof for the transversal theorem for
triangles.

**Category:** Geometry

[48] **viXra:1104.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Qichang Liang, Yu Liang, Xiaodong Liu

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this work, we describe a wireless power system in which the
distance between the source and receiver is 1/4 of wavelength. The
induced electromotive force (EMF) from the receiver to the source is
phase inverted due to the retardation so that the source absorbs
energy instead of output energy. This system is an energy multiplier
since both source and receiver gain energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1104.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg

**Comments:** 17 pages. The article was published in Physics Essays v. 16, No 2, (2003).

A physical model of the electron is suggested according to
the Basic Structures of Matter (BSM) hypothesis (later published as a
BSM-SG theory). BSM-SG is based on an alternative concept about the
physical vacuum assuming that the space contains underlying superfine
structure of nodes formed of super-dens sub-elementary particles,
which are also involved in the structure of the elementary particles.
The proposed grid structure is formed of vibrating nodes possessing
quantum features and energy well. It is admitted that this
hypothetical structure could be accounted for the missing “dark
matter” in the Universe. The signature of such “dark matter” is
apparent in the galactic rotational curves and in the relation between
masses of the supermassive black whole in the galactic centre and the
host galaxy. The suggested model of the electron possesses oscillation
features with anomalous magnetic moment and embedded signatures of the
Compton wavelength and the fine structure constant. The analysis of
the interactions between the oscillating electron and the nodes of the
vacuum grid structure allows obtaining physical meaning for some
fundamental constants.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[46] **viXra:1104.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-13 11:41:23*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Time is actually an abstract entity which became part of Special Relativity. There has in fact been postulation that time is unreal but just an invention of the intellect. Whether time is an invention or actually real, it cannot be denied that it plays a very important role in our lives, e.g., without a watch to tell us the time practically all of us would be lost in time. This paper takes a look at the philosophical ramifications and difficulties of time, as well as time-travel, and clarifies things.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1104.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Newton accidentally discovered gravity after observing an apple
falling from a tree. What exactly is gravity? This paper takes a
look at gravity, which evidently remains a subject of mystery.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1104.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 May 2011*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 4 pages.

A successful explanation of the actual underlying physical process for an observed phenomenon will lead to the prediction of other
possible scenarios for that process. A new understanding of how the nuclear reactions such as the fission and fusion works leads to
the explanation of other observed anomalies. All the nuclear reactions, including the low energy nuclear reactions, appear to be the
manifestation of the collapse and or expansion of a group of particles.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[43] **viXra:1104.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg

**Comments:** 11 pages. Reported and included in Proceedings of the IX Iternational scientific
conference, Space, Time, Gravitation, Aug 7-11, 2006, St. Petersburg,Russia.

The Basic Structures of Matter - Super Gravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG) unveils the relation between the forces in Nature by adopting the following framework:
- Empty Euclidian space without any physical properties and restrictions
- Two fundamental particles of superdense matter with parameters associated with a Planck’s scale
- A Fundamental law of Super Gravitation (SG) - an inverse cubic law valid in pure empty space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[42] **viXra:1104.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V. D. B. Assis

**Comments:** 6 pages. This paper is reviewed and accepted for publication in Progress in Physics.

We solve the general relativity (GR) field equations under the cosmological scope via one extra postulate. The plausibility of the postulate resides within the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle, being heuristically analysed throughout the appendix. Under this approach, a negative energy density may provide the positive energy content of the universe via fluctuation, since the question of conservation of energy in cosmology is weakened, supported by the known lack of scope of the Noether's theorem in cosmology. The initial condition of the primordial universe turns out to have a natural cutoff such that the temperature of the cosmological substratum converges to the absolute zero, instead of the stablished divergence at the very beginning. The adopted postulate provides an explanation for
the cosmological dark energy open question. The solution agrees with cosmological observations,
including a 2.7K CMBT prediction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1104.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-22 15:16:38*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 19

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF Theory. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprites..

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:1104.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-21 02:11:55*

**Authors:** Marius Arghirescu

**Comments:** 108 Pages. Book: "The Cold Genesis", ISBN: 978-973-1886-57-2, Ed. S.C. INVEL Multimedia S.R.L., Bucharest, 2011

The book argues the possibility of cold genesis of particles and of fundamental fields through a phenomenological approach using the concept of sub-quantum fluid, the theory explaining the elementary particle and the fundamental fields cold genesis with ideal unitary pre-quantum particle’ models of simple or composite chiral soliton type, formed at T→0K from confined “dark energy” in a cascade vortex process, according to the ideal fluids mechanics applied to the particle soliton vortex, in the Protouniverse’ period, by primordial gravstars.
The exponential form of the nuclear potential is theoretically found through a nucleon model of degenerate electrons and an Eulerian expression, as being generated by the vortexial dynamic pressure inside the nucleonic quantum volume. The weak force is explained by a dynamid model of neutron with intrinsic vibration and the particle disintegration are explained as a result of intrinsic vibration of quarks formed as cluster of quasi-electrons.
For a phenomenologic model of cosmic expansion, by the dependency of the G- gravitation constant of the etheronic local density, the physical cause of the cosmic expansion results as a force of pressure difference of etheronic winds coming from the ultrahot stellary structures having an antigravitic charge given by destroyed particles, the speed of expansion resulting with a semi-sinusoidal variation.
The primordial cold genesis of particles and fields results by a gravistar model with self-growing property formed by the primordial “dark energy” and superdense gravistaric seeds.
The theory can explain also the tachyonic neutrins observed in the OPERA experiment and some known magneto-electric and magneto-mechanic effects .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1104.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-07 17:41:15*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. part 3 of 3

Global symmetries are those that apply everywhere, and for all time, such as the electric charge, mass, and spin of an elementary particle. This is a symmetry only because all electrons (for example) everywhere and always have exactly the same electric charge, mass, and spin - any electron could be swapped with any other without causing the least disturbance to the universe. Other global symmetries include the value of the universal electromagnetic constant "velocity c", the value of the universal gravitational constant "G", the value of Planck's energy quantum (h), among many others. These physical constants or physical global symmetries never change and are determined, fixed, set, or "gauged" at the beginning of the universe. They are the defining parameters of our universe, distinguishing it from any other in the "Multiverse".
Local symmetries, on the other hand, involve actual changes in a single particle from one globally conserved symmetry state to another, as in the decay of a single neutron to a proton, electron, and electron anti-neutrino. In such a decay, all the original charges must reappear (in some form) in the product particles, and both the original and product particles must themselves be members of some global symmetry set or state. Finally, such locally gauged symmetry changes are, at least in principle, reversible given sufficient energy. Local gauge symmetry interactions involve post-"Big Bang" interactions between particles (or dimensions), and are mediated by the field vectors of the four forces of physics. They are the conserved interactions between particles (or the metric) that produce the common environment of our daily experience.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[38] **viXra:1104.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 29 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 4 pages.

The galaxy rotation problem is the discrepancy between the observed rotation speeds of
matter in the disk portions of spiral galaxies and the predictions of Newtonian
dynamics considering the known mass. However, gravitational time dilation from the
outside in enables galaxies and the space they occupy to rotate as one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1104.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Yury N. Bratkov

**Comments:** 4 pages - English. 4 pages - Russian Edited from Vernadsky / Brown microsymposium-46 on comparative planetology, Moscow, 2-3 October 2007.

An exact multiring structure on the Earth is described. The center of concentric rings is Yaroslavl city at Great
Russian Plane. Elements of rings are: 1) the highest summits of big mountain ranges, 2) important civilization
centers. Some comparing with Mars and Venus is given. Embedding of integer-valued distances is discussed.

**Category:** Geophysics

[36] **viXra:1104.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 99 pages in Italian.

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations.
It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."

Il Paradossismo e’ movimento di avanguardia in letteratura, arte, filosofia, scienza fondato sull’uso eccessivo delle antitesi, antinomie, contraddidizioni, parabole, differenze, paradossi. Esso e’ stato fondato e guidato dallo scrittore Florentin Smarandache fin dal 1980, quando disse: lo scopo e’ un allargamento della sfera artistica attraverso elementi non artistici. Ma specialmente la creazione del contro-tempo, contro-senso. E anche attraverso l’esperimento.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1104.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 16 pages.

Starting from the infrared limit of Yang-Mills theory, we introduce here a Higgs-free model in which
symmetry breaking arises from critical behavior near dimension four. Electroweak bosons develop mass
near the Wilson-Fisher point of Renormalization Group flow. The family structure of Standard Model is
recovered using the technique of “epsilon expansion”. We also find that dimensional regularization offers a straightforward solution to the cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[34] **viXra:1104.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Cameron Rout, Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 28 pages. This submission is a revised version of the paper appearing in the Proceedings of the 2011 Western Conference of the Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers.

This paper presents an analytical solution to the geometry of large rotating
systems which reconciles the peculiar rotation profiles of distant galaxies with Einstein's
principle of General Relativity. The resulting mathematical solution shows that large
rotating systems are distorted in the space of a non-rotating observer into a spiral
pattern with tangential velocities that behave in agreement with those observed in distant
galaxies. This paper also demonstrates how the scale of the spiral structure of rotating
systems can be used to determine its distance from the observer. The authors' proposed
equations for the rotation prole and the distance measure are compared with
the observed rotation proles and Cepheid distance measurements of several galaxies
with strong agreement. A formal error analysis is not included however the authors
suggest a method for better qualifying the accuracy of the theorums.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1104.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Adolf Schulten suggested that Tartessos-Tarshish was the model for Plato's
Atlantis. I argued that its capital was situated in what is now the Marisma
de Hinojos within the central part of the Andalucian Donana National Park
in south-west Spain. This article reports about the preliminary results of an
archaeological expedition to test this theory. The preliminary results of the
expedition include evidence of either a tsunami or a storm flood during the
third millenium BC and evidence of human settlements from the Neolithic Age
to the Middle Ages.

**Category:** Archaeology

[32] **viXra:1104.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 23 pages.

The first purpose of this chapter is to describe the influence of physical vacuum (PV) on the
characteristics of particles (e.g. electron) and their interactions. Our second purpose is to show
that all methods of calculation of this influence, which are used in quantum field theory (QFT),
can be represented in electromagnetic (EM) form within the framework of nonlinear theory of
elementary particles (NTEP).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[31] **viXra:1104.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Hamid Reza Karimi

**Comments:** 2 pages.

This paper is using the theory of quantized time - length and a new model of
internal structure of elementary particles by my expression [1] to solve Einstein twin's
paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1104.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-04 03:08:49*

**Authors:** Vatolin Dm.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Russian

Are the observations, as if confirming the existence of elementary particles, only a certain interpretation of the observer? Does the theory, that sequentially denies particles existence, contradict with observations and internal logic? The hypothesis is that sometimes we register the "particles" only due to the way of observation, but in fact we take the energy from continuous wave field. "Objective isolation of particles" may be done without any experimenter assistance, but even in this case "particles" are just different dynamical field state. We interpret the transitions between the native states of a wave field as a "birth" or "disappearance" of particles. Sometimes we observe field energy splashing, like "sprays", as "particles tracks". According to the hypothesis, "randomness" in "particles" detection is related to the statistical nature of the "wave receivers" work. For instance, "receivers" in the form of multiple "atoms" with a probability depending on the intensity of the reference wave can pull out just such small portions of reference wave, which lead to eigenstates of "atoms", which is interpreted as "capture of particles".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1104.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 15 pages.

A conceptual model is created for the composition of quarks and the
internal structure of the proton and neutron. In this model the charge of a
quark indicates the number of hyff (force lines) it emits. Cordus also
explains the colour and provides a mechanism for the strong interaction
(both the attraction and repulsive components). The model also explains
why parity violation occurs. A new concept of the ‘level of assembly’ is
introduced and used to explain mass excess and why smaller particuloids
have greater mass. Cordus also predicts non-conservation of mass.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[28] **viXra:1104.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 14 pages.

Gravitation is conceptually problematic to General Relativity and Quantum
mechanics in that the fundamental mechanisms are unknown to both, and
the theories have different requirements that are difficult to reconcile into
a single model. Cordus gravitation offers a solution to the problem. It
provides a mechanism whereby gravitation is not continuous but in
discrete force (or displacement) increments similar to quanta (but not
uniform increments). Also, the closing force between two masses is
transient. In this idea, gravitation, and therefore also mass, is a
discontinuous property: i.e. a particuloid emits gravity (has mass) at some
moments but not others. Thus gravitation is an effect that a mass does to
the whole universe, not to targeted other bodies, and in this regard Cordus
is consistent with General relativity. Both QM and Cordus agree that
gravitation is quantised. Cordus conceptually integrates the different
effects of mass: Gravitation is a particuloid contributing hyff to the fabric;
Newtonian mass is resistance of the reactive ends to unexpected
displacement; Relativistic mass is decreasing efficacy of hyff engagement
with the fabric as velocity of the reactive end increases; Momentum is a
frequency mechanism that ensures the reactive end re-energises on-time
and in-place; particuloids like nucleons have mass to the extent that they
have frequency. Furthermore, Cordus offers an explanation of how time
arises at a sub-atomic level by the cordus frequency, and how this
aggregates to the sense of time that we perceive biologically. Thus Cordus
offers a radically new way of thinking about the problem of gravitation,
mass and time that is quite unlike conventional physics, yet includes
concepts that might be recognisable to those other physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[27] **viXra:1104.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 8 pages.

The concept of the vacuum is problematic for conventional physics.
Electromagnetic wave theory models it as consisting of nothing at all, but
yet paradoxically having finite electric and magnetic constants. Quantum
mechanics models it as consisting of temporary particles, but no average
substance. General Relativity theory includes a spacetime medium,
without describing the composition. In all cases the underlying physical
mechanisms are obscure. Furthermore, these existing perspectives conflict
in their expectations, so the integration is poor. The treatment is not
always logical either: conventional theories find the idea of the matterbased
aether thoroughly unacceptable, yet ironically all include something
that looks conceptually much like a medium. The Cordus conjecture
provides a conceptual solution for the composition of the vacuum: it
provides a fabric that is granular (similar to quantised) at the smallest
scale, scales up to a continuum, provides a medium for propagation of
disturbances and waves, provides a medium for electromagnetism and
gravitation, is relativistic, is not a matter aether, and includes a time
signal. In the cordus solution the vacuum is made of tangled hyff (force
lines) from all the surrounding matter particuloids. This cordus fabric
concept also provides a descriptive explanation as to why the speed of light
is a finite value. The fine structure constant is given a physical
interpretation, as a measure of the transmission efficacy of the fabric.
Cordus also distinguishes between the fabric that makes up the vacuum of
space, as opposed to the void which has neither fabric nor time as we
perceive it. This model is radically unorthodox in suggesting that the speed
of light is relativistic but not invariant; that it depends fundamentally on
the fabric density and hence the accessible mass density of the universe at
that locality.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[26] **viXra:1104.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 17 pages.

The Cordus conjecture is extended to create a conceptual model for
electromagnetic fields. The resulting model shows how a cordus particuloid
generates small transient units of force at the sub-atomic level, thereby
creating the apparently smooth and continuous electric field that we more
commonly perceive. Cordus also reconceptualises how magnetism is
generated at the sub-atomic level, and likewise explains how the
granularity arises. It is shown that the electric field cannot be shielded, only
neutralised. Cordus electromagnetism is applied to explain the electric field
surrounding a wire carrying current, the locus of moving test charges in a
magnetic field, and the mechanism for how force arises in permanent
magnets. The contribution made by this paper is a description of
electromagnetism that goes to the next deeper level: it explains the
underlying mechanisms for how the forces arise. Also, it provides a
mechanism for fields to be granular and directional at the small scale, but
smooth and continuous at larger scale.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[25] **viXra:1104.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 10 pages.

Quantum mechanics is the dominant conceptual foundation for
fundamental physics. Nonetheless there are effects that it does not explain,
or explains only by reference to metaphysical effects. While many have
wondered whether there could be a more-complete explanation, the
solution has been elusive. Cordus suggests that the necessary deeper
mechanics is only accessible by abandoning the premise of ‘particle’, and
shows how to achieve this. The resulting Cordus mechanics provides a new
way of thinking and a radically different conceptual foundation. This paper
primarily contrasts Quantum and Cordus mechanics. In the process, Cordus
re-conceptualises Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. It also provides an
explanation for the paradox of Schrödinger’s Cat, and shows it to be based
on unrealistic and unattainable premises.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1104.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 12 pages.

The Cordus principle of complementary frequency states (CoFS) is used to
develop a novel descriptive model for the mechanisms underlying
superfluidity and superconductivity. In both cases Cordus explains the
effects as synchronisation of forces between electrons and atoms. Several
associated effects are likewise explained, including quantum vortices, heat
conduction in superfluids, and the Meissner effect in superconductors.
Cordus also asserts that superposition does not exist, at least not the way
QM conceptualises it. In particular, that the mathematics of superposition
and the wavefunction are not the reality, only mathematical
approximations of deeper effects, and are unreliable qualitative descriptors
of those underlying mechanisms. The concept of ‘coherence’ is reconceptualised
and the reasons why that state cannot be readily achieved
are discussed. Cordus also explains why Quantum mechanics, which seems
to apply at the level of individual particles, does not scale up to
macroscopic bodies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[23] **viXra:1104.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 7 pages.

The interaction of light with electrons is one of the fundamental perceptual
realities of what we see. Yet that interaction is only partly understood.
Cordus concepts are applied to develop a descriptive model of the
mechanisms whereby photons are absorbed into electrons and emitted.
From the Cordus perspective, the temperature of a body is primarily a
measure of its phonons (lattice-vibrations). Cordus shows why entropy
occurs, despite the individual mechanisms being reversible. An
understanding of the mechanisms for entropy is relevant to the
understanding of coherence, superfluidity and superconductivity. Cordus
suggests that a failure to adequately conceptualise entropy leads to
misapplication of coherence and ultimately to unreliability in the premise
of superposition.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22] **viXra:1104.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 12 pages.

Some of the most enigmatic effects in the physics of electrons are its waveparticle
duality and the Aharonov-Bohm and Casimir effects. Even
relatively core concepts of atomic physics, like spin and the Pauli exclusion
principle, lack satisfactory descriptive explanations. This paper shows that
application of the cordus principle can explain these effects in a coherent
manner.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1104.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 7 pages.

The dominant paradigm in conventional physics is that of a ‘particle’,
which this paper suggests is a badly flawed premise. The cordus particuloid
is a more coherent concept in that it offers explanations of phenomena
that are otherwise puzzling, and does so with one conceptual consistent
framework across a wide variety of phenomena. This paper shows how
entanglement is readily explained as a natural consequence of the cordus.
It also introduces the principle of complementary frequency state
synchronisation (CoFS) as the deeper principle beneath the Pauli exclusion
principle, and coherence. It is suggested that Bell’s Theorem is only
applicable to 1D point particles, and is thus generally irrelevant.
Specifically, Bell’s Theorem is not an obstacle to models of hidden
variables. Furthermore, it is suggested that the principle of locality is not
viable in its present form, and a principle of wider locality is proposed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20] **viXra:1104.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 11 pages.

Explaining basic optical effects is not possible with classical particle
mechanics, and even with quantum mechanics it is not straight forward
and not particularly intuitive. The problem is much simpler when solved in
the cordus domain. This paper provides cordus explanations for Snell’s Law
and Brewster’s Angle, and quantitative derivations too. This is significant
because the cordus mechanics were derived for single photons, and
immediately generalise also to beams of light. Therefore cordus can
explain particle behaviour, fringes, and optical effects, using a single
coherent mechanics. The cordus explanation does not need the
conventional concept of ‘interference’.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1104.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 10 pages.

Optical effects such as reflection and refraction are conventionally best
described by Electromagnetic Wave theory, at least when they involve
beams of light. However that theory does not explain why single photons
should also show such behaviour. This paper shows that optical effects can
also be explained from a cordus particuloid perspective. Several principles
are proposed for the interaction of a cordus photon with an optical surface,
and these are used to explain reflection and subsequently refraction. The
formula for critical angle is derived from a particuloid basis. The cordus and
wave theory perspectives are compared and contrasted. The significance
of this work is that the cordus mechanics explains the reflection and
refraction behaviour of both single photons as well as beams of light, so it
is a more universal explanation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1104.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 10 pages.

Conventional particle and wave theories struggle to explain the frequency
of photons and matter in a coherent manner using natural physics. This
paper applies the cordus conjecture to develop a model for frequency of
the photon. The interpretation is that there really is a part of the photon
cordus that moves with a frequency. The working model is for a reciprocal
motion: the energy alternates between the two reactive ends across the
span of the cordus, and the hyff represent the observable electric field. This
cordus model for frequency readily explains polarisation and tunnelling,
and the concept is fundamental to other developments of the cordus
mechanics including the reflection and refraction of particuloids. The
implications are that frequency is not just an intrinsic variable, but a
physical effect within the photon. The cordus frequency is a fundamental
conceptual building-block in creating an integrated solution that unifies
wave and particle behaviour. It is a powerful concept that is coherent
across many other phenomena too, including matter particuloids and it
contributes subsequently to the cordus model for granular fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1104.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 18 pages.

The cordus concept is shown to be able to explain wave behaviour in gaps,
and fringes in the double slit device. This is useful because one of the
enigmas of the double-slit device is that single photons form fringe
patterns. Cordus explains fringes in terms of force lines called hyperfine
fibrils (hyff) and their interaction with the edges of the light path. This also
explains beam divergence and near-field effects. The results show that it is
conceptually possible to create a solution for fringes based on a particuloid
interpretation of light, without using the concept of interference. The
biggest difference between Wave theory and the cordus explanation is
their interpretation of the mechanism for fringes. Wave theory explains
fringes as ‘interference’: two separate waves of light differing by full (half)
fractions of wavelengths and thus constructively (destructively) interfering.
From the Cordus perspective photons do not actually interfere or add
together, and 'interference' is only a convenient analogy. The Cordus
explanation is that fringes are caused instead by interaction of the photon
hyff with opaque edges. This bracket of papers therefore offers a resolution
of wave-particle duality by anticipating the internal cordus structure of the
photon and the associated cordus mechanics. From this perspective wave
and particle behaviours are simply the different output behaviours that
the internal system shows depending on how it is measured. Thus Cordus
offers a deeper mechanics that subsumes both quantum mechanics and
wave theory. Surprisingly, Cordus suggests that the next deeper level of
reality is deterministic.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1104.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 14 pages.

Photon path dilemmas are a difficult area for conventional physics. Typical
situations are the double-slit device and interferometers. The problem
manifests as an apparent ability of the photon to simultaneously take all
paths through the device, but eventually only appear at one. It is shown
that a cordus structure is conceptually able to resolve the path dilemmas in
wave-particle duality. Explanations are given for the double-slit device and
interferometers. The Cordus conjecture implies there is a deeper, simpler,
deterministic, and more elegant reality beneath quantum mechanics and
wave theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1104.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 8 pages.

A new conceptual model is proposed for the internal structure of the
photon, and the mechanics thereof. This internal structure is called a
cordus. The cordus consists of two reactive ends (RE) connected together
with a fibril. The fibril connecting the two reactive ends does not interact
with other matter. Each of the two reactive ends behaves like a whole
photon in its ability to interact with other matter, including reflection,
transmission, and the ability to take two paths, though it collapses to only
one location. The reactive ends emit hyperfine fibrils (hyff) which are force
lines. The cordus structure is neither a particle nor a wave, though can
appear as either in certain circumstances.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1104.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-17 14:16:38*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 77 Pages.

PROBLEM- There are many integration problems of fundamental physics that still lack ontologically coherent solutions. NEED- There is a need to find a new theory of physics with wide-ranging logical consistency. The idea that particles could have internal structure has long been a consideration in the development of theories of physics, as evidenced in the EPR criticism (Einstein, Podolsky, & Rosen, 1935). DIFFICULTY- However Local hidden-variable solutions are excluded by the Bell-type inequalities and by the empirical evidence of entanglement. The non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) sector is not entirely excluded on theoretical grounds. However, if any solution existed it would have to be counterintuitive as all the obvious candidates have been excluded [4]. Unfortunately the hidden-variable sector has proved incapable of offering suitable solutions. APPROACH- Conceptual design methods were borrowed from engineering design and applied to create an initial conjectural solution for the double-slit device. This was then validated against multiple other phenomena. RESULTS- This paper offers a candidate solution, in the form of a new theory of physics wherein particles have internal structures. This Cordus theory proposes a specific structure for particles, for both the structure internal to the particle and the nature of the external discrete field emissions. FINDINGS- It also has good external construct validity, as it: explains path dilemmas in interferometers; recovers basic laws of optics from first principles (reflection, refraction, Brewster’s angle); identifies the causes of contextual measurement; explains the transition from coherence to discoherence; explains pair-production and annihilation; offers a solution to the asymmetrical baryogenesis and leptogenesis problems; explains time dilation; conceptually unifies the electro-magneto-gravitational forces with the strong interaction; explains the selective spin attributes of the neutrino species; predicts the internal structure of the atomic nucleus and explains the stability, instability and non-existence of the table of nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon. ORGINALITY- The Cordus theory is a novel conceptual framework for fundamental physics. It shows that a specific structure of particles has excellent explanatory power for many phenomena. The strengths of the theory are: Explanatory (ontological) power; Coherent solution across multiple phenomena; Offers candidate solutions to otherwise intractable problems. IMPLICATIONS- The Bell-type inequalities are falsified. Physical realism is re-asserted. The stochastic nature of the wave-function is subsumed in a deeper explanation. The theory is not inimical to quantum mechanics, which it reinterprets as a stochastic approximation of a deeper determinism. The new theory has philosophical implications because it shows that it is possible to conceive of a solution for fundamental physics that is grounded in physical realism. The theory therefore rebuts the idea that the deeper level of physics is purely mathematical, and it rejects the many-worlds interpretation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1104.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 20 pages.

In this paper the following results are achieved: at first we demonstrate that Heisenberg's indeterminacy principle is based on a mathematical model that is unsound because of an inadequate use of the Fourier development and we prove a new mathematical model. In second place we show that with regard to physical quantities there isn’t theoretical indeterminacy and only the inadequacy of measuring instruments can cause working indeterminacy. Then we prove within the ambit of the new theory: the stability of orbital motions of atomic electrons, the quantized wave equation, the fine and hyperfine structure of atoms, the Lamb shift as a consequence of the relativistic correction. Results on these subjects are concordant with experimental data and are obtained without making use of probabilistic concepts. We think that only the most adequate use of mathematical models can allow a further evolution of our scientific knowledges that must be adapted to the examined physical event and supported with more valid analyses.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1104.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 8 pages.

The IPCC “positive feedback” models falsely assume that all water
vapour amplifies temperature rises from CO2 by a factor of2
(instead of cancelling them out), which amounts to falsely
claiming the extra sunlight-heated water vapour evaporating from
oceans contravenes the law of buoyancy and doesn’t rise to
form sunlight-reflecting condensed water droplet clouds, which
cool the surface underneath. This increase in “natural” cloud
cover (global dimming) due to the buoyancy of sunlight-warmed
humid air, totally cancels out the CO2 AGW “greenhouse effect”

**Category:** Climate Research

[11] **viXra:1104.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this paper we prove
*R ^{n}* =

[10] **viXra:1104.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this paper we prove that Fermat-Catalan equations
*d*^{2} = *a*^{3} + *c*^{5} and
*d*^{2} = *a*^{3} + *c*^{7} have
infinitely many coprime integer solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1104.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 14 pages.

The possibility of a 6+1 dimensional spacetime model being the fundamental
theory for elementary particle interactions is explored. The dynamical object
is an (octonion) spinor defined over a spacetime lattice with S8 permutation
symmetry which gets broken to S4 x S4. Electroweak parity violation is
argued to arise from the interplay of the two permutation groups S4 or eventually
from the definition of the octonion product. It corresponds to a change
in sign for odd permutation lattice transformations and is shown to suggest
a form for the Hamiltonian.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1104.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 5 pages.

This article discusses the ambiguity created by dividing the theory of relativity into special and general branches. A systematic study of covariant electrodynamics reveals the relation between matter and Minkowskian space-time, and the governing non-Euclidean geometry. This in turn results in the completion of Poincare’s theory of relativity by showing that motion of a particle is a four-dimensional rotation of its body frame and the interaction field is a four-dimensional vorticity field. Therefore, one can see that there is only one theory of relativity, which is fully covariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1104.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 90 pages. Translated from English to Greek by Denis Koulentianos and Theodhora Blushi

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive
used of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses,
against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations.
It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to
enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time,
counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[6] **viXra:1104.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 4 pages. best editing.

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how
can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? "Everything should be made as
simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] **viXra:1104.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 221 pages.

The Sixth International Anthology on Paradoxism
Started in 1980’s as an anti-totalitarian protest based on excessive use
of contradictions, antitheses, antinomies, deviations of sense, paradoxes in
the creation process, the paradoxism as a literary movement was rapidly
spread through the creators in the world, finding applications in many fields
(such as geometry, physics, logics, literature), and his founder, University
Professor Florentin Smarandache, Ph D, a refugee from Romania who now
settles in New Mexico State, USA, became a well-known personality.
The actual paradoxist anthology presents, at the beginning, articles and
chronicles in various languages (English, French, Albanian, Spanish,
Chinese, Romanian) about paradoxism and its applications, gathered from
the folklore, from popular jokes, and also paradoxist arithmetic and
geometries, paradoxist images from our today’s reality. In the second part
the anthology alphabetically groups 35 authors (translators included) and
their literary paradoxist creations - from countries like Australia, Albania,
Canada, China, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Spain, and United States.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4] **viXra:1104.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Jiecai Han, Dawei Xing

**Comments:** 9 pages and 5 figures, will be submited to the journal Crystal Research and Technology.

This paper constructed a geometric model of crystal growth with pulling. On the basis of the model, effects of
processes on crystal shape evolution were clarified. The results shown some effects always used to control the
crystal diameter in practice. Some unusual effects also be shown. Crystal could have a self-stable diameter
and decreasing the convex extent of solid liquid interface could enhance the increase rate of crystal diameter
or reduce the decrease rate of crystal diameter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[3] **viXra:1104.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Geoffrey M. Williams

**Comments:** 29 pages.

A spiral galaxy is modeled as a thin, flat, axisymmetric disk comprising a series
of concentric, coplanar rings. Using conventional Newtonian gravitation kinematics,
it is shown that relatively flat velocity curves are produced by a variety of
possible mass distributions in the disk. No halo of “dark matter” is needed to
produce these rotation curves. Compared with a point mass at the center, the
disk gravitational force grows with increasing distance from the disk center,
crests and then slowly subsides beyond the disk perimeter. The model is applied
to the NGC 3198, M31 and NGC 4736 galaxies, with ring masses adjusted to match the
respective velocity profiles. Gravitational force fields in the disk are calculated,
leading to direct estimates of enclosed galaxy mass. The mass distributions of
several other spiral galaxies are analyzed, and their basic characteristics
are charted in Appendix 2.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1104.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-18 03:05:21*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 7

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF Theory.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), Herbig Haro Objects, down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball Lightning. Recent observation of a Cosmic Hotspot under the big dipper is reason to assume that this is the location of one ( Northern) of our solar Stellar Anchor Black Hole (SABH), reason to search for the other one: south located. At the same time it is proposed that Galaxies also are supported by dual black hole systems being the former Big Bang splitted primordial black holes. Called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1104.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Smail Messaoudi

**Comments:** 9 pages.

In this manuscript, we examine the hypothesis of an electromagnetic origin of the
gravitation. We suppose that the vacuum is polarized around a mass and we use the
wave nature of matter in order to redefine gravity. We determine the relative
permittivity and the relative permeability in order to find the expression of the energy
and of the gravitational force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory