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1002 Submissions

[52] viXra:1002.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 feb 2010

Deceleration Parameter Q(Z) in Four and Five Dimensional Geometries, and Implications of Graviton Mass in Mimicking DE in Both Geometries

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: Eight pages, two figures. Template for submission to Beyond the Standard Model 2010 conference proceedings. May be cut to five papes, pending decision as to length of submission decision by Professor Hans Klaptor Kleingross, overall chair of Beyond the Standard Model, as given in

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe in both four and five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if four and five dimensional geometries as given below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. The author finds that both cases give equivalent reacceleration one billion years ago which leads to an inquiry if other criteria as to cosmology can determine the benefits of adding additional dimensions to cosmology models
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:1002.0055 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2010

The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 3 pages

The current physical view of the Universe (the Metaphysics of Physics) is one that just does not make sense and is counter-intuitive to our Experience. It begins with the Quantization of Energy Hypothesis used by Planck to derive his blackbody radiation formula and by Einstein to explain the photoelectric effect, which later evolved into Quantum Mechanics. By examining these conceptual foundations of Modern Physics we are able to show that the same experimental facts that lead to Quantum Physics can be differently explained without using energy quanta, continuously and not discretely. We are able to derive Planck's Law without using quanta and explain the photoelectric effect without needing photons. We summarize in this paper results presented in a series of papers that show with mathematical reasoning and rigor how this is possible. The main purpose of this endeavor is to create a view of the Universe that 'makes sense', that agrees with our Experience and provides physical meaning to our Understanding of it.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[50] viXra:1002.0054 [pdf] submitted on 24 Feb 2010

A Preon Model from Manasson's Theory

Authors: Fabrizio Vassallo
Comments: 9 pages.

V. Manasson has applied dissipative chaos theory to particle physics, deriving a simple relation between the fine structure constant and Feigenbaum delta constant. It is presented a preon model based on Manasson's theory. The model is intended as a naive toy one, as it makes use of unjustified assumptions, as e.g. the possibility of the existence of neither fermionic nor bosonic particles in 3+1 spacetime.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[49] viXra:1002.0053 [pdf] replaced on 25 Feb 2010

An Astounding Not-So-Simple Retro-Causal Hologram Universe Simultaneous Solution to the Cosmological Constant & Arrow of Time Enigmas?

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 7 pages.

The bias against Wheeler-Feynman retro-causal advanced waves from a future absorber, a general lack of understanding of when the asymptotically constant de Sitter horizon is in our subjective observable causal diamond piece of the multiverse, Hawkings chronology protection conjecture, and the lack of comprehension of the strange implications of the tHooft-Susskind hologram principle [i] have not allowed us to see what is in front of our eyes since the discovery of dark energy energy accelerating the expansion rate of 3D space ten years or so ago. Bernard Carr [ii] has already published a brief account of my idea that retrocausality is the key to understanding the biggest problem in physics today why the dark energy density is so small. My paper with Creon Levit (NASA AMES) [iii] based on my brief talk at DICE 2008 further developed that idea. This paper, is still a simpler explanation of why the virtual boson dark energy density is so small and how it is intimately connected to the Arrow of Time of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. [iv] The basic idea is so simple that any bright curious schoolboy or girl can grasp it without too much difficulty. Our universe grows from one qubit at the moment of inflation to an asymptotically constant de Sitter horizon hologram screen ~ 10123 qubits that is also the upper limit to the total thermodynamic entropy of our observable universe in the precise sense of Tamara Daviss 2004 Ph.D. dissertation at the University of New South Wales. The early universe is obviously not de Sitter, therefore, we have already there an obvious temporal asymmetry explaining the Arrow of Time. The dark energy density we see in our past light cone is proportional to the inverse area of our future de Sitter horizon at its intersection with our future light cone in accord with the Wheeler-Feynman retrocausal absorber principle. [v] Our future de Sitter null horizon is the Wheeler-Feynman total future absorber of last resort giving us retrocausality without retrocausality similar to the nonlocality without nonlocality of the no cloning a quantum or passion at a distance of orthodox quantum theorys signal locality. The link between our future and our past is a globally self-consistent time loop in the sense of Igor Novikov. Indeed, this is a bootstrap of self-creation from future to past. The past dark energy density is indeed the Planck density at the moment of inflation, but Tamara Daviss Fig 5.1 shows that this density quickly drops to the small constant value that has been dominant in the past few billion years bearing in mind that what matters, is not the spacelike intersection at a constant conformal time, but, rather, the intersection of the observers future light cone with his future dark energy horizon. However, although I have not yet proved that the dark energy seen in our past light cone is really advanced Hawking radiation from our future observer-dependent de Sitter cosmic horizon that is, in addition, likely to be a holographic (post) quantum computer not in sub-quantal equilibrium. I have given a plausible argument that this may turn out to be true.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1002.0052 [pdf] submitted on 24 Feb 2010

Solving the Fermion Flavor Problem using Renormalization Group Flow

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 12 pages. This is a sequel to a paper published in Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 13 (2008) 1845-1850.

A long-standing puzzle of the current Standard Model for particle physics is that both leptons and quarks arise in replicated patterns. Our work suggests that the number of fermion flavors may be directly derived from the dynamics of Renormalization Group (RG) equations. Specifically, we argue that the number of flavors results from demanding stability of the RG flow about its fixed-point solution.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[47] viXra:1002.0050 [pdf] submitted on 23 Feb 2010

The Sea of Super-Strong Interacting Gravitons as the Cause of Gravity

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure, Latex. Contribution to The 3d International Conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space (Space Part'06 ), Beijing, China, 19 - 21 April 2006 (Nuclear Physics B (Proc. Suppl.) 166 (2007) 297-299).

The Newtonian attraction turns out to be the main statistical effect in the sea of super-strong interacting gravitons, with bodies themselves being not sources of gravitons - only correlational properties of in and out fluxes of gravitons in their neighbourhood are changed due to an interaction with bodies. Other quantum effects of low-energy quantum gravity are the following ones: redshifts, their analog - a deceleration of massive bodies, and an additional relaxation of any light flux.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] viXra:1002.0049 [pdf] submitted on 22 Feb 2010

The Gravitational Interaction Between Moving Masses

Authors: Antoine Acke
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the paper GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM (viXra-classical physics:1001.0017), we explained the gravitational and the electromagnetic phenomena through the mediation of "informatons". We started from the hypothesis that any material object manifests itself in space by emitting informatons. These are dot-shaped entities that rush away with the speed of light carrying "information" about the position, the velocity and - if it is electrically charged - the electrical charge of the emitter. We showed that informatons constitute the gravitational and the electromagnetic fields which make the interactions possible. In this paper we extend the theory to interactions between - electrically neutral - moving objects in relativistic situations.
Category: Classical Physics

[45] viXra:1002.0048 [pdf] replaced on 12 Mar 2010

Why Does the Electron and the Positron Possesses the Same Rest Mass But Different Charges of Equal Modulus and Opposite Signs??.and Why Both Annihilates??

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 26 Pages. An equation of a 5D General Relativity ansatz included in the beginning of section 2 and minor changes in the text

We demonstrate how Rest Masses and Electric Charges are generated by the 5D Extra Dimension of a Universe possessing a Higher Dimensional Nature using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in agreement with the point of view of Ponce De Leon explaining in the generation process how and why antiparticles have the same rest mass m0 but charges of equal modulus and opposite signs when compared to particles and we also explains why both annihilates.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[44] viXra:1002.0047 [pdf] submitted on 21 Feb 2010

Gravitational Field of a Condensed Matter Model of the Sun: The Space Breaking Meets the Asteroid Strip

Authors: Larissa Borissova
Comments: 37 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 224-260 (2009).

This seminal study deals with the exact solution of Einstein's field equations for a sphere of incompressible liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Karl Schwarzschild, according to which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The obtained exact solution is then applied to the Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of incompressible liquid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object whose characteristics (mass, density, and size) are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun's space meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter's space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side. Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun's space break).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[43] viXra:1002.0046 [pdf] submitted on 21 Feb 2010

On the Speed of Rotation of the Isotropic Space: Insight into the Redshift Problem

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 16 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 208-223 (2009).

This study applies the mathematical method of chronometric invariants, which are physically observable quantities in the four-dimensional space-time (Zelmanov A.L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol.1, 227-230). The isotropic region of the space-time is considered (it is known as the isotropic space). This is the home of massless light-like particles (e.g. photons). It is shown that the isotropic space rotates with a linear velocity equal to the velocity of light. The rotation slows in the presence of gravitation. Even under the simplified conditions of Special Relativity, the isotropic space still rotates with the velocity of light. A manifestation of this effect is the observed Hubble redshift explained as energy loss of photons with distance, for work against the non-holonomity (rotation) field of the isotropic space wherein they travel (Rabounski D. The Abraham Zelmanov Journal, 2009, vol.2, 11-28). It is shown that the light-speed rotation of the isotropic space has a purely geometrical origin due to the space-time metric, where time is presented as the fourth coordinate, expressed through the velocity of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[42] viXra:1002.0045 [pdf] submitted on 21 Feb 2010

Hubble Redshift due to the Global Non-Holonomity of Space

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 18 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 11-28 (2009).

In General Relativity, the change in energy of a freely moving photon is given by the scalar equation of the isotropic geodesic equations, which manifests the work produced on a photon being moved along a path. I solved the equation in terms of physical observables (Zelmanov A. L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol. 1, 227-230) and in the large scale approximation, i.e. with gravitation and deformation neglected, while supposing the isotropic space to be globally non-holonomic (the time lines are non-orthogonal to the spatial section, a condition manifested by the rotation of the space). The solution is E = E0 exp(-Ωat/c), where Ω is the angular velocity of the space (it meets the Hubble constant H0 = c/a = 2.3x10-18 sec-1), a is the radius of the Universe, t = r/c is the time of the photon's travel. Thus, a photon loses energy with distance due to the work against the field of the space non-holonomity. According to the solution, the redshift should be z = exp(H0 r/c)-1 ≈ H0 r/c. This solution explains both the redshift z = H0 r/c observed at small distances and the non-linearity of the empirical Hubble law due to the exponent (at large r). The ultimate redshift in a non-expanding universe, according to the theory, should be z = exp(π)-1 = 22.14.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[41] viXra:1002.0044 [pdf] submitted on 20 Feb 2010

"The Meaning of ψ "! an Interpretation of Schrödinger's Equation

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 2 pages

In our derivation of Planck's Law (showing that this Formula is an exact mathematical identity that describes the interaction of measurement) the 'accumulation of energy' locally at time t was a key variable. By starting with this as the primary variable and defining energy, momentum and force in terms of it we are able to mathematically derive such basic laws of Physics as Conservation of Energy and Momentum, and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Following the same approach we demonstrate in this short note how Schrödinger's Equation relates to this formulation. This leads to a physical meaning of the wave-function ψ and a plausible explanation of the double-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1002.0043 [pdf] submitted on 19 Feb 2010

Theoretical Model of Electric Aerogeneration Systems for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Anthony Pinedo Araujo
Comments: 7 pages. This article was written in Spanish. It was published in ECIPERU, vol 6, num 2, pp 68-76.August 2009.

There are two types of systems of electric aerogeneration by using wind turbines, one is called horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the other one is called vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Both of them have advantages and disadvantages depending on many factors. Since the second one had produced lees power than the first one, they were ignored. However, the adaptation of a levitation system and a new system of magnetic induction made VAWT increase the power produced and exceed the HAWT. Although VAWT models were studied enough in the design and experimental scheme, there is no solid explanation, based on basic principles, on the operation of the VAWT. In this paper is proposed a theoretical model of VAWT operation. Therefore, three studies are done: the interaction between wind and blades of the turbine, the magnetic levitation system and the energy production by magnetic induction. Those studies make us able to know and predict the operation of those systems. Since, we shall know how many factors are affecting the efficiency of the system; we shall be able to control those parameters in order to get the best efficiency.
Category: Classical Physics

[39] viXra:1002.0042 [pdf] replaced on 19 Feb 2010

Concept and Method of Physimatics

Authors: Robert Gallinat
Comments: 5 pages, v1 is in German, v2 is in English

Conceptual approach and heuristic method for an investigation of the possible algebraic structure of the interdependence between mathematical and physical reality and about the connection between local, non-local and global properties in physics and mathematics, expressed by a general n-fold algebra
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[38] viXra:1002.0041 [pdf] submitted on 19 Feb 2010

Absence of Significant Cross-Correlation Between WMAP and SDSS

Authors: Martín López-Corredoira, F. Sylos Labini, J. Betancort-Rijo
Comments: 5 pages, accepted to be published in A&A

Aims. Several authors have claimed to detect a significant cross-correlation between microwave WMAP anisotropies and the SDSS galaxy distribution. We repeat these analyses to determine the different cross-correlation uncertainties caused by re-sampling errors and field-to-field fluctuations. The first type of error concerns overlapping sky regions, while the second type concerns nonoverlapping sky regions. Methods. To measure the re-sampling errors, we use bootstrap and jack-knife techniques. For the field-to-field fluctuations, we use three methods: 1) evaluation of the dispersion in the cross-correlation when correlating separated regions of WMAP with the original region of SDSS; 2) use of mock Monte Carlo WMAP maps; 3) a new method (developed in this article), which measures the error as a function of the integral of the product of the self-correlations for each map. Results. The average cross-correlation for b > 30 deg. is significantly stronger than the re-sampling errors - both the jack-knife and bootstrap techniques provide similar results - but it is of the order of the field-to-field fluctuations. This is confirmed by the crosscorrelation between anisotropies and galaxies in more than the half of the sample being null within re-sampling errors. Conclusions. Re-sampling methods underestimate the errors. Field-to-field fluctuations dominate the detected signals. The ratio of signal to re-sampling errors is larger than unity in a way that strongly depends on the selected sky region. We therefore conclude that there is no evidence yet of a significant detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. Hence, the value of ΩΛ ≈ 0.8 obtained by the authors who assumed they were observing the ISWeffect would appear to have originated from noise analysis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[37] viXra:1002.0040 [pdf] submitted on 18 Feb 2010

Pressure Calculation of a Constant Density Star in the Dynamic Theory of Gravity

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 12 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 95-105, 2005

In a new theory called Dynamic Theory of Gravity, the gravitational potential is is derived from gauge relations and has a different form than the classical Newtonian potential. In the same theory an analytical expression for the pressure is derived from the equation of the hydronamic equilibrium which is solved for a star of constant density and the results are compared with those of Newtonian gravity. Changes then in the central pressure and radius are also calculated and finally a redshift calculation is performed so that the dynamic gravity effects if any might be shown to be of some detectabe magnitude.
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1002.0039 [pdf] submitted on 18 Feb 2010

Derivation of Weinberg's Relation in a Inflationary Universe

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 7 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vo. 13 No. 2, pp.111-117

We propose a derivation of the empirical Weinberg relation for the mass of an elementary particle and in an inflationary type of universe. Our derivation produces the standard well known Weinberg relation for the mass of an elementary particle, along with an extra term which depends on the inflationary potential, as well as Hubble's constant. The derivation is based on Zeldovich's result for the cosmological constant Λ, in the context of quantum field theory. The extra term can be understood as a small correction to the mass of the elementary particle due to inflation. This term also enables us to calculate, the initial value of the field φO for two kinds of potentials chosen, which makes Weinberg's relation possible. Closed and flat and open universes give the mass of the particles close to the mass of a pion, 140 MeV/c2 or as the one also predicted by Weinberg's relation.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1002.0038 [pdf] submitted on 18 Feb 2010

The Deflection of Light in the Dynamic Theory of Gravity

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 8 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3-9, 2004 and SAO and NASA Astrophysics Data System

In a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is derived from thermodymical principles in a five dimensional space, the deflection of a light signal is calculated and compared to that of general relativity. This is achieved by using the dynamic gravity line element which is the usual four dimesional space-time element of Newtonian gravity modified by a negative inverse radial exponetial term. The dynamic theory of gravity predicts this modification of the original Newtonian potential by this exponential term.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[34] viXra:1002.0037 [pdf] submitted on 18 Feb 2010

The Temperature of a Black Hole in a De-Sitter Space-Time

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 5 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vo. 12 No. 2, 2002

A relation for the black-hole temperature in a De-Sitter type universe is determined in the first step of this paper. As a result of that, the upper and the lower temperature limits of the black hole are calculated, and then the limits of the radius of the universe containing the black hole. All these calculations are based upon the present values of the cosmological constant Λ. Further relations for the dependance of this temperature on Hubble's constant and the gravitationsal energy of the hardons was also derived.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1002.0036 [pdf] submitted on 18 Feb 2010

Sakharov's Temperature Limit in a Schwarzchild Metric Modified by the Cosmological Constant Λ

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 9 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1, 2002 and SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

In this paper we are going to examine the effect, if any exists, that a modification of the Schwarzchild metric by a lamda term could have on the so called Sakharov's upper temperature limit. It's known that Zakharov's limit is the maximum possible black body temperature that can occur in our universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1002.0035 [pdf] submitted on 19 Feb 2010

Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part II

Authors: Akindele O. J. Adekugbe
Comments: 19 pages, 13 pages, published in Progress in Physics, 2010, vol.1, 49-61

The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of this article is continued in this second part. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture, contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual transformation of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture. By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the positive and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclusion of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative mass in physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1002.0034 [pdf] submitted on 19 Feb 2010

Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part I

Authors: Akindele O. J. Adekugbe
Comments: 19 pages, published in Progress in Physics, 2010, vol.1 30-48

A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a pair of co-existing sheets of spacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon compels an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes) in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity (φSR) on two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves relative rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in φSR without any need to draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional spacetime, as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from the corresponding result of φSR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1) compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1002.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-05 17:06:01

Advanced Topics in Information Dynamics

Authors: Christopher Goddard
Comments: 202 Pages. From the ResearchGate listing, per the article:

This work is sequel to the book "A Treatise in Information Geometry", submitted to vixra in late 2009. The aim of this dissertation is to continue the development of fractal geometry initiated in the former volume. This culminates in the construction of first order self-referential geometry, which is a special form of 8-tensor construction on a differential manifold with nice properties. The associated information theory has many powerful and interesting consequences. Additionally within this treatise, various themes in modern mathematics are surveyed- Galois theory, Category theory, K-theory, and Sieve theory, and various connections between these structures and information theory investigated. In particular it is demonstrated that the exotic geometric analogues of these constructions - save for Category theory, which is foundational - form special cases of the self referential calculus.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[29] viXra:1002.0032 [pdf] submitted on 17 Feb 2010

A Scalar-Energy Field That Predicts the Mass of The Electron-Neutrino

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 5 pages.

Using Wolff's model of spherical-wave centers, a scalar energy field is derived between rest-energy of a particle and potential energy of a hypothetical space fabric. The simple formula of mc2 = .5kx2 that results reveals a different elasticity constant k for each particle, and based on the knowledge of electro-weak unification which requires the constants k for the electron and neutrino to be the same, a mass for the electron-neutrino is predicted to be 0.065 eV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[28] viXra:1002.0031 [pdf] submitted on 17 Feb 2010

Two Uncertainty Principles?

Authors: Anthony Pinedo Araujo
Comments: 8 pages. This paper is written in Spanish.

There are two uncertainty principles, but most of students get confused between both of them because of the lack of conceptual context that this topic is explained in books. In this article, both principles are discussed, making the differences between them clear. Also, I propose some examples that are very easy to understand by students.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1002.0030 [pdf] submitted on 16 Feb 2010

Einstein's Field Equations in Cosmology Using Harrison's Formula

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: Published, Galilean Electrodynamics, vol. 18, SPI/3,pp. 49-53, 2007

The most important tool for the study of the gravitational field in Einstein's theory of gravity is his field equations. In this short paper, we demonstrate the derivation of Einstein field equations for the Freedman cosmological model using the Robertson-Walker metric, and furthermore Harrison's formula for the Ricci tensor. The difference is that Harrison's formula is an actually shorter way of obtaining the field equations. The advantage is that the Cristoffel symbols do not have to be directly calculated one by one. This can actually be a very useful demonstration for somebody who would like to understand a slightly different but faster way of deriving the field equations, something that is actually rarely seen in many of undergraduate and even graduate textbooks.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1002.0029 [pdf] submitted on 16 Feb 2010

Variable Model of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 8 pages, Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1 pp. 25-30, 2003

Recent evidence suggests that the fine-structure constant α=e2/h bar*c, a measure of the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between photons and electrons, is slowly increasing over cosmological timescales. High-resolution measurements of quasar spectra suggest that there has been a variation Δα/α =-0.72 ± 0.18x10-5 over the past 6-10 Gyr.To model this, we propose variability in the speed of light that produces a cosmological time |αdot/α| = 10-15 and 10-16 yr-1 at z = 3 which also agrees with the observational spectral data.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1002.0028 [pdf] submitted on 16 Feb 2010

"Let there be h" ! an Existence Argument for Planck's Constant

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 4 pages

Planck's constant h is considered to be a fundamental Universal constant of Physics. And although we can experimentally determine its value to great precision, the reason for its existence and what it really means is still a mystery. Quantum Mechanics has adapted it in its mathematical formalism, as it also has the Quantum Hypothesis. But QM does not explain its meaning or prove its existence. Why does the Universe need h and energy quanta? Why does the mathematical formalism of QM so accurately reflect physical phenomena and predict these with great precision? Ask any physicists and uniformly the answer is "that's how the Universe works". The units of h are in energy-time and the conventional interpretation of h is as a quantum of action. But in this brief note we take a different view. We interpret h as the minimal accumulation of energy that can be manifested in our measurements. Certainly the units of h agree with such interpretation. Based on this we provide a plausible explanation for the existence of Planck's constant, what it means and how it comes about. We show that the existence of Planck's constant is not so much dictated by the Universe but rather by Mathematics and the inner consistence and calibrations of Physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1002.0027 [pdf] submitted on 15 Feb 2010

Are Flyby Anomalies and the Pioneer Effect an ASTG Phenomenon?

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, Submitted as a letter to MNRAS (MN-10-0299-L.)

This reading expounds with expediency on the recently proposed Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG) set-up earlier. There-in, the ASTG was set up and it was demonstrated that it is capable (amongst others solar anomalies) of explaining the precession of the perihelion of solar planets. In the second reading, it was shown that this theory is capable - in principle; of explaining outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. In the present, we show that the ASTG is capable of explaining the puzzling observations of flyby anomalies vis, anomalous asymptotic speed increases at the perigee and the speed changes occurring to the osculating hyperbolic speed excess. It is shown that these flyby anomalies are a natural occurrence in the ASTG. We derive a modified formula of the empirical formula proposed by Anderson et al., which up to now has no foundational basis except that experience suggest it. It is seen that the ASTG can in principle explain the Pioneer Anomaly. To say for sure the ASTG is the reason for the Pioneer Anomaly, there is need to obtain the complete set of the Pioneer ephemerides.
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1002.0025 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2010

Radar Time Delays in the Dynamic Theory of Gravity

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 6 pages, Published: Serbian Astronomical Journal, no. 168, 2004, 49-54.

There is a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is derived from thermodynamic principles in a five dimensional space, radar signals travelling times and delays are calculated for the major planets in the solar system, and compared to those of general relativity. This is done by using the usual four dimensional spherically symmetric space-time element of classical general relativistic gravity which has now been slightly modified by a negative inverse radial exponential term due to the dynamic theory of gravity potential.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1002.0024 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2010

A Derivation of π(n) Based on a Stability Analysis of the Riemann-Zeta Function

Authors: Michael Harney, Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 1 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 2, pp.8, 2010 .

The prime-number counting function π(n), which is significant in the prime number theorem, is derived by analyzing the region of convergence of the real-part of the Riemann-Zeta function using the unilateral z-transform. In order to satisfy the stability criteria of the z-transform, it is found that the real part of the Riemann-Zeta function must converge to the prime-counting function.
Category: Number Theory

[21] viXra:1002.0023 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2010

The Dark Energy Problem

Authors: Michael Harney, Ioannis Iraklis Haranas
Comments: 3 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 4, pp. 16-18, 2008 .

The proposal for dark energy based on Type Ia Supernovae redshift is examined. It is found that the linear and non-Linear portions in the Hubble Redshift are easily explained by the use of the Hubble Sphere model, where two interacting Hubble spheres sharing a common mass-energy density result in a decrease in energy as a function of distance from the object being viewed. Interpreting the non-linear portion of the redshift curve as a decrease in interacting volume between neighboring Hubble Spheres removes the need for a dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1002.0022 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2010

Quantizing Torsion Effects in a DE Sitter Universe

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney
Comments: 8 pages, Romanian Astronomical Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009 and and SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

We derive quantization relations in the case when torsion effects are added in a De-Sitter spacetime metric with or without a black hole at the Planck mass and Planck length limit. To this end we use Zeldovich's definition of the cosmological constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1002.0021 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2010

The Mass of the Universe and Other Relations in the Idea of a Possible Cosmic Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney
Comments: 2 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 3, pp. 3-8 , 2008.

General Relativity predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian potential which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading to quantum corrections at large distances is that of the interactions of massless particles which only involve their coupling energies at low energies. In this short paper we attempt to propose the Sagnac intrerferometric technique as a way of detecting the relativistic correction suggested for the Newtonian potential, and thus obtaining an estimate for phase difference using a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 250 km above the surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1002.0020 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2010

Satellite Motion in a Non-Singular Potential

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Spiros Pagiatakis
Comments: 7 pages, Published: Astrophys Space Sci., Jan 22, 2010, DOI 10.1007/s10509-010-0274-5.

We study the effects of a non-singular gravitational potential on satellite orbits by deriving the corresponding time rates of change of its orbital elements. This is achieved by expanding the non-singular potential into power series up to second order. This series contains three terms, the first been the Newtonian potential and the other two, here R1 (first order term) and R2 (second order term), express deviations of the singular potential from the Newtonian. These deviations from the Newtonian potential are taken as disturbing potential terms in the Lagrange planetary equations that provide the time rates of change of the orbital elements of a satellite in a non-singular gravitational field. We split these effects into secular, low and high frequency components and we evaluate them numerically using the low Earth orbiting mission Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We show that the secular effect of the second-order disturbing term R2 on the perigee and the mean anomaly are 4".307*10-9/a, and -2".533*10-15/a, respectively. These effects are far too small and most likely cannot easily be observed with today's technology. Numerical evaluation of the low and high frequency effects of the disturbing term R2 on low Earth orbiters like GRACE are very small and undetectable by current observational means.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1002.0019 [pdf] replaced on 11 Aug 2011

On the Precession of Mercury's Orbit

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 7 pages

The Sunís orbital motion around the Solar System barycentre contributes a small quadrupole moment to the gravitational energy of Mercury. The effect of this moment has until now gone unnoticed, but it actually generates some precession of Mercuryís orbit. Therefore the residual 43arcsec/cy, currently allocated to general relativity, has to account for this new component as well as a reduced relativity component.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1002.0018 [pdf] submitted on 12 Feb 2010

An Auxiliary Gravitational Field Operating in Galaxies

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 22 pages, Submitted to PMC Physics A

A theory has been developed of an auxiliary relativistic gravitational field, which operates in conjunction with General Relativity gravity and accounts for the empirical success of Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics theory. Remarkable links between this astronomical theory and atomic physics have been discovered. Resonant, standing-wave properties of the field encourage the formation of flat rotation curves, bar or spiral structures and quantised galactic rings. Gravitational lensing due to this field is also significant. The angular momentum proportional to mass-squared relationship observed in galaxies is attributed to this field selecting a preferred galactic rotation velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1002.0017 [pdf] submitted on 12 Feb 2010

Evidence for Quantisation in Planetary Ring Systems

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 23 pages, Submitted to PMC Physics A

Absolute radial positions of the main features in Saturn's ring system have been calculated by adapting the quantum theory of atomic spectra. Fine rings superimposed upon broad rings are found to be covered by a harmonic series of the form N α A(r)1/2, where N and A are integers. Fourier analysis of the ring system shows that the spectral amplitude fits a response profile which is characteristic of a resonant system. Rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also obey the same rules. Involvement of the atomic fine structure constant throughout implies the existence of a real quantisation force linking gravitation and atomic theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1002.0016 [pdf] submitted on 12 Feb 2010

Detection of the Relativistic Corrections to the Gravitational Potential Using a Sagnac Interferometer

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney
Comments: 6 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 3, pp. 3-8 , 2008.

General Relativity predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian potential which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading to quantum corrections at large distances is that of the interactions of massless particles which only involve their coupling energies at low energies. In this short paper we attempt to propose the Sagnac intrerferometric technique as a way of detecting the relativistic correction suggested for the Newtonian potential, and thus obtaining an estimate for phase difference using a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 250 km above the surface of the Earth.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1002.0015 [pdf] submitted on 12 Feb 2010

Geodetic Precession of the Spin in a Non-Singular Gravitational Potential

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney
Comments: 6 pages, Published, Progress in Physics, vol. pp. 1-5, 2008

Using a non-singular gravitational potential which appears in the literature we analytically derived and investigated the equations describing the precession of a body's spin orbiting around a main spherical body of mass M. The calculation has been performed using a non-exact Schwarzschild solution, and further assuming that the gravitational field of the Earth is more than that of a rotating mass. General theory of relativity predicts that the direction of the gyroscope will change at a rate of 6.6 arcsec/year for a gyroscope in a 650 km high polar orbit. In our case a precession rate of the spin of a very similar magnitude to that predicted by general relativity was calculated resulting to a ΔSgeo/Sgeo =-5.570*10-2
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1002.0014 [pdf] submitted on 11 Feb 2010

Particles Here and Beyond the Mirror

Authors: Borissova L., Rabounski D.
Comments: 118 pages, 2nd edition, published by Svenska fysikarkivet, 2008

This is a research on all kinds of particles, which could be conceivable in the space-time of General Relativity. In addition to mass-bearing particles and light-like particles, zero-particles are predicted: such particles can exist in a fully degenerate space-time region (zero-space). Zero-particles seems as standing light waves, which travel in instant (non-quantum teleportation of photons); they might be observed in a further development of the "stopped light experiment" which was first conducted in 2001, at Harvard, USA. The theoretical existence of two separate regions in the space-time is also shown, where the observable time flows into the future and into the past (our world and the mirror world). These regions are separated by a space-time membrane wherein the observable time stops. A few other certain problems are considered. It is shown, through Killing's equations, that geodesic motion of particles is a result of stationary geodesic rotation of the space which hosts them. Concerning the theory of gravitational wave detectors, it is shown that both free-mass detector and solid-body detector may register a gravitational wave only if such a detector bears an oscillation of the butt-ends.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1002.0013 [pdf] submitted on 11 Feb 2010

Fields, Vacuum, and the Mirror Universe

Authors: Borissova L., Rabounski D.
Comments: 260 pages, 2nd edition, published by Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009

In this book, we build the theory of non-geodesic motion of particles in the space-time of General Relativity. Motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field is constructed in curved space-time (in contrast to the regular considerations held in Minkowski's space of Special Relativity). Spin particles are explained in the framework of the variational principle: this approach distinctly shows that elementary particles should have masses governed by a special quantum relation. Physical vacuum and forces of non-Newtonian gravitation acting in it are determined through the lambda-term in Einstein's equations. A cosmological concept of the inversion explosion of the Universe from a compact object with the radius of an electron is suggested. Physical conditions inside a membrane that separates space-time regions where the observable time flows into the future and into the past (our world and the mirror world) are examined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1002.0012 [pdf] submitted on 9 Feb 2010

The Interaction of Measurement

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 3 pages

What is measurement and what can it tell us about the quantity measured? Can we know a quantity by measuring it? We mathematically demonstrate that the answer is no! We show how a continuous quantity E(t) that grows exponentially can in our measurements of it be seen as discrete and growing linearly. And if we further consider the practical limitations that render measurements as 'approximations' only, then the quantity E(t) that we measure can be any integrable function yet our measurements of it will still depict it as discrete and linear. Furthermore, and most urprising, the 'interaction of measurement' will be described by Planck's Law, whether E(t) is exponential or just integrable. Thus, we cannot know what the hidden quantity E(t) is by the measurements of it.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[9] viXra:1002.0011 [pdf] submitted on 9 Feb 2010

What I Was Doing When I Was Einstein's Age of Discovery

Authors: David Martin Degner
Comments: 37 pages

AWhen I was in my twenties I worked on the problem: What is Life? In 1980/81 I was a research associate in molecular genetics at the University of California at Berkeley working for a professor in bacteriology. I wrote for the professor a 57 legal sized page, hand written and unedited essay in the form of a sequence of 72 questions and answers that focused on Gram (+) prokaryotic cells, the hydrogen of biology. The professor failed to comment or ask a single question. Back then I was into equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, chemical interactions and kinetics, static and dynamic phase organization, mass/energy and information flow, information definition and information processing, and modeling biological cells as chemical computers, i.e. Turing machines. I've faithfully transcribed that unedited sequence of questions and answers here. It's at times quite tedious and there were some major errors but there also is some really good science. There is always chaos embedded in new work. This is a qualitative, phenomenological model of the central processing unit of the prokaryotic cell that is the first step in obtaining a fully quantitative model for biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[8] viXra:1002.0010 [pdf] submitted on 5 Feb 2010

Angular Size Test on the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Martín López-Corredoira
Comments: 44 pages, accepted to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

Assuming the standard cosmological model as correct, the average linear size of galaxies with the same luminosity is six times smaller at z = 3.2 than at z = 0, and their average angular size for a given luminosity is approximately proportional to z-1. Neither the hypothesis that galaxies which formed earlier have much higher densities nor their luminosity evolution, mergers ratio, or massive outflows due to a quasar feedback mechanism are enough to justify such a strong size evolution. Also, at high redshift, the intrinsic ultraviolet surface brightness would be prohibitively high with this evolution, and the velocity dispersion much higher than observed. We explore here another possibility to overcome this problem by considering different cosmological scenarios that might make the observed angular sizes compatible with a weaker evolution. One of the models explored, a very simple phenomenological extrapolation of the linear Hubble law in a Euclidean static universe, fits the angular size vs. redshift dependence quite well, which is also approximately proportional to z-1 with this cosmological model. There are no free parameters derived ad hoc, although the error bars allow a slight size/luminosity evolution. The type Ia supernovae Hubble diagram can also be explained in terms of this model with no ad hoc fitted parameter. WARNING: I do not argue here that the true Universe is static. My intention is just to discuss which theoretical models provide a better fit to the data of observational cosmology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1002.0009 [pdf] submitted on 5 Feb 2010

Do Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Form a Part of Dark Matter?

Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is considered whether or not recent ultra high energy cosmic ray observations hint at the possibility that the unaccounted for higher energy rays have become dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1002.0008 [pdf] submitted on 4 Feb 2010

Prime Physis and the Mathematical Derivation of Basic Law

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 2 pages

In another paper we derived Planck's Law and showed that it is an exact mathematical identity that describes the interaction of energy. In that derivation the quantity, the 'accumulation of energy', played a prominent role. This quantity was defined as a time-integral of energy, while energy was the primary quantity. In this note we consider instead that this is the primary physical quantity (prime physis) and define in terms of it energy, momentum and force. From these we go on to mathematically derive such basic laws of Physics as Conservation of Energy and Momentum and Newton's Second Law of Motion. We also make promising connections with the Schrodinger Equation and derive a relationship between energy, mass and velocity. Underlying all this is the conviction that 'measurement' is what connects Mathematics with Physics. It's what makes mathematical derivations relevant to physics. If so, it should then be that all Basic Law of Physics are Mathematical Identities that describe the interactions of measurement. This we are able to show for Planck's Law, Conservation of Energy and Momentum, Newton's Second Law of Motion, and the Quantization of Energy Hypothesis.
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1002.0007 [pdf] submitted on 4 Feb 2010

La TEORíA Conectada Soluciona el Problema DE la Materia Oscura DE la Relatividad General DE Einstein. (Dark Matter)

Authors: Xavier Terri Castañé
Comments: 38 pages, Spanish language

The connected theory solves the problem to the dark substance of the theory of general relativity of Einstein. What is the substance? Do we see the world and create theories, or we create theories and observe the world? The real solution to the crisis of contemporary physics will be a physico-philosophical question or...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1002.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2 Feb 2010

A Time-dependent Local Representation of Energy

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 6 pages

Whereas globally energy propagates continuously as a wave, in this note we consider that energy can be represented locally by an exponential of time. Using such representation we are able to show that Planck's Formula for blackbody radiation is an exact mathematical identity. We are also able to explain the photoelectric effect without the photon hypothesis and derive an equation relating the photoelectric current to the intensity and frequency of radiation. This equation conforms well with graphical characteristics of the actual experimental data. Moreover, this representation of energy explains the quantum hypothesis, provides a simple intuitive explanation of the double-slit experiment and permits a definition of the temperature of radiation. It also explains the physical meaning of Planck's constant h and why it exists.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1002.0003 [pdf] replaced on 15 Mar 2010

Shifting Assignments Between Infinite Sets

Authors: Willi Penker
Comments: 3 pages

To shift assignments between infinite sets is to create a disturbance within the assignment itself that cannot be removed. An assignment carrying such a disturbance cannot be regarded as static.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[2] viXra:1002.0002 [pdf] submitted on 1 Feb 2010

On the Origin of Atoms

Authors: Richard C. Williams
Comments: 1 page

If energy is seen as having relative displacement based on atomic mass then it is possible to see how the atom was envisaged
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] viXra:1002.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Feb 2010

The Photoelectric Effect Without Photons

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 4 pages

Using the same ideas and approach followed in our derivation of Planck's Law is an exact mathematical identity and our explanation of the double-slit experiment, we in this note provide an explanation of the Photoelectric Effect and derive equations that conform well with experimental data.
Category: Quantum Physics