[181] **viXra:1305.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-03 19:19:59*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 34 pages, 6 figures, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

We propose a preliminary algorithm which is designed to reduce aspects of the n-body problem to a 2-body problem for holographic principle compliance. The objective is to share an alternative view-point on the n-body problem to try and generate a simpler solution in the future. The algorithm operates 2D and 3D data structures to initiate the encoding of the chaotic dynamical system equipped with modified superfluid order parameter fields in both 3D and 4D versions of the Inopin holographic ring (IHR) topology. For the algorithm, we arbitrarily select one point-mass to be the origin and, from that reference frame, we subsequently engage a series of instructions to consolidate the residual (n-1)-bodies to the IHR. Through a step-by-step example, we demonstrate that the algorithm yields "IHR effective" (IHRE) net quantities that enable us to hypothetically define an IHRE potential, kinetic, and Lagrangian.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[180] **viXra:1305.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 05:49:23*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Propostion 7.2 corrected

There are Poincare group representations on complex Hilbert spaces, like the Dirac
spinor field, or real Hilbert spaces, like the electromagnetic field tensor. The Majorana
spinor is an element of a 4 dimensional real vector space. The Majorana spinor field is a
space-time dependent Majorana spinor, solution of the free Dirac equation.
The Majorana-Fourier and Majorana-Hankel transforms of Majorana spinor fields are
defined and related to the linear and angular momenta of a spin one-half representation of
the Poincare group. We show that the Majorana spinor field with finite mass is an unitary
irreducible projective representation of the Poincare group on a real Hilbert space.
Since the Bargmann-Wigner equations are valid for all spins and are based on the free
Dirac equation, these results open the possibility to study Poincare group representations
with arbitrary spins on real Hilbert spaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[179] **viXra:1305.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-31 07:56:59*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 reference

It has been brought to the attention of the author of this paper that a simple reason why redshift in galactic structures is observed. The author does not posit to answer the question, only brings to light that the question has already been answered and has a simple solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1305.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 20:22:39*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

McDonald et al analyzed the safety management systems of four aircraft maintenance organizations (AMOs) in 1997. This article presents newly re-worked descriptive results about that research.

**Category:** Social Science

[177] **viXra:1305.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 22:07:11*

**Authors:** Fabing Duan, Francois Chapeau-Blondeau, Derek Abbott

**Comments:** 7 Pages. submitted to HotPI 2013

We study the aperiodic signal transmission in a static nonlinearity in the context of aperiodic stochastic resonance. The performance of a nonlinearity over that of the linear system is defined as the transmission efficacy. The theoretical and numerical results demonstrate that the noise-enhanced transmission efficacy effects occur for different signal strengths in various noise scenarios.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[176] **viXra:1305.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-02 03:16:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new.

The start of this article lies a few years in the past, when I wrote about the Little Ice Age experienced in Europe some 300-360 years ago. I then read an article in “Astronomy” magazine which prompted me to extend those ideas to explanation of heating of the Sun’s corona. On the same page of Astronomy, I was inspired by a story on unidentified spectral lines in the Sun. I thought about this, and decided it could be extended to all matter, supporting Einstein’s conviction that mass is generated by gravitational-electromagnetic interactions (maybe the Higgs field is actually these interactions, for they fill the universe and are certainly capable of producing the Higgs boson, as will be explained here). In writing this, I felt the need to go into more detail frequently – about string theory, the mathematical universe, the infinite universe, the strong and weak nuclear forces, etc. (some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new).
All of this seems to fit together perfectly in my mind. However, I don’t feel as though I’ve done much of the work myself. It feels like figuring out the nature of the universe is a giant jigsaw puzzle, and I’ve been handed the solution (if indeed I have it) piece by piece over the years and decades. This fitting together of a giant jigsaw made me think the universe isn’t really such a complicated place, and reminded me of Professor John Wheeler
saying - Can we ever expect to understand existence? Clues we have, and work to do, to make headway on that issue. Surely someday, we can believe, we will grasp the central idea of it all as so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that we will all say to each other, "Oh, how could it have been otherwise! How could we all have been so blind so long! “
The scientist and philosopher in me inspire each other. They combined logic with measurement and willingness to speculate so they could produce these subheadings - Unidentified Spectral Lines; Graviton-Photon Oscillation; Relativistic Mass Increase and Time Dilation; Higgs Boson and (e∞); Quantum Entanglement and Retrocausality; Mathematical Unification; Coronal Heating (Part 1 – Little Ice Age); String Theory, the Mobius Loop and the Klein Bottle; Coronal Heating (Part 2 – Gravity and EM Interact); Nuclear Forces as Modified Gravity; Electromagnetism as Modified Gravity; Reflections on the Actual Curvature of Space and the Pioneer Anomaly; Nonlinear Gravity and EM; Infinite Universe (Physically and Electronically); Brian Greene’s Cosmic Movie; Something from Nothing, Something from Something; Universal Intelligence; Hidden Variables and Virtual Particles; Biogenesis; Bell’s Theorem; Immortal Life; Space-time, Hyperspace and the Big Bang; Physicist John Wheeler; Equation Describing the Universe; and CHALLENGE – Explain To The Layman How Gravity Accounts For Dark Matter and Dark Energy Without Using Any Mathematics (this could have been given subheadings of its own – about Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, tides, orbits, but my abstract’s long enough).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[175] **viXra:1305.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 16:29:14*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the alternative, Lorentzian interpretation of special relativity the ether is a necessity.
This has some far-reaching consequences for fundamental research in physics and for the future unification which under this new paradigm shall be much easier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[174] **viXra:1305.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 09:45:05*

**Authors:** Giancarlo Gazzoni

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Empirical semi-classical decay beta decays to electron capture, and phenomena of "cold fusion"
This article discusses a statistic empirical decays beta, derived from macroscopic observables.
In this way, we can find and "isolate" sensitive variables which determine the frequency of decay of nuclei. and we can begin to understand how to intervene "to artificially change the natural rates of decay, and find ways to decay, fission and fuse nuclei in energy conditions" cold "
We can identify the underlying mechanism that allows type of decays,
and to understand why the phenomena of decay, for + for electron capture and decay are driven by the same basic principles
we can understand the mysterious mechanisms of the so-called Cold Fusion., and explains how to re nuclear fusions occur in environments with very low density energy.
We can understand how the nuclei, using energy "environmental concentration is not high, can have behaviors that seem to be possible only for large energies,
The statistics electro - weak are based on the assumption that every phenomenological decay
electroweak, must be mediated by Higgs bosons decaying into Z ° and W ∓ , And produce a phase strange,
The quarks change flavor, in the interaction of Z ° bosons created by the excitement of the local vacuum, and that modify the stangeness of quarks, which decay into down and up with the issue of W bosons ∓ and modification of electrical charge.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[173] **viXra:1305.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 09:54:37*

**Authors:** Giancarlo Gazzoni

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper we approach the problem with a simple empirical observations of the fluctuations
Energy under vacuum, nuclei to higt atomic number, and nuclear interactions
That affect them, including the phenomena called cold fusion,
We are led to believe that the oscillations of the electrons induce fluctuations in energy nuclei. With changes in energy density of the core, density variations involving definition of space between quarks and production of Higgs bosons, which decay rapidly in Z ° bosons, W bosons decaying into
The problem of mergers and fission induced by cold nuclear phenomena, has been addressed in the first part of the article where they took into account nuclei with atomic number less than 4.
The central point is that it takes vortices of electrons and nuclei,
for nuclear reactions and mergers cold.
With simple analogy with what happens in the vortex elements, and elemental analysis, we can assume vortex structures with fairly ordered, with average temperatures
components of very similar.
At the center of the vortex, the nuclei components can have temperatures similar enough, we can assume a state BEC for nuclei in the center of the vortex.
In this case, we can assume that the fields axion produced by exchange between quarks of different nuclei in quasi-BEC and composed of photons super-luminal, may be in a state very excited,
very strong, and can have a range of microns.
The vortices then, can range from the size of microns to nano-meters ..
The same state is conceivable BEC is obtained from exchanges assionici very strong,
we can assume that trade even if the components of micrometric crystals, and in Mossbauer phenomenon ..
With this approach, very simply , we obtain results that confirm the observations made from the analysis of the behavior of nuclei with atomic number less than 4.
The results are the same, with a possible explanation of the phenomenon in the fullness of time decay alpha, beta and fission.
We use this empirical approximations for a rigorous mathematical analysis, according to the standard parameters, involves the use of 19 free parameters standard, +9 parameters for the oscillation energy vacuum quasi-standard + 7 parameters for the Higgs bosons,
+ 100 parameters for self-interaction with the Higgs fields.(SUSY semplice)
we must proceed with empirical experiments, for statistics calculated behavior.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] **viXra:1305.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 10:03:03*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Sigmund Freud devised his theories about the Mother and Father Complex after reading Oedipus Rex, a Greek tragedy of which at least two versions have come down to us. Chinese metaphysics posits eight trigrams, the first, Qian, represents the father archetype, the second, Kun, represents the mother concept. In the ancient Chinese form of divination known as Qi Men Dun Jia, the Mother and Father Complexes appear in the form of "diseased" symbols for Qian and Kun, and may indicate overly powerful libido, if not bisexuality or homosexuality. In this way, the ancient Chinese concept provides a mathematical basis for a putative Greek concept that probably originated in extremely ancient Egypt, to affirm the correctness of Freud's theory.

**Category:** Social Science

[171] **viXra:1305.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 13:03:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 1 Page. Added more details to the abstract

I don't agree with any aspects in this paper, as I am a christian scientist, but since all scientist needs to study all aspect of science, I decided why not write about it.
______________________
Physics is based upon mathematics, and according to myself, Dr.Robert K. Adair, and many other physicist it is based upon a way of understanding our universe more. In all common faith of physicist is that the universe they are studying is looked on as a logical, mathematical, and scientific point of view. Physics is basically known to be devoted into understanding an extensive analysis of what is around us, or things based on logic that can be used to help benefit humanity, partially in this case are what we known today as the field of Theoretical Physics which can be highly based on circular logic, and logical thinking through forms and methods of research and experimentation. One of the reasons why mathematics is so closely related to physics is because mathematics, in many aspects, is essentially logical.
In the characteristics of experiments that are designed to obtain information of interest physics can be systematically described as scientific measurements. Experiments then, help provide completely precise info and classifications of goals, procedures, and conclusions extensively and essentially needed in a scientific experiment. Though sometime science can be built into confusion that is when theories are made, and when those theories are proved and fully clarified then they become scientific laws (i.e. laws of nature). This aspect can affect almost every region in science.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[170] **viXra:1305.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 13:05:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I don't agree with the aspects of the author, but since I have to cover all aspects of science I decided why not.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1305.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 13:42:14*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Quantum mechanics is a solidly founded mathematical theory, but it has yet to be explained in first conceptual principles. The most obvious aberration to explanation that quantum mechanics has is interference and coherence. We simply do not understand why the preparation of a quantum mechanical system must not allow knowledge of path in order to display interference effects. We present the first principles of the information interpretation which provide a proper conceptual foundation of quantum mechanics and also lead to an explanation of interference and coherence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1305.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 15:18:56*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A simple scheme for ordering the facts of physics is presented, and some terms
associated with basic research are introduced. Some aspects of this research are discussed and
an outline of a simple model as an example of a working hypothesis for explaining the known
facts is proposed.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[167] **viXra:1305.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 08:34:46*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A short outline of the alternative, Lorentzian version of special relativity is
presented. It is shown that a simple principle of consistency of measurements, familiar and
obvious to every experimentalist, when applied in the interpretation of experimental
evidence about inertial motion, leads straightforward to the Lorentzian formulation of
relativity which involves both the principle of relativity and Lorentz transformation and
also a privileged state of motion and effects related to absolute motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[166] **viXra:1305.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 05:25:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As with almost all overly ambitious Grand Unified Theories or Theories of Everything, Schiller’s strand model) may be challenged by several upfront objections. Here we present a brief (yet incomplete) list of such objections.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[165] **viXra:1305.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 16:18:36*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Interference effects are known to have a dependence upon indistinguishability of path. For this reason, it is accepted that different sources of a system cannot interfere if they have distinguishable states. We present an analysis of interference that predicts the allowance of interference between distinguishable states under the strict condition that the preparation has no distinguishability of path that results from the distinguishability of the states of the possible sources. This leads us to a new analysis of the quantum eraser experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[164] **viXra:1305.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 18:31:05*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), WikiofScience, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of corn crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. Corn crisps had, on average, a nutritional unbalance of BNI 67.36-fb, being particularly biased towards deficiency in fiber. They were also adequate in carbohydrate and sugar, high in fat, saturated fat and sodium, and low in protein.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[163] **viXra:1305.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 00:59:35*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This is a new attempt in set theory 7 geometry

The sum of the interior angles of a number triangles were transformed into linear algebraic equations. The analysis of these equations without assuming the fifth Euclidean postulate established the following theorem: There exists a triangle whose interior angle sum is equal to two right angles

**Category:** Algebra

[162] **viXra:1305.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 01:05:03*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is an entirely new approach in algebra & geometry

By the application of abstract algebra the famous unsolved classical problems trisection of an angle,squaring the circle , duplicating the cube and drawing a regular septagon were shown not possible to solve.. On the other hand,in this work, the application of classical algebra proposed a proposition for the origin of a new field of geometry.

**Category:** Algebra

[161] **viXra:1305.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 01:11:48*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Quo Vadis

By applying the basic operations of number theory and set theory to geometry, a new challenging finding has been obtained

**Category:** Algebra

[160] **viXra:1305.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 17:41:03*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

The General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is an extension of the Special Theory of Relativity (or Restricted) (STR); it was necessary for Einstein to explain the Gravitation.
In the opinion of the writer, GTR is for sure a beautiful physical-mathematical theory, mathematical more than physical, maybe the most beautiful, but it’s also true that it has somewhat weird concepts inside. I think that the GTR is the typical falsifiable Popper-like theory, like if it were an interpretative model which works to explain many phenomena, but that it’s not the real essence of the phenomena just explained. I can scientifically explain the motion of a tyre by that of a rolling cut out cardboard circle, but this would be just a model which then must fall, once we go a bit deeper in it.
And then, provided that the geometric interpretation of the curvature is real, we should still explain why the matter causes it; ok, it causes that, but why? To see is not the same as to explain and justify.
In the GTR, the gravity is just attractive and Einstein, in his Theory of Unified Fields (let’s sum up a bit, out of brevity) after having used the concept of curvature in the GTR to explain the gravitational pull, also used the concept of torsion to try to explain also the repulsive forces of the electricity. All this unfortunately without success, that is, his unitary field equations (maybe 33) couldn’t be proved in the real Universe. Therefore, Einstein work didn’t finish with the GTR; in fact, he died in 1955 in a bed in a Hospital, with paper and pen in his hands!
I personally think the force of gravity is a macroscopic force which is made of microscopic and electric forces among particles, positive and negative, which make the Universe, and that can be considered as randomly spread.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[159] **viXra:1305.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 20:49:58*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 5 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), WikiofScience, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of corn crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand.
The distribution of nutritional balance covered a wide range of values. The median was located at BNI 76.98 and the middle 68% of products ranged between BNI 42 (P16) and BNI 121 (P84). There was a slight positive skewness (mean=78.49, zSkew=0.99). The distribution of nutritional balance varied slightly according to the particular recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) of reference, although all followed a pattern similar to the one just described. Even so, this group of products appeared slightly less unbalanced under US's, Australia's and UK's RDIs than under WHO's RDIs.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[158] **viXra:1305.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 22:01:07*

**Authors:** Jin He, Xiaoli Yang

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 2 Figures. Two theorems of rational structure are proved,

Rational structure in two dimension means that not only there exists an orthogonal net of curves in the plane but also, for each curve, the stellar density on one side of the curve is in constant ratio to the density on the other side of the curve. Such a curve is called a proportion curve or a Darwin curve. Such a distribution of matter is called a rational structure. Spiral galaxies are blended with dust and gas. Their longer wavelength (e.g. infrared) images present mainly the stellar distribution, which is called the naked galaxies. Jin He found many evidences that galaxies are rational stellar distribution. We list a few examples. Firstly, galaxy components (disks and bars) can be fitted with rational structure. Secondly, spiral arms can be fitted with Darwin curves. Thirdly, rational structure dictates New Universal Gravity which explains constant rotation curves simply and elegantly. This article presents the systematic theory of rational structure, its general solution and geometric meaning. A preliminary application to spiral galaxies is also discussed.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[157] **viXra:1305.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 00:07:18*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright John Frederick Sweeney 2013

Qi Men Dun Jia is an ancient form of divination from China which is still employed to make accurate predictions, and thus meets the definition of a scientific model based on scientific theory. This paper introduces a series of books which engages in "reverse engineering," using the concepts of contemporary mathematical physics to explain how this ancient model works. Specifically, we address Clifford Algebras, Bott Periodicity, Exceptional Lie Algebras, icosians, octonions and sedenions, as well as the Fano Plane and isometric relationships to Leptons and Baryons. The introduction concludes with reference to extremely ancient and superior science from 12,000 years ago, ancient Vedic culture and extremely ancient Egyptian culture.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[156] **viXra:1305.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 02:54:43*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon Kang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We refined the concepts of electric current and fluxoid, and London’s equation that specify quantum phenomena of moving electrons and magnetic flux in a closed circuit similar
to a superconducting ring, so as not to violate the uncertainty principle.
On this basic the relation between the electron motion and magnetic flux in a superconductor
has been theoretically investigated by means of Faraday’s law and/or canonical momentum relation.
The fact that minimum unit of the quantized magnetic flux is hc/2e does not mean the
concurrent motion of the two electrons in a Cooper pair as is known so far. However, it is
shown to be related with independent motion of the each electron in a superconducting state.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[155] **viXra:1305.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-25 15:35:48*

**Authors:** Jose javier garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

•ABSTRACT: We study a generalization of the zeta regularization method applied to the case of the regularization of divergent integrals for positive ‘s’ , using the Euler Maclaurin summation formula, we manage to express a divergent integral in term of a linear combination of divergent series , these series can be regularized using the Riemann Zeta function s >0 , in the case of the pole at s=1 we use a property of the Functional determinant to obtain the regularization , with the aid of the Laurent series in one and several variables we can extend zeta regularization to the cases of integrals , we believe this method can be of interest in the regularization of the divergent UV integrals in Quantum Field theory since our method would not have the problems of the Analytic regularization or dimensional regularization

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[154] **viXra:1305.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 13:50:59*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity.There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$.The warp drive seems to be very
attractive because allows interstellar space travel at arbitrarily
large speeds avoiding the light speed limit,time dilatation and
mass increase paradoxes of Einstein Special Relativity.This is an
introductory article without mathematics written for the general
public outlining a brief resume of the "status quo" of the warp
drive science from an Historical perspective.We cover the $3$
major obstacles raised by modern science against the physical
integrity of the warp drive as a dynamical spacetime that can
carry a ship at faster than light speeds.We show using a clear and
accessible language that the Natario warp drive emerges as a
"winner" against all the $3$ obstacles and can be regarded as a
valid candidate for faster than light space travel.Our goal in
writing a non-technical paper on this subject is to captive the
interest of potential common readers that might would appreciate
this subject avoiding the details of complex mathematical
explanations.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[153] **viXra:1305.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-05 04:11:22*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to Int. J. Geom. Mod. Phys

An octonionic ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed based on a ternary-bracket defined earlier by Yamazaki. The ternary infinitesimal gauge transformations do obey the key $closure$ relations $ [ \delta_1, \delta_2] = \delta_3 $.
An invariant action for the octonionic-valued gauge fields is displayed
after solving the previous problems in formulating a non-associative octonionic ternary gauge field theory. These octonionc ternary gauge field theories constructed here deserve further investigation. In particular, to study their relation to Yang-Mills theories based on the $G_2$ group which is the automorphism group of the Octonions and their relevance to Noncommutative and Nonassociative Geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] **viXra:1305.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 08:16:30*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

All measurable phenomena in physics are irreducibly particle like and the wave picture of physical systems only arises when explaining a statistically relevant set of measurements of individual systems as an average. The wave picture arises in the effects of interference which can always be explained in the context of the state description of the interfering system, interference necessitates that the measurement outcomes be calculated by squaring the amplitudes after adding and non-interference is calculated by squaring before adding. Even though the calculation for each is independently valid, the change in the statistics when one modulates between interference and non-interference, as in the quantum eraser, requires a violation of the law of conservation of energy. There is no “driving force” in the change of statistics. It is always a change in preparation that leads to the change of interference statistics, whilst in the calculation there is only a change in the state description. The irreducibly particle like nature of the quanta requires that there be a causal “driving force” in the change in statistics and a mere change in description is an insufficient explanation by the standards of energy conservation. We present the argument that indeed this has already all been proven in the historic 1991 study of the ZWM papers of quantum coherence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[151] **viXra:1305.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-29 04:16:31*

**Authors:** Fortuné Alain Junior BACKOULAS

**Comments:** 82 Pages. We recall that this document is in French, an English version will be published shortly

This document contains new methods and tools that allow us to have a new vision on the theory of numbers. Including understanding of prime numbers.
New highly detailed methods have been developed in this paper and thus help to understand how the primes whose mystery has fascinated interacting in the set of integers.
We are sure that the logic we use here will bring more light to the theory of numbers and that has certainly been understood before.
We invite you to read this

**Category:** Number Theory

[150] **viXra:1305.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 10:14:55*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

One observation falsifies the Rope Hypothesis as instituted by a Mr. Bill Gaede.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[149] **viXra:1305.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 20:49:36*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This short paper takes a look at the spatial implications of the MO and Valence Bond approaches as compared to those of the MCAS model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[148] **viXra:1305.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-12 08:31:02*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU

**Comments:** 45 Pages. a few sentences have been reworded for better clarity

In Part I of this series on Radio Waves, I have tried to show that Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic waves is untenable because electric fields cannot exist in vacuum where there are no electric charges to produce them and because experiments have yet to prove that electric fields can be produced in vacuum by changing magnetic fields. My aim was to show that a new theory of radio waves is needed since that based on Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic waves claiming that a radio wave travelling in vacuum consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields mutually inducing one another is not supported by experiments, being based on assumptions and mathematical manipulations. Comments received from interested readers prompted me to offer further arguments against Maxwell’s theory and this led to an extended version of the same paper titled “Trouble with Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory: Can Fields Induce Other Fields in Vacuum?”. In this article I return to my original aim when I began this series on Radio Waves and I will try to show what I think radio waves really are and how are they produced in an antenna.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1305.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 10:06:42*

**Authors:** Donald E. Scott

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The fundamental vector calculus definition of a force-free, field-aligned, Birkeland current is expanded in cylindrical coordinates to obtain the partial differential equations (DEs) that yield the magnetic field created by such a current. The resulting equations are put into state-variable form and an Euler, step-wise, approximation incorporating a 4th order Runge-Kutta algorithm is applied. In single-variable form, the DEs are identified as Bessel equations. J0(r) and J1(r) Bessel function solutions confirm the Euler results thus yielding closed form solutions for both the linking (azimuthal) and collinear (axial) components of the force-free field. Results show that both of these magnetic components reverse their directions and vary in magnitude in a way that aids the formation of concentric cylindrical shells of matter as has been observed in Marklund convection. Another result is the finding that magnetic fields extend relatively farther from Birkeland currents than they would from a straight-line current. They slowly decay as
1/SQRT(r) for large r.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[146] **viXra:1305.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 10:16:43*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 picture

Neutron stars are theoretical constructs invented by mathematical physicists, they do not exist.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[145] **viXra:1305.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 11:41:28*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 reference, 1 graph, 1 picture

Red Giant stars are theoretical constructs that are rooted in extremely unreliable parallax measurements. They are simply red dwarf stars that are vastly closer than believed by the establishment. No extra theoretical fantasy is required to explain star evolution to include supposed stars that are as big as our solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[144] **viXra:1305.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 14:04:48*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here attention is drawn to a recent article in the journal Nature which claimed that researchers had cooled a system to a temperature below absolute zero. It is pointed out that this was not the claim in the original paper and is incorrect as far as the accepted definition of temperature is concerned. It is pointed out also that, if the claim were true, then it would imply that both the Third and Second Laws of Thermodynamics had been violated.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[143] **viXra:1305.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 08:23:09*

**Authors:** Morten Krogh

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

We claim that everything is alive, and that quantum mechanics of $U(N)$ unifies physics and biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[142] **viXra:1305.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-26 17:32:33*

**Authors:** Ali A. Elabd, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Abdel-Aziz T. Shalaby

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the assumption that the orbital or energy level of an electron can be considered as an electrode of a tunnel junction. Based on this assumption, an electrical model – equivalent circuit – for atom's emission is presented and Hydrogen atom is taken as an example. Also the line spectra of Iron and Sodium are used to verify the model.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[141] **viXra:1305.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-27 22:22:06*

**Authors:** Dirk J Pons, Arion D Pons, Aiden J Pons

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A previous conceptual work, called the Cordus conjecture, has proposed a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design for the photon, and thereby proposed a solution to photon entanglement and wave-particle duality. This paper applies a systems design approach to extend the theory to matter, specifically to differentiate between the matter-antimatter species. This concept rests on two premises: that particules have span (physical separation between reactive ends); and that their externally emitted discrete forces have an energisation sequence. Specific hidden-variable models are proposed for the electron, positron, and proton. This concept provides a better explanation of the difference between matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. It also provides foundational concepts from which new solutions to other problems, like annihilation and baryogenesis, can be envisaged. The Cordus theory goes beyond conventional NLHV solutions, such as the de Broglie-Bohm model, by offering a solution not only for the inner contents of a particle, the hidden variables, but also predicting how its discrete fields operate. This theory provides a physically natural explanation for spin, handedness, chirality, and related directional attributes of particles, which are otherwise only abstract concepts in quantum mechanics. The theory also explains parity violation, and why the photon does not have an antiparticle. This work makes a conceptual contribution of presenting a new concept of handedness and the matter-antimatter species differentiation. It demonstrates the potential of hidden-variable designs to provide solutions of high explanatory power.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[140] **viXra:1305.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 04:09:38*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for Particular solutions to any Linear Second Order Inhomogeneous Ordinary Diffrential equations is presented. For second order ODEs these make the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters obsolete.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[139] **viXra:1305.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-25 09:35:40*

**Authors:** Hossein Turner

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The paper may be freely distributed, copied and pasted. But please give credit to the author.

Many theologans have stated that because God is "omniscient" (All-Knowing) and "omnipresent" in His infinite power then this somehow means that His Knowledge and Presence extends into the future indefinitely. God is regarded as a Being existing outside of all Time - including the past, present and future although His actions can affect all of these aspects of time. This has created strong debates over the centuries about the implications for human pre-destination and free-will. If God "knows" what human beings are going to do many years in the future, then do human beings really have any free choice? Some have managed to resolve this dilemma for themselves, but the author of this brief paper still sees the "future knowledge" of God with respect to human actions, as a proxy form of pre-determination. Where is the free-will and responsibility?

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[138] **viXra:1305.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-03 19:04:51*

**Authors:** Cristian Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article I describe a proof of the fact that ZFC cannot decide whether a certain modified Turing machine, or computer (satisfying a certain condition) will ever halt successfully in finite time. The consequences of this fact in relation to the Riemann Hypothesis are presented.

**Category:** Number Theory

[137] **viXra:1305.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 16:35:02*

**Authors:** Christopher A Laforet

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the method by which the gravitational force between galaxies can be reduced and even reversed as a result of the net energy loss from photon exchange. According to the relativistic Doppler Effect, galaxies moving apart will suffer a net energy loss when exchanging photons. This energy loss reduces the total energy of the system, resulting in a reduction in gravitational attraction between the galaxies. Given sufficient velocity, emitted photon energy, and rate of photon exchange, it is shown that the attractive force between galaxies can be reversed, resulting in an accelerated expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[136] **viXra:1305.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 09:24:45*

**Authors:** S. Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is an extra-ordinary math. article.

After establishing the fundamental physics prizes, Yuri Milner said: “Unlike the Nobel in physics, the Fundamental Physics Prize can be awarded to scientists whose ideas have not yet been verified by experiments, which often occurs decades later. Sometimes a radical new idea “really deserves recognition right away because it expands our understanding of at least what is possible.”. Keeping this mind the author formulated two spherical geometrical theorems which may applied for the studies and probes of fundamental particles, quantum gravity, gravitational waves ,dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Algebra

[135] **viXra:1305.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 09:27:04*

**Authors:** S. Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is an extra-ordinary math. article.

Miles Mathis has shown the following equivalent propositions to Gödel’s incompleteness theorems: [ http://milesmathis.com/godel.html ]
Theorem 1: In any logical system one can construct statements that are neither true nor false (mathematical variations of the liar’s paradox).
Theorem 2: Therefore no consistent system can be used to prove its own consistency. No proof can be proof of itself. In this work , we attempt to prove the first theorem mention above.
Key words: Gödel’s incompleteness theorems ; Miles Mathis’s proposition

**Category:** Algebra

[134] **viXra:1305.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 09:29:12*

**Authors:** S. Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is an extra-ordinary math. article.

The classical Euclidean geometry is widely used in all fields of science, engineering and other art fields. The hyperbolic and elliptic non Euclidean geometries are applied in theoretical physics and cosmology. In this short paper, we have come across an interesting non geometrical phenomenon.

**Category:** Algebra

[133] **viXra:1305.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 01:55:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple list of sequences of integers that reveal interesting properties of few subsets of balanced primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[132] **viXra:1305.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-31 22:00:33*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** Pages.

Problem- The theory of Relativity is premised on the constancy of the speed of light (c) in-vacuo. While no empirical evidence convincingly shows the speed to be variable, nonetheless from a theoretical perspective the invariance is an assumption. Need- It is possible that the evidence could be explained by a different theory. Approach- A non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, the Cordus particule theory, is applied to identify the causes of variability in the fabric density, and then show how this affects the speed of light. Findings- Under these assumptions the speed of light is variable (VSL), being inversely proportional to fabric density. This is because the discrete fields of the photon interact dynamically with the fabric and therefore consume frequency cycles of the photon. The fabric arises from aggregation of fields from particles, which in turn depends on the proximity and spatial distribution of matter. Results disfavour the universal applicability of the cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Originality- The work proposes causal mechanisms for VSL, which have otherwise been challenging to ascertain. Uniquely, this theory identifies fabric density as the dependent variable. In contrast, other VSL models propose that c varies with time or some geometric-like scale, but struggle to provide plausible reasons for that dependency. This theory also offers a conceptually simply way to reconcile the refraction of light in both gravitational situations and optical materials.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1305.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 19:33:33*

**Authors:** Jin He, Xiaoli Yang

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 1 figure. Solve the beautiful equation and reveal the secret of galaxies

We have not found the general solution to the Creator's equation system. However, we have outlined the strategy for determining the solution. Firstly, we should study the stretch equation which is the first order linear and homogeneous partial differential equation, and find its all stretches which correspond to the given vector field (i.e., the gradient of the logarithmic stellar density). Our solution G(x,y), however, must be simultaneously the modulus of some analytic complex function. It is called the modulus stretch. Secondly, among all possible modulus stretches, we find the right solution (i.e., the orthogonal net of curves) which satisfies the Creator's standard equation.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[130] **viXra:1305.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 10:52:34*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 1 Table, 1 Appendix

This article is about relations between fundamental physical constants. The mass, radius and cycle of the universe are the basis for calculating Planck units.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[129] **viXra:1305.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 12:15:00*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here,I will prove the goldbach conjecture using proof by induction.

**Category:** Number Theory

[128] **viXra:1305.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 12:59:56*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter (Shechter)

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Schrödinger equation solve the Hydrogen-like Atom, the solution is very complicate mathematically and supply a very little understanding why the atom behave so.
In 1913 Bohr proposed a very simple model of the hydrogen atom. I extend this model to see what happens to the atom under a magnetic field. The results obtained using my simple approach are almost the same results obtained from Schrödinger equation with the endless solution, but the physical explanation is entirely different. I leave you the task to check what the correct explanation to the Hydrogen Atom is
See also
QUANTUM MECHANICS Solved using only Newtonian Mechanics
http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0078

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[127] **viXra:1305.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-28 14:06:20*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract:
English:This article shows how electrical
force can be powered by asymmetric systems,
as with gravitational force. Attempts
to explain also summarily where emerges that
energy.
Spanish:En este artículo se muestra como
de la fuerza eléctrica se puede obtener energía
mediante sistemas asimétricos, al igual que
con fuerza gravitatoria. Se intenta explicar
además, someramente de donde surge esa
energía.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[126] **viXra:1305.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 06:47:25*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 8

In the past I have described several experiments in support of the Quantum FFF model.
(Function Follows Form)
These experiment suggestions are described in several recent Vixra essays.
In this essay I will try to present a summary of these experiments related to
Mass based Lightspeed drag, Dual Quantum Push Gravity, Magnetic Monopole Radiation,
Human Consciousness, Double Stern Gerlach Entanglement and Micro Ball Lightning in the
lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1305.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 07:04:36*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their study, Wang et al. [Environ. Chem. 2011, 8, 389] use the COSMOtherm software program in an attempt to shed some insights into the physicochemical properties of various poly- and perfluorinated compounds. During the conformation dependent pKa investigations on n-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the authors appear to make a critical error in their analyses. Wang et al. appear to have allowed a transition from an acid form geometry to a very different anionic form geometry, which is not a correct way of calculating free energy changes during acid dissociation. This error explains why these authors obtained widely ranging conformation dependent pKa values (0.9 to 2.9) for PFOA dissociation. As has been previously shown [Rayne and Forest, J. Mol. Struc. THEOCHEM 2010, 949, 60], there are negligible conformation dependent effects on the pKa value of PFOA.

**Category:** Chemistry

[124] **viXra:1305.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-22 17:22:35*

**Authors:** Michael Peck

**Comments:** 65 pages. 36 figures. The following discoveries are being censored by Arxiv and several journals. Please spread the word.

Corrections to general relativity are derived from classical theory and applied to the standard model. The perspective offered is the conceptual inverse of Einstein’s theory, where particles exist as localized fields. These vacuum fields undergo affine transformations that are locally invariant with respect to the space-time metric. It is demonstrated that the proper vacuum solution to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is the limit of the single particle vacuum field solution. The existence of event horizon within Einstein’s field equations is linked to the application of point-like sources in the local field theory. With vacuum field theory, it is observed that event horizon can no longer form without infinite classical energy. Gravitational waves are also discussed relative to the use of point-like sources in Einstein’s field equations and similar geometric field theories. Methods for determining the space-time metric of any object on a per particle basis are provided. The continuous model of the universe is further introduced, where the solutions to several grand cosmological problems are discussed. It is demonstrated that an asymptotically flat universe will appear linear with respect to local observers. The inferred accelerated expansion is an illusion due to local geodesics deflecting towards the center of an asymptotically flat, linear universe. With recent constraints on the abundance of faint blue galaxies and observed evolution, ∧CDM is found to be off in galactic number densities by 70%±15% and 104%±25% at 0.5z and 1.0z respectively. These galaxies are also observed to be similar to local disk and irregular populations, where ∧CDM underestimates their size by 200%-300% prior to 0.7z. This implies that an expanding model predicts the incorrect shape of the universe, which induces systematic lensing errors. After eliminating all viable explanations, an expanding universe is conclusively ruled out. The purposed model however agrees with all observations by applying only classical assumptions. The shape of the universe for example supports a central core, which is responsible for the cosmic background radiation. It is further argued that Einstein’s field equations are incompatible with such universe due to predictions of event horizon.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[123] **viXra:1305.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-22 22:25:06*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Zanaboni Theory is mathematically analyzed in this paper. The conclusion is that Zanaboni Theorem is invalid and not a proof of Saint-Venant's Principle; Discrete Zanaboni Theorem and Zanaboni's energy decay are inconsistent with Saint-Venant's decay; the inconsistency, discussed here, between Zanaboni Theory and Saint-Venant's Principle provides more proofs that Saint-Venant's Principle is not generally true.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[122] **viXra:1305.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-22 22:34:09*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The problem of statement of Saint-Venant's Principle is concerned. Statement of Boussinesq or Love is ambiguous so that its interpretations are in contradiction with each other. Rationalized Statement of Saint-Venant’s Principle of elasticity is suggested to rule out the ambiguity of Statements of Boussinesq and Love. Rational Saint-Venant's Principle is suggested to fit and guide applications of the principle to fields of continuum physics and cover the analogical case as well as the non-analogical case discovered and discussed in this paper . `` Constraint-free " problems are suggested and `` Constraint-free " Rational Saint-Venant's Principle or Rational Saint-Venant's Principle with Relaxed Boundary Condition is developed to generalize the principle and promote its applications to fields of continuum physics . Applications of Analogical Rational Saint-Venant's Principle and `` Constraint-free " Rational Saint-Venant's Principle are exemplified, emphasizing `` properness " of the boundary-value problems. Three kinds of properly posed boundary-value problems, i.e., the boundary-value problem with the undetermined boundary function, the boundary-value problem with the implicit boundary condition and the boundary-value problem with the explicit boundary condition, are suggested for both `` constrained " and `` constraint-free " problems.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[121] **viXra:1305.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-22 15:17:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

While studying Fermat pseudoprimes I met few interesting generic forms of numbers that have the property to generate chains of primes and pseudoprimes. I list in this paper few such types of chains.

**Category:** Number Theory

[120] **viXra:1305.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-21 05:51:06*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article is about a new formula for dark energy force. This has already been published in a series of my articles in the archive vixra, but gets little attention. The new formula is part of a larger universe than the Big Bang, called the Double Torus hypothesis. The new dark energy force is different from dark energy in the Big Bang, because it uses the extension of time. This article emphases the extra time relating gravity and a new topology of quantum-spin of point particles, such as electrons. This article describes that cohesion by my dark energy force formula in a Double Torus Universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[119] **viXra:1305.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-21 06:50:47*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The world is full of ways to think about a Dark Objects. I propose You my way, please follow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1305.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-21 03:46:47*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

It was shown in [1], cited in the sequel as DRHM, that upon a correct use of the respective statistical data, the celebrated Bell inequalities cannot be violated by quantum systems. This paper presents in more detail the surprisingly elementary, even if rather subtle related basic argument in DRHM, and does so together with a few comments which, hopefully, may further facilitate its wider understanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[117] **viXra:1305.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-20 18:45:55*

**Authors:** Stan Bumble

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract
Former work on cooperative phenomena is adapted in order to visualize, to a first approximation, the concepts of consciousness and connectomes. It is hoped that such work can help in the treatment of Alzheimer Disease (AZ) and entice Roger Penrose et alia to continue their pioneering work in these fields. A set of phases are construed to contain neurons in their inactive form in equilibrium with other phases of neurons in their active phase in various stages of connection with each other. The active neurons are connected to each other such that their synapses conduct chemical and electrical contacts. These constellations lead to various incipient lattices that are characterized by the various strengths and number of their connections. Coordination numbers for each neuron, degrees of completion of their lattices and, the time of formation are important. Critical areas on neural networks that occur over a period of time are detailed. The degree of consciousness is deemed to be a function of particular properties which are shown in a collection of graphs.

**Category:** Mind Science

[116] **viXra:1305.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-20 08:59:20*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 22 Pages. First part of a three-part paper

Quantum theory (QT) treats of “observables” yet the term “observer” remains hardly a rigorous notion. We argue that the uncertainty principle of QT can be understood in the Gödel sense that: any given observer constitutes own practical definition of “the unobservable” (if superposition) namely length scale, phase space, non-local action, fundamental frequency etc. Conversely, the observable is definable strictly only in inverse-observer terms as, that is, the “collapse” namely inverse-length, phase-points, locality, harmonics respectively. Granted this picture is not a-priori intuitive we show that it resolves key modern difficulties plus it has formal grounds. One pictures the observer thus in the manner of Gödel’s “consistency-is-undecidable” or Planck’s “the-constant-is-uncertainty” or indeed Einstein’s “speed-of-light-is-null-information” etc. definitive of which three cases, we assert, is Peano’s (and Noether’s?) notion of the constant as being for any gamut of variables/symmetry the meta-state (“conserved current”?). Given then that the observer is in any scheme of events the invariance (constant) it should be the case that it is the observer proper and not his observables which should constitute the violation of Bell’s inequality—if as the infinitesimal/imaginary axis or as the dimensionless/infinite-dimensional or the so-called conservation law etc. We posit: the observer is by definition the virtual exchange (field) of standard model or “space-time” of GR or just the “metric”—defined by the singular trait that it is the de facto universal constant i.e. the natural unit and hence natural limit of physical information. As a prediction we show herein an exact value to define man (perhaps our purest sample of observer) as also the natural unit for quantum gravity. Ultimately, that known hitherto as the potential (conservation law) becomes here same exactly as the “mind” or the “life” i.e. strictly put: “the-observer-as-the-unobservable” (superposition).The observer is for us per se the “entity”—in the sense of “phase-space” (normal mode; fundamental; wave speed) giving us an intuitive picture of observables that is same in fact as Huygens’ wave fronts/wavelets (or Everett’s many-worlds, or indeed Darwin’s evolution/speciation of “life”) same in short as any “spontaneous symmetry breaking”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[115] **viXra:1305.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-20 15:31:49*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Accepted for publication at PLOS ONE

A method to quantify the error probability at the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange is introduced. The types of errors due to statistical inaccuracies in noise voltage measurements are classified and the error probability is calculated. The most interesting finding is that the error probability decays exponentially with the duration of the time window of single bit exchange. The results indicate that it is feasible to have so small error probabilities of the exchanged bits that error correction algorithms are not required. The results are demonstrated with practical considerations.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[114] **viXra:1305.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 16:59:08*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We establish the new gravitational theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[113] **viXra:1305.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:49:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 1st of six posters for the ICM 2 conference in Prague.

The following questions are raised in this document. First, can@@ there be a stable (massive) graviton? If so, does this massive graviton, as modeled by KK DM, with a modification of slight 4 dimensional space mass, contribute to DE, at least in terms of re acceleration ? The answer, if one assumes that the square of a frequency for graviton mass is real valued and greater than zero appears to be affirmative. The author, when considering a joint DM – DE model finds evidence that re acceleration of the universe one billion years ago in a higher dimensional setting can be justified in terms of a slight modification of standard KK DM models, if one considers how an information exchange between present to prior universes occurs, which the author thinks mandates more than four dimensional space time geometry

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[112] **viXra:1305.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:52:54*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Poster or virtual paper for the ICM 2 conference

This paper uses the “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability. The point is that it does not apply in the vicinity of the big bang. We apply this theorem to what is called by T. Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which becomes would be unstable if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism has to be appealed to. In the case of vacuum nucleation, we argue that conditions exist for the nucleation of particles as of the electroweak regime. Due to injecting material from a node point, in spacetime. This regime of early universe creation, coexits with the failure of applications of “Fjortoft” theorem in such a way as to give necessary and sufficient conditions for matter creation, in a way similar to the Higgs Boson

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[111] **viXra:1305.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:54:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When initial radius R approaches zero if we use Stoica actually derived Einstein equations in a formalism which remove the big bang singularity pathology, then the reason for Planck length no longer holds. The implications of the initial radius approaching zero are the first part of this manuscript. Then the resolution is alluded to by work from Muller and Lousto, as to entanglement entropy implications of entanglement entropy. We present entanglement entropy in the early universe with a steadily shrinking scale factor, due to work from Muller and Lousto , and show that there are consequences due to initial entanged entropy for a time dependent horizon radius in cosmology, with for flat space conditions r(H)=conformal time. In the case of a curved, but not flat space version of entropy, we look at vacuum energy as proportional to the inverse of scale factor squared times the inverse of initial entropy, effectively when there is no initial time except with in line with the conformal time being almost zero. . The consequences for this initial entropy being entangled are elaborated in this manuscript. No matter how small the initial radial length gets, then for initial cosmological entropy if it is entanglement entropy, initial cosmological entropy will not go to zero.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[110] **viXra:1305.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:56:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

First, we show through a numerical simulation that the massive Schwinger model used to formulate solutions to CDW transport is insufficient for transport of solitons (anti-solitons) through a pinning gap model of CDW transport. We show that a model Hamiltonian with Peierls condensation energy used to couple adjacent chains (or transverse wave vectors) permits formation of solitons (anti- solitons) which could be used to transport CDW through a potential barrier. We argue that there are analogies between this construction and the false vacuum hypothesis used for showing a necessary and sufficient condition for formation of CDW soliton – anti - soliton (S-S’) pairs in wave functionals presented in a prior publication

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[109] **viXra:1305.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:58:57*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The author asks if octonion quantum gravity is relevant near the Planck scale. Furthermore, the question is raised if gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, , of the universe when an increase in degrees of freedom have in setting , so that the result can be observed by a gravitational detector.. The well appreciated .quantum gravity problem that the notion of a quantum state, representing the structure of spacetime at some instant, and the notion of the evolution of the state, does not get traction, since there are no real “instants”, is avoided by having the initial octonion geometry embedded in a larger, non linear “pilot model” (semi classical) embedding structure. The Penrose suggestion of re cycled space time avoiding a ‘big crunch’ is picked as the embedding structure, so as to avoid the ‘instants’ of time issue. In addition the favored idea is to avoid the well known string theory trap known as the dimensionality problem of an equation of motion (consistency condition) which is the reason why string theory dimensionality is either (10 or 26) depending upon if super symmetry is imposed. Getting octonion gravity as embedded in a larger, Pilot theory embedding structure may restore Quantum Gravity to its rightful place in early cosmology without the lunacy of then afterwards ‘Schrodinger equation ‘ states of the universe, forevermore afterwards. Setting , in a GW detector due to appropriate measurement procedures may allow the opportunity to find experimental clues as to this embedding structure in which octonion gravity may emerge in the Planckian regime.of evolutionary cosmology

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[108] **viXra:1305.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:59:28*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Although acceleration is, by its descriptive definition, the expansion of velocity, where celeritas /kɛ'lɛritas/ or /tʃɛ'lɛritas/ is a Latin word translated as "swiftness" or "speed", we prove that gravity is expansion (dilation) of the speed of light (celeritas c), i.e. the genesis of space in time. From this evidence, we explain the arrow of time. Implicitly, the foundation of a complex manifestation of nature is deduced to a tautological relationship between space-time variables, with the consequence of a unification of the reference measurement system. By unique relation, we connect the predictions of General and Special relativity. We introduce the scalar principle valid in all space-time dimensions of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[107] **viXra:1305.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 08:00:58*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The following questions is asked, If one takes the covariant derivative of a Stress-energy representation of early universe massive gravitons, is the derivative of the Graviton stress tensor equal to zero ? If so, then in what range of astrophysics does this occur, and when does this formalism break down? Lavenda and Davies argued that the derivative of a generalized GR stress energy tensor being zero in itself is insufficient to show that the 1st law of thermodynamics alone holds. If the full Stress-Energy tensor expression for GR is written out, there is a stress energy tensor component involving GW alone which we highlight. The problem as to this test is if the derivative of the Stress energy tensor, for gravitons as written by Visser is brought up. This Visser stress energy tensor for massive gravitons will not even satisfy the 1st thermodynamic law. We bring this up as a counter point to an article written by Lavenda and Davies purporting to claim that the Tolman test for a first law of thermodynamics which they generalize to first and second law of thermodynamics for inflationary cosmology. We show a breakdown of a zero value for the derivative of the Stress energy tensor for early universe massive gravitons and this derivative of the massive Graviton Stress energy tensor (Visser) will not even satisfy the first law of thermodynamics according to the Tolman criteria. Note that if the Visser Massive Graviton Stress energy tensor scenario does not hold then the Lavenda and Davies objection to inflation is upheld.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[106] **viXra:1305.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 08:30:03*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I found a way to prove the goldbach conjecture, but for that I needed to invent three new conjectures to whom,I still haven’t found a proof. I guess,that the person who will prove these three conjectures would be able to prove the Goldbach conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1305.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-23 22:33:39*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Current knowledge of antimatter has been a roadblock for the real understanding of antimatter. Antimatter is generated with high energy devices like particle colliders and proton guns. But those devices are denitely not needed because particle is its antiparticle, it all depends on particle's spin vector.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[104] **viXra:1305.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 14:50:11*

**Authors:** A Paramashivam

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Email:shiva22116@gmail.com

This paper hypothesis a planet sized object collided with the Jupiter few hundred years ago which could possibly created the Great Red spot and the moon Io. This paper analysis Jupiter's diameter predicted by ancient Indian astronomical text Surya-siddhanta with modern values, Jupiter's moon Io and Jupiter's the Great Red spot for a big collision evidences.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[103] **viXra:1305.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:01:25*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Geometric symmetries in the ‘Tree of Life’ represented by the 10 Sefirot and the topology of spacetime geometry in superstring theory are contrasted with a discussion of metaphysical considerations.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[102] **viXra:1305.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:06:16*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Barry Martin

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A framework for defining the physical basis of consciousness is derived in terms of the complementarity
inherent in the cosmology of a continuous state conscious universe as it relates to self-organized living systems. The
activity of a dynamic counterpart of standard static Casimir-like modes is described by an extended spacetime Cavity
Quantum Electrodynamics in terms of a 12D Topological Field Theory that integrates gravity, electromagnetism and
relativistic quantum field theory to develop the noetic action principle. Inherent self-organized teleological and
intentional action on the spacetime geodesic cavities of the dynamic Casimir-like modes is mediated by a specific
nonlocal unitary exchange quanta defined as the Noeon, that is indicative of an elan vital which also becomes
associated with information and processing in the microtubule, synapse and other arenas of quantum brain dynamics
where ‘consciousness’ couples to biological structure and biochemical species in terms of an elaborated definition of
Eccles original philosophical concept of the Psychon. Novel ideas involving the cosmological Noumenon and brain
Holoscape are presented including a basic mathematical formalism for the noetic action principle.

**Category:** Mind Science

[101] **viXra:1305.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:09:19*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Seminal work intended to found a new field of integrative Noetic Science is summarized. Until now the
philosophy of Biological Mechanism has ruled medicine and psychology. Penrose claims, AA scientific world-view which
does not profoundly come to terms with the problem of conscious mind can have no serious pretensions of completeness@.
A noetic action principle synonymous with the historic concept of élan vital is introduced as the basis of a Continuous
State Conscious Universe (CSCU). The least unit of CSCU superspace defines Awareness as a fundamental physical
quantity like charge in electrodynamics. This cosmological context reveals the origin of complexity in self-organized
living-systems wherein the physical basis of qualia is formalized. The dynamics of this teleological action principle,
mediated by a unitary noetic field pervading all biochemical species, optimizes the state of well-being through
homeostasis and provides the fundamental basis for developing a Moral Psychology.

**Category:** Mind Science

[100] **viXra:1305.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:14:55*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theoretical modeling suggests spin-glass resonance properties of ordered water play a key role in the phase
regulation of neuromolecular computation in processes related to consciousness in complex self-organized living
systems. Water provides the central tier in the synchronization backbone required for quantum data processing and
information transduction in the domain of Quantum Brain Dynamics (QBD).

**Category:** Mind Science

[99] **viXra:1305.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:19:37*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving
the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein’s
original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Conscious Multiverse (HCM), provides a context for solving
this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into biology, medicine and psychology.
This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal
philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic
action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology. It will lead, for example to
the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and the development of fantastic consciousness based technologies like the
fabled Star Trek Medical Tricorder able to heal a wound in a few seconds normally taking months! The question is
not if the current medical paradigm will shift to Noetic form; but how soon the necessary requirements can be
implemented in order that society may reap the benefits.

**Category:** Mind Science

[98] **viXra:1305.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:23:36*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmology observed temporal reality is a 3(4)D virtual
subspace of an 11(12)D eternity in correspondence with the tenets of the F-Theory incarnation of M-Theory; 12D
being the minimum number of dimensions (D) to signify causal separation from temporality. Succinctly HAM
cosmology postulates an infinite number of nested Hubble spheres each with their own laws of physics; this and
other details of the HAM will be discussed in detail. The HAM present is a dynamic instant, a continuous-state
standing wave of the least cosmological unit of the 12D Superspace undergoing a Continuous Dimensional
Reduction / Compactification Process (CDRCP) based on extensions of the Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer transactional
models. This HAM dynamic entails an energy dependent spacetime metric as 1st proposed by Einstein. This means
that HD properties of the CDRCP standing wave metric entail a form of future-past hysteresis loop. The energetics
of this so-called hysteresis loop of the 12D least unit reveal a new action principle driving the evolution of the HAM
which is itself a form of self-organized complex system. Since the HAM is scale invariant these energetics also
apply to self-organized Autopoietic living systems. This new teleological or noetic action principle is shown to be
associated with the unitary physical field and a form of ‘super quantum potential’ as postulated by de Broglie and
Bohm. Using these parameters an alternate derivation of the string tension formalism is derived. It is anticipated
that this form of the string tension formalism may shed light on recalculating Planck’s constant and lead to a
program for completing quantum theory. HAM cosmology is empirically testable and an experimental protocol for
isolation of the new energy dynamics is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1305.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:26:17*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Biophysical aspects of Frohlich coherent states and Einstein-Bose Condensates on nanoscale brain structures such as the
microtubule, synaptic grid, or ion channel have been considered relevant to information processing through quasiparticle scattering as a
putative foundation for a quantum theory of consciousness. Although the body of theoretical evidence for Frohlich type events in
biological systems has been growing for thirty years, the highly speculative nature of this model has hindered broad acceptance in the
scientific community. In this paper, as a prelude to in vivo experimentation, a theoretical model is described for creating empirically
measurable coherent states in vitro microtubule and DNA Oligomers using a system of modulated tuneable-laser interferometry in
resonance with an applied Frohlich frequency to drive the collective dynamics of superradiance and self-induced transparency deemed
essential for Frohlich and Bose-Einstein effects in biological systems. Empirical realization of this model would open the door to
experimental study of the physical parameters of consciousness.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[96] **viXra:1305.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:48:14*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

It has long been known that “subtle Energy” pervades the cosmos and every interstice of all forms of
living systems. Until now there has never been a pragmatic scientific model of these energies that lends itself to
rigorous empirical investigation. A self-organized cosmological model, called the Holographic Anthropic Multiverse
(HAM), has been developed wherein a teleological action naturally arises. This new complex self-organized action
principle is synonymous with the unified field sought by physicists like Einstein; that in an anthropic multiverse
‘pervades all space, gives life, is the light of the mind and the force that frames the heavens’. This action principle
has broad application to fields of medicine and psychology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[95] **viXra:1305.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 16:43:51*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Menas Kafatos, Paule Ecimovic

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Einstein's refinement of Newtonian gravitation repeated for General Relativity (GR) by quantum cosmology requires inflationary
models of the universe to be critically reevaluated; the Hubble redshift is shown not to result from Doppler velocity, but anisotropic
coupling to vacuum zero point fluctuations through harmonic structure described in terms of the Wheeler - Feynman absorber theory
of radiation in the context of a Dirac vacuum and compactification dynamics. The quantum gravity of the comoving hyperstructure
of a universe topologically both open and closed like a Klein bottle, also implies that frequency shift in photon propagation over
cosmological distances is an inherent part of the spin exchange process, removing the ad hoc criticism of the well known Vigier
theory of 'tired light'.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[94] **viXra:1305.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-21 09:03:12*

**Authors:** Jay Yoon

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

As the twenty-first century unfolds, the mystery of Atlantis remains as enigmatic as ever. That is, until now. Google Earth, for the first time in the history of human civilization, has laid bare the seafloor of the world's oceans for anyone to see, and the author has found the lost city of Atlantis fifteen thousand feet under the sea. In Atlantis Shrugged, the author presents these never-before-seen photos of the city through a Socratic dialogue, a conversation between three historical figures, Aristotle, Critias, and Solon, that will reveal to the discerning reader the true nature of Atlantis. Aristotle, who disbelieved in his teacher Plato's story, through the course of the dialogue, becomes convinced of the truth of Plato's narrative and his stamp of approval and conversion symbolizes the transmigration of the story of Atlantis from the realm of shadowy mist of myth to that of indisputable fact. Atlantis Shrugged contains the makings of a paradigm shift in our world consciousness, wherein the myths of our past will be revealed as sacred truth, a truth that indeed, is stranger than fiction.
Coordinates (can look up on Google Earth): 17°09'48.82" N 65°03'25.04" W

**Category:** Archaeology

[93] **viXra:1305.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 12:29:58*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Menas Kafatos, Sisir Roy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A new type of scaling applicable to a variety of physical parameters in the universe is
proposed here. This utilizes a relation linking the fundamental masses and fundamental
constants in nature and an axiomatic approach is developed for the relations between
microscopic and macroscopic found by Eddington and Dirac. In this approach, the
fundamental constants are changing with time and the variation is related to the changing
of the scale of the universe. The variation of the fundamental constants leads to an arrow
of time in the present universe as well as scale-invariant relationships linking all scales.
All lengths in the universe are proportional to the scale of the universe R, and similar
relations exist for other physical parameters.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1305.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 08:28:01*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Awaiting publication later on this year

The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) is a theoretical framework that integrates our current knowledge of the subatomic world and its fundamental interactions. A key program built in the structure of the SM is the Renormalization Group (RG), whose function is to preserve self-consistency and describe how parameters of the theory evolve with the energy scale. Despite being overwhelmingly supported by experimental data, the SM has many puzzling aspects, such as the large number of parameters, a triplication of chiral families and the existence of three gauge interactions. In contrast with the majority of mainstream proposals advanced over the years, the basic premise of our study is that a satisfactory resolution of challenges confronting the SM requires further advancing the RG program. In particular, understanding the nonlinear dynamics of RG equations and the unavoidable transition from smooth to fractal dimensionality of space-time are critically important for the success of this endeavor. Here we show how the onset of fractal space-time near or above the electroweak scale is likely to settle at least some of these challenges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[91] **viXra:1305.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 03:47:11*

**Authors:** Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Orbital averages are employed to compute the secular variation of the elliptical planetary elements
in the orbital plane in presence of perturbing forces of various kinds. They are also useful as an
aid in the computation of certain complex integrals. An extensive list of computed integrals is given.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[90] **viXra:1305.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 08:37:03*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We have analyzed, calculated and extended the modification of Maxwell’s equations in a complex Minkowski metric, M4 in a C2 space using the SU2 gauge, SL(2,c) and other gauge groups, such as SUn for n >2 expanding the U1 gauge theories of Weyl. This work yields additional predictions beyond the electroweak unification scheme. Some of these are: 1) modified gauge invariant conditions, 2) short range non-Abelian force terms and Abelian long range force terms in Maxwell’s equations, 3) finite but small rest of the photon, and 4) a magnetic monopole like term and 5) longitudinal as well as transverse magnetic and electromagnetic field components in a complex Minkowski metric M4 in a C4 space.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[89] **viXra:1305.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 08:43:17*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M4:C4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime backcloth.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[88] **viXra:1305.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 11:01:07*

**Authors:** John Girault

**Comments:** 1 Page. We show Einsten wrong.

We EXPOSE the AGENDA of the sientist who tells us thet EINSTEN was wright.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[87] **viXra:1305.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 12:30:45*

**Authors:** A. Key

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Minimal ideals give a generation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1305.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 20:47:32*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Published in International Journal of Physics, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 49-64 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/3/1 © Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/ijp-1-3-1

By highlighting the major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper, an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. With reference to the valuable opinion of Edwin Hubble, redshift can be related to a new atomic phenomenon. If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking, redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The authors propose the following: During cosmic evolution, an ‘aged’ hydrogen atom emits an energetic photon. As the age of the hydrogen atom increases, it emits photons with increased quanta of energy and thus past light quanta emitted from an old galaxy will have less energy and show a red shift with reference to our galaxy. During its journey light quanta will not lose energy and there will be no change in the light’s wavelength. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. The possible assumptions are : 1) At any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) In atomic and nuclear physics, atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the Newton’s gravitational constant and is discrete as , where n =1,2,3.. 4) Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, . Ratio of classical force limit and the imaginary electroweak force magnitude is . 5) Avogadro number is discrete and thus the imaginary electroweak force is discrete and can be expressed as and it seems to be more fundamental than the electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces. 6) Discrete imaginary electroweak force may be the responsible force for revolving electron’s discrete total energy in hydrogen atom. 7) Characteristic nuclear radius and Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 8) It can be suggested that, fermion and its corresponding boson mass ratio is not unity but a value close to This idea can be applied to quarks, leptons, proton and the charged Higgs fermion. One can see “super symmetry” in low energies as well as high energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] **viXra:1305.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 22:17:49*

**Authors:** Jin He, Xiaoli Yang

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 1 Figure. Nobel prizes come from the solutions of the Creator's equation.

Is the sum of rational structures also a rational structure? It is called the Creator's big question for humans. Numerical calculation suggests that it is approximately rational for the fitted parameter values of barred spiral galaxies. However, we need mathematical justification. The authors present the Creator's equation system without composite functions, the equation system being the necessary and sufficient condition for rational structure. However, we have not found its general solution. Please help us find the general solution.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[84] **viXra:1305.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-04 22:52:36*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is impossible to give an assured answer to questions concerning the relationship between Information (for example in the form of BITs) and the physical Universe at the fundamental level (IT). Information is an artifact of human thought imposed on Nature to describe some of its aspects. Nor can experimentation resolve such questions: An observer using an imaging instrument such as a telescope or microscope sees only the final image. There is a Cloud of Unknowing obscuring the true nature of Reality because signals carrying information about physical processes at fundamental scales get distorted, dissipated and subjected to noise in the channel or medium they pass through until they are finally observed at macroscopic scales. A similar Cloud obscures Reality when these experimental results are subjected to fallible logical and mathematical analysis. There is a necessity to examine our philosophy of knowing. By their very nature our best theories are merely our best guesses, and there is no guarantee that better theories may not be discovered contradicting present assumptions and/or presenting new ones.Nevertheless speculation and model-making is allowed. In analog computing devices such as the abacus, a bead is both a thing and a number. Reality may be like that at fundamental scales where its physical and informational content can be regarded as one and the same thing. Rather than BITs being the units of such information however, it is more likely that some sort of physical Bloch-Sphere-like QUBITs making up an ether are the building blocks of radiation and matter, and carriers of zero point energy making up the vacuum. In the theory of everything IT=QUBIT may be the paradigm of choice.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[83] **viXra:1305.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 07:32:35*

**Authors:** John Girault

**Comments:** 1 Page. We show that E=mc^2 is not correct

It is well known that the energy of a particle is equal to mv, with m mass and v the velocity of the particle, We use this, to show that Einstenn was wrong..

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1305.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 08:12:38*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In a previous article (1), we presented a very complete cosmological theory of ether. In this article we bring complements to this cosmology. In particular we study fluid mechanics for a spherical concentration of ether-substance moving inside the intergalactic ether-substance. We make also appear 2 kinds of radius for a galaxy and we establish the evolution as a function of time of the 1st kind. We also verify a simple relation between the 2 radius of the milky way at an age of the universe equal to 5 billion years. We also study the thermal transfer linked to the motion of a galaxy inside the intergalactic ether-substance (ether-substance occupying the space between galaxies) .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[81] **viXra:1305.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 10:31:35*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Min-Ying Jacob Chu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Transmissible prion based spongiform encephalopathies propagate by conformational change of the prion’s protein, PrP structure. An experimental design, relying on the utility of a new fundamental teleological action principle inherent in the topological geometry of a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum putatively driving self-organization in all autopoietic complex living systems, is developed to elucidate the fundamental nature of this conformational change. Further, PrP propagation is considered a mechanical action that can be described by ‘interactive computational modes’ of ‘topological switching’ driven by incursive oscillations occurring in the bioenergetics of the prions physical chemistry when improperly coupled to the long-range coherence of the noetic action. The experimental apparatus, a multi-level interferometer, is designed to focus this noetic field in a manner that simulates the mechanism driving PrP conformation to pathological form.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[80] **viXra:1305.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 12:49:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple list of sequences of products of three numbers, many of them, if not all of them, having probably an infinity of terms that are Fermat pseudoprimes to base 2 with three prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1305.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 13:23:47*

**Authors:** A Paramashivam

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email:shiva22116@gmail.com

Modern observations of star formation in different galaxies contradicts with the current star formation theories. There are few questions and observations where current star formation theories were not able to explain well. This paper proposes an alternative theory of Star formation and birth of Supermassive Black holes after the Big Bang, which can answer the contradictions without violating the physics laws and fit perfectly well with the modern observations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[78] **viXra:1305.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 14:59:33*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Jean-Pierre Vigier, Menas Kafatos, Geoffrey Hunter

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Extending EM and Quantum Theory suggests the possibility of photon mass, additional terms for Maxwell‘s equations, reality of de Broglie-Bohm causality and the Vigier model of extended charged particles. Experimental tests indicative of these hypotheses can be performed with double-slit interferometry of single visible wavelengths comparing near and far field sources over laboratory and various cosmological distances to observe the possibility of spreading of the photon wavepacket during propagation. These observations could determine whether nonlinearities causing non-dispersivity are associated with Maxwell’s equations. If so, this may be an indirect determination of non-zero restmass photon anisotropy, de Broglie photon piloting and vacuum permittivity reincarnating the Michelson-Morley experiment in terms of a Dirac covariant ether.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[77] **viXra:1305.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-09 16:17:16*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 30 pages, 2 figures, published in the Hadronic Journal

In this work, we forge a powerful, easy-to-visualize, flexible, consistent, and disciplined abstract vector framework for particle and astro physics that is compliant with the holographic principle. We demonstrate that the structural properties of the complex number and the sphere enable us to introduce and define the triplex number---an influential information structure that is similar to the 3D hyper-complex number by D. White and P. Nylander---which identifies a 3D analogue of (2D) complex space. Consequently, we engage the complex and triplex numbers as abstract vectors to systematically encode the state space of the Riemannian dual 3D and 4D space-time topologies, where space and time are dual and interconnected; we use the triplex numbers (with triplex multiplication) to extend 1D and 2D algebraic systems to 3D and 4D configurations. In doing so, we equip space-time with order parameter fields for topological deformations. Finally, to exemplify our motivation, we provide three example applications for this framework.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[76] **viXra:1305.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-14 19:49:17*

**Authors:** Xiong Wang

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking(SSB), in contrast to explicit sym-metry breaking, is a spontaneous process by which a system governed
by a symmetrical dynamic ends up in an asymmetrical state. So the
symmetry of the equations is not re
ected by the individual solutions,
but it is re
ected by the symmetrically coexistence of asymmetrical
solutions. SSB provides a way of understanding the complexity of
nature without renouncing fundamental symmetries which makes us
believe or prefer symmetric to asymmetric fundamental laws. Many
illustrations of SSB are discussed from QFT, everyday life to nonlinear
dynamic system.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[75] **viXra:1305.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-14 07:18:48*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This physics note entails a summary of an extended form of Eccles-Cartesian Interactive Dualism mind-body-multiverse paradigm called Noetic Field Theory: The Quantization of Mind (NFT), distinguished as a paradigm because it is comprehensive and empirically testable. NFT posits not only that the brain is not the seat of awareness but also that neither classical nor quantum mechanics are sufficient to describe mind as the required regime entails the new physics associated with Unified Field, UF Mechanics. This means that the brain is merely a transducer (quantum computer) mediating mentation, sensory data and metabolic function. The so-called ‘Hard Problem’ of cognitive science arises as a category error in philosophy of mind, i.e. an incorrect posit of the question “what processes in the brain give rise to awareness” which instead should simply be queried “what processes give rise to awareness”. In the history of science whenever a hard problem has arisen it has later been shown that the underlying principles had not been understood. NFT posits these underlying principles in a comprehensive empirically testable manner that enable breaking the 1st person 3rd person barrier able to explain Psi-phenomena. The premise is that the mind-body is a naturally occurring form of ‘conscious quantum computer’ (QC), not that the QC is conscious but that it is modelled after those principles. Such QC technologies could lead to routine telepathic effect devices.

**Category:** Mind Science

[74] **viXra:1305.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-14 00:58:36*

**Authors:** Yaqub Azari

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents the local radial basis function based on finite difference (LRBF-FD) for the sine-Gordon equation. Advantages of the proposed method are that this method is mesh free unlike finite difference (FD) and finite element (FE) methods, and its coefficient matrix is sparse and well-conditioned as compared with the global RBF collocation method (GRBF). Numerical results show that the LRBF-FD method has good accuracy as compared with GRBF.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[73] **viXra:1305.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-13 06:47:57*

**Authors:** Bassam Abdul-Baki

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In mathematics, Midy's theorem, named after French mathematician E. Midy, is a statement about the decimal expansion of fractions a/p where p is a prime and a/p has a repeating decimal expansion with an even period. If the period of the decimal representation of a/p is 2n, then the digits in the second half of the repeating decimal period are the 9s complement of the corresponding digits in its first half.
The Extended Midy's Theorem states that if the repeating portion of the decimal expansion of a/p is divided into k-digit numbers, then their sum is a multiple of 10^k − 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1305.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-13 08:24:25*

**Authors:** Ranganath G Kulkarni

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is possible to make decisions mathematically of first order predicate calculus. A new
mathematical formula is found for the solution of decision problem. We can reduce a logical algorithm into simple algorithm without logical trees.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[71] **viXra:1305.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-13 10:57:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The applications of the multiples of the number 30 in the study of Fermat pseudoprimes was for a long time one of my favourite subject of study; in this paper I shall list 13 sequences that I discovered, many of them, if not all of them, having probably an infinity of terms that are Carmichael numbers. I posted many of them on OEIS, where I analized more of their attributes; here I’ll just list them, enumerate their first few terms and present few conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1305.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 13:42:20*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I solve classical quantum mechanics problems without using Schrödinger equation. Problems solved are: particle in a 1, 2, and 3 dimensional box, particle in a ring, Quantum harmonic oscillator, and hydrogen-like atoms. Solutions are very short, and rely on Newtonian Mechanics.
This issue make easy to understand the mysteries of Quantum Theory

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1305.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 19:38:59*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper looks at the atomic bonding involved in the diatomic molecules of the second period of the periodic table. It addresses their molecular electrostatics, bond strengths, and electron affinities. Particular attention is given to the anomalies of the carbon diatom. Questions are raised about the sensibleness of the spdf model’s spatial ability to contain two electrons on an axis between diatoms and its ability to form π-bonds from parallel p-orbitals located over the nuclei of each atom. Nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine all have the same inter-nuclei bonding: the difference in bond strength is due to the number of anti-bonding electrons and not to differences in the number of bonds.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[68] **viXra:1305.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-21 16:10:16*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Copyright © 2013 All Rights Reserved by the Author

Based on the facts on the ground and on ancient texts, I argue Göbekli Tepe is the site of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Further, I explain why the current dates of 10,000BC for Göbekli Tepe are wrong. Rather, this construction probably dates to 600BC. At a time when Babylonian and Assyrian Civilizations are known to have had the capabilities and organization to have build such wonders.

**Category:** Archaeology

[67] **viXra:1305.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 23:55:34*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Higgs boson has been described as the “God” particle that will explain everything about the
universe according to the popular press. The reality is that the Higgs boson of the Standard Model might only help explain how only certain particles obtain mass. Instead of the heavy Higgs boson found at the LHC, another simpler particle that consists of only a joined positron and electron is considered as the candidate for the real “God” particle. This is a particle that will live up to the hype that a single particle could explain such diverse and seemingly unrelated and unexplained phenomenon such as mass, inertia and magnetism. This is a particle that will explain everything about the universe on a fundamental basis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1305.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 23:56:59*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The author asks if octonion quantum gravity is relevant near the Planck scale. Furthermore, the question is raised if gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, of the universe when an increase in degrees of freedom have in setting the initial phase, so that the result can be observed by a gravitational detector. The well appreciated quantum gravity problem that the notion of a quantum state, representing the structure of spacetime at some instant, and the notion of the evolution of the state, does not get traction, since there are no real “instants”, is avoided by having the initial octonion geometry embedded in a larger, non linear “pilot model” (semi classical) embedding structure. The Penrose suggestion of re cycled space time avoiding a ‘big crunch’ is picked as the embedding structure, so as to avoid the ‘instants’ of time issue. In addition the favored idea is to avoid the well known string theory trap known as the dimensionality problem of an equation of motion (consistency condition) which is the reason why string theory dimensionality is either (10 or 26) depending upon if super symmetry is imposed. Getting octonion gravity as embedded in a larger, Pilot theory embedding structure may restore Quantum Gravity to its rightful place in early cosmology without the lunacy of then afterwards ‘Schrodinger equation ‘ states of the universe, forevermore afterwards.. Setting the initial phase, in a GW detector due to appropriate measurement procedures may allow the opportunity to find experimental clues as to this embedding structure in which octonion gravity may emerge in the Planckian regime.of evolutionary cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1305.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 09:19:11*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

I will show, herein, that all the fermion masses may be determined from merely two well chosen constants, and all the fermion charges thereafter.
My book, "Reality is a Mathematical Model" (reference [1]), lays out the foundations of the algebraic construction of the vector-geometry of space-time and how the smooth functions represent the fundamental objects therein.
From there, my book, "A Mathematical Preon Foundation for the Standard Model" (reference [2]), gives an introductory look at how fundamental object mass originates from charge; an architecture of these fundamental objects; and the interactions of these fundamental objects.
Here, the picture of the mass of the fundamental objects is extended.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[64] **viXra:1305.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-13 03:39:30*

**Authors:** Richard Blaber

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper sets out to refute the idea of a ‘quantum theory of gravity’ on the basis that the General Theory of Relativity accounts for gravity in terms of the curvature of space-time, rather than treating it as a force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1305.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 06:33:07*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Higgs-particle could be a dark matter particle! It is not enough to confirm spin 0 and + parity for the Higgs-like particle to let it be the Higgs-particle. The Double Torus hypothesis should be involved. A dark matter particle in this new framework could also have spin 0 and + parity under condition it contributes to gravity, but its properties can also contribute as negative mass to anti-gravity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[62] **viXra:1305.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-17 23:18:48*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Stress energy tensor (Visser) will not even satisfy the first law of thermodynamics according to the Tolman criteria. Note that if the Visser Massive Graviton Stress energy tensor scenario does not hold then the Lavenda objection to inflation holds

The following questions is asked, If one takes the covariant derivative of a Stress-energy representation of early universe massive gravitons, is the derivative of the Graviton stress tensor equal to zero ? If so, then in what range of astrophysics does this occur, and when does this formalism break down? Lavenda and Davies argued that the derivative of a generalized GR stress energy tensor being zero in itself is insufficient to show that the 1st law of thermodynamics alone holds. If the full Stress-Energy tensor expression for GR is written out, there is a stress energy tensor component involving GW alone which we highlight. The problem as to this test is if the derivative of the Stress energy tensor, for gravitons as written by Visser is brought up. This Visser stress energy tensor for massive gravitons will not even satisfy the 1st thermodynamic law. We bring this up as a counter point to an article written by Lavenda and Davies purporting to claim that the Tolman test for a first law of thermodynamics which they generalize to first and second law of thermodynamics for inflationary cosmology. We show a breakdown of a zero value for the derivative of the Stress energy tensor for early universe massive gravitons and this derivative of the massive Graviton Stress energy tensor (Visser) will not even satisfy the first law of thermodynamics according to the Tolman criteria. Note that if the Visser Massive Graviton Stress energy tensor scenario does not hold then the Lavenda and Davies objection to inflation is upheld.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[61] **viXra:1305.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-11 16:31:27*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Salvatore Giandinoto

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Class II mesoionic xanthines such as anhydro-(8-hydroxyalkyl-5-hydroxy-7-oxothiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidinium hydroxides) are unique, small atomic weight, stable crystalline
organic compounds that can be represented as a combination of ten different resonance structures for
each simple xanthine molecule. Each resonance structure contributes a certain percentage to the total
resonance of the molecule. This unique resonance represents ten different quantum states of the
entire molecule and can thus be exploited as a potential substrate for a ten-qubit register. The number
of possible superposition states for such a register in a single molecule is potentially as high as states
or (in this case where n = 10) 1,024 complex numbers. In solution the least-unit of this mesoionic
crystalline structure is scalable suggesting putative utility for bulk NMR quantum computing. It will
be shown that these ten-qubit registers are amenable to standard Deutsch-Jozsa, Shor and Grover
algorithms. Additionally, we attempt to formalize I/O techniques for our Class II mesoionic
xanthines based on a coherent control RF process of cumulative resonant interaction where by
utilizing additional degrees of freedom pertinent to a relativistic basis for the qbit (r-qbit) new HD
commutation rules allow decoherence to be ontologically overcome.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:1305.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-26 18:31:54*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Chiman Kwan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. clarifications/enhancements; in publication process

Weak uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong uncloneable function (PUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce an "ultra"-strong PUF with intrinsic dynamical randomness, which is not only not cloneable but it also gets renewed to an independent key (with fresh randomness) during each use via the unconditionally secure key exchange. The solution utilizes the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) method for dynamical key renewal and a one-time-pad secure key for the challenge/response process. The secure key is stored in a flash memory on the chip to provide tamper-resistance and non-volatile storage with zero power requirements in standby mode. Simplified PUF keys are shown: a strong PUF utilizing KLJN protocol during the first run and noise-based logic (NBL) hyperspace vector string verification method for the challenge/response during the rest of its life or until it is re-initialized. Finally, the simplest PUF utilizes NBL without KLJN thus it can be cloned by the manufacturer but not by anybody else.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[59] **viXra:1305.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-11 06:47:28*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

You will get the horizontal rotation curve of spiral galaxies and the increasing rotation curve of small galaxies respectively by using the well-known features of normal baryonic matter. There is no need for any speculative matter or other unknown.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[58] **viXra:1305.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-10 12:24:58*

**Authors:** Thanh G. Nguyen

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 figures

In this article, by using fundamental concepts in classical mechanics, we derive equations describing gravitational red shift and Doppler effect for light as well as equations describing the relations among mass, momentum, and energy including mass-energy equivalence. Although our equations are different than those in Newtonian mechanics or special relativity, they yield results that are approximate results calculated with Newton mechanics or special relativity for values of velocity, which are much less than speed of light. Since the concepts in classical mechanics are not separated from the perspective of absolute space and time, this theory is named the theory of invariance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1305.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-10 08:41:10*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The scales of atomic and particle physics are shown to be related to Planck scale through multiplication by small integer powers of two numbers. One of the numbers is the fine structure constant; the other is of geometric origin. The scales include the Bohr radius and related scales (the reduced Compton wavelength, the classical electron radius, the electron mass and the Hartree energy), the pion charge radius and strong interaction time scale, the up and top quark masses, and the GUT scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[56] **viXra:1305.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-18 17:25:13*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Ancient Africa developed IFA divination with 256 Odu analagous to the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(8) and 16 Orishas analagous to the 8+8 Spinors of Cl(8) but in Africa IFA was transmitted by oral tradition and not written down. Humans emerging from Africa via the Arabian Sea settled in nearby India where ideas of IFA were written in the Sanskrit Rig Veda and encoded in Pachisi. By about 500 B.C. Pachisi evolved into Tarot. By about 1300 A.D. Tarot and some ideas of IFA were known in Mallorca where Ramon Llull used them to develop structures of the D4 and D8 Lie Algebras that lived in the IFA Clifford Algebra Cl(8) and its tensor square Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16). Although Llull's work was preserved in writing in Mallorca, his ideas were rejected by the Intellectual Establishment of Paris and remained dormant for centuries. Around 1890 Killing and Cartan rediscovered Llull's Lie Algebras. Only in the 1900s did the work of Cartan as further developed mathematicaly by Jovet, Sauter, and Riesz and as applied by Dirac to physics show how a D8 half-Spinor could be added to D8 itself to get E8 Physics and to see how E8 Physics lives inside IFA Cl(8). It has taken until now (the 2000s) for the formal Written Human Culture to catch up with the informal Oral Ancient African Culture in understanding a realistic Unified Theory of the Laws of Nature. Table of Contents: Introduction ... page 4 African IFA to RigVeda-Pachisi ... page 5 Great Pyramid ... page 13 RigVeda-Pachisi to Tarot ... page 23 Tarot to Llull ... page 27 Llull to Cartan-Dirac-Riesz-E8Physics ... page 37 Appendix1 - E6 to D4 ... page 38 Appendix2 - Some Details of E8 encoding in IFA ... page 42 Appendix3 - Comparison of Arabian Sea Africa-India connection with Nile River Africa-Egypt connection ... page 46 Appendix4 - Poster ... page 48 V2 adds illustrated cover page V3 adds Vedic Meru and Great Nile Pyramid

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[55] **viXra:1305.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-02 10:04:29*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Resting wave functions for the electron and the proton are presented. The proposed resting wave function of the proton is -6π5 multiplied by the resting wave function of the electron. Therefore, the hypothesis presented in Part 1 is not rejected. An unexpected consequence of this work is the ability to calculate the size of a proton at rest by using Equation 13.4. The resulting value for the diameter is 1.668 x 10-15 meter. This is within the accepted measured range of the proton diameter at 1.755(102) x 10-15 meter. Another unexpected consequence of this work is the ability to associate vacuum energy with the wave function of the electron by using Equation 22.2. Lastly, Equation 22.7 combines QM, SR, and Conservation of Momentum. It is the most interesting result presented here.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1305.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 14:47:25*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 197 Pages.

Study of algebraic structures using subsets was started by George Boole. After the invention of Boolean algebra, subsets were not used in any algebraic structures.
In this book we develop algebraic structures using subsets of a set, or of a group, or semigroup, or a ring and we get algebraic structures.
Using ring or semiring we get only subset semirings.
BY the method we get an infinite number of non-commutative semirings of finite order. We build subset semivector spaces, and describe and develop interesting properties over them.

**Category:** Algebra

[53] **viXra:1305.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 14:50:08*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 167 Pages.

Use of fuzzy neutrosophic models in the study of social problem or technical problem has become a demand for the day due to the involvement of indeterminacy. For always one is not in the position to say true or false, or assign a fuzzy value to any problem. At times, on is not in the position to commit to any of the three statements. In that situation, neutrosophic lmodels play a vital role.
In this book we introduce several fuzzy neutrosophic models to study social problems.

**Category:** Algebra

[52] **viXra:1305.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 15:06:47*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We develop a formalism for the Schrödinger equation in an eight
dimensional complex Minkowski space and discuss its relation to the Dirac equation,
properties of nonlocality, remote connectedness, Young’s double slit experiment, Bell’s
Theorem, the EPR paradox and anticipatory parameters of spacetime; and also identify
an imaginary temporal component as a small nonlinear term and find soliton or solitary
wave solutions. These coherent solutions can carry information over long distances, are
consistent with Lorentz invariance and appear to provide a fundamental methodology
for describing the issue of quantum measurement and a new context for the basis of
quantum theory. In the Copenhagen view models of reality are not desirable. However
our new approach may enable the redefinition of concepts of reality from a new
nonlocal anticipatory quantum theory. Certainly the most desirable consequence of
scientific discovery is the ability to redefine our concepts of reality.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[51] **viXra:1305.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 15:09:12*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Many naturally occurring phenomena require theoretical treatment
utilizing complex analysis by methods such as the Cauchy-Riemann relations using
hyper-geometrical spaces which treat inherently nonlinear, non-dispersive,
collective nonlocal resonant states of a quantum system, so as to be consistent with
the nonlinearity inherent in General Relativity. Typical quantum approaches form
linear approximations limiting the ability to formulate a quantum consistent
Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[50] **viXra:1305.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 15:12:10*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Human epistemology has steadily evolved from dark ages of superstition through enlightened periods of
logical reason to the current pragmatic age of empiricism. Now another Galilean class revolution
completing epistemology by integrating Science and Theology (S&T) utilizing transcendence seems
immanent. S&T represent opposite ends of a long continuum of schools of thought rather than mutually
exclusive disciplines as often believed. To implement the required paradigm shift an integrative noetic
science must include an adequate understanding of Transcendence. Over 2,000 years ago the Greek
philosopher Plato considered this type of noetic insight.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[49] **viXra:1305.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-03 10:21:42*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso, Jean-Pierre Vigier

**Comments:** 19 Pages. serious typos, reference to wrong figures etc repaired

In this work we extend Vigier’s recent theory of ‘tight bound state’ (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a ‘super quantum potential’ extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a ‘force of coherence’ inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[48] **viXra:1305.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-15 22:21:50*

**Authors:** Jin He, Xiaoli Yang

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 1 Figure. The authors are very old and are not experts in mathematics. Please help us humans to resolve the question.

Is the sum of rational structures also a rational structure? It is called the Creator's big question for humans. Numerical calculation suggests that it is approximately rational for the fitted parameter values of barred spiral galaxies. However, we need mathematical justification. The authors are very old and are not experts in mathematics. Please help us humans to resolve the question.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[47] **viXra:1305.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 20:05:19*

**Authors:** P. Demchenko, T. Demchenko

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract. - In many biological disciplines dealing with cell structures, kinetics of enzymes or thermal adaptation, water is often implicitly treated as a stage, where all important actions are performed, but with its only passive involvement. This is not declarative but de facto view and is for sure a result of a continued specialization. Nevertheless, when one plank of the stage is bent and dancers' heels often get stuck in this place, is it any wonder that the dance looks bizarre and at times enigmatic? The paper tries to explain some reasons for this enigma, some evidences of which are also given. The feature of water itself, one more abiotic factor is taken into consideration, providing a new explanation of many known facts. The paper examines the contribution of this water's characteristic to some details of enzymes kinetics and thermal adaptation.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[46] **viXra:1305.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 10:15:41*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter, Carol Lynne Jessop

**Comments:** Pages.

The association of integers, conjugate pairs and tightness with the eigenvalues of graphs provide the motivation for the following definitions. A class of graphs, with the property, that for each graph (member) of the class, there exists a pair a,b of non-zero, distinct, eigenvalues, whose sum (or product) yields the same integer, either as a fixed constant, or a function of an inherent aspect of the graph (such as its size), is said to be sum-eigen*(a+b)*pair balanced (or product-eigen*(a.b)*pair balanced, respectively). For example, complete graphs on n vertices, are eigen-bi-balanced with sum-eigen*(n-2)*pair balanced and product-eigen*(1-n)*pair balanced, and since a,b are non-zero their reciprocals (which affect the tightness of a graph ) are defined, so that this class has the eigen-balanced ratio of 1/a+1/b=(a+b)/(a.b)= (n-2)/(1-n) =f(n) which is asymptotic to the constant value of -1. The absolute value of the integral of f(n) multiplied by the average degree yields the area (n-1)(n-ln(n-1)) – we show that this is the maximum area for most known classes of eigen-bi-balanced graphs. We investigate the effect of this asymptotic ratio on the energy of the molecular representation of graphs. Cycles are generally neither sum-eigen-pair, nor product-eigen-pair balanced, while paths are only sum- eigen-pair balanced. In this paper, we introduce a class of graphs, involving q cliques each of size q, and show that this class is eigen-bi-balanced with respect to the sum -1 and product 1-q so that it has ratio 1/(q-1) asymptotic to 0, and has area q(2q+2ln(q-1)), and discuss its eigen-bi-balanced criticality.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[45] **viXra:1305.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 06:04:29*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Geometric demonstration of free fall and rotation reveals space-time nature of the genesis of circle. We show that the operations with radius are equivalent to operations with velocity. Consequently, conventional spatial unit for radius (m), becomes equivalent to dynamic space-time unit for speed (m/s). We prove that the velocity is a physical equivalence of geometric idea of radius.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[44] **viXra:1305.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 06:10:03*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Geometric demonstration located in v, t diagram explains the nature of the period of a pendulum, i.e. the universal connection of time with velocity (radius) and acceleration. Conceptual nature of the principles proof points to its universal validity. In other words, if it is valid for a circle, it is valid. Through the geometry of free fall we describe physical nature of irrational numbers π and √2. We demonstrate physical matrix of scale √2nπ. Through the relationship between the variables of space, time and velocity, using the principle of the pendulum, we illustrate the foundation of the law of conservation of energy. Analyzing its motion we point to nature of distortion of Euclidean geometry.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[43] **viXra:1305.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-07 14:43:38*

**Authors:** Stephan J.G. Gift

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This paper has been submitted for publication

Light transmission on the surface of the rotating Earth is examined using the Langevin metric of general relativity. It is shown that this metric which yields the rigorously tested and verified algorithm for clock synchronization in the Global Positioning System (GPS) also predicts east-west light speed anisotropy that is inconsistent with light speed isotropy postulated to hold at a local level on the rotating Earth. This light speed anisotropy is further demonstrated using experimentally confirmed light travel time in a simple speed calculation as well as the classical method of light speed relative to a terrestrial observer rotating with the Earth for light travel in the Earth-Centred Inertial (ECI) frame. These theoretical results are confirmed by experimental findings from GPS measurements and lead to the re-interpretation of the Sagnac effect normally treated as a time correction in GPS operation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1305.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-07 15:39:10*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This proposed design for a mini thermonuclear reactor uses a method based upon a series of important innovations. A cumulative explosion presses a capsule with nuclear fuel up to 100 thousands of atmospheres, the explosive electric generator heats the capsule/pellet up to 100 million degrees and a special capsule and a special cover which keeps these pressure and temperature in capsule up to 0.001 sec. which is sufficient for Lawson criteria for ignition of thermonuclear fuel. Major advantages of these reactors/bombs is its very low cost, dimension, weight and easy production, which does not require a complex industry. The mini thermonuclear bomb can be delivered as a shell by conventional gun (from 155 mm), small civil aircraft, boat or even by an individual. The same method may be used for thermonuclear engine for electric energy plants, ships, aircrafts, tracks and rockets.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[41] **viXra:1305.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-07 21:51:26*

**Authors:** H. J. Siamwalla, A.S.Muktibodh

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we defined the Smarandache seminormal subgroupoids. We have proved
some results for finding the Smarandache seminormal subgroupoids in Z(n) when n is even
and n is odd.

**Category:** Algebra

[40] **viXra:1305.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 00:41:09*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 1990, the physicist John Archibald Wheeler suggested that every particle, every field of force, even the space-time continuum itself can be described as being derived as part of an apparatus or machine which handles binary data. This means that the entire universe could be nothing more than an elaborate digital computer – God’s computer. This paper explores the idea that it is possible to break down all of the complex physical observations we see in the world to actions which are only binary in nature. This will be done by postulating a digital space which runs with minimal rules and reproduces the behavior of empty space and positrons and electrons. From there, the rest of the particles and fields of force are derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] **viXra:1305.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 08:54:40*

**Authors:** Ken S. Tucker

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article applies General Relativity (GR) to energy stored in a charge configuration
termed, “potential energy of a system of charges”, as it affects gravitation and space-time.
All mass and energy is expressible as, and convertible to electrical energy, as grams are
equivalent to electron-volts.
The analysis predicts gravitational radiation to be radiated and propagated as Electro-
Magnetic Radiation (EMR), therefore gravitational radiation is equivalent to EMR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1305.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-22 06:22:38*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 17

Quantum Function Follows Form (Q-FFF) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless dual Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral truncated tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local speed of light.
As a consequence there are no attraction forces on Fermions, which are supposed to have a real propeller shape and real double axis spin.
Higgs oscillations are the origin of all energy processes in the universe and the origin of so called Dark Energy.
NON oscillating Higgs particles are supposed to be trapped inside black hole nuclei of variable sizes called “Quantum Knots”, and the origin for all Dark matter.
Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses in the form of Higgs vector arrays from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena and gravity in the universe.
However, the vacuum lattice has only 2x6= 12 (twelve) oscillation directions, which seem to be observed in the 27 day sidereal moon related period of similar histograms found by Simon E. Shnoll.
These periods of 27 days seem to show a split in 2 or 3 subgroups of similar histograms, which have a possible relation with the12 oscillation directions of the vacuum with cubic and hexagonal elements..
As a second consequence, all “eigen energy” (even nuclear decay) and spin of Fermions is the result of the Dark Energy Higgs vector Field (DEHF) collision process with Fermions
As a third consequence Solar, Planetary and Moon masses influence the DEHF by less powerful Graviton vector array information transfer, which is assumed to be the origin of peculiar Shnoll effects like Solar and Sidereal day periods, sidereal Moon periods and year periods of similar histograms of nuclear decay measurements like Plutonium, 239 Pu.
Michelson-Morley didn’t find the ether, BUT Simon Shnoll did!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[37] **viXra:1305.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-07 04:43:29*

**Authors:** Nasser Almismari

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper is to find by proof the first derive of known tetration functions, fixed base iterated functions b^^x , general case for b^^f(x) and variable base with variable height iterated function x^^x. although the case of b^^x is already known by using the base change method but its derive function f(x) is still depend on the derive of f(x-1) which gives a shortcoming derivation. However, in the coming proofs, the resulted derivative functions are proved by applying differentiation elementary concepts step by step up to the final first derive ,but an unknown limit and a non-elementary product part of the resulted derivative function still needs study, Although I included approximation method for numerical solutions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[36] **viXra:1305.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-06 19:06:49*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Author offers the new method for obtaining very cheap electric energy, liquid fuel, thermal energy, fresh water and cheap nuclear fuel. He uses deuterium underground thermonuclear explosions.
He shows the installation for getting of energy (creating the underground cavity by nuclear explosive) is on the order of a thousand times cheaper than surface steel boiler designs offered by Russian scientists and more safe because in case of any damage the radiation is in the deep underground cavity. The offered system will also produce a lot of fresh water for arid regions.
Author developed the theory of underground explosions, artificial earthquake, computed projects and investigates the problems of nuclear security.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[35] **viXra:1305.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-06 20:09:16*

**Authors:** Tom Harvey

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A self-avoiding walk (SAW) is a path on a lattice that does not pass through the same point more than once. We develop a method for enumerating self-avoiding walks in a lattice by decomposing them into smaller pieces called tiles, solving particular cases on the square, triangular and cubic lattices. We also show that enumeration of SAWs in a lattice is related to enumeration of edge-connected shapes, for example polyominoes.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[34] **viXra:1305.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-06 22:14:39*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This a paper explores the idea that gravity is just a fairly straight forward application of the well known electrostatic force. The usual objections to an electrostatic gravity are refuted and additional evidence supporting gravity as the electrostatic force are provided. It is shown that gravity isn’t the mysterious force we think it is. Gravity is simply the electrostatic force

**Category:** Classical Physics

[33] **viXra:1305.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-08 10:12:54*

**Authors:** Denise DIDIER

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Cette étude montre comment se forment les nombres premiers à travers les bases.
Et donne les nombres premiers (deuxième terme de chaque base) dans l'ordre croissant à l'infini.
Cette étude ne respecte peut être pas l'écriture conventionnelle mathématique mais la méthode fonctionne.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[32] **viXra:1305.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-06 03:10:55*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we want to raise the question concerning the physical identity of bosons and the function that they perform in the
Non-Standard Model. Specifically we will analyse the physical nature and the physical behavior of both intermediate vector bosons (particles W and Z) and the Higgs boson, reaching different interpretations with respect to standard those. We will examine then the question on the stability of atomic nuclei and on the role of the gluon-boson.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[31] **viXra:1305.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-05 11:27:52*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Since the early days of relativity the question of conservation of energy in general relativity has been a controversial subject. There have been many assertions that energy is not exactly conserved except in special cases, or that the full conservation law as given by Noether’s theorem reduces to a trivial identity. Here I refute each objection to show that the energy conservation law is exact, fully general and useful.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1305.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-05 00:05:04*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Critical analysis of the generally accepted (standard) foundations of differential and integral calculus is proposed. Methodological basis of the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is shown that the generally accepted foundations are based on the logically and practically erroneous concepts “infinitesimal quantity (uninterruptedly diminishing quantity)”, “derivative”, “derivative as function of variable quantity” and, consequently, represent incorrect basis of mathematics and of theoretical physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[29] **viXra:1305.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-05 00:09:30*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The critical analysis of the Pythagorean theorem and of the problem of irrational numbers is proposed. Methodological basis for the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is shown that: 1) the Pythagorean theorem represents a conventional (conditional) theoretical proposition because, in some cases, the theorem contradicts the formal-logical laws and leads to the appearance of irrational numbers; 2) the standard theoretical proposition on the existence of incommensurable segments is a mathematical fiction, a consequence of violation of the two formal-logical laws: the law of identity of geometrical forms and the law of lack of contradiction of geometrical forms; 3) the concept of irrational numbers is the result of violation of the dialectical unity of the qualitative aspect (i.e. form) and quantitative aspect (i.e. content: length, area) of geometric objects. Irrational numbers represent a calculation process and, therefore, do not exist on the number scale. There are only rational numbers.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[28] **viXra:1305.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-05 00:13:38*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The work is devoted to solution of an actual problem – the problem of relation between geometry and natural sciences. Methodological basis of the method of attack is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is shown within the framework of this basis that geometry represents field of natural sciences. Definitions of the basic concepts "point", "line", "straight line", "surface", "plane surface", and “triangle” of the elementary (Euclidean) geometry are formulated. The natural-scientific proof of the parallel axiom (Euclid’s fifth postulate), classification of triangles on the basis of a qualitative (essential) sign, and also material interpretation of Euclid’s, Lobachevski’s, and Riemann’s geometries are proposed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[27] **viXra:1305.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-11 01:45:39*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Originally, I planned to call this article H(subscript u) = BEc(superscript e infinity), or 1 = 1(superscript infinity) (using the infinity symbol and no parentheses). But my computer won’t let me save that name – so I’ve changed the title to “Equation Describing the Universe”. This equation looks like the one physicists are hoping will be printed on T-shirts in the middle of this century as a description of the Universe. Normally, I’d leave development of this equation in the capable hands of Isaac Newton or Albert Einstein. They aren’t here right now … and it’ll be quite a while before they return. However, they instructed me to send you this message on their behalf.
H is for the Hamiltonian, representing the total energy of a quantum mechanical system. The subscript u stands for “universe” and Hu means the universe operates quantum mechanically (quantum effects operate macroscopically as well as microscopically, and this unification is symbolized by the first 1). BEc is for Bose-Einstein condensate, a finite form of matter that is the first known example of quantum effects becoming apparent on a macroscopic scale (represented by the second 1). Borrowing a couple of lines from the more complete explanation in the Content – “The infinite cosmos could possess this absence of distance in space and time, via the electronic mechanism of binary digits. To distinguish this definition from “the universe going on and on forever”, we can call it “electronic infinity or e infinity” (not E8). When the macroscopic quantum effects of the BEc are magnified by e infinity, those effects are instantly translated into all space-time operating quantum mechanically. In other words, you can multiply a BEc (the second 1) an infinite number of times – but no matter how many (or how few) times you do it, you’ll always end up with 1 (the macroscopic universe’s time and space operating quantum mechanically). Consequent to this operation is the inevitable quantum entanglement of everything (matter, energy, forces); making all space and all time a unification.
The second part of this article addresses the scientific reasons for believing that a whole universe can be created from nothing. (See p.180 of Stephen Hawking’s/Leonard Mlodinow’s book “The Grand Design”). It reinterprets these reasons in terms of hyperspace and entanglement, to conclude - more than two-thirds of any part of the universe requires no assembly at all. It seemingly appears from nothing, but actually uses the brain’s positive energy which interacts with the negative energy in 5th-dimensional hyperspace (negative energy requires no work at all, according to “The Grand Design”). The remaining third is entangled with the no-work two-thirds and similarly only needs personal interaction with hyperspace (since every atom in the universe contains hyperspace, interactions can be physical e.g. manufacturing and engineering). Thus, the whole universe appears to be created from nothing but is really produced from something.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1305.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-04 14:26:24*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 11 Pages. FQXI essay contest 2013: It from Bit or Bit from It?

The information or knowledge we can get from a quantum state, depends on the interaction of this state with the measurement process itself. As we know, this involves an uncertainty in the amount of information and accuracy of this knowledge. Now we ask: is there an information content intrinsic and independent of the observer, in quantum reality? Our answer is a resounding, yes. More precisely, we show that this information is encoded on surfaces, and specifically in circular compactifications. That is, there is a holograph on surfaces. In this encoding of quantum information will call as the strong holographic principle. Due to the application of this principle, it will show as the Higgs vacuum value implies a subtle correction by entropic uncertainty. The connections of quantum information, to cosmology, are clearly shown when the values of the dark energy density approxeq = ln2;and matter density Omega_{m}= Omega_{c}+ Omega_{b}, approxeq = 1-ln2. It showed that the equation of the energy-momentum has five solutions by factoring by two components which appear in terms of mass and imaginary momentum. Far from being a mere mathematical artifice, we see that these states should exist, and that our interpretation of them is that every particle appears to be a mixture of two states, one of them unobservable, having an imaginary component. In other words: these involve imaginary states faster than the speed of light, without contradicting Special Relativity, as we shall see. Failure to observe Cherenkov radiation forces us to determine which are virtual states. These five states also appear to be related to the minimum number of microstates which generate the group E8. Finally: all these results lead us to postulate a particle candidate to the dark matter, of approximately 9,2 Gev.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1305.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 08:49:01*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Reports of the discovery of the Higgs boson have been very cryptic, contradictory, shrouded in ambiguity, refer to different types of Higgs bosons, multiple Higgs bosons, and Higgs-like particles, and are often accompanied by mock-up images that contain not one iota of scientific information. Very disturbing is the revelation that scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) made several videos for press release in advance of any announcement, for various different outcomes, so that they could choose to release the video they wanted to present to the world in the press release on the 4th July 2012 reporting on the performance of the LHC. One such video briefly appeared on the CERN website on the 3rd of July 2012, the day prior to the official announcement, and was very quickly removed, but not soon enough to prevent wider knowledge of its existence. Even the CERN Press Office did not know what the scientists at the LHC would report to the world on the 4th of July 2012 and admitted the existence of several different advance videos for different possible reports. Who leaked the video is not publicly known. Then there is the issue of replication. Who has the capability and wherewithal to independently replicate the experiments at the LHC in order to ascertain the veracity of the reports by the people at the LHC? Without independent experiment replication the people at the LHC are at liberty to tell the world what they please.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[24] **viXra:1305.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-16 03:31:05*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This theory's problem

In the general relativity theory, find the the Rindler theory’s mistake, find the new accelerated theory that used the tetrad on the new method.And discover the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the new accelerated theory and expand to be the new accelerated theory of the accelerated observer that have the initial velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1305.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 18:47:23*

**Authors:** Hoa Van Nguyen

**Comments:** 9 Pages. 10 figures

The article presents an extended model for the electron , which is based on the image of the screened electron by the vacuum polarization . It composes of a central core that is surrounded by an assembly of electric dipoles . This extended model will be used (in subsequent articles) to calculate the effective charge and demonstrate the mechanisms of spin and radiation of the electron in external fields .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22] **viXra:1305.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 19:22:32*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Modified torsion is proposed as an alternative to dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1305.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 22:43:55*

**Authors:** Ziaul Hassan Serneabat, Nabila Chowdhury, A.K.M. Masud

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper focuses on the simulation of the flexible manufacturing system. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are production systems consisting of identical multipurpose numerically controlled machines (workstations), automated material handling system, tools, load and unload stations, inspection stations, storage areas and a hierarchical control system. The model will prioritize the job and select the best alternative route with multi-criteria scheduling through an approach based on a fuzzy logic. There are three criteria for both the job sequencing and routing with 27 rules. With the help of the rules the sequence of the jobs are done and the best route is selected.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1305.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 23:36:36*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

@@The work is devoted to solution of an actual problem – the problem of relation between geometry and natural sciences. Methodological basis of the method of attack is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is shown within the framework of this basis that geometry represents field of natural sciences. Definitions of the basic concepts "point", "line", "straight line", "surface", "plane surface", and “triangle” of the elementary (Euclidean) geometry are formulated. The natural-scientific proof of the parallel axiom (Euclid’s fifth postulate), classification of triangles on the basis of a qualitative (essential) sign, and also material interpretation of Euclid’s, Lobachevski’s, and Riemann’s geometries are proposed.

**Category:** Geometry

[19] **viXra:1305.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-04 04:05:51*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Theorem .the simplest proof of Fermat last theorem.We have fermat equation x^(4p)-y^(4p)=
z^(4p),where p is odd prime.We prove that if y and z are integer numbers then x,x^4 and x^p are
irrational numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1305.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-04 04:11:27*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We have Fermat equation x^(3p)+y^(3p)=z^(3p) where p is odd prime.We prove that if y and z are integers then x,x^3,x^p are irrational numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17] **viXra:1305.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 04:50:41*

**Authors:** Andrew walcott beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. may be submitted to the IOP conference proceedings for the icmsquare, and this document is being written up since the i cm square conference accepted this idea for a paper to go to the conference

We ask if there is always entanglement entropy in the universe. We find the resolution by work from Muller and Lousto, as to entanglement entropy . We present entanglement entropy in the early universe with a steadily shrinking scale factor, due to work from Muller and Lousto , and show that there are consequences due to initial entangled entropy for a time dependent horizon radius in cosmology, with for flat space conditions r(H)=conformal time. In the case of a curved, but not flat space version of entropy, we look at vacuum energy as proportional to the inverse of scale factor squared times the inverse of initial entropy, effectively when there is no initial time except with the hubble readius = initial conformal time in line with the conformal time being almost zero. The consequences for this initial entropy being entangled are elaborated in this manuscript. No matter how small the initial radial length gets, then for initial cosmological entropy if it is entanglement entropy, it will not go to zero.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1305.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 06:35:37*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

P. H. Frampton (author of Gauge Field Theory), in 2012 published a paper(1) noting that in observed flat spacetime the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric of general relativity reduces to a simple Newtonian form, where a very simple repulsion term can be added for dark energy. Frampton postulated ad hoc outward acceleration due to dark energy: a = 2GM/R^2. We compare the predictions from Frampton's theory to more recent (March 2013) Planck space telescope cosmological parameters, which revise the earlier WMAP derived parameters. We prove a corrected version of Frampton's law using quantum gravity, and we discuss the breakdown in the FRW metric of general relativity, which is due to a false mainstream assumption that gravity and dark energy are independent variables.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1305.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-02 14:07:06*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

All massive particles occupy mass levels that descend in geometric sequence from the Planck Mass. There are three fundamental sequences, of common ratio 1/pi, 2/pi and 1/e. Stable and long-lived charged particles, including the electron, the light quarks, the proton and the charged pions, are arranged systematically, in association with the Higgs field vacuum expectation value, within a network of mass levels.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1305.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-25 02:24:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Rotation and translation are the two (fundamentally different) kinds of motion in the universe. Rotational motion is the same in all inertial frames and hence can easily be understood as absolute motion. Translational motion, on the other hand, can be understood easily only as a relative motion and has never been clearly understood as an absolute motion. The results of Sagnac’s and Michelson-Morley’s experiments support this. Einstein denied the validity of absolute motion altogether. However, the author feels that if rotational motion is absolute, then absolute translational motion must also be valid somehow and be confirmed experimentally. One reasoning behind this hypothesis is that we apply absolute translational motion in the analysis of Sagnac’s experiment and get the correct result, even though the fringe shift in the final formula is explained in terms of the angular velocity (rotation) of the apparatus rather than the translational velocity of the source and the detector. With the existing logic we are used to in discussions about absolute motion, however, one will always end up in the “ relative to what?” question that always leads to confusion. Therefore, absolute translational motion must be redefined if it is to be valid logically. Absolute (translational) motion can be redefined as resulting from a change in state of motion (acceleration) of a body rather than as motion relative to some universal, static, absolute reference frame. According to the new theory, there is no universal absolute reference frame but there is a dynamic absolute reference frame. According to this theory, although the velocity of the earth relative to the sun is 30Km/s, its absolute velocity in space is almost zero because the acceleration of the earth is almost zero and that was why the Michelson-Morley device failed to detect any fringe shift. Two bodies may be in relative motion and yet may have the same absolute velocity or may be at rest relative to each other and yet may have different absolute velocities at some instant of time. The theory of ‘Absolute Dynamic Space’ reconciles the notion of absolute motion with Galileo’s principle of invariance and Einstein’s two postulates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1305.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 01:15:25*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

@@The critical analysis of the Pythagorean theorem and of the problem of irrational numbers is proposed. Methodological basis for the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is shown that: 1) the Pythagorean theorem represents a conventional (conditional) theoretical proposition because, in some cases, the theorem contradicts the formal-logical laws and leads to the appearance of irrational numbers; 2) the standard theoretical proposition on the existence of incommensurable segments is a mathematical fiction, a consequence of violation of the two formal-logical laws: the law of identity of geometrical forms and the law of lack of contradiction of geometrical forms; 3) the concept of irrational numbers is the result of violation of the dialectical unity of the qualitative aspect (i.e. form) and quantitative aspect (i.e. content: length, area) of geometric objects. Irrational numbers represent a calculation process and, therefore, do not exist on the number scale. There are only rational numbers.

**Category:** Geometry

[12] **viXra:1305.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-02 14:52:08*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 1 Page. Minor typing errors fixed.

We have non-speculative, concrete evidence that dark energy is the mechanism of gravity, analogous to the U(1) spin-1 electrodynamics field equation, so the lagrangian for repulsion of masses has a similar propagator for repulsion of similar charges in QED (Moller scattering). Therefore, in the presently-observable (low energy) limit of quantum gravity (very small coupling), Feynman’s well-tested rules for calculating the perturbative expansion of the path integral show that: (a) only the term for 2-vertex, tree-level interaction (Moller scattering) diagram in the perturbative expansion makes a significant contribution at low energy (the tiny gravity coupling suppresses the more complicated interactions in the expansion, since they have more vertices and hence pick up higher powers of the very small coupling), and (b) the cross-section (relative interaction probability, i.e. square of the sum of amplitudes), is proportional to the square of the coupling. So cross-sections from weak scattering of neutrinos can be multiplied by the square of the ratio of the known gravitational coupling to the known Fermi (weak interaction) constant (both expressed in units of GeV^-2), to find the effective cross-section for quantum gravity at low energy. This cross-section predicts the cosmological acceleration due to dark energy, a = (c^4)/(Gm), and automatically quantizes mass, revising the electroweak theory to include quantum gravity, with U(1) hypercharge now generating both dark energy and quantum gravity. This new paper uses a new diagram to improve understanding, and presents key facts in a single page to try to overcome inertia due to the lack of time most people have for "alternative ideas". More extensive and lengthy treatments can be found in other papers including: http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111 and http://vixra.org/abs/1302.0004

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1305.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 16:46:11*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In previous publication, we have imagined a thought experiment, showing that the relative velocities of two observers in a uniform lineaire motion, are different, unlike the predictions of Lorentz transformation. Thanks to this experiment, we show that assuming the equality of the relative velocities, leads inevitably to contradictions. Based on the axioms of the affine space, and their implications, an explanation is provided to understand the source of these contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1305.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 19:19:35*

**Authors:** R.L. Amoroso, L.H. Kauffman, E.A. Rauscher, P. Rowlands J-P Vigier

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Recent attempts to consider isolated particles and real constitutive wave elements as localized,
extended spacetime structures (i.e., moving within time-like hypertubes or branes are developed within a causal
extension of the Feynman-Gell-Mann electron model. These extended structures contain real internal motions,
(i.e., internal hidden parameters) locally correlated with the "hidden parameters" describing the local collective
motions of the corresponding pilot-waves. Recent experimental evidence is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9] **viXra:1305.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 19:35:02*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Here we present discussion for the utility of resonant interference in Calabi-Yau mirror symmetry as a
putative empirical test of the existence of virtual tachyon / tardon interactions in a covariant Dirac polarized vacuum

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1305.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 19:40:52*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A brief history and biography of Descartes and his scientific work is given followed by some of the
mathematical details of a mathematical curiosity called the Folium of Descartes which he discovered in an attempt to
challenge Fermat’s extremum-finding techniques.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[7] **viXra:1305.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-03 05:50:00*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We construct a Dirac theory on causal sets; a key element in the construction being that the causet must be regarded as emergent in an appropriate sense too. We further notice that mixed norm spaces are a key element in the construction allowing for negative norm particles and ``ghosts''.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1305.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-02 04:14:53*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 16 pages. « Inconstante cosmologique, supernovae 1a et décélération de l’expansion » is the French version of «Cosmological Inconstant, Supernovæ 1a and Decelerating Expansion» on viXra: 1304.0169v1

En 1998, deux équipes américaines constatèrent que les supernovæ 1a (SN1a) qu’ils observaient étaient moins brillantes que prévu dans un univers en expansion décélérée. Ils en déduisirent que l'univers connaissait une expansion accélérée sous la pression négative d'une énergie noire. Les astronomes ressortirent la constante cosmologique, positive cette fois, pour justifier cette accélération, ce qui cadre avec l’image d’un univers inflationnaire. Pour expliquer la trop faible luminosité des SN1a les plus lointaines, ils misèrent essentiellement sur leur distance qui était à revoir à la hausse. Nous considérons qu’une expansion accélérée conduit droit à une « catastrophe de l’énergie noire » et nous supposons plutôt que l'univers connaît une expansion décélérée sous la pression positive d’une énergie noire, à savoir une constante cosmologique variable. La luminosité noire de cette dernière serait celle d’une « lumière fatiguée » qui aurait perdu de l’énergie avec la distance. Quant au faible rayonnement des SN1a, il s’expliquerait par un double processus physique. Au surplus des arguments sérieux déjà apportés, nous conjecturons que leur luminosité faiblisse sans cesse par des interactions avec des champs magnétiques cosmiques, à l’instar de l’expérience terrestre PVLAS dont le laser perd beaucoup plus de photons qu’attendu en parcourant un champ magnétique.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1305.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 12:15:26*

**Authors:** Renato Vieira dos Santos

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The puzzle associated with the cost of sex, an old problem of evolutionary biology, is discussed
here from the point of view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The results suggest, in a simplified model, that the prevalence of sexual species in nature can be a natural and necessary consequence of the discrete character of the nonlinear interactions between couples and their pathogens/parasites. Mapped into a field theory, the stochastic processes performed by the species are described by continuous fields in space and time. The way that the model's parameters scale with subsequent iterations of the renormalization group gives us information about the stationary emergent properties of the complex interacting systems modeled. We see that the combination of one aspect of the Red Queen theory with the stochastic processes theory, including spatiotemporal interactions, provides interesting insights into this old Darwinian dilemma.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[4] **viXra:1305.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 13:13:37*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 relations

Abstract. This paper is about relations between fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1305.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 04:53:20*

**Authors:** A K Balamuruhan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I like to have a discussion in Physics. I present a few hypotheses that I have in physics. I request the readers to review and comment upon them. The hypotheses start from cosmological concepts to concepts at particle scale.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1305.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-21 04:59:09*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In (viXra.org 1304.0106) there described the 3 generalizations of the First Noether theorem. As
the simple example of application of this generalized theorem there is a paper
“Energy-Momentum Vectors for the Matter and Gravitational Field”(viXra.org 1304.0130).
And the application of the last paper to the Schwarzschild metric is described in the current paper.
And it gives the energy of the Earth gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1305.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 07:06:10*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

A brief, simple, and solid disproof, by contradiction, of Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology