All Submission Categories

2001 Submissions

[394] viXra:2001.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 10:54:29

Ferroelectric Nanoelectronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A UNSW study published today in Nature Communications presents an exciting step towards domain-wall nanoelectronics: a novel form of future electronics based on nano-scale conduction paths, and which could allow for extremely dense memory storage. [29] Two research groups from ETH Zurich have developed a method that can simulate nanoelectronics devices and their properties realistically, quickly and efficiently. [28] Dispersible electrodes based on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles modified with DNA can detect microRNA in unprocessed blood samples at extremely low concentrations and over a broad range-a first for sensors of this kind. [27] Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed neutrophil "nanosponges" that can safely absorb and neutralize a variety of proteins that play a role in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. [26] An international team of researchers has determined the function of a new family of proteins associated with cancer and autism. [25] In 2016, when we inaugurated our new IBM Research lab in Johannesburg, we took on this challenge and are reporting our first promising results at Health Day at the KDD Data Science Conference in London this month. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[393] viXra:2001.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:33:21

Laser Diode UV Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Nagoya University scientists, in cooperation with Asahi Kasei Corporation, have designed a laser diode that emits deep-ultraviolet light, and have published a paper in the journal Applied Physics Express. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[392] viXra:2001.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:42:21

Mathematical Demonstration of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Francisco Moga Moscoso, Marina Moga Lozano
Comments: 5 Pages. email for contact: mmoga@uma.es. Book and copyright: Desdedondetodocomienza

A possible demonstrations of the riemann hypothesis based on every infinite complex solution of zeta function of Riemann ζ(s) with it is conjugated root, can also be used to be the solution of a quadratic equation of real coefficients which admits it as zeros, using the root theorem of Viete.
Category: General Mathematics

[391] viXra:2001.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:54:29

Laser Based on Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

"The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[390] viXra:2001.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 12:32:50

The Horizon of Two Interacting Bodies

Authors: Lluís Bel
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two concomitant Whitehead's models are used to describe the gravitational interaction of two point-like particles. If the two masses are different, and they are at rest, Newton's laws are slightly modified and for some particular values of the two masses and the distance separating them the force is a repulsion. This suggests a nice interpretation of the so-called horizon of the single particle model as the surface where gravitation becomes a repulsive force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[389] viXra:2001.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:07:59

Camera Takes 1 Trillion Frames

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A little over a year ago, Caltech's Lihong Wang developed the world's fastest camera, a device capable of taking 10 trillion pictures per second. It is so fast that it can even capture light traveling in slow motion. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[388] viXra:2001.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:15:57

Critical Review of IPCC Goals Due to Conflicts to CO2 Theory and Increasing UHI Albedo and Humidity Forcing Concerns

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 9 Pages. Key Words: Urban Heat Islands, Albedo Forcing, Humidity Forcing, Hydro-hotspots, Highly Evaporating Surfaces, Rainwater management,, Ocean Evaporation, City Evaporation Rates, CO2 theory

We provide a critical review of current IPCC 2020 CO2 goals which we show are very risky in light of increasing UHI albedo and humidity forcing that remains unaddressed by the IPCC over the years. Specifically we show that UHI albedo radiative forcing is in conflict with CO2 global warming theory. Since many of these issues have been described but still ignored by the IPCC goals, what we do is connect key issues to form a critical review of IPCC past and current direction explaining that their well intentioned goals are likely incomplete putting our population at future risk.
Category: Climate Research

[387] viXra:2001.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:28:14

Terahertz Laser Beam Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Terahertz radiation is used for security checks at airports, for medical examinations and also for quality checks in industry. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[386] viXra:2001.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 14:48:07

World-Universe Model - Alternative to Big Bang Model

Authors: Vladimir S. Netchitailo
Comments: 23 Pages.

This manuscript provides a comparison of the Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) with the prevailing Big Bang Model (BBM) of the Standard Cosmology. The performed analysis of BBM shows that the Four Pillars of the Standard Cosmology are model-dependent and not strong enough to support the model. The angular momentum problem is one of the most critical problem in BBM. Standard Cosmology cannot explain how Galaxies and Extra Solar systems obtained their substantial orbital and rotational angular momenta, and why the orbital momentum of Jupiter is considerably larger than the rotational momentum of the Sun. WUM is the only cosmological model in existence that is consistent with the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum. To be consistent with this Fundamental Law, WUM discusses in detail the Beginning of the World. The Model introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from the Beginning of the World for 0.4 billion years) when only Dark Matter Particles (DMPs) existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in Standard Cosmology is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning Dark Matter (DM) Supercluster’s Cores. WUM envisions Matter carried from the Universe into the World from the fourth spatial dimension by DMPs. Ordinary Matter is a byproduct of DM annihilation. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system; some problems in Solar and Geophysics [1]. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[385] viXra:2001.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 16:40:58

On Certain Types of Notions Via Preopen Sets

Authors: Saeid Jafari
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we deal with the new class of pre-regular p-open sets in which the notion of preopen set is involved. We characterize these sets and study some of their fundamental properties. We also present two other notions called extremally $p$-discreteness and locally $p$-indiscreteness by utilizing the notions of preopen and preclosed sets by which we obtain some equivalence relations for pre-regular p-open sets. Moreover, we define the notion of regular $p$-open sets by utilizing the notion of pre-regular p-open sets. We investigate some of the main properties of these sets and study their relations to pre-regular $p$-open sets.
Category: Topology

[384] viXra:2001.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 16:59:18

Bioperations on $\alpha$-Separations Axioms in Topological Spaces

Authors: Alias B. Khalaf, Saeid Jafari, Hariwan Z. Ibrahim
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we consider the class of $\alpha_{[\gamma, \gamma']}generalized closed set in topological spaces and investigate some of their properties. We also present and study new separation axioms by using the notions of $\alpha$-open and $\alpha$-bioperations. Also, we analyze the relations with some well known separation axioms.
Category: Topology

[383] viXra:2001.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:03:09

G*bp-Continuous, Almost G*bp-Continuous and Weakly G*bp-Continuous Functions

Authors: Alias B. Khalaf, Suzan N. Dawod, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we introduce new types of functions called g*bp-continuous function, almost g*bp-continuous function, and weakly g*bp-continuous function in topological spaces and study some of their basic properties and relations among them.
Category: Topology

[382] viXra:2001.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:06:58

A Note on Properties of Hypermetric Spaces

Authors: Mohsen Alimohammady, Saeid Jafari, Seithuti P. Moshokoa, Morteza Koozehgar Kalleji
Comments: 12 Pages.

The note studies further properties and results of analysis in the setting of hypermetric spaces. Among others, we present some results concerning the hyper uniform limit of a sequence of continuous functions, the hypermetric identication theorem and the metrization problem for hypermetric space.
Category: Topology

[381] viXra:2001.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:13:57

On Generalized Closed Sets and Generalized Pre-Closed Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Wadei Al-Omeri, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, the concept of generalized neutrosophic pre-closed sets and generalized neutrosophic pre-open sets are introduced. We also study relations and various properties between the other existing neutrosophic open and closed sets. In addition, we discuss some applications of generalized neutrosophic pre-closed sets, namely neutrosophic pT_{1/2} space and neutrosophic gpT_{1/2} space. The concepts of generalized neutrosophic connected spaces, generalized neutrosophic compact spaces and generalized neutrosophic extremally disconnected spaces are established. Some interesting properties are investigated in addition to giving some examples.
Category: Topology

[380] viXra:2001.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:20:57

Bipolar Vague a-Ideals of Bci-Algebras

Authors: Cicily Flora, S., Arockiarani, I., Saeid Jafari
Comments: 7 Pages.

The notion of bipolar vague A-ideals of BCI-algebra is introduced and their properties are investigated. Characterizations of bipolar vague A-ideals are given. Relationship between bipolar vague ideal and the newly defined ideals are analyzed. Moreover, we studied some equivalent conditions for bipolar vague A-ideals. Finally, we prove a result in bipolar A-ideal using bipolar vague level cut.
Category: Algebra

[379] viXra:2001.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:23:28

Soft Interval Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Semi-Pre Generalized Closed Sets

Authors: A.Arokia Lancy, I. Arockiarani, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce some generalized closed sets of general topology to soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy topology. In particular the soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy semi-pre generalized closed sets along with its characterization are discussed.
Category: Topology

[378] viXra:2001.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:26:53

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Ideals on Approximation Systems

Authors: H. Jude Immaculate, Saeid Jafari, I.Arockiarani
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we initiate the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals on rough sets. Using a new relation we discuss some of the algebraic nature of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a ring.
Category: Topology

[377] viXra:2001.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 18:17:28

On a Function Modeling $n$-Step Self Avoiding Walk

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 6 Pages.

We introduce and study the needle function. We prove that this function is a function modeling $n$-step self avoiding walk. We show that the total length of the $l$-step self-avoiding walk modeled by this function is of the order \begin{align}\ll \frac{n^{\frac{3}{2}}}{2}\bigg(\mathrm{\max}\{\mathrm{sup}(x_j)\}_{1\leq j\leq \frac{l}{2}}+\mathrm{max}\{\mathrm{sup}(a_j)\}_{1\leq j\leq \frac{l}{2}}\bigg).\nonumber \end{align}
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[376] viXra:2001.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 18:48:00

Planck Length and Third Amendment to the Rayleigh-Jeans Law

Authors: S. V. Miheev
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is shown that the minimum wavelength is approximately equal to the Planck length. To prove the exact equality, it is necessary to find an analytical solution of a certain integral = 1 /(8*Pi)^2 . The calculations are based: on a previously obtained dependence of the temperature of zero oscillations on the maximum and minimum wavelengths of standing oscillations in the cavity; on the previously calculated fraction of thermal fluctuations in the critical energy density (1/4); and on the law of Stefan – Boltzmann. It is assumed that thermal and zero-point vibrations are held in the cavity by their own gravitational field, and the wavelength of these oscillations is quantized. The critical frequency is determined above which corrections arise associated with the quantization of the wavelength of oscillations. The corrections are obtained: the Rayleigh – Jeans law, the formula for the distribution of the energy density of zero-point vibrations over frequencies, the Planck formula, and the Stefan – Boltzmann law. It is shown that corrections that reduce the energy density of zero-point vibrations by 120 orders of magnitude are almost impossible to detect in laboratory experiments with thermal radiation. I apologize for spreading false information that the minimum wavelength is significantly greater than the Planck length. My attempts to find a solution by adjusting the parameters led to errors.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[375] viXra:2001.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 19:33:35

A Distributed Algorithm for Brute Force Password Cracking on n Processors

Authors: Roman Bahadursingh
Comments: 3 Pages.

A Password P, can be defined as a hash of x symbols .A brute force password cracking algorithm will go through every possible combination of symbols from 1 – x symbols. This form of password cracker takes O(n) time to solve, where n is the number of possible combinations, achieved by sn where s is the number of symbols available for a password. Having a password cracker with multiple processors, having the processors instead of all checking from symbol 0 to the last symbol, using a more decentralized approach can greatly improve the speed of this computation to O(n/2) for two processors, O(n/3) for three processors and O(n/np) as a generalized formula. This algorithm also allows for multiple processors of different clock speeds to also crack a password in more optimal time.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[374] viXra:2001.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 00:47:55

The Hybrid Time Clock as a Function of Gravity

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper follows on from the preceding papers [1-15] in detailing how time is a function of gravity using what is termed the “hybrid time clock”, in much the same way Einstein used the analogy of a clock in his special relativity theory [16]. The paper here doesn't dispute key known facts of special relativity regarding time and gravity, and of course mass, yet it does highlight new equations relevant to the general question theoretical physics is asking in regard to gravity, namely how it is related to QED (Quantum Electrodynamics). In this paper, “time” is considered to be “what a clock measures” for the lack of a better definition. The hybrid time clock is a concept developed from the hybrid time equation of the preceding papers [1-15], more specifically the most recent paper “Hybrid Time Theory: “Euler’s Formula” and the “Phi-Algorithm”” [15], and is implemented here in this paper as a function of gravity. In short, the concept of the hybrid time clock is that of using a construct of measuring time, the concept of time, using a “time-clock” as a standardized construct of measurement for time. Time could indeed be the most mysterious entity of all. It may not even exist. Yet the hybrid time clock is a way to measure the concept of time for the purpose of also understanding the concept of space and associated phenomena of energy and mass and light. This paper will take the concept of the hybrid time clock and associated equation from paper 15 ([15]: p11, eq8) and present its case as “the” integral function of G (gravity) directly associating it to EM (electromagnetism) as the phi-quantum wave-function as accounted for in the preliminary papers [1-15].
Category: Mathematical Physics

[373] viXra:2001.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 01:56:39

On the Meaning of Relativity in Contemporary Physics

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 24 Pages.

The paper examines the evolution of the concept of relativity from origins, in the 17th century, to this day. Doubtless the concept of relativity has undergone a substantial change that misrepresents the concept that instead expresses in its essence the fact that laws and equations of physics do not depend on the inertial reference frame and on the inertial observer. The principle of relativity hence is valid only for inertial reference frames and observers who move with constant relative motion. For all inertial observers the same laws of physics and the same equations are valid, it doesn’t mean nevertheless for them also the same mathematical solutions are valid when these solutions depend on inertial velocity of a second reference frame with respect to the reference frame supposed at rest.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[372] viXra:2001.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 01:56:22

Neutron Spectroscopy Data Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

"As far as we know, this is the first published work showing an application of super resolution to neutrons. We're at the forefront of an exciting new trend that will help other neutron scattering facilities improve their own data resolution as well," said Lin. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[371] viXra:2001.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 03:50:24

On the Polarization of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is argued that transversal waves in the geometry of space-time, as postulated by General Relativity, violate translation symmetry within phase planes of a planar wave. Consequently, it is proposed that a corresponding test of transversality is performed, which should have become possible with the increasing number of registered events of gravitational waves. This would provide a independent, new, and essential test of General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[370] viXra:2001.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:26:00

Operation Approach of $g\star$-Closed Sets in Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Sevakumar, M. Parimala
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we introduce $(I; \gamma)$ -$g\star$-closed sets in topological spaces and also introduce $\gamma g\star$-$T_I$-spaces and investigate some of their properties.
Category: Topology

[369] viXra:2001.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:30:01

Regularity and Normality Via $\beta \theta$-Open Sets

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 18 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present and study a new type of regularity and normality called $\beta \theta$-regularity and $\beta \theta$-normality, repectively by using $\beta \theta$-open sets.
Category: Topology

[368] viXra:2001.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:34:28

On the Class of Semipre-$\theta$-Open Sets in Topological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we consider the class of $\beta \theta$-open sets in topological spaces and investigate some of their properties. We also present and study some weak separation axioms by involving the notion of $\beta \theta$-open sets.
Category: Topology

[367] viXra:2001.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:40:49

New Types of Continuous Functions Via $G \~$ \alpha$-Open Sets

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Selvakumar
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper , we will continue the study of related irresolute functions with $G \~$ \alpha$-open sets [6]. We introduce and study the notion of completely $G \~$ \alpha$-irresolute functions. Further, we discuss the notion of $G \~$ \alpha$-quotient functions and study some of their properties.
Category: Topology

[366] viXra:2001.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:45:34

$mi$-Open Sets and Quasi-$mi$-Open Sets in Terms of Minimal Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, M. Parimala
Comments: 14 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new type of open sets called mI-open sets and quasi-$mI$-open sets in minimal ideal topological spaces and investigate the relation between minimal structure space and minimal ideal structure spaces. Basic properties and characterizations related to these sets are given.
Category: Topology

[365] viXra:2001.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:49:56

Some Properties of $g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Graphs

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Selvakumar
Comments: 15 Pages.

R.Devi et al. [4] introduced the concept of $g\~$$\alpha$-open sets. In this paper, we introduce and study some properties of functions with ultra $g\~$$\alpha$-closed graphs and strongly $g\~$$\alpha$-closed graphs by utilizing $g\~$$\alpha$-open sets and the eg-closure operator.
Category: Topology

[364] viXra:2001.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:53:57

Contra $g\~$$\alpha$-Continuous Functions

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Selvakumar
Comments: 20 Pages.

The concept of $g\~$$\alpha$-closed sets in a topological space are introduced by R. Devi et. al. [4]. In this paper, we introduce the notion of contra $g\~$$\alpha$-continuous functions utilizing $g\~$$\alpha$-open sets and study some of its applications.
Category: Topology

[363] viXra:2001.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:59:47

On New Type of Sets in Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notion of $I_{g~\alpha}$ -closed sets in ideal topological spaces and investigate some of their properties. Further, we introduce the concept of mildly $I_{g~\alpha}$- closed sets and $I_{g~\alpha}$-normal space.
Category: Topology

[362] viXra:2001.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:04:11

The Correct Formulas of the Experiment of Michelson-Morley

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 4 Pages. This is a better corrected work from a previous work.

When the light photons bounce off a moving mirror, they react with its atoms to be reflected, consequently, the photons change their velocity vector after each impact depending on the velocity vector of the mirror and thus of the atom. The Michelson-Morley experiment was the event that changed the modern science about "the light" by leading to Lorentz and Einstein's theories about time. I made the formulas of the Michelson-Morley experiment by considering the effects of the reflection on the light and The rate (percentage) of fringe shift calculated by the formulas which I demonstrated is perfectly null. As a result not all physics must be wrong ,but only a principle that Einstein and Lorentz stated by fixing the light speed for all observers, which makes us study light in a very difficult way. The formulas demonstrated in this work allow us to study the light as a normal wave and to understand easily all the other light effects without being obliged to use any relativity of the time.
Category: Classical Physics

[361] viXra:2001.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:03:27

Nano $g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Sets in Nano Topological Spaces

Authors: A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 10 Pages.

The basic objective of this paper is to introduce and investigate the properties of Nano $g\~$$\alpha$-closed sets in Nano topological spaces.
Category: Topology

[360] viXra:2001.0387 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 13:04:21

Refutation of Riemann’s Definition of Integrals for a Cheating Runner

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored. Reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate six equations which are not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of Riemann’s definition of integrals for a cheating runner before the integral is invoked to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[359] viXra:2001.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:11:43

$g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Sets in Terms of Grills

Authors: A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we define the $g\~$$\alpha$($\theta$)-convergence and $g\~$$\alpha$($\theta$)-adherence using the concept of grills and study some of their properties.
Category: Topology

[358] viXra:2001.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:14:38

$g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Sets in Topological Spaces

Authors: R. Devi, A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notion of $g\~$$\alpha$-closed sets in topological spaces and investigate some of their basic properties.
Category: Topology

[357] viXra:2001.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:15:17

Dark Energy Survey Results

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) program uses the patterns of cosmic structure as seen in the spatial distribution of hundreds of millions of galaxies to reveal the nature of "dark energy," the source of cosmic acceleration. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[356] viXra:2001.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:19:09

Weak Separation Axioms Via Pre-Regular $p$-Open Sets

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri, M. S. Sarsak
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain new separation axioms by using the notion of $(\delta; p)$-open sets introduced by Jafari [3] via the notion of pre-regular $p$-open sets [2].
Category: Topology

[355] viXra:2001.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:26:21

$**gα$ Closed and $**gα$ Open Sets in the Digital Plane

Authors: M. Vigneshwaran1, Saeid Jafari, S. E. Han
Comments: 19 Pages.

Digital topology was first studied in the late 1970’s by the computer analysis researcher Azriel Rosenfeld [15]. In this paper we derive some of the properties of **gα-open and **gα-closed sets in the digital plane. Moreover, we show that the Khalimsky line $(Z^{2}, K^{2})$ is not an αT_1/2*** space. Also we prove that the family of all **gα-open sets of $(Z^2, K^2)$, say $**GαO(Z^2, K^2)$, forms an alternative topology of Z2 and the topological space (Z2, $**G\alpha O(Z^2, K^2))$ is a T_1/2 space. Moreover, we derive the properties of *gα-closed and *gα-open sets in the digital plane via the singleton’s points
Category: Topology

[354] viXra:2001.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:31:08

C# Application to Deal with Neutrosophic $g \alpha$-Closed Sets in Neutrosophic Topology

Authors: S. Saranya, M. Vigneshwaran, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, we have developed a C# application for finding the values of the complement, union, intersection and the inclusion of any two neutrosophic sets in the neutrosophic field by using .NET Framework, Microsoft Visual Studio and C# Programming Language. In addition to this, the system can find neutrosophic topology ($\tau$ ), neutrosophic $g \alpha$-closed sets and neutrosophic $g \alpha$-closed sets in each resultant screens. Also this computer based application produces the complement values of each neutrosophic closed sets.
Category: Topology

[353] viXra:2001.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:54:37

Brain Transplant Telescopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

It will enable Australian researchers to do more ambitious research despite the increasing radio-frequency interference from radio transmitters, make more discoveries, and perhaps understand some more of the mysteries of the universe. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[352] viXra:2001.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 08:13:59

LHCb Explores Lepton Universality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The LHCb collaboration has reported an intriguing new result in its quest to test a key principle of the Standard Model called lepton universality. [40] Do the anomalies observed in the LHCb experiment in the decay of B mesons hide hitherto unknown particles from outside the currently valid and well-tested Standard Model? [39] "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[351] viXra:2001.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 08:25:01

Protein Mimics Antiaging Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Scientists are just beginning to understand the cellular processes that lead to aging and slow healing in skin cells. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[350] viXra:2001.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 08:26:37

On the Various Ramanujan Equations (Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fractions) Linked to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Vi.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 97 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described other new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[349] viXra:2001.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 10:09:54

On a Certain Identity Involving the Gamma Function

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to prove the identity \begin{align}\sum \limits_{j=0}^{\lfloor s\rfloor}\frac{(-1)^j}{s^j}\eta_s(j)+\frac{1}{e^{s-1}s^s}\sum \limits_{j=0}^{\lfloor s\rfloor}(-1)^{j+1}\alpha_s(j)+\bigg(\frac{1-((-1)^{s-\lfloor s\rfloor +2})^{1/(s-\lfloor s\rfloor +2)}}{2}\bigg)\nonumber \\ \bigg(\sum \limits_{j=\lfloor s\rfloor +1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^j}{s^j}\eta_s(j)+\frac{1}{e^{s-1}s^s}\sum \limits_{j=\lfloor s\rfloor +1}^{\infty}(-1)^{j+1}\alpha_s(j)\bigg)=\frac{1}{\Gamma(s+1)},\nonumber \end{align}where \begin{align}\eta_s(j):=\bigg(e^{\gamma (s-j)}\prod \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\bigg(1+\frac{s-j}{m}\bigg)\nonumber \\e^{-(s-j)/m}\bigg)\bigg(2+\log s-\frac{j}{s}+\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s}{m(s+m)}-\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s-j}{m(s-j+m)}\bigg), \nonumber \end{align}and \begin{align}\alpha_s(j):=\bigg(e^{\gamma (s-j)}\prod \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\bigg(1+\frac{s-j}{m}\bigg)e^{-(s-j)/m}\bigg)\bigg(\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s}{m(s+m)}-\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s-j}{m(s-j+m)}\bigg),\nonumber \end{align}where $\Gamma(s+1)$ is the Gamma function defined by $\Gamma(s):=\int \limits_{0}^{\infty}e^{-t}t^{s-1}dt$ and $\gamma =\lim \limits_{n\longrightarrow \infty}\bigg(\sum \limits_{k=1}^{n}\frac{1}{k}-\log n\bigg)=0.577215664\cdots $ is the Euler-Mascheroni constant.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[348] viXra:2001.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 11:11:06

A Useful Result About the Zeros of Riemann’s Hypothesis:

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 6 Pages. This is a better corrected work from a previous work.

Motivated by many scientific articles attacking the use of Riemann’s hypothesis, I made a very useful work about it by proving that the zeros of zeta when the variable real part is smaller than 1/2 and thus of Riemann’s Hypothesis aren’t images of the divergent function series . In this proof, I didn't suppose that zeta is convergent, but I supposed that the zero is among the images of a given complex number, since zeta can only be a relation when it doesn't converge.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[347] viXra:2001.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 12:35:05

Division by Zero Dzielenie Przez Zero

Authors: Leszek Mazurek
Comments: 49 Pages. Text in Polish, English version soon

Since the beginning of time, the ban on dividing by zero has been a serious problem for all thinking people, who have found this restriction hard to accept. Moreover, intuitively it seems very artificial and unjustified. In this work, I have made the effort to analyze this problem very carefully, to try and finally understand where it comes from, why it is a problem, a limitation, and what should be done to solve it. By a very detailed analysis of multiplication and division, I have found out that these operations are the same. Combined with the selection operation they are transformations that perform the change of a pair of numbers into another pair of numbers. After the analysis, I’ve found out that a ratio of two numbers, that can represent such a transformation, is the most natural form of a number. I’m proposing a new understanding of fractions and explaining why 1/2 should not be equal to 2/4. I presented an explanation to the problem of why division by zero is not possible in real numbers’ domain and how easy it can be understood in the domain of rational numbers. The results that I have obtained not only solve this problem but also shed a whole new light on understanding the numbers and operations of numbers. My work fixes one of the foundations of mathematics, it is difficult to predict all consequences which this change can bring, to everything, what was created based on this wrong foundation.
Category: General Mathematics

[346] viXra:2001.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 17:17:51

Point-Free Topological Monoids and Hopf Algebras on Locales and Frames

Authors: C. Özel, P. Linker, M. Al Shumrani, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note, we are intended to offer some theoretical consideration concerning the introduction of point-free topological monoids on the locales and frames. Moreover, we define a quantum group on locales by utilizing the Drinfeld-Jimbo group.
Category: Topology

[345] viXra:2001.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 17:41:34

Proof of Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 34 Pages.

The Beal conjecture is a number theory formulated in 1993 by the billionaire banker, Mr Andrew Beal. Mr Beal, very recently, declared a one-million-dollar award for the proof of this number theory. As at present, no proof of this conjecture has been generally found. In this article, we provided the proof for Beal conjecture in a crystal-clear systematic approach.Proof implies that we know the proof of Fermat's last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[344] viXra:2001.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 18:15:22

Possible Solution to Hidden Variable(s) in Context of String Theory and Logic

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 22 Pages. Hopefully interesting - proofs cuold follow

The assumption is that a length (angle etc) can vary and be constant simultaneously. This is extended to say that the infinite can be reduced to a constant - essentially a decision. This is in the context of the proposed existence of strings and their connection to curves.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[343] viXra:2001.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 01:54:04

Proteins on a Neuron's Surface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Scientists have found a new way to home in on the proteins covering a particular cell's surface. The feat offers insight into how brain cells form intricate networks during development. [34] In a recent report, Mengke Yang and colleagues at the Brain Research Instrument Innovation Center, Institute of Neuroscience, Center for Systems Neuroscience and Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China, Germany and the U.K. developed a new technique named the multiarea two-photon real-time in vitro explorer (MATRIEX). [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[342] viXra:2001.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 03:09:06

Protein Positioning Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A research team at Kobe University has developed a method of artificially controlling the anchorage position of target proteins in engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). [35] Scientists have found a new way to home in on the proteins covering a particular cell's surface. The feat offers insight into how brain cells form intricate networks during development. [34] In a recent report, Mengke Yang and colleagues at the Brain Research Instrument Innovation Center, Institute of Neuroscience, Center for Systems Neuroscience and Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China, Germany and the U.K. developed a new technique named the multiarea two-photon real-time in vitro explorer (MATRIEX). [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[341] viXra:2001.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 03:43:08

Decoy Molecule Neutralizes Arenaviruses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Dr. Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, a member of the Diskin lab, led the next stage of the research, in which she "surgically removed" the very tip of the rodent receptor to which the virus binds and engineered it onto part of an antibody. [36] A research team at Kobe University has developed a method of artificially controlling the anchorage position of target proteins in engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). [35] Scientists have found a new way to home in on the proteins covering a particular cell's surface. The feat offers insight into how brain cells form intricate networks during development. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[340] viXra:2001.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 04:16:27

Heat-Insulating and Heat-Conducting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz and the University of Bayreuth have now jointly developed and characterized a novel, extremely thin and transparent material that has different thermal conduction properties depending on the direction. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[339] viXra:2001.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 04:46:28

Machine Learning Ancient Past

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and two in the U.S. has developed a way to use machine learning to get a better look at the past. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes how they used machine learning to analyze records of the past. [28] Bioinformatics researchers at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) are using machine learning techniques to better understand enzyme kinetics and thus also complex metabolic processes. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[338] viXra:2001.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 07:57:57

Correlation of the Residual Charge of an Electrolytic Capacitor with the Earth's Magnetic Field

Authors: Evgeny Arsyukhin
Comments: 3 Pages.

The effect of the diurnal variation of the residual charge of the electrolytic capacitor is revealed. The change in voltage between the capacitor plates correlates with high accuracy with the daily change in the strength of the Earth’s calm magnetic field. We were unable to find a description of such an effect in the literature. It can be interesting for school teachers to organize simple experiments at school.
Category: Geophysics

[337] viXra:2001.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 12:09:04

Remarks on Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjungture

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 1 Page.

These short remarks show deriviation of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture. As a consequence new one resulting constant free equality of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture proposed
Category: Number Theory

[336] viXra:2001.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 08:27:33

On the Ramanujan Mathematics Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections V.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 94 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Number Theory

[335] viXra:2001.0361 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 08:29:13

Baryon Asymmetry from the Minimal Fractal Manifold

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

Baryon asymmetry represents the observed excess of matter over antimatter and is conjectured to follow from the Sakharov conditions for baryogenesis. Our brief note highlights a surprising connection between baryon asymmetry and the minimal fractality of spacetime near the Fermi scale. This connection is likely to emerge from the non-equilibrium regime of dimensional fluctuations in the early Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[334] viXra:2001.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 10:14:47

A Runner Cheating Thanks to Riemann:

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages. This is a better corrected work from a previous work about integrals.

Pure mathematics should be used very carefully when applying it to many fields that have special considerations and special axioms. I used a simple example of runners waiting for the start of a race. I concluded thanks to Riemann’s definition of integrals that a runner can cheat in order to win. The demonstration in this paper is very simple but the analogy of the proposed example with many fields can make the researcher be careful when using the definition of Riemann for the integrals.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[333] viXra:2001.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:24:25

Unificação Das Leis Gravitacional Com a Relatividade Especial

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 10 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A combinação das leis Gravitacional com a Relatividade Especial detalha as condições que permitem explicar que a energia é o responsável pela interacção gravitacional, juntamente com o espaço-tempo, matéria; a gravidade tem o seu valor máximo de velocidade v=c nos centros de massas dos planetas, estrelas, buracos negros e também no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas que participam no processo da expansão do Universo. Nos pontos extremos em que a gravidade alcança v=c é onde acontece a unificação com o electromagnetismo.
Category: Classical Physics

[332] viXra:2001.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:28:06

Campo Unificado (Gravidade e Electromagnetismo)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 13 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A combinação das leis da Relatividade Especial com a Cinemática e Dinâmica do movimento resultaram nas novas equações electromagnéticas e gravitacionais que detalham as condições que as torna em uma única força e também permitem calcular a massa, raio e carga eléctrica do Universo no seu estado actual, progressivo e regressivo. A força electromagnética torna-se igual a gravidade quando a velocidade das suas interacções é igual a da luz, isto é, nos centro de massa onde há maior potência de energia, na expansão do Universo, e no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas para interagir com o exterior. As equações mostraram que não foi uma força que deu origem ao bing-bang (F=0), pôs por uma única partícula não poderia haver interacção; A origem do bing-beng ocorreu por meio da energia (E=mc^2) com campos de acção gravitacional e electromagnética onde a massa tende para infinito com a velocidade de equilíbrio v=c; e como também mostram que as ondas de energia nunca tiveram um começo sempre existiram num tempo infinito; As equações v_e v_g=c^2 e v_e v_p=c^2 respectivamente mostram evidências de que onda de energia ou a luz, na verdade são as leis gravitacionais e electromagnéticas é uma só entidade e também prova que átomos são apenas uma acção causado pelas possibilidades da dualidade onda-partícula.
Category: Classical Physics

[331] viXra:2001.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:32:45

Equações Finais do Campo Unificado (Gravidade e Electromagnetismo)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 10 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A força electromagnética torna-se igual a gravidade quando a velocidade das suas interacções é igual a c da luz, isto ocorre nos centro de massa onde há maior potência de energia, na expansão do Universo, e no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas para interagir com o exterior. As equações mostraram que não foi uma força que deu origem ao bing-bang (F=0), mas sim por meio de energia (E=mc^2) com campos de acção gravitacional e electromagnética onde a massa tende para infinito com a velocidade de equilíbrio v=c; A equação v_e v_g=c^2 mostra evidencias de que onda de energia ou a luz, na verdade são as leis gravitacionais e electromagnéticas é uma só entidade, e também prova que átomos são apenas uma acção causado pelas possibilidades da dualidade onda-partícula que o seu conjunto é a luz.
Category: Classical Physics

[330] viXra:2001.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:38:07

Sistema Atómico e O Segredo da Luz (Energia Transportadora Das Ondas, Velocidade e Raio do Protão)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 11 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

O átomo tem sido um dos grandes desafios da Física Moderna para tentar desvendar os seus mistérios que quanto mais conhecermos o mundo atómico mais incertezas encontram para seu entendimento. Este artigo mostra que o segredo do átomo está na sua ligação profunda e única com a luz que permite a sua existência e funcionamento nas suas possibilidades de se tornar numa partícula. A velocidade da luz é o produto proporcional das velocidades centrípetas do protão e electrão provando que se trata duma única entidade no Universo ou seja e equação 〖v_e v_p〗^ =c^2 prova que a luz é responsável pelo átomo permitindo assim a dualidade onda-partícula deste sistema. Por meio da dualidade onda-partícula encontrou-se uma equação que é a nova entidade de energia no Universo.
Category: Classical Physics

[329] viXra:2001.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 13:50:15

Atlantis in Auschwitz-Birkenau

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Auschwitz was surrounded by a sea of hostile nations. While the Jews were collectively kicked into the death realm of the sheol as Atlantis had sunken into the sea. Auschwitz was located in the Polish region of Galicia, a name that sounds like Galilee. The Lake of Galilee has got the same harp shape (Psalm 49:4) as Athanasius Kirchers Atlantis had. Adolf Hitler had the spirit of the false "nazi" prince King Atlas while king David will be the true "nashi" prince of the coming aion according to Ezekiel 37:25.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[328] viXra:2001.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 14:49:16

Proving Physics by Making Science Formal (2020)

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 98 Pages.

Under the expectation that the laws of physics are revealed by the practice of science in nature, we conjectured that a mathematical formalization of such would carry over this expectation and would be able to produce, in a formal setting, the laws of physics as theorems of the practice. Here, we report a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. The model, which we name formal science, is constructed within the frameworks of algorithmic information theory and that of theoretic computer science. Formal science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science as well as a 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics and as such it can derive the corpus of physics as a theorem, hence giving it a purely mathematical origin. Formal science reveals that nature and the laws that govern it, far from being arbitrary, are mathematically extremely special; nature is emergent, quite minimally, as the 'substance' that formally verifies the experiments recursively enumerated from the domain of science by the observer. After we present the model, we then begin the long program to derive the corpus of physics using formal science as the sound, free of physical baggage, and observer-centric mathematical foundation of physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[327] viXra:2001.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 17:04:23

Different Types of Propulsion

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A short list from memory that will be clarified and refined in the future that outlines different types of propulsion people use in the galaxy. The purpose of this paper is to take the edge off the ridicule factor still prevalent in today's society concerning extraterrestrial visitation and their interaction with the militaries and civilian populations of the world. The denial of their visitation and interaction of Earthlings by the scientific communities of the world can be ignored, their opinion is worthless. It is only the facts that matter, and the facts point to Earth being visited by people from other star systems. The facts also point to their craft being far more advanced than our own, and they utilize nuclear propulsion in a way we haven't figured out how to do yet.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[326] viXra:2001.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 18:45:19

Strip Configuration of the Poincare' Sphere

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we find and discuss the Strip Configuration of the Poincare' Sphere.
Category: Topology

[325] viXra:2001.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 01:19:10

Biot-Savart Law and Stokes' Theorem

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

Biot-Savart law describes magnetic field due to the electric current in a conductive wire. For a long straight wire, the magnetic field is proportional to (I/r). The curl of magnetic field is proportional to (dI/dr). For a constant current, the curl of magnetic field is zero. Consequently, the surface integral of the curl of magnetic field is zero but the line integral of the magnetic field is not. Stokes' theorem can not be applied to the magnetic field vector generated by a constant electric current because the magnetic field is not a differentiable vector.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[324] viXra:2001.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 01:32:22

Stellar Aberration Revisited

Authors: Cameron Wong
Comments: 6 Pages. Theoretically, stellar aberration can be calculated with absolute precision other than "approximately".

It appears that the reasoning in calculating stellar aberration proposed by James Bradley cannot satisfy a big group of people, particularly those people who believe only special relativity can present such calculation that is accurate to the point. This means that, in case relativity happens to be invalid, the argument on the calculation about stellar aberration has not yet truly settled in the science world these days. The problem is that relativity does show evidence that it must lead itself to conclude speed of light c=0 and thus refutes itself. So, history still leaves open the opportunity for us to approach the calculation from a new angle
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[323] viXra:2001.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 03:34:14

Why Bodies Made of Matter Obey Mathematical Laws

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why bodies obey mathematical laws is a longstanding question in physics. Here I put forth a very simple explanation. Matter is made up of fundamental units having finite non inter-convertible properties, and motion is one of that properties. The former implies that the integration of units into a system is adding up; adding up follows mathematical laws. The latter implies that the system remains changing due to motion; motion obeys mathematical laws, and so the changes in the system obey mathematical laws.
Category: Classical Physics

[322] viXra:2001.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:12:43

Chemical Bond with Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[321] viXra:2001.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:44:46

Photo-Excited Mott Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Assistant Professor Ohmura Shu and Professor Takahashi Akira of the Nagoya Institute of Technology and others have developed a charge model to describe photo-excited states of one-dimensional Mott insulators under the JST Strategic Basic Research Programs. [37] The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[320] viXra:2001.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 05:15:33

Robotic Graspers Defy Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Scientists have developed a suction unit that can be used on rough surfaces, no matter how textured, and that has applications in the development of climbing robots and robotic arms with grasping capabilities. [12] The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[319] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 06:38:25

Relativity, Light and Photons

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force/field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon). We also expand our photon model somewhat by introducing an electromagnetic vector combining electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we add a discussion on how we can think about photon-electron interactions and polarization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[318] viXra:2001.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 06:55:58

Molecules Move Faster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Now, writing in Physical Review Letters, Cristian Rodriguez-Tinoco and a team of Université libre de Bruxelles' (ULB) Faculty of Sciences lead by Simone Napolitano shows that large molecules actually move faster in the proximity of rougher surfaces at the nanometric scale. [37] The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[317] viXra:2001.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 07:05:13

Solve Equations.(Τhe Generalized Theorem)

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 22 Pages.

While all the approximate methods mentioned or others that exist, give some specific solutions of the generalized transcendental equations or even polynomial, cannot resolve them completely. "What we ask when we solve a generalized transcendental equation or polyonomial, is to find the total number of roots and not separate sets of roots in some random or specified this time. Mainly because this, too many categories transcendental equations have infinite number of solutionsin the complex whole " There are some particular equations or Logarithmic functions Trigonometric functions which solve particular problems in Physics, and mostly need the generalized solution. This is now the theory G.R.LE, to deal with the help of Super Simple geometric functions, or interlocking with very satisfactory answer to all this complex problem.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[316] viXra:2001.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 07:26:36

Programmable Cells Nests

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Using DNA, small silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have developed novel programmable nanocomposites that can be tailored to various applications and programmed to degrade quickly and gently. [37] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have functionalized a simple rod-like building block with hydroxamic acids at both ends. [36] Tiny silica bottles filled with medicine and a special temperature-sensitive material could be used for drug delivery to kill malignant cells only in certain parts of the body, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[315] viXra:2001.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 09:14:22

An Analysis of the State-Transition Function of a Self-Reproducing Structure in Cellular Automata Space

Authors: Perry W Swanborough
Comments: 11 Pages.

A cellular automata structure described by J Byl (1989) self-replicates under a corresponding state-transition function. Subsequent work has established that replication of this and related structures given by other researchers is homochiral. This work describes a detailed analysis of the state-transition function for replication of J Byl’s structure, so the work serves as an Appendix to accompany the preceding work viXra:1904.0225.
Category: Physics of Biology

[314] viXra:2001.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 09:23:20

On Various Ramanujan Formulas Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory (Open Strings) and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Iv.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 85 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened various Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory (open strings) and Particle Physics. We have therefore described further new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[313] viXra:2001.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:49:56

Piece by Piece - Electrochemical Synthesis of Individual Nanoparticles and their Performance in ORR Electrocatalysis

Authors: Mathies V. Evers, Miguel Bernal, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, Kristina Tschulik
Comments: 9 Pages.

The impact of individual HAuCl4 nanoreactors is measured electrochemically, which provides operando insights and precise control over the modification of electrodes with functional nanoparticles of well-defined size. Uniformly sized micelles are loaded with a dissolved metal salt. These solution-phase precursor entities are then reduced electrochemically - one by one - to form nanoparticles (NPs). The charge transferred during the reduction of each micelle is measured individually and allows operando sizing of each of the formed nanoparticles. Thus, particles of known number and sizes can be deposited homogenously even on nonplanar electrodes. This is demonstrated for the decoration of cylindrical carbon fibre electrodes with 25 +/- 7 nm sized Au particles from HAuCl4-filled micelles. These Au NP-decorated electrodes show great catalyst performance for ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) already at low catalyst loadings. Hence, collisions of individual precursor-filled nanocontainers are presented as a new route to nanoparticle-modified electrodes with high catalyst utilization.
Category: Chemistry

[312] viXra:2001.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:58:33

Ab Initio Cyclic Voltammetry on Cu(111), Cu(100) and Cu(110) in Acidic, Neutral and Alkaline Solutions

Authors: Alexander Bagger, Rosa M. Arán-Ais, Joakim Halldin Stenlid, Egon Campos dos Santos, Logi Arnarson, Kim Degn Jensen, María Escudero-Escribano, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, Jan Rossmeisl
Comments: Pages.

Electrochemical reactions depend on the electrochemical interface; between the catalytic surfaces and the electrolytes. To control and advance electrochemical reactions there is a need to develop realistic simulation models of the electrochemical interface to understand the interface from an atomistic point-of-view. Here we present a method for obtaining thermodynamic realistic interface structures, a procedure to derive specific coverages and to obtain ab initio simulated cyclic voltammograms. As a case study, the method and procedure is applied in a matrix study of three Cu facets in three different electrolyte. The results are validated by a direct comparison with experimental cyclic voltammograms. The alkaline (NaOH) electrolyte CV are described by H_ and OH_, while neutral (KHCO3) the CO_3 species are present and in acidic (KCl) the Cl_ species dominate. An almost one-to-one mapping is observed from simulation to experiments giving an atomistic understanding of the interface structure of the Cu facets. The strength of atomistic understanding the interface at electrolyte conditions will allow realistic investigations of electrochemical reactions in future studies.
Category: Chemistry

[311] viXra:2001.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 09:47:29

Spin Currents for Advanced Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[310] viXra:2001.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 10:47:27

Scalability of Next-Generation Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Nebraska engineers Peter and Eli Sutter have shown that the elemental condiment can spice up a nanomaterial sandwich by putting a literal twist on the multi-layered classic. [16] Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[309] viXra:2001.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 11:03:39

Nanostructure for Structurally Colored Surfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Structural colors appear because the imprinted pattern on a surface changes the wavelengths of light. Chinese scientists have introduced an azopolymer that allows the imprinting of nanopatterns in a novel room-temperature lithographic process. [17] Nebraska engineers Peter and Eli Sutter have shown that the elemental condiment can spice up a nanomaterial sandwich by putting a literal twist on the multi-layered classic. [16] Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[308] viXra:2001.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 12:04:55

Force I. the One and Only Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The world's first thought power meter is present. Its first result is that thought force with no electric field is able to change the current and voltage in an electric circuit . This result has conclusions. The most important is the following one: there is only one fundamental interaction, because every known interaction can be explained by one ultimate fundamental interaction called Force I of All. (Pronunciation: “Force the First”.) Force I is the interaction between space and matter. Thought force is one existing form of Force I and though force measured is the first evidence that Force I exists.
Category: Quantum Physics

[307] viXra:2001.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 14:55:57

Stability of Ice Lenses in Saline Soils

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin
Comments: 20 Pages.

A model of the growth of an ice lens in a saline porous medium is developed. At high lens growth rates the pore fluid becomes supercooled relative to its equilibrium Clapeyron temperature. Instability occurs when the supercooling increases with distance away from the ice lens. Solute diffusion in the pore fluid significantly enhances the instability. An expression for the segregation potential of the soil is obtained from the condition for marginal stability of the ice lens. The model is applied to a clayey silt and a glass powder medium, indicating parameter regimes where the ice lens stability is controlled by viscous flow or by solute diffusion. A mushy layer, composed of vertical ice veins and horizontal ice lenses, forms in the soil in response to the instability. A marginal equilibrium condition is used to estimate the segregated ice fraction in the mushy layer as a function of the freezing rate and salinity.
Category: Geophysics

[306] viXra:2001.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 15:00:32

Does The Observation Process Effect On The Observed Particle Nature?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Empirical Data An Electron Or Subatomic Particle Behaves As A Particle And Not A Wave When It's Observed! Why? Because The Human Mind Realization Process Depends On (And Uses) The Light Velocity (0.3mkm/Sec) How Does The Observer Effect On The Observed Particle Nature? By Light Beam Produced By The Observer Mind Realization Process. Paper Idea Summary This paper tells a clear claim – that – Because our minds realization process depends on and uses the light velocity (0.3mkm/sec) in the human thinking process that causes the light velocity to be a contributor factor of every thing around us – simply – We See The Universe Through The Light Velocity Effect On Our Vision- That easily explains the equation E=mc2 – why any Mass Energy is defined relative to the light velocity?! Because the light velocity is found in our minds- that explains Why light velocity is constant in all frames Now Because our minds uses the light velocity (0.3mkm/sec), that enable our minds to produce light beams by the thinking process – this produced light beam can effect on any particle nature as the sun rays effect on all particles – This is the idea shortly– let's ask……"Is this idea truth?" This paper tries to prove… Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[305] viXra:2001.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 22:15:42

A Theory for Gravitational Killing Cancer Cells, Lightning Mechanism and Anomalous Magnetism of Muon 2G

Authors: Reginald B. Little
Comments: 33 Pages.

The death of cancer cells under zero gravity or simulated zero gravity has an unknown cause. A prior theory of gravity by fractional, reversible fissing of matter and fusing of space to target is presented for explaining this mystery of gravitational killing of cancer cells. With this new theory a new math of divergent differentiations and divergent integrations are outlined to explain mysteries. By the mechanism given the variation in source gravity as computed by the new math can thereby explain effects on biology as the biology and chemistry have divergent differentiations and divergent integrations, which couple source of gravities and couple changing gravities to surrounding spaces and targets in surrounding spaces. Greater effects of gravities in nano-scales than molecular scales are reasoned as nano-sizes have mass effects and greater collectivity relative to molecular scales. The mechanism also postulates superluminosity of rare with slowing to luminous with denseness (space reversal) for explaining inertia, denseness and back and forth time reversal. The loss of inertia due to space reversal is reasoned! Mass to energy and vice versa dynamics are involved relativistically. By such new mechanics there are differences in denseness as the superlumes fiss to rare so surrounding rare can couple and the superluminous rare concentrates to slow so as to couple to dense. There are limits of such superluminosity as by the vast distances and the vast, composite, dense spaces of matter and the slowness (inertia). These new mechanics of composite matter/space manifest group dispersion (by new divergent calculus) as provided by hidden mechanics as by self-interacting self-deforming conformations to explain observable phase dispersed (older calculus). The observables are manifested by phase dispersions of matter and space as by new divergent calculus via constructive self interactions. The new math is contrasted with the Newtonian integrals and derivatives, which are more finite in actions and consequences whereas the divergent integrals and divergent differentiations are more infinities in actions and consequences. If dynamic infinity and count infinity, then the counting and mechanics can be as demonstrated here by many infinities or counter infinities.
Category: Physics of Biology

[304] viXra:2001.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 02:54:09

Billions Quantum Entangled Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In a new study, U.S. and Austrian physicists have observed quantum entanglement among "billions of billions" of flowing electrons in a quantum critical material. [36] Researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt have recently demonstrated the defect-free assembly of versatile target patterns of up to 111 single-atom quantum systems. [35] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks. [34] Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[303] viXra:2001.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 03:32:23

Measure Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Experimental physicists have combined several measurements of quantum materials into one in their ongoing quest to learn more about manipulating and controlling the behavior of them for possible applications. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[302] viXra:2001.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 03:43:51

Three Circle Chains Arising from Three Lines

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 7 Pages.

We generalize a problem in Wasan geometry involving a triangle and its incircle and get simple relationships between the three chains arising from three lines.
Category: Geometry

[301] viXra:2001.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 04:01:55

Semiconductor Green Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Scientists and Engineers have used surface-emitting semiconductor lasers in data communications, for sensing, in FaceID and within augmented reality glasses. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[300] viXra:2001.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 05:29:43

Nanoscalechip Detect Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Now, Joohyun Lee and Il Doh of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, in Daejeon, South Korea, have developed a tiny device that measures otherwise undetectable heat changes. [21] An international team of physicists, materials scientists, and mechanical engineers has confirmed the high thermal conductivity predicted in isotopically enriched cubic boron nitride, the researchers report in the advance electronic edition of the journal Science. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[299] viXra:2001.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 05:47:47

Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodetectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

In their experiment, the researchers used a technique to electronically dope the quantum dots robustly and permanently. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[298] viXra:2001.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 07:24:21

On Various Ramanujan Formulas Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections III.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 74 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened various Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described further new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[297] viXra:2001.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 07:32:26

Ontological Math-Physics Mirror Between Noether and Planck

Authors: Francis Maleval
Comments: 2 Pages.

A mirror built here, by virtue of an iterative process, a geometry from a conceptual object. This dynamic, served by the Noether’s theorem, generates the universal constants.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[296] viXra:2001.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:02:31

Nano-Patterns Building Blocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have functionalized a simple rod-like building block with hydroxamic acids at both ends. [36] Tiny silica bottles filled with medicine and a special temperature-sensitive material could be used for drug delivery to kill malignant cells only in certain parts of the body, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. [35] The lab of Cheryl Kerfeld at Michigan State University has created a synthetic nano-sized factory, based on natural ones found in bacteria. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[295] viXra:2001.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:20:40

Quantum Detector Sensitivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

One of the open questions in quantum research is how heat and thermodynamics coexist with quantum physics. [39] But one lesser-known field is also starting to reap the benefits of the quantum realm-medicine. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[294] viXra:2001.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:44:46

A EQUAÇÃO Das EQUAÇÕES. a Unificadora do Tudo. a SOLUÇÃO DE Absolutamente Tudo.

Authors: JosÊnio Dos Anjos
Comments: 1 Page. Pus a mão no caldeirão de Deus e ainda O espiei apertar o interruptor de luz

Um carro da Teoria Geral da Relatividade viaja a 100km/h para percorrer 100km. quando chega lá, verifica-se que ele percorreu 109km em 1h. Pergunta: de onde vem a energia extra para ter aumentado esse percurso? Problema pior, ele foi sem nenhum combustível no tanque. Solução. foi a caminho que está se esticando. o carro esta estacionário. se der partida, sua ultima gota de gasolina explode. E como o caminho se esticou em ambos os lados em velocidade constante de 100km/h, a impressão que temos é que ele viajou uns kms extras. Solucionado o mistério da Energia Escura e de tudo, absolutamente tudo. As outras questões estão em outro artigo. Qualquer teoria utilizando a equação aqui postulada, tem que ser expressamente autorizada pelo autor.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[293] viXra:2001.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:59:06

Deep Learning Real-Time Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers have harnessed the power of a type of artificial intelligence known as deep learning to create a new laser-based system that can image around corners in real time. [28] A team of scientists at Freie Universität Berlin has developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI) method that provides a fundamentally new solution of the "sampling problem" in statistical physics. [27] Deep learning, which uses multi-layered artificial neural networks, is a form of machine learning that has demonstrated significant advances in many fields, including natural language processing, image/video labeling and captioning. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[292] viXra:2001.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 11:26:31

Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

As researchers develop clever approaches to achieve that goal, this subject alone could be a theme of another exciting symposium." [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[291] viXra:2001.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 11:43:12

Crystals with Ultrahigh Piezoelectricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Now, an international team of researchers say that cycles of AC fields also make the internal crystal domains in some materials bigger and the crystal transparent. [33] The presence of helical modes allowed them to form a new quantum device from a topological crystalline insulator known as a helical nanorod with quantized longitudinal conductance. [32] Now, researchers at MIT along with colleagues in Boston, Singapore, and Taiwan have conducted a theoretical analysis to reveal several more previously unidentified topological properties of bismuth. [31] At the heart of his field of nonlinear optics are devices that change light from one color to another-a process important for many technologies within telecommunications, computing and laser-based equipment and science. [30] Researchers from Siberian Federal University and Kirensky Institute of Physics have proposed a new design for a multimode stripline resonator. [29] In addition to helping resolve many of the technical challenges of non-line-of-sight imaging, the technology, Velten notes, can be made to be both inexpensive and compact, meaning real-world applications are just a matter of time. [28] Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle. [27] Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[290] viXra:2001.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 12:35:06

Self-Organized Quantum Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Writing in Nature, researchers describe the first-time observation of 'self-organized criticality' in a controlled laboratory experiment. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[289] viXra:2001.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 12:35:50

The Liberator

Authors: Mesut KAVAK
Comments: 69 Pages.

Laws and Loves
Category: Social Science

[288] viXra:2001.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 15:26:10

The Physics of Subatomic Particles and their Behavior Modeled with Classical Laws

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 19 pages

Using the physics of sound waves as a foundation, subatomic particles and their behaviors are modeled with classical mechanics to calculate the Planck energy, the electron’s energy and the energy levels of the first two atoms: hydrogen and helium. Five different methods are used to calculate energies, including spring-mass systems and wave systems, and all five are found to be equal in their calculations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[287] viXra:2001.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 16:40:02

The Nonlinear Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency Scale

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 2 Pages.

Electromagnetic geophysical studies have been using very low electromagnetic frequencies, below 1 Hz, transmitters and receivers for several decades. The devices that produce these frequencies are referred to as magnetotelluric transmitters and receivers. The frequencies for these devices are being identified by using a decimal notation, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, 0.00001 Hz and below. Accepting frequency designations as tens divisions of one reveals that the current EM frequency scale is nonlinear. All contemporary physical law equations that contain frequency as a value, directly or indirectly, are based upon the assumption that the EM frequency scale is linear.
Category: Classical Physics

[286] viXra:2001.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 17:12:53

On Some New Notions in Nano Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: M. Parimala, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notion of nano ideal topological spaces and investigate the relation between nano topological space and nano ideal topological space. Moreover, we offer some new open and closed sets in the context of nano ideal topological spaces and present some of their basic properties and characterizations.
Category: Topology

[285] viXra:2001.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 02:06:34

A New Scientific Discovery

Authors: Yahya A.Sharif
Comments: 2 Pages.

Our muscles lift our bodies very effortlessly so,I can lift up my massive 60 kg body with only my weak calf muscles when trying to pick a fruit on a tree
Category: Classical Physics

[284] viXra:2001.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 03:00:28

Twin Primes Conjecture

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 7 Pages.

Twin prime conjecture, also known as Polignac’s conjecture, in number theory, assertion that there are infinitely many twin primes, or pairs of primes that differ by 2. The first statement of the twin prime conjecture was given in 1846 by French mathematician Alphonse de Polignac, who wrote that any even number can be expressed in infinite ways as the difference between two consecutive primes
Category: Number Theory

[283] viXra:2001.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 04:17:31

On Improper Integrals

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 4 Pages.

The writing intends to point out aspects of conflict regarding some standard improper integrals
Category: Quantum Physics

[282] viXra:2001.0307 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-18 05:21:45

Rhind Papyrus Problem no 48 Squaring a Circle in 4-D Spacetime

Authors: Manfred U.E. Pohl
Comments: 4 Pages.

The ToE Framework that unites quantum theory with gravitation „Solution to the Problem of Time“ [1] is based on the Solution of the Black-Hole Information Paradox, namely the squaring of a circle (π) in space-time. It is well known how to “square” a circle over an additional dimension, as shown in „Solution to the Problem of Time“ II +III [2]. In addition to the Essay “It takes a Decision to Decide if Decidability is True or False” [3] (concering Gödels incompleteness and impossibility of Hilbert’s Programm) it is shown here the Solution to the Problem No. 48 in the Rhind-Papyrus. Keywords: Pi, God, Unified Principle, Gödel’s Incompleteness, Foundation of Mathematics, TOE.
Category: Astrophysics

[281] viXra:2001.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 06:12:49

Microworld_59. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 19 Xxix. Binding Energies of Ethereal Vortex-Like Structures of Electron, Neutron, Proton and the Role of Magnetism

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and russian texts

The first approximate estimates of binding energies of ethereal vortex-like structures of electrons, neutrons and protons are obtained.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[280] viXra:2001.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 06:51:25

On Some Ramanujan Functions Applied to Various Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: New Possible Mathematical Connections II.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 68 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened various Ramanujan functions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described further new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[279] viXra:2001.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 07:26:48

Dark Matter Temperature Taking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Physicists at the University of California, Davis are taking the temperature of dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up about a quarter of our universe. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[278] viXra:2001.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 07:48:18

Quantum Dots Spinning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[277] viXra:2001.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 08:13:17

Semiconductor Neutron Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers at Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory have developed a new material that opens doors for a new class of neutron detectors. [33] Transistors are tiny switches that form the bedrock of modern computing; billions of them route electrical signals around inside a smartphone, for instance. Quantum computers will need analogous hardware to manipulate quantum information. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[276] viXra:2001.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 08:28:28

Diabolical Quantum Emitters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Diabolical points (DPs) introduce ways to study topological phase and peculiar energy dispersion. Scientists in China and partners from the United Kingdom demonstrated DPs in strongly coupled active microdisks. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[275] viXra:2001.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 08:39:27

Topological Crystalline Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The presence of helical modes allowed them to form a new quantum device from a topological crystalline insulator known as a helical nanorod with quantized longitudinal conductance. [32] Now, researchers at MIT along with colleagues in Boston, Singapore, and Taiwan have conducted a theoretical analysis to reveal several more previously unidentified topological properties of bismuth. [31] At the heart of his field of nonlinear optics are devices that change light from one color to another-a process important for many technologies within telecommunications, computing and laser-based equipment and science. [30] Researchers from Siberian Federal University and Kirensky Institute of Physics have proposed a new design for a multimode stripline resonator. [29] In addition to helping resolve many of the technical challenges of non-line-of-sight imaging, the technology, Velten notes, can be made to be both inexpensive and compact, meaning real-world applications are just a matter of time. [28] Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle. [27] Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[274] viXra:2001.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 09:19:51

Proof that there Are no Odd Perfect Numbers

Authors: Kouji Takaki
Comments: 12 Pages.

We have obtained the conclusion that there are no odd perfect numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[273] viXra:2001.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 11:00:23

Representing Basic Physical Fields by Quaternionic Fields

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 46 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Basic physical fields are dynamic fields like our universe and the fields that are raised by electric charges. These fields are dynamic continuums. Most physical theories treat these fields by applying gravitational theories or by Maxwell equations. Mathematically these fields can be represented by quaternionic fields. Dedicated normal operators in quaternionic non-separable Hilbert spaces can represent these quaternionic fields in their continuum eigenspaces. Quaternionic functions can describe these fields. Quaternionic differential and integral calculus can describe the behavior of these fields and the interaction of these fields with countable sets of quaternions. All quaternionic fields obey the same quaternionic function theory. The basic fields differ in their start and boundary conditions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[272] viXra:2001.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:14:00

AlphaZero Rule the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The chess world was amazed when the computer algorithm AlphaZero learned, after just four hours on its own, to beat the best chess programs built on human expertise. Now a research group at Aarhus University in Denmark has used the very same algorithm to control a quantum computer. [39] Researchers have discovered that input-output maps, which are widely used throughout science and engineering to model systems ranging from physics to finance, are strongly biased toward producing simple outputs. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[271] viXra:2001.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 08:31:54

Verifying Quantum Computers Output

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences has developed a way to verify the output from one quantum computer by comparing it to the output of another quantum computer. [57] A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[270] viXra:2001.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 09:02:31

Coder-Decoder for Open Science Data

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I thought a method to preserve our scientific and cultural knowledge for future generations
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[269] viXra:2001.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 09:06:23

Crack in Universal Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The concept of universal physics is intriguing, as it enables researchers to relate physical phenomena in a variety of systems, irrespective of their varying characteristics and complexities. [50] Stephen Wilson, a professor of materials in UC Santa Barbara's College of Engineering, works in that "long before" realm, seeking to create new materials that exhibit desirable new states. [49] A phenomenon that is well known from chaos theory was observed in a material for the first time ever, by scientists from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. [48] Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely used for enhancing light-matter interactions due to the strong local field enhancement in deep subwavelength volumes. [47]
Category: Astrophysics

[268] viXra:2001.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 09:43:04

Post-Moore Brain-Inspired Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

In their paper published this week in Applied Physics Reviews authors Jack Kendall, of Rain Neuromorphics, and Suhas Kumar, of Hewlett Packard Labs, present a thorough examination of the computing landscape, focusing on the operational functions needed to advance brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. [22] A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[267] viXra:2001.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 10:19:28

Galactic Birthplace High-Energy Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Nine sources of extremely high-energy gamma rays comprise a new catalog compiled by researchers with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse-where our Universe is only one of many-might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[266] viXra:2001.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 11:39:19

On Various Ramanujan Formulas Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 98 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened various Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described further new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[265] viXra:2001.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:18:40

Preopen Sets in Ideal Generalized Topological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, M. Ganster, Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri, V. Popa, N. Rajesh
Comments: 11 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and characterize the concepts of preopen sets and their related notions in ideal generalized topological spaces.
Category: Topology

[264] viXra:2001.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:24:57

On I-Open Sets and I-Continuous Functions in Ideal Bitopological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, N. Rajesh, F. Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and character- ize the concepts of I-open sets and their related notions in ideal bitopological spaces.
Category: Topology

[263] viXra:2001.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:30:32

Separation Axioms in Ideal Bitopological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, V. Popa, N. Rajesh
Comments: 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study the notions $I-R_0$, $I-R_1$, $I-T_0$, $I-T_1$ and $I-T_2$ in ideal bitopological space.
Category: Topology

[262] viXra:2001.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:36:07

Properties of $\alpha$-Open Sets in Ideal Minimal Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, M. Ganster, Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri, N. Rajesh
Comments: 17 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and characterize the concept of $\alpha$-open set and several related notions in ideal minimal spaces.
Category: Topology

[261] viXra:2001.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:39:34

Properties of $\beta$-Open Sets in Ideal Minimal Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri, N. Rajesh, R. Saranya
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the class of $\beta$-open sets and other related classes of notions in ideal minimal spaces.
Category: Topology

[260] viXra:2001.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:43:48

On Upper and Lower Slightly $\delta$-$\beta$-Continuous Multifunctions

Authors: Saeid Jafari, N. Rajesh
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study upper and lower slightly $\delta$-$\beta$- continuous multifunctions in topological spaces and obtain some characterizations of these new continuous multifunctions.
Category: Topology

[259] viXra:2001.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:47:34

Properties of Ideal Bitopological $\alpha$-Open Sets

Authors: A. I. El-Maghrabi, M. Caldas, Saeid JAFARI, R. M. Latif, A. Nasef, N. Rajesh, S. Shanthi
Comments: 19 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduced and character- ized the concepts of $\alpha$-open sets and their related notions in ideal bitopological spaces.
Category: Topology

[258] viXra:2001.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:53:33

On New Separation Axioms in Bitopological Spaces

Authors: N. Rajesh, E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notions $\¨g-R_0$, $\¨g-R_1$, $\¨g-T_0$, $\¨g-T_1$ and \¨g-T_2$ in bitopological space.
Category: Topology

[257] viXra:2001.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:55:44

On qi-Open Sets in Ideal Bitopological Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, N. Rajesh
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of qI-open set. Based on this new concept, we dene new classes of functions, namely qI-continuous functions, qI-open functions and qI- closed functions, for which we prove characterization theorems.
Category: Topology

[256] viXra:2001.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 13:58:00

Semiopen Sets in Ideal Bitopological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, N. Rajesh
Comments: 16 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduced and charac- terized the concepts of semiopen sets and their related notions in ideal bitopological spaces.
Category: Topology

[255] viXra:2001.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 14:04:05

Some Remarks on Low Separation Axioms Via id-Sets

Authors: Saeid Jafari, S. Shanthi, N. Rajesh
Comments: 5 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce some new classes of ideal topological spaces by utilizing I-open sets and study some of their fundamental properties.
Category: Topology

[254] viXra:2001.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 14:07:02

Some Fundamental Properties of $\beta$-Open Sets in Ideal Bitopological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, N. Rajesh
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and characterize the concepts of $\beta$-open sets and their related notions in ideal bitopological spaces.
Category: Topology

[253] viXra:2001.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 14:11:39

Semiopen Sets in Ideal Minimal Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, N. Rajesh, R. Saranya
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper, we present and study the concepts of semiopen sets and their related notions in ideal minimal spaces.
Category: Topology

[252] viXra:2001.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 15:01:22

Challenges of Gbagyi Unity In Nigeria

Authors: ssor M.B Nuhu
Comments: 4 Pages.

“Gbagyi Unity” is the oxymoron of Gbagyi nation. The subject of this discourse is reasonably a prickly one. For this, I initially became nervous, to a state of incomprehension, as I pondered over the likely motivation of the conveners of this meeting. During my consideration of this highly engaging intention, I skated into a quicksand. Even though it was quite easy for me to read the orifices of the conveners as I can attest to their patriotic experiences on issues that pertains Gbagyi, I could not afford being unmindful of conflicting comebacks such a discourse can provoke the audience.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[251] viXra:2001.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 15:02:55

Recent Advances in Meth8/VŁ4, a Modal Model Checker for Universal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate 738 artifacts in 3860 assertions to confirm 557 as tautology and 3303 as not (85.6%) in 1258 draft pages.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[250] viXra:2001.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 21:28:20

On I-Open Sets and I-Continuous Functions in Ideal Minimal Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri, N. Rajesh
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and characterize the concepts of I-open sets and their related notions in ideal minimal spaces.
Category: Topology

[249] viXra:2001.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 21:27:47

Refutation of Probabilistic Reasoning Across the Causal Hierarchy

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate equations for axioms, propositions, and theorems as not tautologous. The last as P([X∧Z]Y|[X∧Z]W)≡P([X]Y|[X]W) is the briefest refutation of the conjecture of probabilistic reasoning across the causal hierarchy. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[248] viXra:2001.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 23:53:47

Rigorous Proofs for Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures in 2020

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 50 Pages. Contains Rigorous Proofs for Riemann Hypothesis (and Explanations for two types of Gram points), Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures.

Mathematics for Incompletely Predictable Problems is associated with Incompletely Predictable problems containing Incompletely Predictable entities. Nontrivial zeros and two types of Gram points in Riemann zeta function (or its proxy Dirichlet eta function) together with prime and composite numbers from Sieve of Eratosthenes are Incompletely Predictable entities. Correct and complete mathematical arguments for first key step of converting this function into its continuous format version, and second key step of applying Information-Complexity conservation to this Sieve result in direct spin-offs from first key step consisting of proving Riemann hypothesis (and explaining two types of Gram points), and second key step consisting of proving Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[247] viXra:2001.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 02:11:14

Nanoparticles Enter Tumors Through Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers from U of T Engineering have discovered that an active, rather than passive, process dictates which nanoparticles enter solid tumors. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[246] viXra:2001.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 02:21:09

Einstein Mass–energy Equivalence Equation E=mc^2 is Wrong Because Does not Contains Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 486 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Einstein mass–energy equivalence equation E=mc^2 is wrong because does not contains Dark Matter Einstein in 1905 did not formulate exactly the equation E=mc^2 but he said: ’if a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c^2’. Thus means for Einstein the inertial mass of an object changes if the object absorbs or emits energy. “We do not see Dark Matter energy because at light speed the Dark Matter electron energy is not released” ‘The Ferent factor is the Lorentz factor where the speed of the photon is replaced by the Dark photon speed” “Ferent’s Dark Matter mass-energy equivalence equation: E = md × vp^2” “The electron energy is the sum of the photon energy and the Dark Matter electron energy” “The particle energy E, is the sum of Matter energy and Dark Matter energy: E = Em + Edm” ”Ferent’s mass–energy equivalence equation: E=mc^2 + md × vp^2 “ “We do not see Dark Matter energy because at light speed the Dark Matter energy is not released”
Category: Quantum Physics

[245] viXra:2001.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 02:42:13

Democratize Nanopore Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Now a team of researchers at the University of Ottawa is democratizing entry into the field of nanopore research by offering up a unique tool to accelerate the development of new applications and discoveries. [24] Researchers from U of T Engineering have discovered that an active, rather than passive, process dictates which nanoparticles enter solid tumors. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[244] viXra:2001.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 03:02:00

Sensitive Torque Measuring Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A team of physicists at Purdue University has built the most sensitive torque measuring device ever. In their paper published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, the team describes their new device and outline how it might be used. [25] Now a team of researchers at the University of Ottawa is democratizing entry into the field of nanopore research by offering up a unique tool to accelerate the development of new applications and discoveries. [24] Researchers from U of T Engineering have discovered that an active, rather than passive, process dictates which nanoparticles enter solid tumors. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[243] viXra:2001.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 03:18:07

Treatments for Obesity and Diabetes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Engineered ingestible molecular traps created from mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) introduced to the gut can have an effect on food efficiency and metabolic risk factors. [24] Researchers from U of T Engineering have discovered that an active, rather than passive, process dictates which nanoparticles enter solid tumors. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[242] viXra:2001.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 03:35:14

Ordered Nanostructures in 3-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists have developed a platform for assembling nanosized material components, or "nano-objects," of very different types—inorganic or organic—into desired 3-D structures. [26] A team of physicists at Purdue University has built the most sensitive torque measuring device ever. In their paper published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, the team describes their new device and outline how it might be used. [25] Now a team of researchers at the University of Ottawa is democratizing entry into the field of nanopore research by offering up a unique tool to accelerate the development of new applications and discoveries. [24] Researchers from U of T Engineering have discovered that an active, rather than passive, process dictates which nanoparticles enter solid tumors. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[241] viXra:2001.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 05:50:56

Refutation of the Godlike Computer: Benzmüller’s Nightmare

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate the claimed definition of “positive properties” for God which is not tautologous and refutes the conjecture that a supreme being necessarily exists by computer proof. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[240] viXra:2001.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 06:53:40

Proof of Golbach's Conjecture

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 8 Pages.

Every even integer > 2 is the sum of two prime numbers & equivalent Each odd integer > 5 is the sum of three prime numbers USING THE SIEVE OF ERATOSTHENES.
Category: Number Theory

[239] viXra:2001.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 06:58:20

A Toroidal or Disk-Like Zitterbewegung Electron?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present Oliver Consa’s classical calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron, pointing out some of what we perceive to be weaker arguments, and adding comments and questions with a view to possibly arrive at a more elegant approach to the problem on hand in the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[238] viXra:2001.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 08:03:04

Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Los Alamos scientists have incorporated meticulously engineered colloidal quantum dots into a new type of light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing an integrated optical resonator, which allows them to function as lasers. [31] Tiny, easy-to-produce particles, called quantum dots, may soon take the place of more expensive single crystal semiconductors in advanced electronics found in solar panels, camera sensors and medical imaging tools. [30] North Carolina State University researchers have developed a microfluidic system for synthesizing perovskite quantum dots across the entire spectrum of visible light. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[237] viXra:2001.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 08:09:45

Algorithms Related to the Three Typologies with Constant Angular Step (C) and Manageable (A) (L) and (Pc) Parameters.

Authors: Dante Servi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Description of the algorithms related to the three typologies with constant angular step (C) and manageable (A) (L) and (Pc) parameters, provided for in the list on the sheet 8/14 (and described below) of my article "How and why to use my graphic method" published on viXra.org in the geometry group at number 1910.0620 rev.(v4). To find all my articles on this subject grouped in a single page, starting from the last published, just click on author's name: Dante Servi.
Category: Geometry

[236] viXra:2001.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 10:22:04

Connecting Dots on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

They found that this light is brighter in regions that contain a lot of matter and dimmer where matter is sparser-a correlation that could help them narrow down the properties of exotic astrophysical objects and invisible dark matter. [28] The CASPEr team is developing special nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, each targeted at a specific frequency range and therefore at a specific range of dark-matter particle masses. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[235] viXra:2001.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 10:39:29

High Thermal Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

An international team of physicists, materials scientists, and mechanical engineers has confirmed the high thermal conductivity predicted in isotopically enriched cubic boron nitride, the researchers report in the advance electronic edition of the journal Science. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[234] viXra:2001.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 10:44:12

A Model for Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 8 Pages.

A previous preon scenario based on unbroken global supersymmetry is developed further to provide a natural physical reason for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. A tentative mechanism for asymmetric genesis of matter in early cosmology is proposed. With global supersymmetry made local the scenario can be extended to supergravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[233] viXra:2001.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 11:41:44

Extremely Fast Quantum Calculations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Transistors based on germanium can perform calculations for future quantum computers. This discovery by the team of Menno Veldhorst is reported in Nature. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[232] viXra:2001.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:02:52

Quantum Loop Communication Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago launched a new testbed for quantum communication experiments from Argonne last week. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[231] viXra:2001.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:28:33

On Some Ramanujan Equations Concerning the Continued Fractions. Further Possible Mathematical Connections with Some Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology Vi.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 115 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened some equations concerning the Ramanujan continued fractions. We have described further possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology.
Category: Number Theory

[230] viXra:2001.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:44:09

Quantum Chips Computing Correctly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

In a step toward practical quantum computing, researchers from MIT, Google, and elsewhere have designed a system that can verify when quantum chips have accurately performed complex computations that classical computers can't. [41] Researchers at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a quantum communication chip that is 1,000 times smaller than current quantum setups, but offers the same superior security quantum technology is known for. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[229] viXra:2001.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 13:03:56

Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 20 Pages. In International Conference From Nina Ringo on Mathematics and Mechanics 16 May 2018

Abstract: The Riemann zeta function is one of the most Euler’s important and fascinating functions in mathematics. By analyzing the material of Riemann’s conjecture, we divide our analysis in the ζ(z) function and in the proof of the conjecture, which has very important consequences on the distribution of prime numbers. The proof of the Hypothesis of Riemann result from the simple logic, that when two properties are associated, (the resulting equations that based in two Functional equations of Riemann ), if zero these equations, ie ζ(z) = ζ (1-z)= 0 and simultaneously they to have the proved property 1-1 of the Riemann function ζ(z).Thus, there is not margin for to non exist the Re (z) = 1/2 {because ζ (z) = ζ (1-z)=0 and also ζ(z) as and ζ(1-z) are 1-1}.This, as it stands, will gives the direction of all the non-trivial roots to be all in on the critical line, with a value in the real axis equal 1/2.
Category: Number Theory

[228] viXra:2001.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 13:24:44

Teoria y. a Teoria Unificadora do Tudo..

Authors: Dos Anjos, Josênio
Comments: 10 Pages. 10 pag. Este artigo científico está escrito em português.

TEORIA Y. A TEORIA UNIFICADORA DO TUDO. A Diferença de potencial da Energia-Espaço-Tempo e suas reações. As absurdamente fantásticas simplificação dos maiores mistérios da humanidade, muitas consideradas insolúveis até agora, com seus inúmeros e complexos cálculos matemáticos, que chegam a beirar a loucura sem explicar quase nada, aqui, revelados e explicados de maneira tão simples. Da revelação da sopa de Deus, ao acionamento do interruptor da luz. O que é a luz, ou uma onda eletromagnética? É uma diferença de potencial, ou seja, uma energia acumulada. Mas ao contrário do que a ciência postula, ela não viaja a 299 792 458 m/s, ela está estacionária. Pasmem, isso mesmo! O que se move a 299 792 458 m/s é a energia-espaço-tempo. Ou seja, a luz é um risco fixo num disco vinílico 3D rodando. Quem roda é o disco, não o risco. Partindo desta descoberta, todos os mistérios da astrofísica da quântica à Teoria Geral da Relatividade serão desvendadas.
Category: Astrophysics

[227] viXra:2001.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 13:02:24

Complex Problems at Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Many of the most challenging optimization problems encountered in various disciplines of science and engineering, from biology and drug discovery to routing and scheduling can be reduced to NP-complete problems. [28] AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[226] viXra:2001.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 18:09:21

The Research of Using Truth to Restrict Authoritative Theories (In Chinese)

Authors: Ding Jian
Comments: 8 Pages.

First to put forth an argument, truth must have absoluteness and immutability, and does not exist in reality. Then, according to whether it does exist in reality to distinguish different definition domains, all the knowledge is divided into three parts: natural science (materialism), metaphysics (idealism) and mathematics. The contents contained in the metaphysics can be called as the truths, which have existed only in order to the existence of the natural science. The characteristic of the truths is that they cannot be proved by empirical methods, and can only be gradually approached by repeated practices. The principle of seeking limits in mathematics was abstracted from the physical processes of ascertaining the truths. And mathematics runs throughout both of the natural science and metaphysics, it has helped us to break through the bondage of finite thought by the way of infinite subdivision, from the quantitative change in real space has gone deep into the qualitative change of ideal realm. It not only has achieved the unity of opposites of all the knowledge, but can also make reasoning under the premise of mutual restriction according to have the characteristic of continuity. As a result, metaphysics has been translated into that neither divorced from practices, nor just observed objective things with a one-sided, isolated and static way of thinking. This is precisely where the bright spot of the article lies. Between the truths, which can only be reasoned through the continuity of objective things in reality, and can produce logical causalities, but cannot deduce out any contradictory state, nor can there be any chronological order. For example, a rational explanation is firstly given for the disagreement of "whether matter is the first or consciousness is the first." The philosophical question of "which came the first, chicken or egg", is explained in passing. In addition, it was also found that in Einstein's special relativity there was a paradoxes, which was to use one truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity). After inspection, it is determined that the value c of light speed in vacuum has been replaced with the value v of real light speed. Here lay Einstein's mistake precisely. At last, his "principle of relativity" has been modified rationally.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[225] viXra:2001.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 02:48:08

Infrared Silicon Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

In a new report published on Scientific Reports, Milan M. Milošević and an international research team at the Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Etaphase Incorporated and the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, in the U.S. and the U.K. Introduced a hyperuniform-disordered platform to realize near-infrared (NIR) photonic devices to create, detect and manipulate light. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[224] viXra:2001.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 03:21:35

Optical Resonators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

In the quantum realm, under some circumstances and with the right interference patterns, light can pass through opaque media. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[223] viXra:2001.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 03:43:02

Super Cold Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have experimentally demonstrated a novel cryogenic, or low temperature, memory cell circuit design based on coupled arrays of Josephson junctions, a technology that may be faster and more energy efficient than existing memory devices. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[222] viXra:2001.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 05:26:18

Open Letter to Physicists

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 6 Pages. Open Letter to Physicists © Robert Yusupov 14.01.2020

This is a fiery appeal and appeal to the entire physical community for recognition of the "Theory of Nature" by Robert Yusupov, a free researcher, dialectical materialist, communist. For 7 years now, the physical power of the Russian Federation, headed by the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, has been unable to really, objectively, honestly and impartially evaluate the “Theory of Nature” for scientific significance and consistency. Physical power in the Russian Federation has completely degraded! Physical power in the Russian Federation has completely lost its scientific vigilance and scientific scent! Physical power in the Russian Federation has proved its professional unsuitability! Physical power in the Russian Federation reached full scientific impotence! Physical power in the Russian Federation has proved its complete unscrupulousness and unconsciousness! Physical power in the Russian Federation has gone blind and does not see that TN is a Revolution in physics! Physical power in the Russian Federation has become a brake on scientific progress, primarily in physics! It's time to change this rotten power!
Category: Classical Physics

[221] viXra:2001.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 05:29:57

Открытое письмо физикам

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 7 Pages. Открытое письмо физикам © Robert Yusupov 14.01.2020

Это пламенное обращение и воззвание ко всему физическому сообществу на предмет признания «Теории Природы» Юсупова Роберта, свободного исследователя, диалектического материалиста, коммуниста. Физическая власть РФ во главе с ОФН РАН вот уже 7 лет никак не может реально, объективно, честно и непредвзято оценить «Теорию Природы» на предмет научной значимости и состоятельности. Физическая власть в РФ деградировала абсолютно! Физическая власть в РФ полностью потеряла научную бдительность и научный нюх! Физическая власть в РФ доказала свою профессиональную непригодность! Физическая власть в РФ дошла до полной научной импотенции! Физическая власть в РФ доказала свою полную беспринципность и несознательность! Физическая власть в РФ ослепла и не видит, что ТП – это Революция в физике! Физическая власть в РФ стала тормозом научного прогресса и в первую очередь в физике! Пора менять эту гнилую власть!
Category: Classical Physics

[220] viXra:2001.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 05:36:25

A Project for Village Empowerment

Authors: Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu
Comments: 21 Pages. NA

In this project, a number of new economic, political and administrative reforms have been proposed.
Category: Social Science

[219] viXra:2001.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 09:10:09

Space, Time and Nature of Physical Interactions (Text in Polish)

Authors: Kajetan Młynarski
Comments: 33 Pages.

Abstract The work uses non-standard concepts and calculations based on the concept of identity (i.e. not based on set theory as a basic theory). This made it possible to obtain several potentially interesting results. For example: the number of dimensions of a space is not an assumption, it is determined by a theorem. Also a theorem indicates the existence of a maximum speed having properties analogous to c. According to the presented theory, there is only one fundamental interaction. Depending on the parameters (distance, rotation), it has properties similar to known fundamental interactions. In the final part I propose some experiments checking the obtained results.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[218] viXra:2001.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 10:00:00

Fourth Power Algorithm Using Polynomials

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel
Comments: 11 Pages.

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the square of a binomial, trinomial, tetranomial and pentanomial
Category: Algebra

[217] viXra:2001.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 11:24:56

Influential Electrons Quantum Relationship

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

A team of physicists has mapped how electron energies vary from region to region in a particular quantum state with unprecedented clarity. [47] Observation of Spin-Charge Deconfinement in Fermionic Hubbard Chains"), they used a so-called quantum simulator. [46] From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[216] viXra:2001.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 11:54:12

It takes a Decision to Decide if Decidability is True or False

Authors: Manfred U.E.Pohl
Comments: 9 Pages.

Turning a discarded (Descartes) Coordinate-System into a new (Newtonian) Coordinate-System - [pi / pi :=1 ; pi := c := Meter / Second] - Written to the FXQi Essay Contest on „Undecidability, Uncomputability, and Unpredictability“
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[215] viXra:2001.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 13:28:16

Relation of Accelerations in Two Inertial Frames in Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In special relativity theory, we discover the relation of inertial frames’ accelerations. In this theory, we can understand general state of the relation of inertial frames’ accelerations
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[214] viXra:2001.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 00:48:44

Twin Paradox Solution (Language German).

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Twin Paradox solution (language German). Das Zwillingsparadoxon Beweis und Lösung zum ersten Mal seit 110 Jahren. 
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[213] viXra:2001.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 01:07:31

Refutation of the Zorn Lemma

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate theorems for the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma and Zorn’s lemma for which both are not tautologous. This refutes the Zorn lemma to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[212] viXra:2001.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-14 00:52:28

Hybrid Time Theory: "Euler's Formula" and the "Phi-Algorithm"

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this series of papers on the golden ratio algorithm (phi-algorithm) for time [1-14], the concept of time as the phi-algorithm has been the core focus of topic. Through the development of the papers, the idea of the phi-algorithm for time seeking to define pi has resulted in the development a vast field of ideas covering what is perceived and measured of the natural physical world, containing equations that fit all observed data regarding the field forces for mass and energy and associated constants thereof. These results took shape from the initial premise of defining space as a “0” 3-d construct associated to time, “time” as a concept that is tagged to a basic logical construct of consciousness, namely the features of time-before, time-now, and time-after, and how that process of time from time-before to time-after can fit with the basic feature of 0-space in time-now. It was proposed that time would propagate from any point in 0-space as a spherical wavefront at a fixed rate. Now, in this paper, that assumption will be fully addressed, namely the assumption of time seeking to conform to a spherical wavefront and thus to the notion of the value of pi. This will be achieved by first addressing how words should be most precisely and efficiently used to explain the notion of space and time in detailing a just as efficient and precise use of numbers describing the process of linking a 0 reference in space to an infinite reference. Then, that description will uphold the findings of papers 1-14 [1-14], most importantly the final premise reached in paper 14 regarding natural radioactive decay. There it shall be explained exists an associated equation for time, not explicitly the phi-algorithm for time, yet an associated algorithm of its own explained in Euler’s formula. The aim here in this paper is to then propose a compromise between two time-theories as a general equation for time involving the value of “Euler’s number”, “phi”, and “pi”.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[211] viXra:2001.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 03:45:31

Inertial Motion of the Quantum Self-Interacting Electron

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 21 Pages.

Attempts represent the self-interacting quantum electron as the cyclic motion on the stable attractor has been discussed. This motion subjects quantum inertia principle expressed by the parallel transported energy-momentum generator along a closed geodesic in the space of the unlocated quantum states $CP(3)$ . The affine gauge potential in the complex projective state space (similar to the Higgs potential) seriously deforms the Jacobi fields in the vicinity of the ``north pole". It was assumed that the divergency of the Jacobi field may be compensated by the fields of the Poincar\'e generators representing EM-like ``field shell" of the electron in the dynamical spacetime. Thereby, the spacetime looks as ultimately deprecated in the role of the ``container of matter" and it appears as the accompanied to the quantum electron functional space (dynamical spacetime). Meanwhile, the dynamics of the self-interacting electron is essentially non-linear and deterministic.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[210] viXra:2001.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 04:51:35

Protein Sestrin Benefits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Michigan Medicine researchers studying a class of naturally occurring protein called Sestrin have found that it can mimic many of exercise's effects in flies and mice. [38] Researchers have developed a way to prop up a struggling immune system to enable its fight against sepsis, a deadly condition resulting from the body's extreme reaction to infection. [37] An interdisciplinary team of scientists from KU Leuven, the University of Bremen, the Leibniz Institute of Materials Engineering, and the University of Ioannina has succeeded in killing tumour cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[209] viXra:2001.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 05:16:24

Herpes Simplex Viruses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

An Italian research team has refined the history and origins of two extremely common pathogens in human populations, herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. [39] Michigan Medicine researchers studying a class of naturally occurring protein called Sestrin have found that it can mimic many of exercise's effects in flies and mice. [38] Researchers have developed a way to prop up a struggling immune system to enable its fight against sepsis, a deadly condition resulting from the body's extreme reaction to infection. [37] An interdisciplinary team of scientists from KU Leuven, the University of Bremen, the Leibniz Institute of Materials Engineering, and the University of Ioannina has succeeded in killing tumour cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[208] viXra:2001.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-13 23:41:57

Asymptotic Safety, Black-Hole Cosmology and the Universe as a Gravitating Vacuum State

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages.

A model of the Universe as a dynamical homogeneous anisotropic self-gravitating fluid, consistent with Kantowski-Sachs homogeneous anisotropic cosmology and Black-Hole cosmology, is developed. Renormalization Group (RG) improved black-hole solutions resulting from Asymptotic Safety in Quantum Gravity are constructed which explicitly $remove$ the singularities at $t = 0$. Two temporal horizons at $ t _- \simeq t_P$ (Planck time) and $ t_+ \simeq t_H$ (Hubble time) are found. For times below the Planck time $ t < t_P$, and above the Hubble time $ t > t_H$, the components of the Kantowski-Sachs metric exhibit a key sign $change$, so the roles of the spatial $z$ and temporal coordinates $ t$ are $exchanged$, and one recovers a $repulsive$ inflationary de Sitter-like core around $ z = 0$, and a Schwarzschild-like metric in the exterior region $ z > R_H = 2 G_o M $. Therefore, in this fashion one has found a dynamical Universe $inside$ a Black Hole whose Schwarzschild radius coincides with the Hubble radius $ r_s = 2 G_o M = R_H$. For these reasons we conclude by arguing that our Universe could be seen as a Gravitating Vacuum State inside a Black-Hole.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[207] viXra:2001.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 06:25:34

The Research of Using Truth to Restrict Authoritative Theories

Authors: Ding Jian
Comments: 14 Pages.

First to put forth an argument, truth must have absoluteness and immutability, and does not exist in reality. Then, according to whether it does exist in reality to distinguish different definition domains, all the knowledge is divided into three parts: natural science (materialism), metaphysics (idealism) and mathematics. The contents contained in the metaphysics can be called as the truths, which have existed only in order to the existence of the natural science. The characteristic of the truths is that they cannot be proved by empirical methods, and can only be gradually approached by repeated practices. The principle of seeking limits in mathematics was abstracted from the physical processes of ascertaining the truths. And mathematics runs throughout both of the natural science and metaphysics, it has helped us to break through the bondage of finite thought by the way of infinite subdivision, from the quantitative change in real space has gone deep into the qualitative change of ideal realm. It not only has achieved the unity of opposites of all the knowledge, but can also make reasoning under the premise of mutual restriction according to have the characteristic of continuity. As a result, metaphysics has been translated into that neither divorced from practices, nor just observed objective things with a one-sided, isolated and static way of thinking. This is precisely where the bright spot of the article lies. Between the truths, which can only be reasoned through the continuity of objective things in reality, and can produce logical causalities, but cannot deduce out any contradictory state, nor can there be any chronological order. For example, a rational explanation is firstly given for the disagreement of "whether matter is the first or consciousness is the first." The philosophical question of "which came the first, chicken or egg", is explained in passing. In addition, it was also found that in Einstein's special relativity there was a paradoxes, which was to use one truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity). After inspection, it is determined that the value c of light speed in vacuum has been replaced with the value v of real light speed. Here lay Einstein's mistake precisely. At last, his "principle of relativity" has been modified rationally.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[206] viXra:2001.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 07:24:51

If Background em Radiation Forms a Locality Relative to Which em Waves Propagate Their Speed/wavelength Energy Mix Then the Time Dilation Theory is not Needed.

Authors: Iain Smith
Comments: 11 Pages.

Observations that the speed of electromagnetic waves are reliably measured to travel at the speed of light "c" relative to the observer and proved to be independent of the emitters relative speed have resulted in the theory of the dilation of time as a practical interpretation of the theory of special and general relativity. This papers alternative theory suggests background EM radiation provides the locality that EM waves latch onto and set their speed/wavelength mix relative to. As such back ground radiation will exist locally to all emitters and observers of EM waves this would explain the observations that currently force the time dilation theory. In turn, if time dilation does not exist then the correlation between extended atomic half lives and speed are in fact an observation of a transfer of energy to the atoms stores during accelerating events they have experienced rather than proof of the rate of time slowing down at speed. This theory is applied to the results of experiments bouncing laser pulses off a reflector on the moon as observational confirmation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[205] viXra:2001.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 07:41:49

Metals Trace History of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Astronomers have cataloged signs of nine heavy metals in the infrared light from supergiant and giant stars. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[204] viXra:2001.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 07:59:23

One-Dimensional Quantum Divorce

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Observation of Spin-Charge Deconfinement in Fermionic Hubbard Chains"), they used a so-called quantum simulator. [46] From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45] The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels—and anything else that loses energy through heat—far more efficient. [44] When traversing a solid material such as glass, a light wave can deposit part of its energy in a mechanical wave, leading to a color change of the light. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:2001.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 08:15:10

On Some Ramanujan Equations Concerning the Continued Fractions. Further Possible Mathematical Connections with Some Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology V.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 82 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened some equations concerning the Ramanujan continued fractions. Further possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology.
Category: Number Theory

[202] viXra:2001.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 08:16:12

Proteome State in Live Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Australian scientists have developed a molecular probe that senses the state of the proteome—the entire set of the proteins—by measuring the polarity of the protein environment. [39] Michigan Medicine researchers studying a class of naturally occurring protein called Sestrin have found that it can mimic many of exercise's effects in flies and mice. [38] Researchers have developed a way to prop up a struggling immune system to enable its fight against sepsis, a deadly condition resulting from the body's extreme reaction to infection. [37]
Category: Physics of Biology

[201] viXra:2001.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 08:26:54

The Fuzzy Probabilities

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We propose to introduce a measure in the theory of fuzzy sets, calling this notion the fuzzy probabilities.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[200] viXra:2001.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 16:31:03

Response to the Postmodernisms’ of the Age: Contemporary Issues of Notability

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Postmodernisms’ of the Age is a contemporary issue of notability.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[199] viXra:2001.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-17 01:21:27

Understanding & Exploring -> [ Mandelbrot Algorithms+AI+QRNG Concepts+Hard Problem Concepts based on Python & Haskell ] – A Short Communication.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication - Revised

[ PART A ] - Python Medical Image Processing & Electron Microscopy Image Processing Informatics Using Python/LLVM. [ PART B ] - Haskell Exploring a JIT Compiler with Haskell and LLVM in the Context of Medical Image Processing & Electron Microscopy Image Processing Software R&D Using Mandelbrot Algorithms.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[198] viXra:2001.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 02:40:52

Модель униполярного заряда

Authors: Киров
Comments: 1 Page. Russ lang

Определена модель униполярного заряда
Category: Classical Physics

[197] viXra:2001.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 02:44:06

Unipolar Charge Model

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 1 Page.

Unipolar charge model determined
Category: Classical Physics

[196] viXra:2001.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 06:01:15

From Deriving Mass-Energy Equivalence with Classical Physics to Mass-Velocity Relation and Charge-Velocity Relation of Electrons

Authors: JianFei Chen
Comments: 3 Pages.

There are controversies on mass-velocity relation and charge of moving electrons, which are related with mass-energy equivalence. Author thought that mass-energy equivalence was expressing the energy relation of bodies and space as mass. In this paper author proposed relative kinetic energy $E_{rk}=mv^2$ to explain this relation. With relative kinetic energy theory, author inferred the equations for mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation. While analyzing the electron acceleration movement, author found the reasons for the two unreal equation of mass-velocity relation, and determined the equations of mass-velocity relation and charge-velocity relation of electrons. These determinations are of important significance for relativity theory and electrodynamics, even for superconducting research. [eastear@outlook.com, eastear@163.com]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[195] viXra:2001.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 07:46:45

Energy Efficient Computers and Smartphones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

With enhanced properties such as greater strength, lighter weight, increased electrical conductivity and chemical reactivity, nanomaterials (NMs) are widely used in areas like ICT, energy and medicine. [35] Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have developed a light-based device that can act as a biosensor, detecting biological substances in materials; for example, harmful pathogens in food samples. [34] A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[194] viXra:2001.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 07:52:42

Do US Sanctions On Iran Work? Survival in The Modern World

Authors: Syed Noman Ali Shah
Comments: 6 Pages.

“There is no doubt that the United states will not achieve success with this new plot against Iran.” Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani on US new sanctions. My research is composed Iran’s survival in isolation after a hard tension by the west for 40 years. How Iran is going to manage it people through its policies and diplomacy nationally and internationally. In today’s globalized world how, Iran react towards sanctions and focuses on its nuclear weapons production. Relations with Russia as alternate ally after US and supporting of militant groups inside the middle east to extend her regime. Shall different engagements at a time lead Iran into hard situation like in Yemen, Syria, Iraq, supporting Hammas and Hezbollah which are black-listed by the international community. On one side Iran is facing sanctions from the world like import-export shut down, no travelling by sea and air, no foreign transactions, steel and iron industry which the biggest contributing sector in the Iran’s economy is and parallel to these issues Iran is financially and militarily supporting internationally these groups.
Category: Social Science

[193] viXra:2001.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 08:14:36

Gold Atoms Peculiar Pyramidal Shape

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Freestanding clusters of 20 gold atoms take the shape of a pyramid, researchers have discovered. [30] The multimodal nanoscience approach to studying quantum physics phenomena is, they say, a "technological leap for how scientists can explore quantum materials to unearth new phenomena and guide future functional engineering of these materials for real-world applications." [29] Researchers have developed a three-dimensional dynamic model of an interaction between light and nanoparticles. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[192] viXra:2001.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 08:40:08

Boosting Cell's Antibacterial Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Researchers have developed a way to prop up a struggling immune system to enable its fight against sepsis, a deadly condition resulting from the body's extreme reaction to infection. [37] An interdisciplinary team of scientists from KU Leuven, the University of Bremen, the Leibniz Institute of Materials Engineering, and the University of Ioannina has succeeded in killing tumour cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. [36] Johns Hopkins researchers report that a type of biodegradable, lab-engineered nanoparticle they fashioned can successfully deliver a "suicide gene" to pediatric brain tumor cells implanted in the brains of mice. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[191] viXra:2001.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 09:05:33

Bright Eyes Bactericide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

An aqueous extract from the root of Catharanthus roseus, a plant commonly known as bright eyes, can be used as both a reducing agent as well as a capping agent for the synthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles, according to research published in the International Journal of Nanoparticles. [38] Researchers have developed a way to prop up a struggling immune system to enable its fight against sepsis, a deadly condition resulting from the body's extreme reaction to infection. [37] An interdisciplinary team of scientists from KU Leuven, the University of Bremen, the Leibniz Institute of Materials Engineering, and the University of Ioannina has succeeded in killing tumour cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[190] viXra:2001.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 09:40:47

Bleeding Without Adhering to the Wound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Researchers from ETH Zurich and the National University of Singapore have developed a new kind of bandage that helps blood to clot and doesn't stick to the wound. [39] An aqueous extract from the root of Catharanthus roseus, a plant commonly known as bright eyes, can be used as both a reducing agent as well as a capping agent for the synthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles, according to research published in the International Journal of Nanoparticles. [38] Researchers have developed a way to prop up a struggling immune system to enable its fight against sepsis, a deadly condition resulting from the body's extreme reaction to infection. [37]
Category: Physics of Biology

[189] viXra:2001.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 13:04:43

Analyzing Some Equations Concerning the “Classical Stability with Broken Supersymmetry” by Ramanujan’s Mathematics. Further Possible Mathematical Connections with Some Parameters of Particle Physics and String Theory.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 78 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened some equations concerning the “Classical Stability with Broken Supersymmetry” by Ramanujan’s mathematics and described new possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and String Theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[188] viXra:2001.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 13:28:49

AMASING proof of the STRONG Riemman Hypothes (Gnembon's Theorem)

Authors: Gnet Gnembon
Comments: 3 Pages.

Le Riemman Hypothosos is an hypothes that has existsence sinse Reimman (1837). He said so: The zero of this fonktion $\sum_{n=1}^\infty1/k^z$ is 1/2 real. We now prov this and its stronger we be rich million prise thankyou clay intitut we want double prise sinse we prov strong hopotosos. We call it GNEMBON's THEOREM.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[187] viXra:2001.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 17:12:48

The Theory of the Collatz Process

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and develop the theory of the Collatz process. We leverage this theory to study the Collatz conjecture. This theory also has a subtle connection with the infamous problem of the distribution of Sophie germain primes. We also provide several formulation of the Collatz conjecture in this language.
Category: Number Theory

[186] viXra:2001.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 20:16:23

Foundations of Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan
Comments: 144 Pages. Dedicated to the 12-th Anniversary of Declaration Armenian Revolution in Science

The Armenian Revolution in Science Continues We called this third volume of our research work "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space", which best describes the very essence of our theory. The term "special" means that in this volume mainly discusses the case when observing systems are inertial systems (of course, with the Armenian interpretation). In addition, in this third volume, we have recognized that all observing and observed systems have the same "weight", that is in some sense, all systems are equivalent to each other. And what this means will become clear in the following volumes. ------------------------------------ By re-interpreting some very important concepts in the "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space", such as “observed time” and “own time”, we were able to solve the nested crisis in the legacy theory of relativity, which been revealed in our second volume. We also outline the way to solve the problem of particle system movement as whole. ------------------------------------ We have also proved that "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space" is rich in fine and difficult to grasp concepts, in many cases unexpected ideas and interpretations that are contrary to traditional physics perceptions and experiences. In our illustrated book, intended for wide circles, using only pure mathematical approach, we have been able to provide a new scientific breakthrough in the interpretation of the concepts of time and space, and have paved the way for the construction of the most general and unified theory. ------------------------------------ The "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space" is mathematically so solid and perfect that it can't be wrong. Therefore, our derived Armenian Transformation Equations and all other Armenian Relativistic Formulas should not only replace Lorentz transformation equations or other legacy relativistic relations, but all modern theoretical physics must be rewritten again. Because the transformation equations and other formulas of legacy theory of relativity, are only a very special case of our derived formulas in Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space, when s = 0 and g = -1 . ------------------------------------ The many transformation equations and many other important relations contained in this volume are presented very briefly, with almost no strong proofs, and readers must make sufficient effort to verify for themselves the derivation of all our transformation equations and relativistic formulas. ------------------------------------ And finally, in this third volume of our research work, you will come across amazing interpretations and see new beautiful formulas that the World has never seen before and these mathematical formulas are capable of reforming the future of mankind by creating a new golden age of scientific breakthroughs, free from all types of spiritual, mental and physical leprosy. ------------------------------------ Long Live the Revival of Armenian Science! Long Live the Armenian Revolution in Science!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:2001.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 20:47:27

Stellar Distance and Velocity

Authors: Miloš Čojanović
Comments: 27 Pages.

In this paper is presented a method by which it is possible to determine a distance between the sun and a star as well as a velocity at which the star moves relative to the sun. In order to achieve this, it is sufficient to know three positions of the star and the unit vectors determined by the star and three arbitrarily chosen points, that do not lie on a single line. The method has been tested using the data generated by a computer program as well as real data obtained by Gaia mission. In the first case, we found the huge differences comparing the results derived by the method to the results calculated by the traditional parallax method. In the second case also, there are large differences between the obtained and the expected results, but primarily because of the form of the input data, that is not fully suited to the proposed method. Under certain conditions, one would be able to find a velocity at which the sun is moving regarding a stationary coordinate system $(K)$, that will be defined later on.
Category: Astrophysics

[184] viXra:2001.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 20:52:32

Stellar Distance and Velocity (Ii)

Authors: Miloš Čojanović
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we will point out the systematic error, which is made using the parallax in determining the stellar distance. Instead of this method, we are proposing three methods that give more precise results in calculating the distance. In the first method we will use two consecutive parallaxes instead of one, which will allow us to determine the distance of the stars with negative parallaxes. In the second one we will present a method by which it is possible to measure a true parallax. The third method is already presented in [1] and here we will consider only one special case when the velocity of a star is calculated relative to the sun. We tested the methods using data obtained from the Gaia's catalogs.
Category: Astrophysics

[183] viXra:2001.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 22:21:40

Analysis of Ground Facilities for Detecting Electromagnetic Signals from Extraterrestrial Civilizations

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 10 Pages. 7 Figures. Including Russian abstract

This article analyzes the existing facilities for exploring ground radio telescopes for extraterrestrial civilizations. Although many extraterrestrial civilization exploration programs have been implemented, judging from the existing radio telescope facilities, these facilities have not been aligned with the area where advanced extraterrestrial civilizations are located. This is also the reason why nothing has been obtained for a long time in the past. Based on my previous work, this article proposes areas where advanced extraterrestrial civilizations may exist, and points out that according to the current orbital information of the solar system in the Milky Way and the location of the Earth's orbit, the radio telescope installed in the North Pole of the Earth is the best location to receive advanced extraterrestrial civilization signals. Therefore, the Greenland radio telescope on the earth is currently the best choice for receiving advanced extraterrestrial civilization signals. It is suggested that existing extraterrestrial exploration projects such as SETI@home should pool all resources to analyze the data obtained by the Greenland Radio Telescope.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[182] viXra:2001.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 00:44:30

Summary of the Completely Inclusive Scientific Faith with Its《The Principle of Natural Laws》——The Trinity Theory

Authors: Yansha Yu-sandstrom
Comments: 11 Pages.

This version, "The three major complementary principles of 《The Principle of Natural Laws》", combined with mathematical natural numbers and their compounding and corresponding, positive and negative numbers, universe variation / invariant constant, universe constant variable set, physical weight and chemical fusing and reduction. to show and unfold it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[181] viXra:2001.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 02:16:36

Deep Learning Create Better Drugs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Now, Purdue University researchers have designed a novel approach to use deep learning to better understand how proteins interact in the body—paving the way to producing accurate structure models of protein interactions involved in various diseases and to design better drugs that specifically target protein interactions. [26] Researchers, from biochemists to material scientists, have long relied on the rich variety of organic molecules to solve pressing challenges. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[180] viXra:2001.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 03:12:39

Cooper-Based Nanomaterials Kill Cancer Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

An interdisciplinary team of scientists from KU Leuven, the University of Bremen, the Leibniz Institute of Materials Engineering, and the University of Ioannina has succeeded in killing tumour cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy. [36] Johns Hopkins researchers report that a type of biodegradable, lab-engineered nanoparticle they fashioned can successfully deliver a "suicide gene" to pediatric brain tumor cells implanted in the brains of mice. [35] A new study at the University of Georgia has found a way to attack cancer cells that is potentially less harmful to the patient. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[179] viXra:2001.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 04:18:07

What is a Photon Really?

Authors: Francesco Ferrara
Comments: 5 Pages.

This document implements a photon model, which explains why the photon's energy is equal to the Plank constant reduced for the omega angular pulsation. The model shows that the mass is zero and also the direction of polarization is a clear consequence of the model itself
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[178] viXra:2001.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 04:48:37

The Symplectic Seiberg-Witten Equations

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

The C-metaplectic group is defined. The symplectic Seiberg-Witten equations are written.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[177] viXra:2001.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 04:57:31

Wave Physics Neural Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Analog machine learning hardware offers a promising alternative to digital counterparts as a more energy efficient and faster platform. Wave physics based on acoustics and optics is a natural candidate to build analog processors for time-varying signals. [29] Recent advances in optical neural networks, however, are closing that gap by simulating the way neurons respond in the human brain. [28] An international team of scientists from Eindhoven University of Technology, University of Texas at Austin, and University of Derby, has developed a revolutionary method that quadratically accelerates artificial intelligence (AI) training algorithms. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[176] viXra:2001.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 05:38:00

Pros and Cons of Livermorium Nanoparticles for Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors Treatment under Synchrotron Radiation Using Mathematica 12.0

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Katrina Schmitt1, Maria Henderson, Elizabeth Besana, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 31 Pages. Alireza Heidari, Katrina Schmitt, Maria Henderson, Elizabeth Besana and Ricardo Gobato. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.1, (1-31), January 11, 2020.

When Livermorium nanoparticles are subjected to descendent light, a part of light scattered (emission process) and the other part absorbed (non–emission process). The amount of energy dissipation in non–emission process mainly depends on material and volume of nanoparticles and it can be identified by absorption cross section. At the other hand, emission process which its characteristics are depend on volume, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles explains by scattering cross section. Sum of absorption and scattering processes which lead to light dissipation is called extinction cross section. In the current study, thermoplasmonic characteristics of Livermorium nanoparticles with spherical, core–shell and rod shapes are investigated. In order to investigate these characteristics, interaction of synchrotron radiation emission as a function of the beam energy and Livermorium nanoparticles were simulated using 3D finite element method. Firstly, absorption and extinction cross sections were calculated. Then, increases in temperature due to synchrotron radiation emission as a function of the beam energy absorption were calculated in Livermorium nanoparticles by solving heat equation. The obtained results show that Livermorium nanorods are more appropriate option for using in optothermal human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment method.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[175] viXra:2001.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:03:26

Laser Explore Supramolecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Curtis Menyuk, professor of computer science and electrical engineering at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), has collaborated with a team directed by Philip Russell at the Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPI) in Erlangen, Germany, to gain insight into naturally-occurring molecular systems using optical solitons in lasers. [41] Researchers have developed a compact laser that emits light with extreme spectral purity that doesn't change in response to environmental conditions. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[174] viXra:2001.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:21:09

Laser Pulse of a Light Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) have developed a novel type of detector that enables the oscillation profile of light waves to be precisely determined. [41] Researchers have developed a compact laser that emits light with extreme spectral purity that doesn't change in response to environmental conditions. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[173] viXra:2001.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:33:45

Time in Quantum Theory: Solving the Problem of Time - Introduction to the ToE

Authors: Manfred U.E.Pohl
Comments: 39 Pages.

A Power-Point Lecuture on the original Paper "Solving the Problem of Time" (http://vixra.org/abs/1902.0164) is given to show the context of the Solution of Time in Quantum-Gravity and the Framework for ToE.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[172] viXra:2001.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 08:51:38

Refutation of First Zadeh's Logical Operators on Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate conjectures of definition, example, and proposition which are not tautologous. In fact, the last is contradictory. This refutes first Zadeh's logical operators on fuzzy logic to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[171] viXra:2001.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 07:15:43

Ultrafast Birth of Radicals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

An international team led by Argonne has visualized the elusive, ultrafast proton transfer process following the ionization of water. [15] Exploring the physics behind the odd microstructure of water-ice may help us learn more about other seemingly unrelated advanced materials and their quantum states. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[170] viXra:2001.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 07:32:30

Bilingual Basic Codes for Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The nucleic acids of DNA encode genetic information, while the amino acids of proteins contain the code to turn that information into structures and functions. [22] Histones are proteins that regulate the unwinding of DNA in the cell nucleus and the expression of genes based on chemical modifications or "marks" that are placed on their tails. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[169] viXra:2001.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 08:10:40

Twist in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicists at ETH Zurich have observed a surprising twist in a quantum system caused by the interplay between energy dissipation and coherent quantum dynamics. [35] Cloning of quantum states is used for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. [34] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[168] viXra:2001.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 08:37:47

Photons Protons and Quarks, Hypotheses Contrary to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Bruce A. Lutgen
Comments: 30 Pages.

What is presented in the following pages is somewhat of a straightforward engineering approach to quantum particle physics. This approach is integrated to an extent with the considerable work done by those in the physics community. I became aware of what I would call conundrums in what was being presented in the literature on quantum particle physics. My engineering approach to resolving these alleged conundrums is seemingly ideal (to me anyway), but then surely time and others will tell.
Category: Quantum Physics

[167] viXra:2001.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 09:37:40

Controlling Qubits via Microwave Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In order to reduce error rates even further and provide reliable operations much faster, researchers at Leibniz University Hannover and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now developed a new method. [45] Scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago have made two breakthroughs in the quest to develop quantum technology. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:2001.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 09:58:38

Nanoprobes Reveal Hidden Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The multimodal nanoscience approach to studying quantum physics phenomena is, they say, a "technological leap for how scientists can explore quantum materials to unearth new phenomena and guide future functional engineering of these materials for real-world applications." [29] Researchers have developed a three-dimensional dynamic model of an interaction between light and nanoparticles. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[165] viXra:2001.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 10:06:52

On Some Ramanujan’s Equations of Manuscript Book 2. Further New Possible Mathematical Connections with Some Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology. V

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 59 Pages.

In this research thesis, we continue to analyze and deepen further Ramanujan’s equations of Manuscript Book 2 and describe new possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology.
Category: Number Theory

[164] viXra:2001.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 10:20:06

Alpha DaRT Treatment Human Trial

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Researchers in Israel have now published the positive results of a first-in-human clinical study evaluating the feasibility, safety and efficacy of this novel radiotherapy technique. [36] Johns Hopkins researchers report that a type of biodegradable, lab-engineered nanoparticle they fashioned can successfully deliver a "suicide gene" to pediatric brain tumor cells implanted in the brains of mice. [35] A new study at the University of Georgia has found a way to attack cancer cells that is potentially less harmful to the patient. [34] Doctors have used focused ultrasound to destroy tumors without invasive surgery for some time. However, the therapeutic ultrasound used in clinics today indiscriminately damages cancer and healthy cells alike. [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[163] viXra:2001.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 10:36:32

Nutrient Flow in the Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new model based on the blood-vessel network in a rat brain shows that the vessel position within its circulatory network does not influence the blood flow nor how nutrients are transported. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[162] viXra:2001.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 14:09:00

Sustaining Wavefunction Coherence via Topological Impedance Matching: Stable Polarized Muon Beams at 255 x 255 GeV/c?

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 12 Pages. Great news, eRHIC has been awarded to Brookhaven

What the Hell is Going On?" is Peter Woit's 'Not Even Wrong' blog comment on Nima Arkani- Hamed's view of the barren state of LHC physics, the long-dreaded Desert[1]. Two essential indispensibles - geometric wavefunctions and quantized impedances of wavefunction interactions - are absent from particle theory, the community oblivious, mired in the consequent four decades of stagnation. Synthesis of the two offers a complementary Standard Model perspective, examining not conservation of energy and its flow between kinetic and potential of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian, but rather what governs amplitude and phase of that flow, quantum impedance matching of geometric wavefunction interactions. Applied to muon decay, the model suggests that translation gauge fields (RF cavities) of relativistic lifetime enhancement might be augmented by introducing rotation gauge fields of carefully chosen topological impedances to an accelerator.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[161] viXra:2001.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 14:30:15

Com'è Fatto un Fotone

Authors: Francesco Ferrara
Comments: 5 Pages.

Il documento implementa un modello fisico e matematico per un fotone che restituisce tutte le caratteristiche distintive di questa peculiare particella.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[160] viXra:2001.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 19:57:17

A Remark on an Archimedan Square of a Triangle Associated with an Arbelos

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura, Ercole Suppa
Comments: 3 Pages.

We consider squares with Archimedean incircle arising from a triangle associated with an arbelos.
Category: Geometry

[159] viXra:2001.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 20:32:33

Ladder Paradox Solution

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Length contraction and solution the ladder paradox (language German).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[158] viXra:2001.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 03:38:26

The Etymology of the Word Time

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 8 Pages. -

The probable etymology of the word denoting the physical concept of TIME is considered.
Category: Linguistics

[157] viXra:2001.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 04:19:46

The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture & the Conservation of Super-Gravity: on Stargates and Warp Drives

Authors: Nicholas R. Wright
Comments: 3 Pages.

An addendum to two previously published papers: On the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture and ERG Theory, and Planar Yang-Mills 101; respectively. I formulate a law for the conservation of supergravity, called the law of conservation of extreme grav in the Planar Yang-Mills 101 paper. I then construct a stargate or warp drive with the spatial localization problem and the circle of Apollonius. An allusion to bearing off checkers in the game of backgammon is made.
Category: Astrophysics

[156] viXra:2001.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 05:05:37

Measure of Universe's Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team of astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has measured the universe's expansion rate using a technique that is completely independent of any previous method. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[155] viXra:2001.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 05:42:53

Smallest Dark Matter Clumps

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Now, using Hubble and a new observing technique, astronomers have found that dark matter forms much smaller clumps than previously known. [28] The CASPEr team is developing special nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, each targeted at a specific frequency range and therefore at a specific range of dark-matter particle masses. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[154] viXra:2001.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 06:53:51

Drones Navigate Complex Environments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The flight navigation strategy of moths can be used to develop programs that help drones to navigate unfamiliar environments, report Ioannis Paschalidis at Boston University, Thomas Daniel at University of Washington, and colleagues, in the open-access journal PLOS Computational Biology. [36] Johns Hopkins researchers report that a type of biodegradable, lab-engineered nanoparticle they fashioned can successfully deliver a "suicide gene" to pediatric brain tumor cells implanted in the brains of mice. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[153] viXra:2001.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 10:54:09

Studies on Protein Synthesis Within a Theoretical Model

Authors: Tumpa Saha, Biplab Chattopadhyay
Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures, published in IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy And Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), Volume 14, Issue 5 Ser. II (2019), PP. 10-20

Synthesis of proteins through the phenomenological pathway of transcription and translation, that constitutes the central dogma, has been explored theoretically. Emphasizing the closed-cycle character of the phenomenon, a prototype of the same is framed in mathematical terms with the biological inputs from allied literature. The mathematical prototype is actually a set of three coupled time differential equations signifying time rate of change of DNA, RNA and protein densities occurring in the biological cells of eukaryotes. The prototype has been scrutinized by well-set mathematical tools in regard of its sustainability under detailed stability tests. To judge exact behavioural pattern of the prototype solutions, rigorous numerical simulations of the time differential equations are carried out. Analyses of numerical simulation results with various changing parameters lead to predictive conclusions about different regulatory mechanisms existing in the protein synthesis phenomenology. Some future research directions are indicated too.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[152] viXra:2001.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:19:39

Illuminating Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have developed a light-based device that can act as a biosensor, detecting biological substances in materials; for example, harmful pathogens in food samples. [34] A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[151] viXra:2001.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:40:08

Randomness AttoPhotography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:2001.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:58:05

Milestone in Advanced Light Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An upgrade of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has passed an important milestone that will help to maintain the ALS' world-leading capabilities. [33] One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:2001.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 14:45:39

A Remark on the Erd\'{o}s-Ulam Problem

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and develop the topology of compression of points in space. We then use this Topology to solve the Erd\'{o}s-Ulam problem. We provide a positive solution in this paper.
Category: Topology

[148] viXra:2001.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 15:09:47

Expansiviy Theory

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 44 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and develop the concept of expansivity of a tuple whose entries are elements from the polynomial ring R[x]. As an inverse problem, we examine how to recover a tuple from the expanded tuple at any given phase of expansion. We convert the celebrated Sendov conjecture concerning the distribution of zeros of polynomials and their critical points into this language and prove some weak variants of this conjecture. We also apply this to the existence of solutions to differential equations. In particular, we show that a certain system of differential equation has no non-trivial solution.
Category: Algebra

[147] viXra:2001.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 15:25:30

The Behaviour of Light in Gravitational Fields

Authors: Martin Beecroft Roberts
Comments: 5 Pages.

We discuss the equivalence principle and how this relates to the gravitational fields of large bodies. We derive formulas relating to time dilation and acceleration with respect to accelerating reference frames. We conclude with an assessment of the possibility of the existence of an astronomical body or ‘Black Hole’ capable of halting the velocity of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[146] viXra:2001.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-09 16:40:08

A Four Circle Problem and Division by Zero

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 8 Pages.

We generalize a problem involving four circles and a triangle, and consider some limiting cases of the problem by division by zero.
Category: Geometry

[145] viXra:2001.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 17:47:32

Production of Reduced Aluminum Nanoparticles from Aluminum Oxide by Applying High Voltage Pulses to Solutions

Authors: T. Saiki, S. Taniguchi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Metal nanoparticles has been attracted as raw materials for nanoinks and nanopastes, which are used to Printed Electronics. Synthesizing various metal nanoparticles has been researched. We investigated possibility of reducing metal oxide to metal by high-voltage pulses in this paper. This method should save electrical consumption power compared to conventional methods using high-temperature and high-pressure plasma such as arc discharge. Reduced Al nanoparticles were obtained by applying high voltage pulses to solutions. It was found from hydrogen generation using reduced Al nanoparticles by applying high voltage pulses to solutions to evaluate reduction rate that a high reduction efficiency of 97% was obtained at maximum. We concluded that using high voltage pulses for reduction is suitable for application to printed electronics because oxide film on reduced Al nanoparticles is thin. Also, because this method is similar to laser ablation in liquids using pulse lasers, the similarities were discussed in this paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[144] viXra:2001.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 21:02:40

Developing Compatible Metrics for Distinctive Forms of Energy

Authors: Julian R Silverman
Comments: 10 Pages.

The development of practical metrics allows for a more accurate and precise measurement and comparison of different products and processes. Clearly defining these measures not only allows for the standardized comparison of raw materials or finished products through life cycle assessments, but also important considerations regarding the sustainability of material transformations and energy consumption. Though we know there exist distinctive forms of energy, from examples such as mechanical to electrical and even dark energy, the derived unit of Joule or an equivalent unit is used to quantify phenomenon that are inherently incompatible with the Joule’s composite base units (eg. charge and kilogram). Herein we explore a set of derived units to quantify the extensive properties of energy not relating to the motion of masses and develop relations equating changes in mass, charge, and distance over time to chemical, gravitational, ionization, electrical, and magnetic energy. Using natural constants to form limits for mass and charge flow akin to the speed of light it is possible to come up with simple relations to both accurately describe these forms of energy and more precisely relate them. This may serve to not only allow for a more clear understanding of different forms of energy and work, but also serve to help those interested in quantifying and minimizing energy inputs by clearly delineating between forms of energy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[143] viXra:2001.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 11:13:23

Structure Model of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

Neutrons are the particles that move on circular orbits inside the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) around immobilized protons which have spin only. If protons were rotating they would cause orbital magnetism, which has never been observed, beyond magnetic dipole moment of nucleons spin. In addition, no regression of proton has occurred, because it would cause alternating magnetism, which has also never been observed. The first nuclear units are the deuterium, the tritium, the helium-3 and the, so-called, upper-order nuclear unit the helium-4, which is the basic structure unit of the large nuclei. The spin, the magnetic moment and the mass deficit of the above units and of the bonding neutrons are the three experimental constants upon which the nuclei structure is based.
Category: Quantum Physics

[142] viXra:2001.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 03:54:06

Extend Lifespan by 500%

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The increase in lifespan would be the equivalent of a human living for 400 or 500 years, according to one of the scientists. [34] Doctors have used focused ultrasound to destroy tumors without invasive surgery for some time. However, the therapeutic ultrasound used in clinics today indiscriminately damages cancer and healthy cells alike. [33] Scientists in the UK have shown for the first time that focused ultrasound from outside the body can improve the delivery of cancer drugs to tumors in humans. [32] The discovery could help us better understand aging and eventually could lead to new treatments for cancer. [31]
Category: Physics of Biology

[141] viXra:2001.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 04:15:21

Salt Nanoparticles Toxic to Cancer Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A new study at the University of Georgia has found a way to attack cancer cells that is potentially less harmful to the patient. [34] Doctors have used focused ultrasound to destroy tumors without invasive surgery for some time. However, the therapeutic ultrasound used in clinics today indiscriminately damages cancer and healthy cells alike. [33] Scientists in the UK have shown for the first time that focused ultrasound from outside the body can improve the delivery of cancer drugs to tumors in humans. [32] The discovery could help us better understand aging and eventually could lead to new treatments for cancer. [31] A research team at the University of Delaware, led by Emily Day, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering, is laying the groundwork for a method to inhibit cancer-promoting genes in cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. [30] Researchers have moved closer to the real-time verification of hadron therapy, demonstrating the in vivo accuracy of simulations that predict particle range in the patient. [29] A biomimetic nanosystem can deliver therapeutic proteins to selectively target cancerous tumors, according to a team of Penn State researchers. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[140] viXra:2001.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 04:52:48

Assuming C

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. Submitted to the journal Functiones & Approximatio Commentari Mathematici

In this paper, assuming that $c0$, for $a,b,c$ positive integers relatively prime with $c=a+b$, we have $c< K(\epsilon).rad(abc)^{1+\epsilon}$. Some numerical examples are given.
Category: Number Theory

[139] viXra:2001.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 04:58:51

Naturally Numbers Are Three Plus One Dimensional Final

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 40 Pages.

Riemann hypothesis stands proved in three different ways.To prove Riemann hypothesis from the functional equation concept of Delta function is introduced similar to Gamma and Pi function. Other two proofs are derived using Eulers formula and elementary algebra. Analytically continuing gamma and zeta function to an extended domain, poles and zeros of zeta values are redefined. Hodge conjecture, BSD conjecture are also proved using zeta values. Other prime conjectures like Goldbach conjecture, Twin prime conjecture etc.. are also proved in the light of new understanding of primes. Numbers are proved to be multidimensional as worked out by Hamilton. Logarithm of negative and complex numbers are redefined using extended number system. Factorial of negative and complex numbers are redefined using values of Delta function.
Category: Number Theory

[138] viXra:2001.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 05:06:22

Number Theory and Cosmology and Particle Physics

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 47 Pages.

Riemann hypothesis stands proved in three different ways.To prove Riemann hypothesis from the functional equation concept of Delta function is introduced similar to Gamma and Pi function. Other two proofs are derived using Eulers formula and elementary algebra. Analytically continuing gamma and zeta function to an extended domain, poles and zeros of zeta values are redefined. Hodge conjecture, BSD conjecture are also proved using zeta values. Other prime conjectures like Goldbach conjecture, Twin prime conjecture etc.. are also proved in the light of new understanding of primes. Numbers are proved to be multidimensional as worked out by Hamilton. Logarithm of negative and complex numbers are redefined using extended number system. Factorial of negative and complex numbers are redefined using values of Delta function.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[137] viXra:2001.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 05:10:59

Amorphous Carbon Monolayer Evidence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Thanks to the team's successful development and findings, the reproducible approach opens the door for research into the growth of other amorphous two-dimensional materials. [30] Carbon nanotubes-cylindrical formations of carbon atoms with incredible strength and electrical conductivity-hold great promise for creating new micron-scale low-power electronic devices. [29] An electrically conductive hydrogel that takes stretchability, self-healing and strain sensitivity to new limits has been developed at KAUST. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[136] viXra:2001.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 05:41:53

Nanoparticles Therapy to Brain Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Johns Hopkins researchers report that a type of biodegradable, lab-engineered nanoparticle they fashioned can successfully deliver a "suicide gene" to pediatric brain tumor cells implanted in the brains of mice. [35] A new study at the University of Georgia has found a way to attack cancer cells that is potentially less harmful to the patient. [34] Doctors have used focused ultrasound to destroy tumors without invasive surgery for some time. However, the therapeutic ultrasound used in clinics today indiscriminately damages cancer and healthy cells alike. [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[135] viXra:2001.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 05:52:45

On Various Ramanujan’s Equations of Manuscript Book 2. New Possible Mathematical Connections with Some Parameters of Particle Physics and Black Holes Physics. IV

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 59 Pages.

In this research thesis, we continue to analyze and deepen further Ramanujan’s equations of Manuscript Book 2 and described new possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and Black Holes Physics.
Category: Number Theory

[134] viXra:2001.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 06:02:08

Nano Antennas Data Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 95 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Würzburg have converted electrical signals into photons and radiated them in specific directions using a low-footprint optical antenna that is only 800 nanometers in size. [58] Prospective digital data storage devices predominantly rely on novel fundamental magnetic phenomena. [57] Scientists at Linköping University have shown how a quantum computer really works and have managed to simulate quantum computer properties in a classical computer. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[133] viXra:2001.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 07:19:48

Physics is Main Science of Nature \\\***/// ФИЗИКА – ГЛАВНАЯ НАУКА О ПРИРОДЕ

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 34 Pages. Only in Russian (please learn Russian) Physics – Main Science of Nature © Robert Yusupov JAN 09 2020

Наблюдая, повседневно общаясь, практически осваивая, постоянно контактируя и взаимодействуя с природой, изучая, познавая и осмысливая природу, мы приходим к выводу, что природа материальна и диалектична. Материальность природы означает, что, в конце концов, все тела (предметы, объекты, вещи) в природе состоят из дискретных, минимальных материальных частиц. Диалектичность природы означает, что все материальные тела природы находятся в постоянном движении (перемещении, изменении, эволюции, развитии). Материальность и диалектичность природы это установленные факты и это принципы природы. Природа в своей основе является диалектико-материалистической. Вот из этого и надо исходить при дальнейшем познании природы. Предложенная в настоящей статье модель мироздания, природы является диалектико-материалистической моделью. Но именно такова природа в реальности./////*****\\\\\ Observing, daily communicating, practically mastering, constantly contacting and interacting with nature, studying, cognizing and comprehending nature, we come to the conclusion that nature is material and dialectical. The materiality of nature means that, in the end, all bodies (objects, objects, things) in nature consist of discrete, minimal material particles. The dialectic of nature means that all material bodies of nature are in constant motion (movement, change, evolution, development). The materiality and dialectic of nature are established facts and these are the principles of nature. Nature at its core is dialectical materialistic. It is from this that we must proceed with a further knowledge of nature. The model of the universe, nature proposed in this article is a dialectical materialistic model. But that is exactly nature in reality. Keywods: Nature, Universe, dialectic materialism, matter, time, quantum of matter, quantum of time, dialectics, science, physics, cosmology, physical quantity
Category: Classical Physics

[132] viXra:2001.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 08:00:06

Quantum Computer with up to 61 Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory significantly reduced this gap by using data compression techniques to fit a 61-qubit simulation of Grover's quantum search algorithm on a large supercomputer with 0.4 percent error. [57] Quantum computation represents a fundamental shift that is now under way. What is most exciting is not what we can do with with a quantum computer today, but the undiscovered truths it will reveal tomorrow. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51]
Category: Quantum Physics

[131] viXra:2001.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 08:19:05

LIGO-Virgo Neutron-Star Merger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Gravitational waves from the merger of two neutron stars were observed by the LIGO Livingston detector on 25 April 2019-according to an international team of astrophysicists in the LIGO and Virgo collaborations. [26] Just a year ago, the National Science Foundation-funded Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, was picking up whispers of gravitational waves every month or so. Now, a new addition to the system is enabling the instruments to detect these ripples in space-time nearly every week. Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[130] viXra:2001.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 09:56:02

Refutation of Two Types of Ultrafilter Extensions of Binary Relations

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate the two initial formulas of (0)→(iii). It is not tautologous and hence at the outset refutes the conjecture of two types of ultrafilter extensions of binary relation. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[129] viXra:2001.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 09:18:16

Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can combine topology and magnetism to produce precisely quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field (an environment carefully screened from magnetic fields). [12] Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[128] viXra:2001.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 10:14:30

Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team headed by Professor Frank Stienkemeier at Freiburg's Institute of Physics and Dr. Marcel Mudrich, professor at the University of Aarhus in Denmark, has observed the ultrafast reaction of nanodroplets of helium after excitation with extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) using a free-electron laser in real time. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[127] viXra:2001.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 10:54:50

Earthquakes in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Under constant stress, certain soft materials reorganize themselves in a manner very similar to how the Earth's crust is restructured during earthquakes, a new study by researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Raman Research Institute (RRI) and ETH Zurich has found. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[126] viXra:2001.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 11:13:49

Neutrons Break the Ice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Exploring the physics behind the odd microstructure of water-ice may help us learn more about other seemingly unrelated advanced materials and their quantum states. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[125] viXra:2001.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 11:54:06

Relationship Between Special Theory of Relativity and Information Loss During Transition Between Inertial Reference Systems

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 4 Pages.

The theory of emergent space-time-matter (ESTM theory) predicts the loss of information during transitions between inertial reference systems. This article discusses the relationship between loss of information during the transition between inertial reference systems and Lorentz transformations. It is shown that in the limiting case, when the speed changes are small enough and the information loss is also small, the Lorentz transforms are derived directly from the rotation in 4-dimensional space without time and dynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[124] viXra:2001.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-09 09:46:46

Refutation of Pomset and Lambek Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored. Reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate pomset and Lambek logic as based on intuitionistic logic. No truth tables exist for connectives of Lambek or pomset logic, hence refuting both. They are non bivalent, and hence probabilistic vector spaces. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[123] viXra:2001.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 16:37:16

Ogólna Postać Transformacji Czasu

Authors: Patryk Woźniak
Comments: 5 pages in Polish language.

W niniejszej pracy podważa się opinię iż transformacja czasowa Galileusza jest podstawową transformacją dla układów w ruchu (oraz w spoczynku).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[122] viXra:2001.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 19:43:35

Fermat_port_8_de_jan_2020

Authors: OttoAltorfer
Comments: 7 Pages.

A introdução de uma função de números inédita facilitou a solução do último Teorema de Fermat.
Category: Number Theory

[121] viXra:2001.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 00:48:43

The Maxwell-Cassano Equations of an Electromagnetic-nuclear Field Yields the Fermion Masses

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Maxwell-Cassano equations yield a fermion architecture table equivalent to that of the fermion Standard Model. Given a pair of constants defined by an affine transformation relating them to two rational fractions, a set of two equations determine all fermion masses.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[120] viXra:2001.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 01:41:26

The Model of Black Hole and White Hole Based on Virtual Space-Time Physics Theory

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 19 Pages. 6 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

In my previous papers, I explored the idea that the Galactic Center may be a white hole. through specific calculations, it is shown that the assumption that the Galactic Center is a huge white hole can explain various phenomena in the Milky Way more effectively than the assumption of a huge black hole. However, the white hole theory in general relativity requires the assumption of time inversion, which contradicts the known laws of physics, such as the second law of thermodynamics. For this reason, this paper uses virtual space-time physics theory to analyze the structure of white and black holes. Using the concept of energy field, new models of white and black holes have been constructed. Of course, the assumption of huge white holes and existence of millions of solar-mass black holes in the center of the Milky Way is not contradictory. A large amount of mass ejected from white holes is still likely to form small and medium-sized black holes of a certain size.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[119] viXra:2001.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 02:30:23

Atomic Electron Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers at SAGA Light Source, the University of Toyama, Hiroshima University and the Institute for Molecular Science have demonstrated a method to control the shape and orientation of an electron cloud in an atom by tuning the attosecond spacing in a double pulse of synchrotron radiation. [39] Experiments with ultra-cold atoms at the TU Wien have shown surprising results: coupled atom clouds synchronize within milliseconds. This effect cannot be explained by standard theories. [38] Scientists forged quantum connections between separate regions within clouds of ultracold atoms, demonstrating entanglement between thousands of particles in two different locations. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[118] viXra:2001.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 03:15:46

Probability of Electron Capture

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A large international team of researchers has empirically measured the probability of electron capture by the neon-20 isotope (20 Ne) for the first time. [40] Researchers at SAGA Light Source, the University of Toyama, Hiroshima University and the Institute for Molecular Science have demonstrated a method to control the shape and orientation of an electron cloud in an atom by tuning the attosecond spacing in a double pulse of synchrotron radiation. [39] Experiments with ultra-cold atoms at the TU Wien have shown surprising results: coupled atom clouds synchronize within milliseconds. This effect cannot be explained by standard theories. [38] Scientists forged quantum connections between separate regions within clouds of ultracold atoms, demonstrating entanglement between thousands of particles in two different locations. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[117] viXra:2001.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 03:34:15

Clean Dark Matter Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A research team at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology has built an air purifier that has reduced the radon in the air to about 50 times lower than typical outdoor air. The team is helping to ensure success for one of the world's most sensitive dark matter experiments-LZ. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[116] viXra:2001.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-08 06:57:36

Pappus Chain and Division by Zero

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 4 Pages.

We consider a Pappus chain using division by zero.
Category: Geometry

[115] viXra:2001.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 06:57:12

Derivation of the Correct Dynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity and Explanation of the Right Angle Lever Paradox

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 10 Pages. Einstein's STR dynamics are contradictory

This paper presents the derivation of correct dynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity for all spatial dimensions. The derived dynamics has no flaws, which have other dynamics, also Einstein’s dynamics, i.e. the lack of parallelism of the force vector with the acceleration vector, the right angle lever paradox is unsolvable and the incompatibility of energy conservation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[114] viXra:2001.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 08:22:43

On Various Ramanujan’s Equations of Manuscript Book 1 and Some Formulas Concerning the Eisenstein Series: New Possible Mathematical Connections with Some Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology. III

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 116 Pages.

In this research thesis, we continue to analyze and deepen further Ramanujan’s equations of Manuscript Book 1 and some formulas concerning the Eisenstein series and describe new possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[113] viXra:2001.0120 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-08 16:40:10

Addendum to Vixra 2001.0061

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

We have previously shown that 3-dimensional space equipped with minimal fractality provides a qualitative explanation for both rotation curves of disk galaxies and cosmological expansion. This brief Addendum brings up an additional argument in support of our findings.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[112] viXra:2001.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 08:36:17

Neural Network as Anchor Point

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The neural network subsequently identified the relevant parameters as the ones required to calculate the position of Mars on the basis of the heliocentric worldview. [29] A team of researchers from the University of Münster, the University of Oxford and the University of Exeter has built an all-optical neural network on a single chip. [28] Physicists from Petrozavodsk State University have proposed a new method for oscillatory neural network to recognize simple images. Such networks with an adjustable synchronous state of individual neurons have, presumably, dynamics similar to neurons in the living brain. [27]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[111] viXra:2001.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 08:41:08

Moving Domain Walls in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have shown that the motion of domain walls can be detected by monitoring voltage generated in superconducting devices. [38] Northeastern researchers have used a powerful computer model to probe a puzzling class of copper-based materials that can be turned into superconductors. [37] A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:2001.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 10:56:57

On Some Formulas of Manuscript Book 1 of Srinivasa Ramanujan: New Possible Mathematical Connections with Various Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology Part II.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 87 Pages. UPDATED VERSION

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further formulas of Manuscript Book 1 of Srinivasa Ramanujan and described new possible mathematical connections with various parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology (Cosmological Constant, some parameters of Dark Energy)
Category: Number Theory

[109] viXra:2001.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 11:41:39

Ultrasound Damages Cancer Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Doctors have used focused ultrasound to destroy tumors without invasive surgery for some time. However, the therapeutic ultrasound used in clinics today indiscriminately damages cancer and healthy cells alike. [33] Scientists in the UK have shown for the first time that focused ultrasound from outside the body can improve the delivery of cancer drugs to tumors in humans. [32] The discovery could help us better understand aging and eventually could lead to new treatments for cancer. [31]
Category: Physics of Biology

[108] viXra:2001.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 12:44:23

Relativistic Effects for Laser Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A team of researchers at Osaka University has investigated a new method for generating nuclear fusion power, showing that the relativistic effect of ultra-intense laser light improves upon current "fast ignition" methods in laser-fusion research to heat the fuel long enough to generate electrical power. [16] Research from The University of Queensland aimed at controlling light in scattering materials, such as fog or biological tissues, will benefit future biomedical imaging and telecommunications. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[107] viXra:2001.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 12:56:46

Collatz Conjecture a Proof

Authors: Richard L. Hudson
Comments: 7 Pages.

Originated by Lothar Collatz in 1937 [1], the conjecture states: given the recursive function, y=3x+1 if x is odd, or y=x/2 if x is even, for any positive integer x, y will equal 1 after a finite number of steps. This analysis examines number form and uses a tree type graph to prove the process.
Category: Number Theory

[106] viXra:2001.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 12:58:59

Energy, Market, Ecology and the Challenge of Civilization-4

Authors: V. A. Kasimov.
Comments: 13 Pages. in Russian, in English

Principles of information processing for predicting thermodynamic parameters of the environment in the problems presented in[1], [2], [3].
Category: Physics of Biology

[105] viXra:2001.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 15:55:40

On the Significance of PLANCK’S Constant

Authors: Robert Spoljaric
Comments: 9 Pages.

Planck’s constant h has dimensions of energy (ergs) × time (seconds) called “actions.” Action is a four-dimensional constant and is the same size for all observers in special relativity, even if those observers disagree as to the size of the energy and time components of that action. The various guessed at formalisms of non-relativistic quantum mechanics introduce h arbitrarily, empirically. But being inconsistent with special relativity would seem to render that ad hoc introduction out of context. In this brief article we shall generalise the Planck-Einstein relation to reveal a new mass-free paradigm of Relativity, leaving little of the classical physics which preceded it. Furthermore, we historically avoid the misguided advent of non-relativistic quantum mechanics altogether, to finally reveal the true significance of h. The maths employed here has been used in [1] and [2].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[104] viXra:2001.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 16:56:13

Космические программы в жизни современного общества.

Authors: Киров
Comments: 1 Page. Russ lang

Показана роль космических программ в обществе
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[103] viXra:2001.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 16:59:23

Space Programs in the Life of Modern Society.

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 1 Page.

The role of space programs in society is shown
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[102] viXra:2001.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 21:12:28

Причины проведения опыта Майкельсона-Морли.

Authors: Киров
Comments: 1 Page.

Показана необоснованность проведения эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли
Category: Classical Physics

[101] viXra:2001.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 21:16:52

The Reasons for the Michelson-Morley Experiment.

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 1 Page.

The unfoundedness of the Michelson-Morley experiment is shown.
Category: Classical Physics

[100] viXra:2001.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 02:09:22

Partitioning Nearest Neighbours Algorithm for Regressions

Authors: Abhinav Mathur, Sunny Verma
Comments: 7 Pages.

Good generalized machine learning models should have high variability post learning 1. Tree-based approaches2 are very popular due to their inherent ability in being visually representable for decision consumption as well as robustness and reduced training times. However, tree-based approaches lack the ability to generate variations in regression problems. The maximum variation generated by any single tree-based model is limited to the maximum number of training observations considering each observation to be a terminal node itself. Such a condition is an overfit model. This paper discusses the use of a hybrid approach of using two intuitive and explainable algorithms, CART2 and k-NN3 regression to improve the generalizations and sometimes the runtime for regression-based problems. The paper proposes first, the use of using a shallow CART algorithm (Tree depth lesser than optimal depth post pruning). Following the initial CART, a KNN Regression is performed at the terminal node to which the observation for prediction generation belongs to. This leads to a better variation as well as more accurate prediction than by just the use of a CART or a KNN regressor as well as another level of depth over an OLS regression1.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[99] viXra:2001.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 02:24:25

The Script of “Human Three Major Pillar Type Cognitions” for the Tv/moive Show, Which is the Prelude of “The Tolerant and Completed Scientific Faith with Its《The Principle of Natural Laws》——Trinity Theory”

Authors: Yansha Yu-sandstrom
Comments: 70 Pages.

Human three major pillar type cognitions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Olj9kZKyEI The Tolerant and Completed Scientific Faith with its《The Principle of Natural Laws》 Be with Bible, The Theory of God Be with Quran, The Trinity of Allah Star-Moon Be with Sutra, The Trinity of Buddha Yab-Yum Be with The Book of Change and Tao Te Ching,The Trinity of Tao Yin-Yang Be with ….
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[98] viXra:2001.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-10 03:51:40

Protons and Neutrons: What Are They?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article offers an alternative explanation of nuclear processes based on a discussion of the first steps in solar nuclear fusion: hydrogen combining into helium. With alternative, we mean an explanation that does not involve the concept of a weak force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[97] viXra:2001.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 04:56:29

Integrals of Entire, Meromorphic and Subharmonic Functions on Small Sets of the Positive Semiaxis

Authors: Bulat N. Khabibullin
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

In this note, we announce the results on estimates of integrals of entire, meromorphic, and subharmonic functions on small subsets of the positive semiaxis. These results develop one classical theorem of R. Nevanlinna and the well-known lemmas on small arcs or intervals of A. Edrei, W.H.J. Fuchs, A.F. Grishin, M.L. Sodin and T.I. Malyutina.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[96] viXra:2001.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 05:38:57

Black Hole Pushing Speed Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released the first image of a black hole with observations of the massive, dark object at the center of Messier 87, or M87, last April. [25] Astronomers seeking to learn about the mechanisms that formed massive black holes in the early history of the Universe have gained important new clues with the discovery of 13 such black holes in dwarf galaxies less than a billion light-years from Earth. [24] Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[95] viXra:2001.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 06:04:24

Laser Creates Frequency Doubling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[94] viXra:2001.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 07:11:04

Cutting Through with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Research from The University of Queensland aimed at controlling light in scattering materials, such as fog or biological tissues, will benefit future biomedical imaging and telecommunications. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[93] viXra:2001.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 07:50:36

Indeterministic Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Classical physics is characterized by the precision of its equations describing the evolution of the world as determined by the initial conditions of the Big Bang—meaning there is no room for chance. [34] There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[92] viXra:2001.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 09:33:56

Graphene Surprises Again

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Physicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Institute for High Pressure Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences have used computer modeling to refine the melting curve of graphite that has been studied for over 100 years, with inconsistent findings. [49] Researchers at the University of Manchester have uncovered interesting phenomena when multiple two-dimensional materials are combined into van der Waals heterostructures (layered "sandwiches" of different materials). [48] "The junctions were reproducible over several devices and operated from 20 Kelvin up to room temperature. Our approach represents a simple but powerful strategy for the future integration of molecule-based functions into stable and controllable nanoelectronic devices." [47] The team has turned graphene oxide (GO) into a soft, moldable and kneadable play dough that can be shaped and reshaped into free-standing, three-dimensional structures. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[91] viXra:2001.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-08 02:22:57

Definitive Tentative of a Proof of the \textit{abc} Conjecture

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 11 Pages. Submitted to the journal Inventiones Matemathicae

In this paper, we consider the $abc$ conjecture. Firstly, we give anelementaryproof that $c<3rad^2(abc)$. Secondly, the proof of the $abc$ conjecture is given for $\epsilon \geq 1$, then for $\epsilon \in ]0,1[$. We choose the constant $K(\epsilon)$ as $K(\epsilon)=\frac{3}{e}.e^{ \left(\frac{1}{\epsilon^2} \right)}$ for $0<\epsilon <1$ and $K(\epsilon)=3$ for $\epsilon \geq 1$. Some numerical examples are presented.
Category: Number Theory

[90] viXra:2001.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 15:37:50

The Invention of Television - Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 6 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of the environment enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. The materials in the human environment include photosensitive materials and electrons which played an important role in the invention of television. The invention of television revealed a series of discoveries with the simplest discoveries being made first and more complex discoveries being made later. Some discoveries could not be made without certain prior discoveries having been made. Scientific discoveries concerning photosensitive materials and the control of electrons by electromagnets, leading to the invention of the cathode ray tube were necessary before the invention of television. It is only at a particular point in our history, that we were able to put the information together and invent television. Before that point it was not possible to invent television. The order in which these discoveries were made was inevitable and given how much humans like entertainment and news, it was also inevitable, that sooner or later in some society open to new ideas and technology, that television would be used to meet the human need for entertainment and news. The order of discovery was inevitable and is an example of how social and cultural history has to follow a particular course determined by the structure of the world around us.
Category: Social Science

[89] viXra:2001.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 16:13:55

On a Connected $T_{1/2}$ Alexandroff Topology and $^*g\hat{\alpha}$-Closed Sets in Digital Plane

Authors: S. Pious Missier, K. M. Arifmohammed, S. Jafari, M. Ganster, A. Robert
Comments: 24 Pages.

The Khalimsky topology plays a significant role in the digital image processing. In this paper we define a topology $\kappa_1$ on the set of integers generated by the triplets of the form $\{2n, 2n+1, 2n+3\}$. We show that in this space $(\mathbb{Z}, \kappa_1)$, every point has a smallest neighborhood and hence this is an Alexandroff space. This topology is homeomorphic to Khalimskt topology. We prove, among others, that this space is connected and $T_{3/4}$. Moreover, we introduce the concept of $^*g\hat{\alpha}$-closed sets in a topological space and characterize it using $^*g\alpha o$-kernel and closure. We investigate the properties of $^*g\hat{\alpha}$-closed sets in digital plane. The family of all $^*g\hat{\alpha}$-open sets of $(\mathbb{Z}^2, \kappa^2)$, forms an alternative topology of $\mathbb{Z}^2$. We prove that this plane $(\mathbb{Z}^2, ^*g\hat{\alpha}O)$ is $T_{1/2}$. It is well known that the digital plane $(\mathbb{Z}^2, \kappa^2)$ is not $T_{1/2}$, even if $(\mathbb{Z}, \kappa)$ is $T_{1/2}$.
Category: Topology

[88] viXra:2001.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 16:13:42

Refutation of Fan Theorem Via Detachable Subset Defu and Pointwise Continuous Function Deco

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate definitions for the detachable subset DEFU and the pointwise continuous function DECO. While obvious tautologies are manipulated into a final tautology, the crucial definition of the subset as not tautologous, although substituted as a dual, casts the logic as suspicious and refutes the fan theorem. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[87] viXra:2001.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 16:24:27

Topologies on $Z^{n}$ that Are not Homeomorphic to the N-Dimensional Khalimsky Topological Space

Authors: Sang-Eon Han, Saeid Jafari, Jeong Min Kang
Comments: 12 Pages.

The present paper deals with two types of topologies on the set of integers, Z: a quasi-discrete topology and a topology satisfying the T½ -separation axiom. Furthermore, for each $n \in N$, we develop countably many topologies on Zn which are not homeomorphic to the typical n-dimensional Khalimsky topological space. Based on these different types of new topological structures on $Z^{n}$, many new mathematical approaches can be done in the fields of pure and applied sciences, such as fixed point theory, rough set theory, and so on.
Category: Topology

[86] viXra:2001.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 17:52:07

Division by Zero Calculus for Differentiable Functions L'Hôpital's Theorem Versions

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 10 Pages. Based on the preprint survey paper, we will give a generalization of the division by zero calculus to differentiable functions and its basic properties. Typically, we can obtain l'Hôpital's theorem versions and some deep properties on the division by zero

We will give a generalization of the division by zero calculus to differentiable functions and its basic properties. Typically, we can obtain l'Hôpital's theorem versions and some deep properties on the division by zero. Division by zero, division by zero calculus, differentiable, analysis, Laurent expansion, l'Hôpital's theorem, $1/0=0/0=z/0=\tan(\pi/2) =\log 0 =0, (z^n)/n = \log z$ for $n=0$, $e^{(1/z)} = 1$ for $z=0$. 
Category: Functions and Analysis

[85] viXra:2001.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 18:47:57

List of Largest Stars

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 32 Pages.

This is a list of largest stars with sizes depicted being taken from conclusions (some inconclusive) from various science journals. Fictional aliases are also included. All references are taken from the references section of Wikipedia's list of largest stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[84] viXra:2001.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 18:55:00

The Evolution and Members of the Solar System

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 48 Pages.

This is a conclusive and speculative essay on the members and subsequent formation of the Solar System. All references are included as hyperlinks to the test. We have combined various theories and invented our own to come up with some unique conclusions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[83] viXra:2001.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 19:01:53

Did we steal the Moon from Venus?

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 2 Pages.

We explore the Giant Impact Hypothesis and the potential possibility that the Earth's Moon is a captured, former satellite of Venus, a planet similar to Earth in many traits. While the strikingly similar isotope ratios between the Earth and Moon may rule out this possibility, the geological similarities between the Earth and Venus do not.
Category: Astrophysics

[82] viXra:2001.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 19:12:40

The Scale of the Universe in Perspective

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 36 Pages. All references are included as hyperlinks in the relevant text.

Many people often look up at the skies and do not understand that there is an entire universe above their eyes. The universe contains many objects, most of which are very large and massive for a human to comprehend. Even the vastness of the universe was not known The difference in scale between an elementary particle and the observable universe is around 10^40. Even brown dwarfs are many millions of times larger than a human. But the universe's exact nature is still unknown. Is it infinite? Or does it bend in a way that the nebulae and galaxies that seem billions of light years away are in fact very near to our own?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:2001.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 19:19:34

How the Stars Work: Stellar Classification and Stellar Evolution

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 54 Pages.

Stars are not living beings, however, they do live and die. Stars also have many classes, usually based on their mass and temperature. The classes used to divide stars into suitable classes have undergone a chaotic history, with some deemed unnecessary. Even many stars do not fit in them. Metallicity also place a large role in the properties of stars. Generally, stars are interesting mobs, that come in many types, masses, and even in phantoms.
Category: Astrophysics

[80] viXra:2001.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 20:14:33

Quantum Gravitation in the Uniform Theory

Authors: Vladimir Pastushenko
Comments: 6 Pages.

Quantum gravitation follows from properties of dynamical space, as matters. Such quantum гравитмассовые fields, look like quasipotential quantum fields. They contain mass fields of a source of gravitation and inductive mass fields of physical vacuum, with their rotation round a gravitation source.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] viXra:2001.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-08 13:30:25

Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove the Goldbach conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[78] viXra:2001.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 02:05:04

Black Holes Found in Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Astronomers seeking to learn about the mechanisms that formed massive black holes in the early history of the Universe have gained important new clues with the discovery of 13 such black holes in dwarf galaxies less than a billion light-years from Earth. [24] Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[77] viXra:2001.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 03:00:10

The Illuminated Area of the Moon Exceeds Half Its Surface

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 7 Pages.

We show that the extent of the illuminated area of the Moon is greater than 50% of its surface; that is, a part of the lunar hemisphere opposite the Sun is illuminated, which occurs because the Sun is larger than the Moon.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[76] viXra:2001.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 05:03:07

Refutation of Cut Elimination and Normalization for Generalized Calculi

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the quantified rendition of “All As are Bs” as the final conjecture which is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture for quantifiers in and hence the premise for cut elimination and normalization of generalized single and multi-conclusion sequent and natural deduction calculi. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[75] viXra:2001.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 05:37:32

Two Textbook Exercises from 1977 Inadvertently Refute Set Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two theorems in exercises as not tautologous. This refutes set theory via published textbook to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[74] viXra:2001.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 07:41:46

Discovery of Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[73] viXra:2001.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 08:07:58

Cosmic Dark Ages

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[72] viXra:2001.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 08:32:42

Milky Way Flying Observatory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new panoramic image based on data captured by NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) shows the bustling center of our galaxy like it has never been seen before. [34] There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[71] viXra:2001.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 09:06:27

Passivation of Perovskite Photovoltaics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Materials scientists aim to enable surface-trap-mediated nonradiative charge recombination to engineer highly efficient metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics (solar cells). [20] Hybrid organic or inorganic halide perovskites are a unique class of solar cell materials that break some of the material design rules that have been in place for over 30 years. [19] Efficient near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes of perovskite have been produced in a laboratory at Linköping University. The external quantum efficiency is 21.6 percent, which is a record. The results have been published in Nature Photonics. [18] Very recently, an NTU team lead by Assoc. Prof. Wang Hong, demonstrated high light extraction efficiency of perovskite photonic crystals fabricated by delicate electron-beam lithography. [17] A quasiparticle is a disturbance or excitation (e.g. spin waves, bubbles, etc.) that behaves as a particle and could therefore be regarded as one. Long-range interactions between quasiparticles can give rise to a 'drag,' which affects the fundamental properties of many systems in condensed matter physics. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission-a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[70] viXra:2001.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 11:41:15

Thermoelectric Topological Semimetals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

A recent paper of J. S. Xiang et al. published in Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. has demonstrated a much larger transverse figure of merit in a topological semimetal in low magnetic fields, relative to its longitudinal counterpart. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[69] viXra:2001.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 13:08:32

Metal-Organic Frameworks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Due to the advantages such as large specific surface area, adjustable pore size and tunable functionality, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great application potential in the fields of gas adsorption and separation, catalysis, sensing and biomedicine. [39] A recent paper of J. S. Xiang et al. published in Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. has demonstrated a much larger transverse figure of merit in a topological semimetal in low magnetic fields, relative to its longitudinal counterpart. [38]
Category: Physics of Biology

[68] viXra:2001.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 13:34:12

Dopamine Biological Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In a study published Thursday in the journal Current Biology, Güler and his colleagues demonstrate that the pleasure center of the brain that produces the chemical dopamine, and the brain's separate biological clock that regulates daily physiological rhythms, are linked, and that high-calorie foods-which bring pleasure-disrupt normal feeding schedules, resulting in overconsumption. [40] Due to the advantages such as large specific surface area, adjustable pore size and tunable functionality, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great application potential in the fields of gas adsorption and separation, catalysis, sensing and biomedicine. [39] A recent paper of J. S. Xiang et al. published in Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. has demonstrated a much larger transverse figure of merit in a topological semimetal in low magnetic fields, relative to its longitudinal counterpart. [38] A new analysis of people's brain waves when surrounded by different magnetic fields suggests that people have a "sixth sense" for magnetism. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[67] viXra:2001.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 13:46:30

On Some Formulas of Manuscript Book 1 of Srinivasa Ramanujan: New Possible Mathematical Connections with Various Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 119 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further formulas of Manuscript Book 1 of Srinivasa Ramanujan and described new possible mathematical connections with various parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology (Cosmological Constant, some parameters of Dark Energy)
Category: Number Theory

[66] viXra:2001.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 16:24:18

Эквивалентность гравитационного и электрического полей. Закон электростатического притяжения.

Authors: Киров
Comments: 1 Page. Russ lang

Определена эквивалентность гравитационного и электростатических полей.
Category: Classical Physics

[65] viXra:2001.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 16:28:39

Equivalence of Gravitational and Electric Fields. the Law of Electrostatic Attraction

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 1 Page.

The equivalence of gravitational and electrostatic fields is determined.
Category: Classical Physics

[64] viXra:2001.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 17:30:59

Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove the twin prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[63] viXra:2001.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 00:46:10

A Problem in Set Theory

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 2 Pages.

An addendum to set theory.
Category: Algebra

[62] viXra:2001.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 04:15:36

Length Contraction Versus the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier
Comments: 7 Pages.

An Examination of the postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity via a thought experiment uses Michelson interferometer has been done. An inconsistency between the two postulates of the theory has been revealed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[61] viXra:2001.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 05:13:08

Magic: The Gathering in Common Lisp

Authors: Jeff Linahan
Comments: 8 Pages. originally written in 2015, code is available at https://github.com/jeffythedragonslayer/maglisp

Magic: The Gathering is the world's most popular trading card game. So far, attempts to program its 210-page rulebook in order to create an AI for the game have resulted in systems that are very complex, and still not able to compete with humans. I believe one of the main causes of this is the choice of programming language. Most implementations are done in languages which emphasize execution speed or portability rather than development speed or flexibility. Common Lisp was classically the lingua franca for AI research, and its following features mesh well with the challenges of programming Magic: a read-eval-print loop, macros, dynamic typing, scripting, multiple inheritance, and symbolic computation. In this project I present a proof of concept implementation consisting of a command line interface for two humans playing Magic with two hardcoded decks. I will discuss what I have learned from tackling the challenges of the project and how I would proceed if I had years to complete it.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[60] viXra:2001.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 05:59:48

From E.g. Haug Escape Velocity to the Golden Ratio at the Black Hole Improvements 2020s

Authors: Branko Zivlak
Comments: 7 Pages. Formulae 18, Table 1

Escape velocity from the E.G. Haug has been checked. It is compared with orbital velocity formula for an ideal circular path. The formulas are simplified so that we have only one variable that contains the Planck values and the mass of the central body. In the case of an arbitrary star, the values of these velocities are determined during its compression to the black hole. Unlike the standard and relativistic formulas that are approximations for a weak gravitational field, Haug's formula is exact for a weak and strong gravitational field. The relationships between formulas showed the importance of the golden ratio near the black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[59] viXra:2001.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 06:58:05

Our Universe and Many Tensions.

Authors: Durgadas Datta
Comments: 8 Pages. New physics for a new understanding.

Modern physics suffering from wrong interpretations.
Category: Classical Physics

[58] viXra:2001.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 07:58:42

Quantum Cryptography Through Some Algorithm for Quantum Computers

Authors: Koji Nagata, Do Ngoc Diep, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Volume 4, Issue 1, (2020) Page 7--13

We propose quantum cryptography based on an algorithm of determining a function. The security of our cryptography is based on the Ekert 1991 protocol, that is, we use an entangled state. Eve must destroy the entangled state. Consider a function. Alice knows all the mappings concerning the function. Bob knows none of them. His aim is of obtaining all of them without Eve's attack. In classical case, Bob needs some queries. In quantum case, Bob needs just a query. By measuring the single entangled state, which is sent by Alice, Bob can obtain all the mappings concerning the function, simultaneously. This is faster than classical cryptography.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:2001.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-08 13:05:44

Fractional Spacetime and the Emergence of the Dark Sector

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is well known that both Newtonian gravity and General Relativity can be built starting from the classical Poisson equation in 3-dimensional space. Here we speculate that, at least in principle, the concept of 3-dimensional space equipped with minimal fractality enables a qualitative explanation of both rotation curves of disk galaxies and cosmological expansion. Our approach bridges the gap between particle and gravitational interpretations of Dark Matter and suggests a unified picture of the Dark Sector. It offers a basis for explaining away Modified Newtonian Gravity (MOND) and its theoretical ramifications.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[56] viXra:2001.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 10:53:56

Insight into Serotonin Receptors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have discovered a way to detect the molecular mechanism by which 5HT3A, a serotonin receptor located at the neuron synapse, is activated. [37] A first-of-its-kind study on molecular interactions by biomedical engineers in the University of Minnesota's College of Science and Engineering will make it easier and more efficient for scientists to develop new medicines and other therapies for diseases such as cancer, HIV and autoimmune diseases. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[55] viXra:2001.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 11:09:23

Refutation of Residuated Modal Logic and Non-Distributive Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the equation for residuated modal logic which is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of residuated modal logic, recent results on the model theory of non-distributive logics, including their Shalqvist theory, a Goldblatt-Thomason theorem for the logics of normal lattice expansions, modal translation semantics for non-distributive logics, and indeed non-distributive logic itself. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[54] viXra:2001.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 11:52:12

On Some Ramanujan Formulas: New Possible Mathematical Connections with Various Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology Iv.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 105 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with various parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[53] viXra:2001.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 12:21:58

Analogy Inspired Biology

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

In this hypothesis paper, we identify a potential biological principle purely inspired by real life analogy. It is most likely that real examples in biology, disease, and pharmacology exist for this principle and have already been identified. The principle suggests how in an attempt to restore the level of a biological processes at one location or one instance, organisms/living systems may unintentionally end up dysregulating the process at another location or instance.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[52] viXra:2001.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 13:06:37

Letter Nº4 :On pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We give a formula involving Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[51] viXra:2001.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 13:08:05

Letter Nº5 :Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

We give some elementary integrals.
Category: General Mathematics

[50] viXra:2001.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 16:39:29

Marginal Likelihood Computation for Model Selection and Hypothesis Testing: an Extensive Review

Authors: F. Llorente, L. Martino, D. Delgado, J. Lopez-Santiago
Comments: 58 Pages.

This is an up-to-date introduction to, and overview of, marginal likelihood computation for model selection and hypothesis testing. Computing normalizing constants of probability models (or ratio of constants) is a fundamental issue in many applications in statistics, applied mathematics, signal processing and machine learning. This article provides a comprehensive study of the state-of-the-art of the topic. We highlight limitations, benets, connections and differences among the dierent techniques. Problems and possible solutions with the use of improper priors are also described. Some of the most relevant methodologies are compared through theoretical comparisons and numerical experiments.
Category: Statistics

[49] viXra:2001.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 07:47:37

The Atemporal Platonic World

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Added a comment (p. 5) on the invariant speed of light.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.
Category: Quantum Physics

[48] viXra:2001.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 21:53:02

The Relationship of Planck Constants and Wave Constants

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 5 pages

Originally proposed in 1899 by Max Planck, the Planck unit system simplifies equations in physics, yet the meaning of each constant in the system is not well understood. The Planck mass is far heavier than an electron or proton while the Planck length is orders of magnitude smaller than these same particles. What do these units mean? When using wave equations to describe energies and forces of particles, the Planck units have meaning when mapped to new wave constants.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[47] viXra:2001.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-06 21:20:47

The Theory of Motion of Objects in the Universe

Authors: Arun Kumar Halihal Shanmukachary
Comments: 5 Pages.

The motion of objects in the universe is governed by newton’s laws of motion that describes motion in terms of the state and cause of motion, while also governed by Einstein’s special theory of relativity for objects moving at high velocity. This paper will explain the importance of objects themselves and the motion that exists between the objects in the universe based on the fundamental nature of mutual existence of objects. It is critical to understand the evolution of motion between objects and then the nature of motion and its causes. This paper will be first of series of papers, that will open up for the understanding of objects, their behavior in terms of motion and the fundamental nature of universe that is governed by these behaviors of objects.
Category: Classical Physics

[46] viXra:2001.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 22:56:24

Restricted Proof - Upper Bound of the Sum Over All 2^(-|A|), where A is an Edge Cover of a given Graph is in P

Authors: Rikayan Chaki
Comments: Pages.

We consider the sum of all 2^(-|A|), where A is an edge cover of a graph G=(V, E), restricted to cases where |E| < 2|V| - 2. We show that this expression, under the given assumptions, is in P. This means that it is in O(Poly(G)) = O(Poly(V, E))
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] viXra:2001.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 00:29:51

The Transformation of LIGHT into MATTER

Authors: J W Vegt
Comments: 51 Pages.

Within the scope of this article, LIGHT has been considered as any arbitrary Electromagnetic Radiation within a very wide frequency range, because during the transformation from Visible Light into the Gravitational Electromagnetic Confinement, the frequency changes in a very wide range. This frequency transformation is possible because of the combined Lorentz / Doppler-Effect transformation during the collapse (contraction) of the radiation when the Gravitational Electromagnetic Confinement has been formed (Implosion of Visible Light). Within the scope of this article MATTER is considered to be any kind of 3-dimensional confined (Electromagnetic) energy. The inner structure of a photon is based on a 3dimensional anisotropic equilibrium within the electromagnetic pulses in which an equilibrium does exist for the Electric and the Magnetic Fields separately generated by the pulses. A photon cannot be considered as a particle. Because particles are 3-dimensional confinements. Photons are anisotropic (in 1st and 2nd dimension a particle and in the 3rd dimension a wave) confinements of electromagnetic pulses, generated during the energy transitions within the atoms. Photons are 2-dimensional confinements of electromagnetic energy and demonstrate the property of inertia (electromagnetic mass) in the 2 directions of confinement. In the 3rd direction, the direction of propagation, photons can only be considered as an electromagnetic wave and for that reason do not demonstrate the property of inertia. Electromagnetic waves cannot be accelerated or decelerated because the speed of light is a universal constant. For that reason, photons interact with a gravitational field in an anisotropic way. Due to a gravitational field, photons can be accelerated or decelerated in the directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation and follow a curved path. But a gravitational field in the direction of propagation will have no impact on the speed of the photons, which will remain the unchanged universal constant, the speed of light. Photonics is the physical science of light based on the concept of “photons” introduced by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century. Einstein introduced this concept in the “particle-wave duality” discussion with Niels Bohr to demonstrate that even light has particle properties (mass and momentum) and wave properties (frequency). That concept became a metaphor and from that time on a beam of light has been generally considered as a beam of particles (photons). Which is a wrong understanding. Light particles do not exist. Photons are nothing else but electromagnetic complex wave configurations and light particles are not like “particles” but separated electromagnetic wave packages, 2-dimensionally confined in the directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation and in a perfect equilibrium with the radiation pressure and the inertia of electromagnetic energy in the forward direction, controlling the speed of light. This new theory will explain how electromagnetic wave packages demonstrate inertia, mass and momentum and which forces keep the wave packages together in a way that they can be measured like particles with their own specific mass and momentum. All we know about light, and in generally about any electromagnetic field configuration, has been 2 based only on two fundamental theories. James Clerk Maxwell introduced in 1865 the “Theory of Electrodynamics” with the publication: “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” and Albert Einstein introduced in 1905 the “Theory of Special Relativity” with the publication: “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and in 1913 the “Theory of General Relativity” with the publication ”Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation”. However, both theories are not capable to explain the property of electromagnetic mass and in specific the anisotropy of the phenomenon of electromagnetic mass presented e.g. in a LASER beam. To understand what electromagnetic inertia and the corresponding electromagnetic mass is and how the anisotropy of electromagnetic mass can be explained and how it has to be defined, a New Theory about Light has to be developed. A part of this “New Theory about Light”, based on Newton’s well- known Equation in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[44] viXra:2001.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 03:11:45

Elusive Majorana Quasiparticle Still a Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

"When the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana predicted the possibility of a new fundamental particle which is its own antiparticle, little could he have envisioned the long-lasting implications of his imaginative idea," said Nitin Samarth, Downsbrough Department Head and professor of physics at Penn State. [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:2001.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 03:48:24

Superconducting Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Northeastern researchers have used a powerful computer model to probe a puzzling class of copper-based materials that can be turned into superconductors. [37] A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:2001.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 04:07:27

Infrared Spectroscopy of Biological Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Scientists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics have developed a unique laser technology for the analysis of the molecular composition of biological samples. [35] A group of scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences (ICG SB RAS) and the TSU Biological Institute has established a path through which nanoparticles of viruses and organic and inorganic substances from the environment enter the brain. [34] A new analysis of people’s brain waves when surrounded by different magnetic fields suggests that people have a “sixth sense” for magnetism. [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[41] viXra:2001.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 05:16:51

Venus has Active Volcanoes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

New research led by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and published today in Science Advances shows that lava flows on Venus may be only a few years old, suggesting that Venus could be volcanically active today—making it the only planet in our solar system, other than Earth, with recent eruptions. [36] A team of astronomers at the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) in Pune, India have discovered a mysterious ring of hydrogen gas around a distant galaxy, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:2001.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 06:34:03

Molecular Interactions of Medicines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A first-of-its-kind study on molecular interactions by biomedical engineers in the University of Minnesota's College of Science and Engineering will make it easier and more efficient for scientists to develop new medicines and other therapies for diseases such as cancer, HIV and autoimmune diseases. [36] Scientists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics have developed a unique laser technology for the analysis of the molecular composition of biological samples. [35] A group of scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences (ICG SB RAS) and the TSU Biological Institute has established a path through which nanoparticles of viruses and organic and inorganic substances from the environment enter the brain. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[39] viXra:2001.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 08:09:21

Refutation of Parallel Stratified Defeasible Reasoning

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the first part of the Tweety example and three combined parallel equations as not tautologous. This refutes defeasible theory by example and parallel stratified defeasible reasoning. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[38] viXra:2001.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 09:21:59

LeGuess – Predicting or Guessing the Next Scene Using Image Sequences for Accelerating Autonomous Capabilities.

Authors: Ranjan Akarsh
Comments: 9 Pages. Kindly reach out to me for any queries. I'd be happy comply.

This paper depicts a network called LeGuess (LeG) which, using computer vision, is able to precisely predict the future scenes given sequence of images. The network is able to automatically learn the features and representations of the objects present in the sequence of images fed as input. Furthermore, this network learns the movements of the objects and predicts very well. The network is mainly designed for the domain of Autonomous Vehicles, which contains plenty of applications alone. Taking this in note, LeG can be applied to predict the steering angles, predicting the future positions of cars, trucks, cyclists, etc., ready a generative model to generate images along with steering angles, which could be used to train vehicles to drive, as well as generate images of road with/without lane to train segmentation for better autonomous driving. The network is designed to make predictions (local) of up to given number of time-steps ahead.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[37] viXra:2001.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 10:56:02

A Study on the Application of New Regeneration Energies to Buildings Associated with Smart Grids

Authors: Gum Chol Ri, Un Chol Ri ,Yong Hwan Kim, Chol Hak Pak
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presented a problem to establish the energy system for the building by using renewable energy reasonably. In this paper, based on the consideration of the smart grid, scientific and technical problems were dealt with in applying power generated by using renewable energy to buildings in connection with the smart grid. Besides, a new structural system was proposed for the application of the additional renewable energy building in connection with the smart grid
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[36] viXra:2001.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 13:01:07

Refutation of the Consequence Operator and General Logic System

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 4 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Abstract: We evaluate six axioms and four combinations for the infinite and finite consequence / closure operator as not tautologous. We note in passing that no truth table for those operator is given as such. By extension, general logics, ultralogics, and probability models based thereon are also refuted. This further implies that non standard analysis is suspicious. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[35] viXra:2001.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 14:40:30

Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity: Time Series Forecasting and Deep Learning

Authors: Giordano Colò
Comments: 32 Pages.

Finding anomalies when dealing with a great amount of data creates issues related to the heterogeneity of different values and to the difficulty of modelling trend data during time. In this paper we combine the classical methods of time series analysis with deep learning techniques, with the aim to improve the forecast when facing time series with long-term dependencies. Starting with forecasting methods and comparing the expected values with the observed ones, we will find anomalies in time series. We apply this model to a bank cybersecurity case to find anomalous behavior related to branches applications usage.
Category: Statistics

[34] viXra:2001.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 23:38:03

Approximation-Degree-Based Interpolation: A New Interpolation Method

Authors: Shiyou Lian
Comments: 26 Pages.

This paper introduces the measure of approximate-degree and the concept of approximate-degree function between numerical values, thus developing a new interpolation method —— approximation-degree-based interpolation, i.e., AD interpolation. One-dimensional AD interpolation is done directly by using correlative interpolation formulas; n(n>1)-dimensional AD interpolation is firstly separated into n parallel one-dimensional AD interpolation computations to do respectively, and then got results are synthesized by Sum-Times-Difference formula into a value as the result value of the n-dimensional interpolation. If the parallel processing is used, the efficiency of n-dimensional AD interpolation is almost the same as that of the one-dimensional AD interpolation. Thus it starts a feasible and convenient approach and provides an effective method for high-dimensional interpolations. Furthermore, if AD interpolation is introduced into machine learning, a new instance-based learning method is expected to be realized.
Category: General Mathematics

[33] viXra:2001.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 00:59:30

On G/N ≈ (G/K)/(N/K)

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[32] viXra:2001.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 01:08:58

A Chain of Circles Touching a Circle and Its Tangent and Division by Zero

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 3 Pages.

We consider a chain of circles by division by zero.
Category: Geometry

[31] viXra:2001.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 01:10:06

Invention of the Telephone

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 5 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of the environment enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. Humans have a need to communicate and the invention of the telephone enabled them to communicate in a more efficient manner. It is clear that the telephone could only be invented due to the existence of certain materials in the environment such as carbon granules, electrons, and conducting and insulating materials. If these materials did not exist, then the telephone could not have been invented. It is equally clear the telephone could only have been invented, when it was invented, as before that time humans did not know enough about the materials used in the invention of the telephone, to allow them to invent the telephone. Prior discoveries concerning these materials were necessary before the telephone could be invented. The social and cultural consequences of the invention of the telephone could obviously only take place after the invention of the telephone.
Category: Social Science

[30] viXra:2001.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 02:56:59

From Astronomy to the Nano-Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at Columbia University and University of California, San Diego, have introduced a novel "multi-messenger" approach to quantum physics that signifies a technological leap in how scientists can explore quantum materials. [39] This inherent flexibility should enable many interesting applications in, for instance, computation and health care. [38] New research from Washington University in St. Louis and Argonne National Laboratory coaxes electrons down the track that they typically don't travel-advancing understanding of the earliest light-driven events of photosynthesis. [37] UK researchers have developed world-leading Compound Semiconductor (CS) technology that can drive future high-speed data communications. [36] "Regarding new perspectives, this could lead to similar fantastic developments as in the field of magnetism, such as electronic coherence in quantum computing," says Schultze hopefully, who now leads a working group focusing on attosecond physics A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:2001.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 03:32:06

Performance Benchmark for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a quantum chemistry simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of quantum devices and guide the development of applications for future quantum computers. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:2001.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 04:40:04

Particle Accelerator Fits on a Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now, for the first time, scientists at Stanford and SLAC have created a silicon chip that can accelerate electrons-albeit at a fraction of the velocity of that massive instrument-using an infrared laser to deliver, in less than a hair's width, the sort of energy boost that takes microwaves many feet. [12] The first full characterization measurement of an accelerator beam in six dimensions will advance the understanding and performance of current and planned accelerators around the world. [11] Researchers have found a way to accelerate antimatter in a 1000x smaller space than current accelerators, boosting the science of exotic particles. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27] viXra:2001.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 04:59:39

Snake-Like Proteins Wrangle DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Members of Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) are taking a deep dive into the dynamics of essential proteins that help DNA fold into its compact, functional form in chromosomes. [22] Histones are proteins that regulate the unwinding of DNA in the cell nucleus and the expression of genes based on chemical modifications or "marks" that are placed on their tails. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[26] viXra:2001.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 05:31:24

New Types of Permuting N-Derivations with Their Applications on Associative Rings

Authors: Mehsin Jabel Atteya
Comments: 48 Pages.

In this article, we introduce new generators of a permuting n-derivations to improve and increase the action of usual derivation. We produce a permuting n-generalized semiderivation, a permuting n-semigeneralized semiderivation, a permuting n-antisemigeneralized semiderivation and a permuting skew n-antisemigeneralized semiderivation of non-empty rings with their applications. Actually, we study the behaviour of those types and present their results of semiprime ring R. Examples of various results have also been included. That is, many of the branches of science such as business, engineering and quantum physics, which used a derivation, have the opportunity to invest them in solving their problems.
Category: Algebra

[25] viXra:2001.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 06:13:06

Machine Learning Graphene Oxide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

This question is important for optimizing the properties of the carbon material in real-world applications, and researchers at CSIRO in Australia have now tried to answer it using machine learning. [27] Reporting their findings in the open-access journal npj Computational Materials, the researchers show that their ML method, involving "transfer learning," enables the discovery of materials with desired properties even from an exceeding small data set. [26] The analysis of sensor data of machines, plants or buildings makes it possible to detect anomalous states early and thus to avoid further damage. [25] Physicists in the US have used machine learning to determine the phase diagram of a system of 12 idealized quantum particles to a higher precision than ever before. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[24] viXra:2001.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 08:09:04

Diffusion Gravity: Perihelion Precessions as Indicators of Galactic Gravitational Influence

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 14 Pages. Continued Research on Diffusion Gravity, 5th of 5 papers

Diffusion Gravity theory has shown in previous works that the constant velocity profiles of galaxies may be a direct result of equipotential “locking” of stars to the zero-potential balance point between the star and its parent galaxy. This hypothesis was incorporated into the Diffusion Gravity model in a previous paper [9] along with the integral mechanism of gravitational attraction to explain those constant velocity profiles that are otherwise attributed to “dark matter”. In this current research report, DG postulates other effects between the Sun-Mercury pair and the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG), and compares them with Mercury precession models from numerous other researchers, some or all of which can account for the precession advance of the perihelion of Mercury. In particular, the acceleration-torque effect of the MWG should also advance precession of the perihelion, thus contributing and adding to the total calculated by mass-ring models to arrive at the measured total precession advance of the perihelion of Mercury of 575.31 arcseconds per century .
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:2001.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 09:52:13

Cantor Diagonal Argument is false

Authors: Richard L. Hudson
Comments: 3 Pages.

This analysis shows Cantor's diagonal argument cannot form a new sequence that is not a member of a complete list. The proof is based on the pairing of complementary sequences forming a binary tree model.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[22] viXra:2001.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 09:59:43

Interpretation of Shannon Entropies with Various Bases by Means of Multinary Searching Games

Authors: Hsuan-Hao Chao, Chang Hsu, Long Hsu, Sien Chi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Ben-Naim used twenty question games to illustrate Shannon entropy with base 2 as a measure of the amount of information in terms of the minimum average number of binary questions. We found that Shannon entropy with base 2 equal to the minimum average number of binary questions is only valid under a special condition. The special condition is referred to as the equiprobability condition, which requires that the outcomes of every question have equal probability, thus restricting the probability distribution. This requirement is proven for a ternary game and a proposed multinary game as well. The proposed multinary game finds a coin hidden in one of several boxes by using a multiple pan balance. We have shown that the minimum average number of weighing measurements by using the multiple pan balance can be directly obtained by using Shannon entropy with base b under the equiprobability condition. Therefore, Shannon entropy with base b can be interpreted as the minimum average number of weighing measurements by using the multiple pan balance when the multiple outcomes have equal probability every time.
Category: Education and Didactics

[21] viXra:2001.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 10:04:34

Signal Loss in Magnonic Circuits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The recent study by the Russian physicists has shown the waveguides to have a greater effect than anticipated. In fact, it turns out that a poorly chosen waveguide geometry can result in complete signal loss. [26] In the emerging field of magnon spintronics, researchers seek to transport and process information by means of so-called magnon spin currents. [25] Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20] viXra:2001.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 10:35:54

Reversing Electron's Course

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

New research from Washington University in St. Louis and Argonne National Laboratory coaxes electrons down the track that they typically don't travel—advancing understanding of the earliest light-driven events of photosynthesis. [37] UK researchers have developed world-leading Compound Semiconductor (CS) technology that can drive future high-speed data communications. [36] "Regarding new perspectives, this could lead to similar fantastic developments as in the field of magnetism, such as electronic coherence in quantum computing," says Schultze hopefully, who now leads a working group focusing on attosecond physics at the Institute of Experimental Physics. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19] viXra:2001.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 11:11:08

Astronaut's Blood During NASA Mission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

"My first reaction when NASA reached out to me was to ask if I could visit the International Space Station (ISS) to examine the patient myself," said Stephan Moll, MD, UNC School of Medicine blood clot expert and long-time NASA enthusiast. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:2001.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 11:55:39

Flexible Photonic Crystal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

This inherent flexibility should enable many interesting applications in, for instance, computation and health care. [38] New research from Washington University in St. Louis and Argonne National Laboratory coaxes electrons down the track that they typically don't travel—advancing understanding of the earliest light-driven events of photosynthesis. [37] UK researchers have developed world-leading Compound Semiconductor (CS) technology that can drive future high-speed data communications. [36] "Regarding new perspectives, this could lead to similar fantastic developments as in the field of magnetism, such as electronic coherence in quantum computing," says Schultze hopefully, who now leads a working group focusing on attosecond physics at the Institute of Experimental Physics. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[17] viXra:2001.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 12:15:41

What's a Muon Anyways!?

Authors: Lucian M Ionescu
Comments: 8 Pages.

Understanding the role of muons in Particle Physics is an important step understanding generations and the origin of mass as an expression of internal structure. A possible connection between muonic atoms and cycloatoms is used as a pretext to speculate on the above core issue of the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16] viXra:2001.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 12:52:26

Hydrogen Gas Around Distant Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of astronomers at the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) in Pune, India have discovered a mysterious ring of hydrogen gas around a distant galaxy, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). [35] "My first reaction when NASA reached out to me was to ask if I could visit the International Space Station (ISS) to examine the patient myself," said Stephan Moll, MD, UNC School of Medicine blood clot expert and long-time NASA enthusiast. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:2001.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 13:31:53

A Unified Memory Based Computing Architecture.

Authors: Bheemaiah, Anil Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Hypercomputing for scalable reconfigurable computing are available as HPC solutions, the Cray XD1, being a notable solution. The maturity of spintronic and additive printed dna wire technology has led to cost effective solutions, leading to the possibility of integrating such technologies in hyper computing architectures. This paper introduces a unified memory based computing architecture with newer technologies of scalable quantum routing and DNA based map-routing systems. Keywords: DNA wire, random access memory, FPGA, spintronics, ion trap memory, Quantum routing, map-routing, synthetic genomics. What: Hypercomputing is based on reconfigurable computers, which allows for the dynamic loading of HDL gate configurations on FPGAs, this is extended to hardware, based on quantum or DNA based memory, which can be architected to gate array designs for similar reconfigurability in quantum and DNA based computing designs, also termed as hypercomputing. Thus a unified memory and routing based architecture is presented. How: CLB design is generalised to quantum CLB and DNA based CLB designs, with switching and routing extended to a combination of classical and quantum routing. In the case of DNA based memory, classical routing can be enhanced with map based routing algorithms, the subject of a future publication. Why: Reconfigurable computing is easily extended to quantum and DNA realms, creating simple minimalist architectures for scalable computing solutions. Quantum memory and DNA based memory are mature technologies, with cost effective products since a decade, this leads to reconfigurable computing solutions, in the quantum and DNA domains. While synthetic DNA and additive printing of DNA wire has provided, laser read out random access memory and inexpensive ion trap based quantum memory has enhanced classical memory with spintronic ion implantation for extremely cost effective quantum memory, three decade old research in quantum accelerators and DNA based accelerators has enhanced the availability of fast , polynomial time bound approximate solutions to NP - hard problems. Applications: DNA computing, RNA based storage in synthetic virology, vector for pervasive A.I, H.E.T applications, vaccine value addition.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[14] viXra:2001.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 02:15:05

Scala based Image Processing Using Gröbner Bases/Wavelets/Deep Learning - An Insight & Short Technical Notes.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Scala based Image Processing Using Gröbner Bases/Wavelets/Deep Learning - An Insight & Short Technical Notes. [ Glimpsing into the Future of AI + Interesting Applications ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[13] viXra:2001.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 04:14:14

A Mass Can be Lifted with Force Far Less Than Its Weight

Authors: Yahya A.Sharif
Comments: 1 Page. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

I can carry up my 60 kg body with only my weak feet muscles when trying to pick a fruit on a tree.
Category: Classical Physics

[12] viXra:2001.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 05:32:23

A Theory of Everything Physics Solution using a Two-Step Integrated Physics/Mathematics Methodology

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 77 Pages.

Two astrophysics issue resolution methodologies are: the prevailing Hawking single primarily mathematics step and a two-step integrated physics/mathematics consisting of a conceptual physics step and a mathematics step. The Hawking methodology provided most of the spectacularly successful astrophysics achievements over the last century for single constituent theories such as Higgs forces and stellar black holes. However, it provided near zero results for multiple constituent theories such as a Theory of Everything (TOE), in contrast to the second methodology. The conceptual physics step of the two-step integrated TOE had three goals: to define “Everything”, to answer all key outstanding TOE physics questions, and to provide correct inputs to the second mathematics step. First, “Everything” was defined as 20 amplified and integrated (New Physics) constituent theories; superstring, particle creation, inflation, Higgs forces, spontaneous symmetry breaking, superpartner and Standard Model decays, neutrino oscillations, dark matter, universe expansions, dark energy, messenger particles, relative strengths of forces, Super Universe, stellar black holes, black hole entropy, arrow of time, cosmological constant problem, black hole information paradox, baryogenesis, and quantum gravity. Second, all 19 key outstanding TOE physics questions were answered including: what are Higgs forces and stellar black holes; what is dark energy and dark matter; and what caused the start of our universe. Third, correct inputs were provided for the two part second mathematics step which followed, a Beyond the Standard Model solution for particles and an amplified N-body simulation for cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:2001.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 06:29:34

Demonstration of Event-Driven Models

Authors: Dimiter Dobrev
Comments: 10 Pages. short summary in Bulgarian

The program Artificial Intelligence has to be able to understand the world. To do this, it has to build a model of the world. The language (format) in which this model will be described is very important. Could this format be Turing Machine or Markov decision process? Yes, it can, but only if we have an infinitely fast computer and an infinitely long training time. Can we offer a description format in which the world description is simple enough to be found automatically. Yes, Event-Driven models are such a format. We will demonstrate how the rules of the game of chess can be described by Event-Driven models and the resulting description will be simple enough.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[10] viXra:2001.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 11:01:58

Орбиты Луны, планет и приливные силы.

Authors: Киров
Comments: 2 Pages. Russ lang

Рассмотрены вопросы стационарности планетарных орбит и Лунной орбиты.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:2001.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 11:06:40

The Orbits of the Moon, Planets and Tidal Forces.

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 2 Pages.

The issues of stationarity of planetary orbits and the lunar orbit are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:2001.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 13:58:06

Fundamental Theorem of New Year: an Attempt to Unify Gravity, Quantum Stuff, and Engineering in a Mathematical Rigor.

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syaifudin
Comments: 4 Pages.

Every year, in some place, someone always tries to impress others by formulating a heavy mathematics kind of equation that ended up to be very simple. Despite the scare looking math, it actually just a plain algebraic manipulation which is on the same level as kindergarten mathematics with little physics if any. Here I present a better approach to explain the fundamental mystery of nature which is unsolved for millennia, even by type 3 alien civilization in a far far away galaxy in a long long time ago. This approach is incorporating the basic idea of Hilbert general relativity, Schrodinger wave equation, and a well known irrefutable Fundamental Theorem of Engineering that had saved billion even trillion people around the globe. The result is straightforwardly accurate and precise for any coordinate invariant observer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:2001.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 15:10:01

Michelson-Morley Revisited with Occam’s Razor

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe
Comments: 8 Pages.

The results of the Michelson-Morley Experiment (MMX), allegedly showing that an aether medium for the propagation of light did not exist, were interpreted by Einstein under the constraint of a constant light speed. This led him to invent Special Relativity, not necessarily the simplest or most logical explanation, as would have been recommended by Occam’s Razor. MMX is revisualized here, relaxing these constraints to show what might have been the better conclusion, or at least dismissal of the MMX as a basis for inventing Special Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:2001.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 15:11:19

An Aether Perspective on Stellar Aberration

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe
Comments: 7 Pages.

It has been known for nearly three centuries that, to view a clear image of a star through a telescope, it is necessary to tilt the telescope slightly forward in the direction of the earth’s motion, a phenomenon known as “stellar aberration.” Normally explained by mainstream physics without the presence of an aether medium for light transport and with relativistic corrections due to time dilation/length contraction via Lorentz transforms, this article examines stellar aberration from the perspective of an aether presence, including both a stationary and fully entrained aether, as well as the intermediate case of a partially entrained (“dragged”) aether. Comparison is made with the parallel cases without an aether, with the option to allow light to acquire its source velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:2001.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 15:38:39

On Some Ramanujan Formulas Concerning Highly Composite Numbers: New Possible Mathematical Connections with Various Parameters of Particle Physics, Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Cosmology III.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 130 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas inherent Highly composite numbers and described new possible mathematical connections with various parameters of Particle Physics, Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[4] viXra:2001.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 17:56:45

Refutation of the Erdős-Strauss Conjecture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two equations for n ≥ 3 and n ≥ 2, with both not tautologous, and hence refuting the Erdős-Strauss conjecture. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Number Theory

[3] viXra:2001.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 06:38:26

Probability Models and Ultralogics

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we show how nonstandard consequence operators, ultralogics, can generate the general informational content displayed by probability models. In particular, a model that states a specific probability that an event will occur and those models that use a specific distribution to predict that an event will occur. These results have many diverse applications and even apply to the collapse of the wave function.
Category: Statistics

[2] viXra:2001.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 08:13:20

Galaxy with an Active Center

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:2001.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 08:48:28

Magnetic Ropes in Whale Galaxy' Halo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Using the National Science Foundation's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio telescope, a team of astronomers has captured for the first time an image of large-scale, coherent, magnetic fields in the halo of a faraway spiral galaxy, confirming theoretical modeling of how galaxies generate magnetic fields and potentially increasing knowledge of how galaxies form and evolve. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse-where our Universe is only one of many-might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics