[247] **viXra:1404.0478 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-01 10:13:40*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 15 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

This is the first “theory" in a sequence of three.
[by:- tetrahedron_1_3_6@aol.co.uk All should be available on http://vixra.org]
[1] General Theory of the 3D Cobweb Universe [http://vixra.org/all/1404]
[2] Spherical Topology - The Basis for Fundamental Forces of the Universe
[3] Sphere Geometry of Forces & Fundamental Particles of the Universe [viXra:1311.0196 ]
There was only minor connections of logic along the sequence (insufficient for a reference or a Wikipedia citation!). The flash of inspired intuition overwhelmed logic and the “verifiable facts” in the General Theory of the Cobweb Universe. Each theory was “believed to be better" than the previous one, (in the areas that it covers) without any verifiable proof!
This is called a General Theory because it covers many diverse aspects.
The consequences & conclusions:-
NOTE: As most of these concepts are of a "jigsaw puzzle type theory", be aware that if one concept is flawed the others can remain valid.
Overall, this puts forward a comprehensive, “collective theory" exploring new possibilities and to explain the diverse observations made, including:-
[1] A stringy universe.
[2] Small even-sized particles of energy & matter.
[3] the number of other universes limited in number by "quantum numbers".
[4] there is a family tree of universes.
[5] there is a family tree of forces.
[6] local expansion leading up to creation of the next multiverse level. No dark energy required, it is just the natural evolution of the multi-dimensional, multi-universe!
[7] multi-dimensional, multi-universe nature of matter.
[8] This theory ties up with string theories for 11, 16 and 26 dimensions.
A brief overview of the contents & the 11 novel concepts:-
The new concept / aspects of /consequences of the embryonic “3D cobweb structure of the universe":-
Everyday & scientific assumptions -Summary -Details -Scientific
[1] Cubically connected space
[2] Interconnectedness & intertwining
[3] "Surface splitting" of universes
[4] Space-time start
[5] The quantum numbers of the evolving family of universes
[6] The evolving family tree of universes
[7] Helices of space & double helices of time. Time is an UNSTABLE "substance"
[8] Entropy of Dimensional Expansion
[9] The Big Bang
[10] The matter and gravity
[11] The Holographic principle.
Testable aspects:- 5 verifiable testable observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[246] **viXra:1404.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-30 09:32:28*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Is Milgrom the Kepler of contemporary cosmology? If X is to string theory as Kepler’s laws are to Newtonian theory then what is X? What questions should string theorists ask? Are string vibrations confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice? If string vibrations are confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice, then what might be the implications for Einstein’s field equations? Does inertial resistance to gravitational acceleration become infinite as energy density approaches some natural upper limit? Is nature infinite if and only if the equivalence principle is 100% empirically valid? Consider Fredkin’s finite nature hypothesis: In any mathematical model related to physics, a complete infinity is either a mathematical convenience or a physical mistake. What might be the implications of the Fredkin hypothesis for gravitational theory? Does Wolfram’s automaton create approximate symmetries that falsely appear as completely valid symmetries above the Planck scale? Do string vibrations cause an unexpected inertial resistance to gravitational acceleration? This brief communication discusses the idea: (Inert mass) * Acceleration = (Intensity of the gravitational field) * (Gravitation mass) * (Scale factor related to the Leech lattice).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[245] **viXra:1404.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-30 03:05:50*

**Authors:** Anurag Pallaprolu

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Quantum computing, NMR Quantum Computers, Ensemble Computing

This document is submitted as a partial requirement for the
course Quantum Information and Computing, BITS Pilani. The
phenomenon of NMR can be used to generate spin states of nuclei
and these can be used as qubits for computational purposes, the
speciality being, an ensemble of molecules must be utilized. This allows for an exponentiation in the processing power of the computer. The document explains about the setup, measurement and initialization of an NMR quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[244] **viXra:1404.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-29 00:16:24*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this work, we calculated the input impedance of dipole antenna coupled with two parasitic resonators. It is shown that the input impedance has negative value in specific configurations. The dipole antenna works as a power generator when its input impedance is negative.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[243] **viXra:1404.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-28 15:17:49*

**Authors:** Yusuf Ziya Umul

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A three dimensional Green’s function is derived mathematically by using the two dimensional Green’s function, which is obtained as a result of the modified theory of physical optics’ algorithm. The integration of the three dimensional Green’s function leads to the two dimensional one when there spatial symmetry in the scatterer’s geometry and the incident wave. In order to obtain the three dimensional function, the two dimensional Green’s function is mathematically transformed into an infinite integral according to z. The derived Green’s function is generalized and expressed in a scattering integral for soft and hard surfaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[242] **viXra:1404.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-28 11:29:47*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Manuscript has been accepted for review in Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics

In the present paper we show, that nuclei Os 192, Pt 198, Hg 198, Hg 200, Hg 201, Hg 204, Tl 205, Pb 206, Pb 207, At 210, Pa 231, Th 232, AcU 235, Np 237, Pu 240, Am 242, Cm 247, Ku 261, and more create an island of stability.
Keywords: superheavy spherical nuclei, island of stability, sphere 192
PACS number: 21.60.-n

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[241] **viXra:1404.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-27 12:37:00*

**Authors:** Th. Guyer

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Simply Conclusion about power2

**Category:** Number Theory

[240] **viXra:1404.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-27 12:44:13*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 3 pages

The galactic rotation curve will not decrease towards the edge of a galaxy, because the nearby masses of stars will cause additional gravity within the galactic plane.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[239] **viXra:1404.0468 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-27 13:48:20*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 03 pages, 06 references

New formulas are proposed as a means to express the conservation of information principle. The first of them modifies the expression we presented in a previous work (viXra:1312.0060). The second one deals with the entropy of a particle in a circle. It is used to treats in a novel way the thermodynamics of a quantum gas. The wave function of this particle, when inserted in the conservation principle, leads to its entropy and the structure of energy levels to its internal energy.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[238] **viXra:1404.0466 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-14 22:07:07*

**Authors:** Hajime Mashima

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About 375 years ago, Pierre de Fermat wrote the following idea to Diophan- tus's "Arithmetica". Cubum autem in duos cubos, aut quadratoquadratum in duos quadra- toquadratos, et generaliter nullam in innitum ultra quadratum potes- tatem in duos eiusdem nominis fas est dividere cuius rei demonstrationem mirabilem sane detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitas non caperet. Later, this proposition has continued to be a presence, such as the One Ring that appeared in JRR Tolkien's "Lord of the Rings". Finally in 1994, it has been proven by Sir Andrew Wiles. However, interesting Fermat's proof is still unknown. Perhaps this is assumed to algebra category.

**Category:** Number Theory

[237] **viXra:1404.0465 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-10 22:33:58*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Please contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

It is well known that approximately 23% to 25% of nucleons found throughout space are in the form of Helium 4 atoms. The distribution uniformity indicates that these atoms were formed in the very early universe. In addition, trace amounts of Deuterium, Lithium 3 and Beryllium 7 are also uniformly distributed. These elements are evidence of a process known as primordial nucleosynthesis based on historical work by G. Gamow, H. Bethe and A. Sakharov and more recently by N.D. Schramm [10].
Residual deuterium is a sensitive test for this period and the goal of the work is to determine when residual primordial deuterium originated and re-evaluate limits on cosmological parameters. Specifically, the WMAP [3] and PLANCK [13] missions concluded that baryons could not make up more than 0.046 of current density. The primary variable is the baryon/photon ratio that is a function of expansion temperature and radius. PLANCK concluded that the baryon/photon ratio was 6e-10 and WMAP’s value was slightly lower. The author explored an expansion curve called R1+R3 based on values found in a model of the proton [5][7][Appendix 1]. The expansion curve is similar to the concordance model [4][3]. The temperature decreases from big bang values until He4 forms at 8e8K but He4 fusion energy causes the temperature to spike and this affects the baryon/photon ratio. The temperature spike is accompanied by a radius increase. Both of these affect the baryon/photon ratio. The radius increase allows the baryon/photon ratio to be 6e-10 with a baryon fraction of 0.5 of current density. The other half of current density is dark matter. Temperature and radius histories that include He4 fusion energy appear to be missing from the literature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[236] **viXra:1404.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-26 07:13:38*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A modified version of the Twin Paradox (TP), termed the Traveling Twins Paradox (TTP), is described. In the TTP, the twins move towards each other, via two identical fast vehicles, from two starting points, located along the x axis at coordinates +(l+ ∆l) and –(l+ ∆l), respectively. The twins first accelerate up to velocity v along identical runways of length ∆l each, then they shut down engines and travel towards each other with constant equal velocities (v). After passing each other they use the same runways to decelerate and stop. Unlike the standard TP, the scenario of the TTP is completely symmetric. Moreover, in the range (-l, +l) the TTP system is inertial. Thus, all solutions resorting to a preferred frame of reference (the "staying" twin in the standard TP), or to General Relativity (acceleration/deceleration effects) do not apply. This implies that the TTP poses an unsolvable paradox in Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[235] **viXra:1404.0463 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-18 11:05:21*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article describes a new model of gravitation based on idea of interconnection of
the gravitational interaction with the curvature of space (but only 3-dimensional, without
the ”curvature” of time). It is proposed to consider the space consisting of unit cells with
dimensions comparable to the size of elementary particles. Curvature of space is interpreted
through the change in the relative volume of unit cells. In the gravitational field the curva-
ture of space is qualified as a decrease in the distension of space with increasing distance from
the center of the attracting body. As an important complement of the kinematic relativistic
effects of moving bodies is introduced a new kinematic effect of longitudinal distension of
comoving space. It is alleged that the gravitational interaction is manifested as a result of
following of changes of kinematic effects of moving bodies for change in the local distension
of curved space. It is shown that the extrapolation of the fall of matter on the center of the
attracting body leads to the conclusion about the existence of density limit, as which can
be accepted the matter density of the neutron star.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[234] **viXra:1404.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-25 02:20:25*

**Authors:** Abel Cavaşi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A hypothesis on the motion of bodies under the action of forces perpendicular to the trajectory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[233] **viXra:1404.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 13:14:49*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Outline of the method. More updates and analysis in due course.

A technique is presented for improving the ratio of entangled photons to un-entangled photons for any means of generation. The approach takes advantage of the entangled nature of the photons of interest and their concomitant temporal coherence length, to separate that component by a combination of beam convergence, destructive interference, Faraday-Rotators, polarising filters and then beam divergence. The method applies to energy-time entangled photons and matter waves too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[232] **viXra:1404.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 13:17:33*

**Authors:** Eduard N. Klenov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The article considers phenomenal geometry figures being the carriers of value spectra for the pairs of the remaining additive quantum numbers occurred in the nature of strongly and weakly interacting particles. The unusual feature of such figures is that during their building no data about particles are used at all but the data about the mentioned spectra though can be found in these figures and this can be discovered with the help of special coordinate systems.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[231] **viXra:1404.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 13:51:36*

**Authors:** Oleg D. Kotchnev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a result of research into the phenomenon of prophetic dreams it has been concluded that a new form of matter may exist and an appropriate name for that matter would be noomatter.

**Category:** Mind Science

[230] **viXra:1404.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 14:33:47*

**Authors:** Ali A. Elabd, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Abdel-Aziz T. Shalaby

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this letter we introduce the definition of the capacitance in the atomic scale. The capacitance in the atomic scale is the same as the macro scale but the electrodes will be the maximum probability sheets of finding the electron. Based on this definition, an electrical model – equivalent circuit – for atom's emission is presented and Hydrogen atom is taken as an example. The line spectra of Iron and Sodium are used to verify the model. Also the concept of capacitance property is introduced. It means the capacitance between the upper and lower quantum states of the valence and conduction band energies respectively.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[229] **viXra:1404.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 09:25:16*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is explained in simple terms why all accepted stellar evolution models are wrong. Stars are assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium or LTE to make the stellar equations work. This is wrong, as LTE means no net transfer of energy or mass, yet all stars radiate. All accepted stellar evolution models contradict the first law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[228] **viXra:1404.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 05:39:44*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Let’s ask the atom if what I called Other Relativity stands with numbers.
(…and also when Taylor no longer applies)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[227] **viXra:1404.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 06:00:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in CNSNS 13 (2008) 666-676

Fractional dynamics offers a reliable tool for the study of far-from equilibrium processes that display scale-invariant properties, dissipation and long-range correlations. This feature may be particularly attractive when describing the complex dynamics that is likely to arise in the deep ultraviolet regime of Quantum Field Theory. We analyze here a simple scalar field Lagrangian using Caputo derivatives and the approximation of low-level fractionality. Results may be extrapolated to more realistic field models and suggest a series of surprising implications regarding phenomena that are expected to emerge beyond the range of the Standard Model for particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[226] **viXra:1404.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 03:28:01*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS, 2 (2013) 23-38

In this paper, we have made an attempt to discuss the role of division
algebras (octonions) in gravity and dark matter where, we have described the octonion
space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces namely gravitational G-space and
electromagnetic EM-space. We have discussed the standard model and GUTs in terms
of split octonion formulation. At last, we have formulated the theory of dark matter
in terms of octonion variables i.e. hot dark matter and cold dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[225] **viXra:1404.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-23 10:10:45*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

An icon of 20th Century Physics, Albert Einstein in fact made many mistakes in his career but none more egregious than setting the Constant in E = MC ^2 at 2.99 x 10^8, instead of the correct setting of the Constant at 3.35 x 108 . During his entire career, Einstein attempted seven times to provide a full proof for this equation, and failed each time. Moreover, although he has taken credit for discovery of the equation, in fact Henri Poincare devised the equation five years earlier than Einstein. The mistake over the value of the Constant has meant that nuclear power plants have been self – damaging since their inception, but changing the Constant value to will reduce the damage, possibly to zero.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[224] **viXra:1404.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-23 11:36:30*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Pascal’s Triangle, originally Mount Meru of Vedic Physics, provides the perfect format for a combinatorial Universe, with its binomial coefficients, as well as its ease of determining Fibonacci Numbers. Matrix and Clifford algebras, in the form of the chart above, can be shaped into a form identical with Pascal’s Triangle. At the same time, a Romanian researcher has devised an algorithm for determining a Fibonacci Number as a quarternion. This paper poses the question as to whether the Clifford Pyramid contains properties similar to Pascal's Triangle.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[223] **viXra:1404.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-23 06:58:09*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Irfan Acikgoz

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Rom. J. Phys. Vol.59, Nos:3-4 (2014) 214-223.

The spin precession of a Dirac particle in monotonically increasingly boosted coordinates is calculated using torsion gravity (teleparallel theory of gravity). Also, we find the vector and the axial-vector parts of the torsion tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[222] **viXra:1404.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-23 05:44:57*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics

An analysis of some of the applications of Clifford Space Relativity to the physics behind the modified black hole entropy-area relations, rainbow metrics, generalized dispersion and minimal length stringy uncertainty relations is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[221] **viXra:1404.0441 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-06 09:36:39*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is shown that the action function of a macroscopic adiabatic system of particles described as continuously differentable functions of energy-momentum in space-time, exists, that this is a plane wave, and that this function can in turn be integrated to a 4-vector field, which satisfies the Maxwell equations in the Lorentz gauge. Also, it is shown, how to formulate these results in terms of Functional Analysis of Hilbert spaces. With it, we show a.o. that PCT = -CPT = ±1 holds, which is a strong form of the PCT-theorem; we show that - in order to capture the concept of mass - the standard model gauge group has to be augmented by a factor group U(2), such that the complete gauge group becomes U(4). It is shown that the sourceless action field in itself suffices to describe the long ranged interaction of matter, both, electromagnetic and gravitational. This turns Einstein’s conception of photons as real particles and subsequently the concept of gravitons into physically unproven assumptions, which complicate, but not simplify the theory. The results appear to imply that the fields themselves do not interact with their sources. Though, this has never been checked by an experiment. As shown, a simple experiment could be carried out to answer this question.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[220] **viXra:1404.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-22 08:58:27*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

‘Action at a distance through empty space’ is an utterly illogical assumption, used in contemporary physics. In order to reduce irrationality of this assumption, different types of fields are used in explanations of various theories. Generally, these fields are undefined and quite vague in their structures, forms and actions. This essay attempts to briefly describe a real entity, made of matter in definite structural formations and with logical mechanism of actions, which can substitute for various types of undefined fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[219] **viXra:1404.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-21 13:35:48*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning
warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel
to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount
of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster
than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is
directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is
$1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than
the mass of the planet Earth!! Although the energy conditions of
General Relativity forbids the existence of negative energy the
Casimir Effect first predicted by Casimir in $1948$ and verified
experimentally by Lamoreaux in $1997$ allows sub-microscopical
amounts of it. Lamoreaux obtained experimentally negative energy
densities of $10^{-4} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$.This is an
extremely small value $10^{20}$ times lighter than the ones of a
body of $1$ kilogram in a cubic meter of space or
better:$100.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times lighter than the ones
of a body of $1$ kilogram in a cubic meter of space. We introduce
in this work a shape function that will low the negative energy
density requirements in the Natario warp drive from $10^{48}
\frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ to
$10^{-7} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$
a result $1000$ times lighter than the ones obtained by Lamoreaux
proving that the Casimir Effect can generate and sustain a Natario
warp drive spacetime.We also discuss other warp drive
drawbacks:collisions with hazardous interstellar matter(asteroids
or comets) that may happen in a real interstellar travel and
Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[218] **viXra:1404.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-21 11:43:40*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 63 Pages. charts

In a recent paper, the author explained the function and purpose of Brahma in Vedic Nuclear Physics, in relation to the 9 x 9 Vastu Purusha Mandala, commonly used in Vastu Shasta, known as the Indian form of Feng Shui, but which predates that form by many millennia. This paper overlays a grid of Clifford Algebras and Matrix Algebras over this ancient 9 x 9 Vastu Purusha in an attempt to derive correspondence between the 32 deities of the Vastu Purusha and contemporary mathematical physics. Next, a hypothesis: having established the veracity of the 9 x 9 Vastu Purusha and its 32 deities, is it possible to draw isomorphic relationships between the matrix algebras, Clifford Algebras and ancient Vedic deities? This paper attempts to do so. In addition, the paper solves elementary questions about Five Elements and rotation of the Svas Tika.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[217] **viXra:1404.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-21 04:12:58*

**Authors:** Vitaly Kuyukov P.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article discusses the dynamics of cosmological vacuum in the de sitter Universe with emphasis on the so-called quantum cosmology. The evolution of the Universe, governed dark energy, compared with evolution obliged dynamic quantum vacuum.
Current data indicate that our universe balances in a narrow region on the border between phantom energy, the cosmological constant and quintessence. Future observations will help to determine the nature of dark energy.
This article describes the evolution of the future of the Universe with variable cosmological constant . When restricting the event horizon of the Universe, there exists a nonzero temperature of the Hawking. This effect leads to the decrease of the cosmological event horizon after a stage of expansion of the Universe with dark energy. Time compression in this universe is determined only cosmological constant.
I see a new destiny of the Universe, which is significantly different from the endless cooling in the standard model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[216] **viXra:1404.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-20 16:27:02*

**Authors:** Martin Dubreuil, Sergi Koliada

**Comments:** Pages. This paper will be forwarded to a peer-reviewed journal after its completion. It was submitted here to claim priority.

Prompted by previous research results we analysed human decision processes for unconscious patterns. Like former studies we were able to find law-like patterns that were not consciously created. We calculated the residual uncertainty about the pattern to 1 : 10^13 and proved a high correlation ratio for the data source related to the found pattern through an intra class correlation test (3.2). We showed that conscious human behaviour and natural selection (3.3) are not able to explain this result. We showed that the found patterns content support Intelligent Design (3.4). This gives Intelligent Design a testable and verifiable hypotheses for the first time.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[215] **viXra:1404.0435 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-29 21:32:47*

**Authors:** Stephen Winter

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1. WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE : Non-singularity . Singularity (non-existence) is logically not. . The universe consists of abstraction (and nothing else) . Physical constants can't be other than exactly tailored . The world is a sense machine . The Fourth-Bag-Problem . Perception is extremely blinding out

2. WHAT IS WRONG WITH TODAY'S SCIENCE OF THE UNIVERSE : The universe has no size . The origin of the universe is not a location . 'Dark energy' wouldn't effect anything . Big Voids and SMBlack Holes = source and sink . The light of the universe isn't observable . Most galaxies move a billion times faster than light . Conceptually misguided space missions . Into limitless divergence

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[214] **viXra:1404.0434 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-07 05:27:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[213] **viXra:1404.0433 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-11 12:12:25*

**Authors:** Yu.A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Work is devoted to the development of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field (EMF). Of a single axiom of the existence in nature of the electromagnetic field vector potential deductively constructed the foundations of a coherent and consistent potential electrodynamics. New electrodynamics includes new stress tensor and the equations of motion EMF, tensor and 4 kinds of electromagnetic energy, conservation equations of the electromagnetic energy, tensor and the expression for 20 kinds of dynamic and stationary electromagnetic forces, tensors and equations of motion of charged particles, including the equation of plasma turbulence. An expression for the electromagnetic mass and the relation between EMF with the conservation laws of mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[212] **viXra:1404.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-19 16:43:19*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article deals with the most fundamental of the questions about the universe, namely, how it came into existence. In this article I use the famous mass/energy equation of Einstein and interpret it in a novel way which makes it possible for our universe to come into existence out of pure thoughts only. I also discuss how to calculate the probability for our type of universe to come into existence and find that the initial mass at the time of the Big Bang has to be within a certain range for the event to occur and give rise to our type of universe. This is similar to the concept of the goldilocks zone for the solar system for the existence of life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[211] **viXra:1404.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-19 19:35:24*

**Authors:** Suomy Nona

**Comments:** 575 Pages. viXra:1402.0070

The following equations were found by a comprehensive search using a GPU, trying every combination of constants that could be equal to the Universal Gravity constant. Because of limitations of measuring constants, all of these equations are more or less correct. The reader is invited to pick an equation as a favorite. Which one, if any, is the most correct?

**Category:** Astrophysics

[210] **viXra:1404.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-19 14:22:01*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages. in Russian

The riddle of Tolchin’s inertioid exists for almost a century. The paper shows that this riddle can be solved by involving general relativity theory. A method for calculation of the inertioid is given. Some constructive modifications are being offered. // Загадка инерциоида Толчина существует почти век. В статье показывается, что она может быть решена с привлечением общей теории относительности. Дается методика расчета инерциоида. Предлагаются конструктивные модификации.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[209] **viXra:1404.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 04:09:48*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The cause of unsupported motion in Faraday unipolar motor and similar designs is considered. It is shown that such motion is being generated due to the fact that there, together with the driving impulse there arises a flow of electromagnetic impulse which becomes isolated within the structure. // Рассматривается причина возникновения безопорного движения в униполярном двигателе Фарадея и сходных конструкциях. Показывается, что такое движение возникает благодаря тому, что в них вместе с движущим импульсом появляется поток электромагнитного импульса, замыкающийся внутри конструкции.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[208] **viXra:1404.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 23:54:28*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 28 Pages. 6 charts

Vedic Physics includes a theory of the emergence of matter from the invisible Substratum of Thaamic matter, into either the stable 8 x 8 Satwa Material or the dynamic 9 x 9 Raja form. Matter emerges in two dimensions from the Substratum, emerging at the very center of a circle, with the extrusion of tiny particles of Dark Matter through a central hole, at the logarithm of e, or the Euler Number. The extrusion of matter through the central hole exerts force on peripheral areas. This phenomenon helps to explain why Brahma is considered as the center of the Vedic Square, or the 9 x 9 Vastu Shastra, as well as the central No. 5 Square in the 3 x 3 Magic Square of Chinese divination, including Qi Men Dun Jia. The irony here is that Professor Minkowski has shown us the irrelevance of Minkowski Time. The appropriate temporal scheme for analysis of most phenomena is that based on Heavenly Stems and Earth Branches of sixty Jia Zi and the system of Na Yin, which includes Five Element information, founded on Base 60 Mathematics and used in China for millennia.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[207] **viXra:1404.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-19 02:45:15*

**Authors:** Harris V Georgiou

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to advanced pattern classifiers and machine learning models. Finally, these approaches are extended in multi-classifier models under the scope of Game Theory and optimum collective deci-sion, in order to produce efficient solutions for combining classifiers with minimum computational costs for advanced diagnostic systems. The material covered in this thesis is related to a total of 18 published papers, 6 in scientific journals and 12 in international conferences.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[206] **viXra:1404.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 12:45:37*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In two recent articles I have shown that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, conforms to quantum mechanics and cosmology. Here I demonstrate that it also conforms to the Standard Model. Using the energy expression derived from the theory, I demonstrate that the theory predicts the recently reported mass (≈125 GeV) of the Higgs boson.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[205] **viXra:1404.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 13:28:26*

**Authors:** Adriano Israel Vismara

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

La existencia de Dios es no-decidible, y por tanto cualquier discusión al respecto es absolutamente estéril, me propongo en este pequeño artículo, arrojar luz a discusión que parece que su único fin es dividir al hombre y llenar los bolsillos de teístas y ateístas.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[204] **viXra:1404.0421 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-17 08:48:45*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

The fundamental aspects of the General Grand Unification (GGU-model) processes are illustrated. This universe generating cosmogony is interpreted using various secular schemes. It is further interpreted, in detail, via a strict Biblically verified theological scheme.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[203] **viXra:1404.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 04:14:20*

**Authors:** Olivier Massot

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

Symmetry proves to be a useful concept when it comes to studying some conjectures in Number
theory. This study (english translation of the paper 1304-0060) concentrates on three already well-known conjectures and the
following one:
For any given prime number p, there exists at least one prime number in each and every interval
[kp,(k+1)p[, where k is a non-zero integer that is less than or equal to p.

**Category:** Number Theory

[202] **viXra:1404.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:23:18*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This chapter further extends the results obtained in chapters 4 and 5 (from linear equation to linear systems). Each algorithm is thoroughly proved and then an example is given.
Five integer number algorithms to solve linear systems are further given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[201] **viXra:1404.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:24:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This autumn will be a few years since the school journal “Gamma” was founded at Lyceum “Steagul Roşu” in Braşov, Romania, under the guidance of the good hearted professor MIHAIL BENCZE, who has not spared any effort for it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[200] **viXra:1404.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:25:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Due to professor Gane Policarp’s kindness, I have several issues of “Caietul de informare matematică” (“The notebook of mathematical information”), which has been put together with attention to detail and skill, and which attracted and persuaded me, from the very beginning, to collaborate with small materials.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[199] **viXra:1404.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:27:56*

**Authors:** S. Bhattacharya, F. Smarandache, M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we have proposed a semi-heuristic optimization algorithm for designing optimal plant layouts in process-focused manufacturing/service facilities. Our proposed algorithm marries the well-known CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique) with the Hungarian assignment algorithm. Being a semi-heuristic search, MASS
can be potentially more efficient in terms of CPU engagement time as it can converge on the global optimum faster than the traditional CRAFT,
which is a pure heuristic. We also present a numerical illustration of our proposed algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[198] **viXra:1404.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:29:49*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In our days we focus strongly on the interrelation between research and production. Between these two fields there is actually a very tight relation (osmosis), a dialectical union, while each is maintaining its own identity.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[197] **viXra:1404.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:36:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, we show that: if the equation has an integer solution and a b is not a perfect square, then (1) has an infinitude of integer solutions; in this case we find a closed expression for (xn, yn ) , the
general positive integer solution, by an original method. More, we generalize it for any
Diophantine equation of second degree and with two unknowns.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[196] **viXra:1404.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:38:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Letter series problems occur in many American tests for measuring quantitative ability of supervisory personnel.They are more difficult than number-series used for measuring mathematical
ability because are unusual and complex.
According to the English alphabetic order:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[195] **viXra:1404.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:45:57*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note, the author answers this question using as reference F. Lazebnik & Y. Pilipenko’s E 3036 problem from A. M. M., Vol. 91, No. 2/1984, p. 140.An interesting property of functions admitting fixed points is obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[194] **viXra:1404.0409 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 23:42:12*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Analysis of the foundations of standard trigonometry is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that the foundations of trigonometry contradict to the principles of system approach and contain formal-logical errors. The principal logical error is that the definitions of trigonometric functions represent quantitative relationships between the different qualities: between qualitative determinacy of angle and qualitative determinacy of rectilinear segments (legs) in rectangular triangle. These relationships do not satisfy the standard definition of mathematical function because there are no mathematical operations that should be carry out on qualitative determinacy of angle to obtain qualitative determinacy of legs. Therefore, the left-hand and right-hand sides of the standard mathematical definitions have no the identical sense. The logical errors determine the essence of trigonometry: standard trigonometry is a false theory.

**Category:** Geometry

[193] **viXra:1404.0407 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 16:17:41*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we calculated mass (m = 4423 MeV), quantum numbers (unitary spin and positive parity) and estimated the full width (about 100 MeV; such mesons have the resonant character) of the negative resonance Z(4430). It is not a new form of matter called a tetraquark.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[192] **viXra:1404.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 00:53:24*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Fermat's "Last Theorem" asserts that if n > 2, the equation x^n + y^n = z^n cannot be solved in integers x, y, z, with xyz <> 0:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[191] **viXra:1404.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 00:57:19*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Diego L. Rapoport, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In recent years, there are attempts to describe quantization of planetary distance based on time-independent gravitational Schr¨odinger equation, including Rubcic & Rubcic’s method and also Nottale’s Scale Relativity method. Nonetheless, there is no solution yet for time-dependent gravitational Schr ¨odinger equation (TDGSE). In the present paper, a numerical solution of time-dependent gravitational Schrodinger equation is presented, apparently for the first time. This numerical solution leads to gravitational Bohr-radius, as expected. In the subsequent section, we also discuss plausible extension of this gravitational Schr¨odinger equation to include the effect
of phion condensate via Gross-Pitaevskii equation, as described recently by Moffat.
Alternatively one can consider this condensate from the viewpoint of Bogoliubov de Gennes
theory, which can be approximated with coupled time-independent gravitational Schr¨odinger equation. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[190] **viXra:1404.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 00:57:28*

**Authors:** Roger Schlafly

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to the 2014 FQXi essay contest.

Modern physics has come to conclusions about time, causality, and reality that have outpaced our language and intuitions. The idea that humanity should steer the future is a cognitive prejudice, based on an ancient misperception of time. Modern physics has brought us a new fatalism about the future, and more reason to focus on the past. The consequence is that there is no future to steer, and humanity is not what we expect.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[189] **viXra:1404.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:06:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Let's consider a tunnel getting from a side to the other side of the Earth, and passing through the
center of the Earth.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[188] **viXra:1404.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:13:49*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

În cele ce urmează stabilim o legătură între noţiunea de simediană a unui triunghi şi noţiunea
de polară a unui punct în raport cu un cerc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[187] **viXra:1404.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:17:19*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the
plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find ‘natural plantation’ which have no direct link to ‘food chain’ (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[186] **viXra:1404.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:19:01*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we’ll present a new proof of Dergiades’ Theorem, and we’ll use this theorem
to prove that the orthological triangles with the same orthological center are homological triangles.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[185] **viXra:1404.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:20:25*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we’ll present the properties of the radicale axes and the adjoin circles of a
triangle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[184] **viXra:1404.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:22:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article generalizes certain results on the nedianes (see [1], pp. 97-99). One calls nedianes the segments of a line that passes through a vertex of a triangle and partitions the opposite side in n equal parts.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[183] **viXra:1404.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:23:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are many papers on this subject, but the author cites the papers which have influenced him, especially Klee’s papers. Let n be a counterexample to Carmichaël’s conjecture.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[182] **viXra:1404.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:24:51*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Proprietăţile prezentate în acest articol se referă la axele radicale şi la centrele radicale ale
cercurilor adjuncte unui triunghi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[181] **viXra:1404.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:31:59*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The article is ready for publication.

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, electron . leptons, neutrino.
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[180] **viXra:1404.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:44:45*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Asymmetrical information is referring to the case when one side of the market (seller or buyer) has information about the product that other side doesn’t. This information can be used by the knowledgeable side in its advantage.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[179] **viXra:1404.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:45:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Vic Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the present article, we argue that it is possible to generalize Schr ¨odinger equation
to describe quantization of celestial systems. While this hypothesis has been described
by some authors, including Nottale, here we argue that such a macroquantization was formed by topological superfluid vortice. We also provide derivation of Schr¨odinger equation from Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg equation, which supports this superfluid dynamics interpretation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[178] **viXra:1404.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:46:57*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article, we find out some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schr¨odinger equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[177] **viXra:1404.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:08:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short note we study the existence and number of solutions in the set of integers (Z) and in the set of natural numbers (N) of Diophantine equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[176] **viXra:1404.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:10:52*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the High School Algebra manual for grade IX (1981), pp. 103-104, is presented a method for solving systems of two homogenous equations of second degree, with two unknowns. In this article we’ll present another method of solving them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[175] **viXra:1404.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:18:39*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paper presents an initial explorations on T, I, F operations based on genetic concept
hierarchy and genetic referential hierarchy, as a novel proposal to the indeterminacy issue in
neutrosophic logic, in contrast to the T, I, F values inherited from conventional logics in which
those values would fail to demonstrate the genetic aspect of a concept and accordingly loose the
connection between generality and practicality.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[174] **viXra:1404.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:27:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Did you ever question yourself what happens if the module m is not anymore prime?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[173] **viXra:1404.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:35:04*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This short note presents some remarks and conjectures on two open problems proposed
by P. Erdös.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[172] **viXra:1404.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:38:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Ming Zhang, Ling Zhang, H. D. Cheng use a novel approach, i.e. neutrosophic logic which is a
generalization of fuzzy logic and especially of intuitionistic fuzzy logic, to image segmentation -
following one of the authors (H. D. Cheng) together with his co-author Y. Guo previous published paper on neutrosophic approach to image thresholding

**Category:** General Mathematics

[171] **viXra:1404.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:39:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short note we give a formula for the unification of a class of fusion rules
based on the conjunctive and/or disjunctive rule at the first step, and afterwards the
redistribution of the conflicting and/or non-conflicting mass to the non-empty sets at the
second step.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[170] **viXra:1404.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:43:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Vic Christianto

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently we’ve read that there is an excellent Cold Fusion experiment performed by Prof. Arata, showing that the promise of CF/LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) is rekindled.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[169] **viXra:1404.0305 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 03:22:46*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

The Born rule is a rule that a probability we observe a small particle like an electron is proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wave function. In this paper, we try to derive the Born rule from the many-worlds interpretation.

Many researchers have tried to derive the Born rule (also called Born's rule, Born's law, or probability interpretation) from Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI). However, no one succeeds. Thus, the derivation of Born’s rule had become an important issue for MWI. We try to derive Born’s rule by introducing an elementary event of probability theory to the quantum theory as a new method.

We interpret the wave function as a manifold like a three-dimensional sphere, and interpret the absolute value of the wave function as the surface area of the manifold. We suppose that the manifold exists in the discrete space that has lattice points. We interpret a point on the surface of the manifold as a state that we cannot divide any more, an elementary state. We draw an arrow from any point to any point. We interpret an arrow as an event that we cannot divide any more, an elementary event.

Probability is proportional to the number of elementary events, and the number of elementary events is the square of the number of elementary states. The number of elementary states is proportional to the surface area of the manifold, and the surface area of the manifold is the absolute value of the wave function. Therefore, the probability is proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1404.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:52:17*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

НЕЙТРОСОФИЯ (neutrosophy, от фр. и латин. neuter, что значит «нейтральное» и греч. sophia, что значит «мудрость», «учение») – знание о нейтральный объектах. Н. является теорией, созданной как обобщение диалектики.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1404.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:54:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Neutrosophic Transdisciplinarity means to find common features to uncommon entities, i.e., for
vague, imprecise, not-clear-boundary entity one has:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[166] **viXra:1404.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:59:12*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the preceding article we argue that biquaternionic extension of Klein-Gordon equation
has solution containing imaginary part, which diers appreciably from known solution of KGE. In the present article we discuss some possible interpretation of this imaginary part of the solution of biquaternionic KGE (BQKGE); thereafter we oer a new derivation of biquaternion Schrodinger equation using this method. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1404.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:01:06*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article is an improved version of an old manuscript. This is a theoretical assumption about the possible existence of a new form of matter. Up to day the unmatter was not checked in the lab.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[164] **viXra:1404.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:03:03*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Pinaki Majumdar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, three new operations have been introduced on intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets. They are based on Second Zadeh‟s implication, conjunction and disjunction operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Some examples of these operations were given and a few important properties were also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[163] **viXra:1404.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:06:51*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Hesitancy is the most common problem in decision making, for which hesitant fuzzy set can be considered as a useful tool allowing several possible degrees of membership of an element to a set. Recently, another suitable means were defined by Zhiming Zhang [1], called interval valued intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy sets, dealing with uncertainty and vagueness, and which is more powerful than the hesitant fuzzy sets. In this paper, four new operations are introduced on interval-valued intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy sets and several important properties are also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1404.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 03:35:44*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper constructs the zeta functions of the quaternion and the sporadic finite simple groups.

Although many researchers have tried the proof of the Riemann hypothesis, they have not resulted in the success. The proof of this Riemann hypothesis has been an important issue of mathematics. In this paper, we construct zeta functions of the quaternion and the sporadic finite simple groups as preparation proving the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[161] **viXra:1404.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:10:21*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mamoni Dhar, Pinaki Majumdar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, three new operations are introduced on intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets .They are based on concentration, dilatation and normalization of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Some examples of these operations were given and a few important properties were also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1404.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:12:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we review nine previous proposed and solved problems of elementary 2D geometry [4] and [6], and we extend them either from triangles to polygons or polyhedrons, or from circles to spheres (from 2D-space to 3D-space), and make some comments, conjectures and open questions about them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1404.0285 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 03:47:02*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We derive the two-valuedness and the angular momentum of a spin-1/2 from a rotation of 3-dimensional surface of a sphere existing in extra 4-dimensional space other than normal 3-dimensional space, in this paper.

We will derive the two-valuedness of the spin as follows.
We introduce 3-dimensional surface of a sphere S^{3} existing in extra 4-dimensional space (W, X, Y, Z) other than normal 3-dimensional space (x, y, z). We interpret the angle of rotation of the 3-sphere S^{3} as the phase of a wave function. We interpret the 3-sphere S^{3} as the absolute value of a wave function.

We can express 3-sphere as the manifold with a constant sum of squares of the radius of two circles. When one circle's radius becomes the maximum, the other circle's radius becomes zero. Therefore, we can turn the circle inside out naturally. If we combine the circle turned inside out with the original circle, the manifold becomes a torus with a node. If we rotate the node of the torus by 360 degrees, we can turn the torus inside out. If we rotate the node of the torus 720 degrees, we can return the torus to the original state. This property is consistent with the property of the spin.

We derive the angular momentum of the spin as follows.
We make 3-dimensional solid sphere by removing one point from 3-sphere S^{3}. On the other hand, we can make boundary like a 3-sphere S^{3} by removing one point from normal 3-dimensional space (x, y, z). We combine the boundaries of them. By repeating this, we can construct 3-dimensional helical space.

The angle of rotation of the 3-sphere S^{3} is the angle of rotation of 3-dimensional helical space. On the other hand, we can interpret the angle of the rotation in the helical space as the coordinates (x, y, z) of the normal 3-dimensional space. Therefore, we can interpret the angular momentum of the 3-sphere S^{3} as the angular momentum of normal space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[158] **viXra:1404.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 03:56:13*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

In this paper, we derive the reflection integral equation of the zeta function by the complex
analysis.

Many researchers have attempted the proof of the Riemann hypothesis, but have not been
successful. The proof of this Riemann hypothesis has been an important mathematical issue. In
this paper, we attempt to derive the reflection integral equation by the complex analysis as
preparation proving the Riemann hypothesis.

We obtain a generating function of the inverse Mellin-transform. We obtain a new generating
function by multiplying the generating function with exponents and reversing the sign. We derive
the reflection integral equation from the inverse Z-transform of the generating function.

We derive the Faulhaber’s formula, and Nörlund–Rice integral from the reflection integral equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[157] **viXra:1404.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 04:01:12*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We prove that the sum of natural numbers is -1/12 of the value of the zeta function by the new
method.

Abel calculated the sum of the divergent series by the Abel summation method. However, we
cannot calculate the sum of natural numbers by the method. In this paper, we calculate the sum of
the natural numbers by the extended Abel summation method.

**Category:** Number Theory

[156] **viXra:1404.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton (D,He 3 or alpha particle respectively ).Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles. Higgs Boson.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, potential energy. leptons. hyperons, mesons, quarks
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[155] **viXra:1404.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:04:36*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Theorem of Carnot: Let M be a point on the diagonal AC of an arbitrary quadrilateral ABCD.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1404.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:09:57*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 35 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are small. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Comparison the official and of the author´s results.
Theory of particles, waves and heat. Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves.
Neutron, β electron , gamma rays – calculations. Discussion to Cobalt-60 decay.
Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ).
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[153] **viXra:1404.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:10:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In these paragraphs one presents three generalizations of the famous theorem of Ceva, which states:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1404.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:13:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Er’s matrix method for computing Fibonacci numbers and their sums can be extended to the s-additive sequence:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[151] **viXra:1404.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:16:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton.
Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles. We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, β rays, bosons Zo, W+- , γ rays, wave–particle duality.
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60., 14.65., 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[150] **viXra:1404.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:16:06*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After a passionate lecture of this book [1] (Mathematics plus literature!) I stopped
at one of the problems explained here:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[149] **viXra:1404.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:17:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One generalizes the inequality of Hödler thanks to a reasoning by recurrence. As particular cases, one obtains a generalization of the inequality of Cauchy-Buniakovski-Scwartz, and some interesting applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[148] **viXra:1404.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:23:08*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 29 Pages. The article is ready for publication

. In the present paper we show, that accurate measurement kinetical energy in high-energy physics will use to determine the exact value of the speed of particles. The exact value of the speed of particles allows us to establish the precise momentum of particles.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, potential energy. neutron, proton, electron, leptons, quarks
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[147] **viXra:1404.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:24:27*

**Authors:** Claudiu Coandă, C. Florentin Smarandache, Ion Pătrașcu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we prove a theorem that will generalize the concurrence theorems that are
leading to the Franke’s point, Kariya’s point, and to other remarkable points from the triangle
geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[146] **viXra:1404.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-07 14:15:18*

**Authors:** Sergey I. Kuznetsov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The proposed model-independent solution to the dark energy problem requires only redefining the redshift parameter z with no special assumptions of the physical mechanism of cosmological redshifting. The new definition of the redshift parameter finds its justification in cosmological models based on both special and general relativity. In this paper a Hubble diagram is produced from a sample of the SNe1a observational data, after recalculating measured redshifts according to the new definition with no change in corresponding magnitudes (apparent luminosities). A linear fit of the observational data obtained with the newly-defined redshift z* can be considered as an evidence for the non-accelerating Universe with no need for any dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[145] **viXra:1404.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:28:20*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Extension Theory (or Extenics) was developed by Professor Cai Wen in 1983 by publishing a paper called Extension Set and Non-Compatible Problems. Its goal is to solve contradictory problems and also nonconventional, nontraditional ideas
in many fields.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[144] **viXra:1404.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:33:01*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The article is ready for publication

The start of the 22-year cycle begins with a well-established dipole field component aligned along the solar rotational axis. The field lines tend to be held by the highly conductive solar plasma of the solar surface.
The solar dipole field, through similar processes, reverses again at the end of the 22-year cycle.
The new solar cycle by definition begins with the sun in the middle latitudes (around 30 ° north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude - Spörer's law ) arises first sunspots. These spots have opposite magnetic polarity than the spots above the solar cycle.
Around the center of gravity of the Solar System v Sun = 377,64404380671797815401286112528 m/s
and RSun orbit = 0,41727286425040580889702383164445e+11 m = 0,27892571139733008616111218692781 AU.
Keywords: center of mass, angular momentum, solar cycle, orbit radius of the Sun around the center of gravity of the Solar

**Category:** Astrophysics

[143] **viXra:1404.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:34:10*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Despite incomparable achievement of Quantum
Electrodynamics and its subsequent theories, there are some known limitations and unsolved theoretical problems until this time, including 'renormalization’ condition [1][2] and its
generalization to larger systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[142] **viXra:1404.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:41:18*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are small. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[141] **viXra:1404.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:47:42*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 23 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[140] **viXra:1404.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:51:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note, we present the hyperbolic Menelaus theorem in the Poincare disc of hyperbolic geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[139] **viXra:1404.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:53:01*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 72 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons@@ in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[138] **viXra:1404.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:53:05*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The problems of cross words are composed, as we know, of grids and definitions. In the Romanian language one imposes the condition that the percentage of black boxes compared to the total number of boxes of the grid not to go over 15%.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[137] **viXra:1404.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:03:33*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 40 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In this article are the 5 tables for calculating the average translational velocities of all milisecond pulsars and others fast spinning bodies and shift the center of gravity due to the rotation. Corrections theory ideal spining circle for real bodies. Extreme values for neutron stars. Summary values for neutron stars. A new perspective on neutronization and nuclear fusion. Consent theory with the real Universe.
Keywords: stars: kinematics, pulsars: general, stellar dynamics, , stars: neutron,
PACS number: 97.60.Gb, 97.60.Jd,

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[136] **viXra:1404.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:07:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper at the beginning, we make a short history of the logics, from the classical
Boolean logic to the most general logic of today neutrosophic logic. We define the general logic
space and give the definition of the neutrosophic logic. Then we introduce the indeterminate
models in information fusion, which are due either to the existence of some indeterminate
elements in the fusion space or to some indeterminate masses. The best approach for dealing with such models is the neutrosophic logic, which is part of neutrosophy. Neutrosophic logic is connected with neutrosophic set and neutrosophic probability and statistics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[135] **viXra:1404.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:09:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article we will prove some inequalities for the integer part function, and we’ll give some applications in the number theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[134] **viXra:1404.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:12:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Definitions and Properties of the Integer Solution of a Linear System.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[133] **viXra:1404.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:27:38*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that quaternion number has wide application in theoretical physics and engineering fields alike, in particular to describe Maxwell electrodynamics. In the meantime, recently this quaternion number has
also been used to draw fractal graph. The present note is intended as an introduction to this very interesting study, i.e. to find linkage between quaternion/biquaternion number, quantum mechanical equation (Schrödinger equation) and fractal graph. Hopefully this note will be found useful for subsequent study.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[132] **viXra:1404.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:40:02*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It was known for quite long time that a quaternion space can be generalized to a Cliord space, and vice versa; but how to find its neat link with more convenient metric form in the General Relativity theory, has not been explored extensively.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[131] **viXra:1404.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:41:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A sequence of rational integers g is called a divisibility sequence if and only if...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[130] **viXra:1404.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:44:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

“The rebus’ language” is somewhere at the border of the scientific language and, that, perhaps, having many common things with usual language too, and even with the musical one (the puzzles, because they have a certain acoustic resonance).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[129] **viXra:1404.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:04:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Analyzing the deterioration’s degree of the keys of a typing machine which functioned for more than 40 years at the clerk's office of a court of a Rumanian district (Vâlcea), one partitions them in the following groups:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[128] **viXra:1404.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:07:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

“Mathematics is logical enough to be able to detect the internal logics of poetry and crazy enough not to lag behind the poetic ineffable” (Solomon Marcus).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[127] **viXra:1404.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:09:51*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Archimedes’ “fixed point theorem”: Give me a fixed point in space, and I shall upset the Earth”.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[126] **viXra:1404.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:13:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The aim of this paper is the investigation of some combinatorial aspects of written language, within the framework determined by the well-known game of crossword puzzles. Various types of probabilistic regularities appearing in such puzzles reveal some
hidden, not well-known restrictions operating in the field of natural languages. Most of
the restrictions of this type are similar in each natural language. Our direct concern will
be the Romanian language.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[125] **viXra:1404.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:16:19*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A great number of articles widen known results, and this is due to a simple procedure, of which it is good to say a few words.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[124] **viXra:1404.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:17:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let’s consider a polynomial with integer coefficients, of degree m.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[123] **viXra:1404.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:19:19*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We suppose known the definitions of the isogonal cevian and isometric cevian; we remind that the anti-bisector, the anti-symmedian, and the anti-height are the isometrics of the
bisector, of the symmedian and of the height in a triangle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[122] **viXra:1404.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:20:33*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In [1] we introduced the mixt-linear circles adjointly inscribed associated to a triangle,
with emphasizes on some of their properties. Also, we’ve mentioned about mixt-linear circles
adjointly ex-inscribed associated to a triangle.
In this article we’ll show several basic properties of the mixt-linear circles adjointly exinscribed
associate to a triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[121] **viXra:1404.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:23:32*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 9 pages, 3 tables

In present paper we develop the description of massless fields on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. The generalized sedeonic second-order equation for unified gravito-electromagnetic (GE) field describing simultaneously weak gravity and electromagnetism is proposed. The relations for the GE field energy, momentum and Lorentz invariants are derived. The special case of GE field described by first-order sedeonic wave equation is also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1404.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:27:10*

**Authors:** Victor Vladareanu, Gabriela Tont, Luige Vladareanu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper presents the navigation of mobile walking robot systems for movement in
non-stationary and non-structured environments. In the first approach are presented main
elements for the successful completion of intelligent navigation. The wireless sensor networks (WSN), dynamical stability control, strategies for dynamical control and a Bayesian approach of simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) for avoiding obstacles and dynamical stability control for motion on rough terrain are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1404.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:31:32*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

În aceasta lucrare este prezentata o noua
ramura a filosofiei, numita neutrosofie, care
studiaza originea, natura si scopul neutralita-
tilor, precum si interactiunile lor cu diferite
spectre de ideatic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[118] **viXra:1404.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-15 23:17:07*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The critical discussion of the theory of Big Bang is proposed. Methodological basis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is proved that the theory of Big Bang contains three fundamental logical errors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[117] **viXra:1404.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:33:50*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article one builds sets which have the following property: for any division in two subsets, at least one of these subsets contains at least three elements in arithmetic (or geometrical) progression.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1404.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:38:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That’s why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation of intersections and unions of many sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[115] **viXra:1404.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:39:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper one proposes a simple algorithm of combining the fusion rules, those rules which first use the conjunctive rule and then the transfer of conflicting mass to the non-empty sets, in such a way that they gain the property of associativity and fulfill the Markovian requirement for dynamic fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[114] **viXra:1404.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:45:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Since no fusion theory neither rule fully satisfy all needed applications, the author proposes an algorithm for the Unification of Fusion Theories and a combination of fusion rules in solving problems/applications. For each particular application, one selects the most appropriate model, rule(s), and algorithm of implementation.
We are working in the unification of the fusion theories and rules, which looks like a cooking recipe, better we'd say like a logical chart for a computer programmer, but we don't see another method to comprise/unify all things.
The unification scenario presented herein, which is now in an incipient form, should periodically be updated incorporating new discoveries from the fusion and engineering research.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[113] **viXra:1404.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:48:41*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new procedure called α -Discounting Method for Multi-Criteria Decision Making (α-D MCDM), which is as an alternative and extension of Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It works for any number of preferences that
can be transformed into a system of homogeneous linear equations. A degree of consistency (and implicitly a degree of inconsistency) of a decision-making problem are defined. α-D MCDM is generalized to a set of preferences that can be transformed into a system of linear and/or non-linear homogeneous and/or non-homogeneous equations and/or inequalities.
Many consistent, weak inconsistent, and strong inconsistent examples are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[112] **viXra:1404.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:51:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Paul Erdös has proposed the following problem:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[111] **viXra:1404.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:52:38*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this section is presented a new integer number algorithm for linear equation. This algorithm is more “rapid” than W. Sierpinski’s presented in [1] in the sense that it reaches the general solution after a smaller number of iterations. Its correctness will be thoroughly demonstrated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[110] **viXra:1404.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:55:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Let us consider a polygon A1,A2 ...An inserted in a circle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[109] **viXra:1404.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 01:23:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Carmichaël’s conjecture is the following: “the equation ϕ (x) = n cannot have a unique solution.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[108] **viXra:1404.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 01:52:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let’s consider a, b integers ≥ 2 and k an integer such that a, c=1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1404.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:03:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Inceputul secolului al 21-lea reflecta mai mult decat oricand ın istoria omenirii, rolul adanc,si significant al stiintei ¸si tehnologiei ın activitatile umane.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[106] **viXra:1404.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:05:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Le debut du 21eme siecle reflete, plus qu’aucun autre temps de l’histoire, la profondeur et l’importance de la science et la technologie dans les affaires humaines.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[105] **viXra:1404.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:18:31*

**Authors:** C.Castro, F. Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This proposal is intended to develop a free digital preprint service for physical sciences to enable scientists/physicists publishing their preprint articles prior to submitting for formal
publication in scientific journals, or perhaps they only want to see if their idea(s) received
proper response prior to submitting it to journal editors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[104] **viXra:1404.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:40:57*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 11

The exhaustion of earth’s resources, the criminal financial system, consumerism,
overpopulation, poverty, corporate and personal greed, have brought the earth in great danger.
The only way out, seems to be a dramatic but radical change of all these subjects.
However what radical change, should save us and prevent chaos and a third world war?
My only guess is Free Zero Point Electric Energy (ZPEE) Vacuum Energy by New Physics,
based on Birkeland/ Alfven electric currents found around the earth and galaxies, adapted to
local/ regional scales of use.
As a consequence all physics intelligence power and finance should be much more focussed
on so called “Energetic Blind Spots” in physics and astronomy on local and universal scale.
Examples:
A: There is still no serious world wide coordinated research on Ball Lightning and Earth
bound micro Comets going on!
B: Physicists are still guessing about the real origin of the magnetic power of Sunspots!
C: The energetic origin of Comets is a mystery, though the research on Comets is taken more
serious in the last years.
Secondly we have to think about new political structures to be able to change the base of
world scale ZPEE electricity based food production techniques, earning models and law, to
create a democratic Sustainable SUPER SOCIAL SOCIETY.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[103] **viXra:1404.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:59:00*

**Authors:** Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this short, technical paper we have saught to derive under a posited formal model of political equilibrium.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[102] **viXra:1404.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:59:51*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Coming from Eastern Europe where, even under communism, the Dean and President were elected for a temporary period, I was surprised to see that in USA they are elected or appointed for permanent positions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[101] **viXra:1404.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:03:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In one of his books (“Analysis…”) Mr. Paul Erdös proposed the following problem:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[100] **viXra:1404.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:06:23*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the present article we argue that it is possible to write down Schr¨odinger representation
of Navier-Stokes equation via Riccati equation. The proposed approach, while diers appreciably from other method such as what is proposed by R. M. Kiehn, has an advantage, i.e. it enables us extend further to quaternionic and biquaternionic version of Navier-Stokes equation, for instance via Kravchenko’s and Gibbon’s route. Further
observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition

**Category:** General Mathematics

[99] **viXra:1404.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:09:15*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Valeri Kroumov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we present several counter-examples
to the Conjunctive rule and to Dempster rule of combinations in information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[98] **viXra:1404.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:13:23*

**Authors:** Victor VLADAREANU, Florentin SMARANDACHE, Luige VLADAREANU

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The paper presents an advanced method for solving contradictory problems of hybrid position-force control of the movement of walking robots by applying a 2D Extension Set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[97] **viXra:1404.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:21:47*

**Authors:** Florentin SMARANDACHE

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we extend Inagaki Weighted Operators Fusion Rule in information fusion by doing redistribution of not only the conflicting mass.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[96] **viXra:1404.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:25:38*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We interpret ‘Sustainable construction’ theme in its widest possible meaning, i.e. the preservation
of sustainability of environment to support mankind. In this regard, it is realized that this Earth is likely to continue to deteriorate and therefore its capability to sustain mankind is diminishing.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[95] **viXra:1404.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:43:54*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . When four protons fuse to become one helium nucleus, two of which must be converted into neutrons, and each such transition depends on the penetration of the two electrons from the Universe, to the interior of the star . Penetration 1038 to 1058 of high energy electrons from the Universe to the interior of the star, transferred huge amounts of energy from the Universe into a small space of the star. This huge cosmic energy is responsible for thermonuclear fusion. Currently prevailing opinion that the star itself is the source of the nuclear fusion powering the star. In fact, without a high-energy electrons from other stars of the Universe, single star can not be able to a nuclear fusion, because without a high-energy electrons from other stars, her stellar protons cannot be transform into her neutrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[94] **viXra:1404.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:51:02*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Traveling to the past
Joe40, who is 40 years old, travels 10 years back to the past when he was 30 years old. He meets himself when he was 30 years old, let’s call this Joe30.
Joe40 kills Joe30.
If so, we mean if Joe died at age 30 (because Joe30 was killed), how could he live up to age 40?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[93] **viXra:1404.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:52:30*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article we’ll prove the Newton’s theorem relative to the circumscribed quadrilateral, we’ll transform it through duality, and we obtain another theorem which is true for an inscribable quadrilateral, which transformed through duality, we’ll obtain a theorem which is true for a circumscribable octagon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[92] **viXra:1404.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-14 20:12:53*

**Authors:** Stefan Koester

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Koester Equation, and all of its processes, quantify the "loss in progress" experienced in a data set when it undergoes an abnormality, such as a missing day in testing. This loss in progress can also be viewed as a number determining by how much that data set is skewed by an abnormality. For example, if a person were to take three of the same tests for three days in a row, an obvious positive curve in their results would be apparent. If, on the fourth day, a break was taken and no testing occurred, the results after would not be the same as if the person had just continued. This is usually known as the loss in progress, and can now be quantified using The Koester Equation.

**Category:** Statistics

[91] **viXra:1404.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-28 07:08:53*

**Authors:** J. C. Perez Ramos

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Spanish (Version 2) and English (Version 3)

We show how the theory of relativity disagrees with the isotropy of the expanding universe and with the experimental arguments in favour of the existence of a preferred frame. We postulate a new heuristic principle, the invariance of the radius of the universe, deriving new transformation equations. Then we develop the geometric scenario and we prove how the universe equals an anisotropic inhomogeneous hyperboloid in four-space. The new model quite naturally incorporates the expanding universe, solves the cosmological horizon problem, explains the asymmetrical time dilation effect (for example, in the twin paradox) and describes the Big Bang in an original way by reducing the radius of the hypersphere to zero. The speed of light acquires a new geometrical meaning that justifies a varying speed of light (VSL) theory and clarifies unsolved problems in physics as the Pioneer anomaly, cosmological puzzles, the dark energy and the Loschmidt paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1404.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-04 18:19:57*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We describe a Geophysical Weapon, possibly recently developed by Russia, which can produce a localized depressurization in the Earth’s atmosphere. By using ELF radiation produced at the ionosphere by means of the HF heating, it is possible to reduce the atmospheric pressure in a given region of the Earth. The rarefied air may lead people to loss of consciousness and the deep sleep, which culminates with death. Such as occurs in an aircraft at high altitude, when the cabin is suddenly depressurized, and the pressurization system does not work. In some minutes occur the deaths of the aircraft passengers. Thus, by using this sleep weapon it is possible to exterminate millions people in less than one hour.

**Category:** Climate Research

[89] **viXra:1404.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-14 11:09:26*

**Authors:** W. B. vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 221 Pages.

In this book authors build algebraic structures on fuzzy unit semi-open square UF = {(a,b), with a, b in [0, 1)} and on neutrosophic unit semi-open square UN = {a+bI, with a, b in [0, 1)}.
As distributive laws are not true, we are not in a position to develop several properties of rings, semirigs and linear algebras. Seven open conjectures are proposed.

**Category:** Algebra

[88] **viXra:1404.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-14 11:10:37*

**Authors:** W. B. vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 178 Pages.

Study of algebraic structures built using [0, n) looks to be one of interesting and innovative research. Here we define two types of groupoids using [0, n), both of them are of infinite order. It is an open conjecture to find whether this new class of groupoids satisfy any of the special identities like Moufang identity or Bol identity and so on.

**Category:** Algebra

[87] **viXra:1404.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-12 18:18:48*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Heavy scientific faults, including the Primordial Big Bang, are shown to be at the origin of the Anthropic Principle. Direct bio-physics relations favor rather an Inverse Anthropic Principle, implying universality of Intelligent Life.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[86] **viXra:1404.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-20 15:45:32*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

One of the most important open questions in physics is the possibility of reconciliation, and perhaps unification, between quantum theory and relativity theory. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, reconciles with quantum mechanics at significant meeting points: It explains the quantum criticality at the Golden Ratio. More importantly, it confirms with Planck's energy. These results are quite astounding, given the fact that Complete Relativity, like Special Relativity, is a deterministic model of the dynamics of moving bodies. An application of the theory to cosmology, discussed in a recent paper, revealed that it yields definitions of dark matter and dark energy, and predicts the contents of the universe with impressive accuracy. Taken together, these results raise the exciting possibility that physics at the quantum scale, and at the cosmological scale, are the two faces of one coin: The coin of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[85] **viXra:1404.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 19:03:13*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Comments are welcome

In a recent paper, M. Zubair et al. described a novel approach for fractional space generalization of the differential electromagnetic equations. A new form of vector differential operator Del, and its related differential operators, is formulated in fractional space. Using these modified vector differential operators, the classical Maxwell equations have been worked out for fractal media. In the meantime, there are other papers discussing fractional Maxwell equations. However, so far there is no derivation of Proca equations and Proca-type equations for GEM in fractional space. Therefore in this paper I present for the first time a derivation of GravitoElectroMagnetic (GEM) Proca-type equations in fractional space. Considering that Proca equations may be used to explain some electromagnetic effect in superconductor, then fractional GEM Proca-type equations may be expected to explain some gravitomagnetic effects of superconductor for fractal media. It is our hope, that this paper may stimulate further investigation and experiments in particular with respect to gravitomagnetic effects.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[84] **viXra:1404.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 19:32:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are known few interesting properties which distinquish twin primes from the general set of primes, like for instance that 46% of primes smaller than 19000 are Ramanujan primes while about 78% of the lesser of twin primes smaller than 19000 are Ramanujan primes. But seems that a much more trivial observation about the lesser of twin primes escaped attention: from the first 500 numbers which are lesser in a pair of twin primes, 66 of them have the following remarkable property: the sum of their digits is equal to 14.

**Category:** Number Theory

[83] **viXra:1404.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-04 15:47:54*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected syntax in several sentences to translate the subject adequately into English by the addition of several requisite words in relation to or dependent on the phrase, and changed an image (figure 4).

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[82] **viXra:1404.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-14 00:35:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, inspired by one of my previous papers posted on Vixra, I make, considering the sum of the digits of an odd integer, a conjecture about an infinity of sets of integers, each one having an infinite number of primes and I also make, considering the sum of the digits of a prime number, two other conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1404.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 11:30:05*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 13 Pages. several charts

Western nuclear physics contains six types of Quarks, while Vedic Nuclear Physics accounts for 18 types of Quarks and 18 types of anti – Quarks. In addition, Vedic Nuclear Physics posits three types of matter, which carries implications for Quark charges. Vedic Nuclear Physics posits Giant Quarks, something unknown in Western Physics. This paper describes the concept of Hyper – Circles, which are essential to Vedic Nuclear Physics and which may resemble Octonions, Sedenions or Exceptional Lie Algebras such as E7 and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[80] **viXra:1404.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 18:17:51*

**Authors:** Michael Harney, Julie Seal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

By modeling the Universe as a quantum well for standing waves and solving Schrodinger’s equation for a particle trapped in this well, the solutions for the allowable rest-energies of all particles in the Universe are obtained, from the mass of the photon up to the mass of the Universe. The quantum numbers that predict the allowable rest-energies of all particles are also found to quantize the distance over which gravity acts, ranging from the Planck length to the radius of the universe. The potential that is derived from the quantum well model is validated for gravitational, strong, weak and electromagnetic forces by confirming the mass of the vector particle for each force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1404.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 20:43:51*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Preprint from: "The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter,Cosmos" (2013) RL Amoroso, LH Kauffman, P. Rowlands (eds.) Singapore: World Scientific Publishers, pp. 504-509

The concept of time in the 'clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several
generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to
physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction
in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to
circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the
fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural
science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1404.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 21:46:23*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Key words: Tsien Hsue-Shen, biography, inconsistency, philosophy, rocketry, Marxism, Anti-Duhring, Dialectics of Nature, Capital, puzzles

Tsien Hsue-Shen, an expert of mechanics, the “King of Rocketry ” of
China, lived in US for twenty years long. Iris Chang (by a book in 1995)
and Judith R. Goodstein (by a report of a conversation with Lee Alvin
DuBridge in 2003) gave accounts of Tsien ’s biography. In 2013,
“Exhibition of Achievements of People ’s Scientist Tsien Hsue-Shen ”
toured to universities in Shanghai and Chinese cities of Beijing,
Kunming, Chengdu, Wuhan, Lanzhou and Huhehaote, displaying a
different version of Tsien ’s activities in US and declaring that Tsien read
and studied, with great concentration, the philosophy of Marxism during
his stay in US. In the present article, the Marxism reading is questioned,
interpreting that Tsien ’s success stems from the technology that he
learned in US rather than the philosophy of Marxism. Tsien left behind
puzzles, as well as rockets, missiles and satellites, as his legacy. His
legend remains mysterious and inconsistent even today.

**Category:** Social Science

[77] **viXra:1404.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 12:24:45*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A new class of dynamical systems that have random solutions with chaotic
probability densities is discovered.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[76] **viXra:1404.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 13:48:49*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1404.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 12:10:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a 2007 publication Lestone suggested that at the Planck scale there might be a model of the electron consisting of 3 vibrating strings confined to a 2-sphere. Lestone’s heuristic string theory suggests that, at the Planck scale, among the fundamental particles of the Standard Model massive bosons might be 1-spheres, leptons might be 2-spheres, and quarks might be 3-spheres. I have conjectured that the Koide formula and Lestone’s heuristic string theory are essential for understanding the foundations of physics. I have also conjectured that contrived brane interactions can allow string theory and eternal cosmological inflation to explain any plausible or implausible physics. String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis might imply the string landscape, superpartners, and eternal cosmological inflation. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might imply that the multiverse has a big bang that recurs every 81.6 ± 1.7 billion years, that the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is empirically valid, and that the inflaton field emits electromagnetic radiation according to the Space Roar Profile Prediction. From the data for the Lambda-CDM model, for the total observed mass-energy, the fraction of dark energy is .728±.016. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might explain why (1 – .728)/.728 is approximately 3/8 (= 27/72). In this brief communication there is a discussion of the compatibility of Lestone’s heuristic string theory with eternal cosmological inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[74] **viXra:1404.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 07:42:28*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** The work contain 60 pages

Since, at RHIC and LHC heavy-ion colliders the classical color field play an important role to study production of quark-gluon plasma, we propose a theory to describe strong-field inside the nucleons based on Dual Ginzburg-Landau-Pitaevski (DGL) theory .
We provide a detailed analysis of physically important quantities as regarding the nucleons substructure as: the uniform chromoelectric field (vortex) strength inside a nucleon, the mass of monopole viewed as gluons which are the propagators of the QCD and carry colour and anti-colour, with an hedgehog-like configuration, or as a results of interaction of spin-orbit of the monopole current , or of Rashba field interaction, all giving the same result; the quantification of the interaction energies of one vortex ( ) and of a giant vortex ( ), as to be encapsulated by the Abrikosov triangular lattice generated by the coalescence of the flux lines. Therefore, it is proved for the first time, that in the nucleon exist sufficiently high electromagnetic fields that permit to continue extract (with a rate of pair) from vacuum of pairs (virtual) of high energy electrons, of , Higgs bosons, quarks, by a Schwinger effect, etc, to transform its into real one of very short time life, just like in a veritable laboratory. Thus, it was discovered for the first time that is in fact the Schwinger critical field for the pair creation from vacuum. These pairs decay or annihilate into electrons, which passes the monopole condensate barrier as beta-electrons by quantum tunneling due of the phase slip with and of a energy release, the entire model is proved for a free neutron decay life-time.
Equally, the same Schwinger pairs-production rates are enhanced by a thermal Boltzmann factor in place of quantum tunneling, when this thermalization due of the incidence of an high thermal spike of a photon with nucleons destroys the superconductivity.
This effect is proved in the case of , through its β-decay to 1.809 MeV γ-ray, when at high temperatures ( ) equilibrium is reached between and which is relevant to some high temperature astrophysical events such as novae.
In the applications, as based on these data, there are calculated: the Higgs boson energy release due of two gluons fusion during the collision at LHC, gluon pair production from space-time dependent chromoﬁeld due of the collision of and of heavy nuclei; the pairs creation due of the thermally-induced vacuum instability as induced by a laser pulse in a crossed field of a single plane wave generated by a single high energy photon.
A proposal to use a laser pulse to reduce the half life of beta decay nuclides is discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[73] **viXra:1404.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 08:39:10*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

While it is a well known fact that the initial and final velocity vectors of an ideal projectile, for a launching angle of 45° to the horizontal, are mutually perpendicular for maximum range; this fact is not that well known in case of other launching angles. In this article we provide three simple methods that show why the two velocities must be orthogonal. The first is based on the fact that the ranges of two projectiles launched from the same point with any speed but complimentary angles of projection have the same value of maximum range. The second deals with the total angle of rotation of the initial velocity vector. The third takes advantage of the similarity between reflection of light at parabolic mirror surfaces and the initial and final tangential velocities of the projectile path.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[72] **viXra:1404.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 09:00:43*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 3 Pages. To be submitted to a Peer Reviewed Journal.

Using the same method that we used in the paper http://vixra.org/abs/1309.0154 to prove Fermat's Last Theorem in a simpler and truly marvellous way, we demonstrate that Beal's Conjecture yields -- in the simplest imaginable manner; to our effort to proving it.

**Category:** Number Theory

[71] **viXra:1404.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 04:33:32*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. публикация на русском языке: "ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ СИЛЫ КАЗИМИРА ДЛЯ УПРАВЛЯЕМОГО ДВИЖЕНИЯ МАКРОТЕЛ", 31-03-2014, http://science.snauka.ru/2014/03/6710

Considered the Casimir effect for construction «angle bar». Theoretically discovered uncompensated force in the direction from the top of the angle bar to its opening angle. Assessment of the magnitude of this force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[70] **viXra:1404.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 16:06:56*

**Authors:** Alexander Zaslavsky

**Comments:** 20 Pages

The conditions of arising and some effects of physical phenomenon that may be found in the process of observing high energy particles are considered in this work. This phenomenon is
consequence of time discreteness. When the repetition frequency of a particle discrete state proves to be commensurable with its own frequency (energy), the aliasing effect of its wave function may take place. The wave function aliasing limits the particle energy spectrum giving rise to the uninvestigated abnormal modes of movement. In view of the fact the discreteness of particle states at a time is a prerequisite for aliasing, the effect under consideration, in case of its experimental verification, may serve a proof of this discreteness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1404.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 02:27:48*

**Authors:** Stefan G. Freundt

**Comments:** German and English, 21 pages, 2 pictures

The Quantum mechanics works but is not yet well understood. The difficulty in understanding lies not so much in the already very sophisticated mathematical formulations, but are much more rooted in the question of how the objects do that?
Starting with the double-slit experiment, we will first provide the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. This leads us to the wave-particle duality. Photons have both wave and particle properties.
Then we see the exact opposite: photons, electrons... are neither wave nor particle and address the question: Can we find truth from falsity? Can quantum mechanics be wrong in their conditions and yet lead to so excellent results?
We then address the question of how good the mathematical prerequisites in classical physics is and how well they are fulfilled in quantum physics. Finally, we look at some very basic experiments from the point of view of the objects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[68] **viXra:1404.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 10:16:04*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Bosons come in positive, negative and zero charges, W+, W− and Z, but western science to date fails to explain why this is so. The W+, W−, and Z0 bosons, together with the photon (γ), comprise the four gauge bosons of the electroweak interaction..Vedic Physics offers the genuine explanation of why bosons have three distinct types of charge and this paper definitively explains the reason, which has to do with the three types of matter in the Universe. The paper concludes with a new typology of bosons based on the three different types of matter found in the universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[67] **viXra:1404.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:10:24*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1404.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:20:44*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 22 Pages. in Russian

Maxwell-similar gravitation equations and the experiments of Samokhvalov are considered. It is noted that the observed effects are so significant, that in order to explain them within the said Maxwell-similar gravitation equations these equations should be supplemented by a certain empirical coefficient that may be named gravitational permeability of the medium. Then it is shown that with such supplement the results of experiments are in good agreement with so modified gravitation equations. A crude estimate of this coefficient is given. Some corollaries of these equations are considered, in particular, the gravitational excitation of electric current, the impact of gravito-magnetic induction on the electric current. Some phenomena that can be explained with the aid of these equations are indicated. // Рассматриваются максвеллоподобные уравнения гравитации и эксперименты Самохвалова. Отмечается, что наблюдаемые эффекты настолько значительны, что для их объяснения в рамках указанных максвеллоподобных уравнений гравитации необходимо дополнить эти уравнения некоторым эмпирическим коэффициентом, который можно назвать гравитационной проницаемостью среды. Далее показывается, что при таком дополнении результаты экспериментов хорошо согласуются с модифицированными таким образом уравнениями гравитации. Дается грубая оценка величины этого коэффициента. Рассматриваются некоторые следствия из указанных уравнений, в частности, гравитационное возбуждение электрического тока, воздействие гравитомагнитной индукции на электрический ток. Указываются некоторые феномены, которые могут быть объяснены с привлечением указанных уравнений.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[65] **viXra:1404.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:47:03*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 14 Pages. in Russian

An explanation is offered of the mechanism of turbulent flows emergence, based of the Maxwell-like gravitation equations, updated after some known experiments. It is shown that the moving molecules of flowing liquid interact like electrical charges. The forces of such interaction can be calculated and included to the Navier-Stokes equations as mass forces. Navier-Stocks equations complemented by these forcesbecome equations of hydrodynamics for turbulent flow. For the calculations of turbulent flows the known methods of Navier-Stokes equations solution may be used. // Предлагается объяснение механизма возникновения турбулентных течений, которое основано на максвеллоподобных уравнениях гравитации, уточненных на основе известных экспериментов. Показывается, что движущиеся молекулы текущей жидкости взаимодействуют между собой аналогично движущимся электрическим зарядам. Силы такого взаимодействия могут быть расчитаны и включены в уравнения Навье-Стокса как массовые силы. Уравнения Навье-Стокса, дополненные такими силами, становятся уравнениями гидродинамики для турбулентного течения. При этом для расчета турбулентных течений можно использовать известные методы решения уравнений Навье-Стокса.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[64] **viXra:1404.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:54:44*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages. in Russian

We are considering some speculative experiments with charges and currents, which demonstrate a breach of Newton's third law, i.e. an opportunity of unsupported movement. It is shown that these experiments do not violate the Law of momentum conservation. We describe a structure in which electric charges are driven into rotation. We show that this structure performs translational unsupported motion. We describe the mathematical model and the experimental results with a mathematical model of this structure. Some recommendations are given for the implementation of the design. // Рассматриваются умозрительные эксперименты с зарядами и токами, которые демонстрируют нарушение третьего закона Ньютона, т.е. возможность безопорного движения. Показывается, что эти эксперименты не нарушают закон сохрания импульса. Описывается конструкция, в которой электрические заряды приводятся во вращение. Показывается, что при этом конструкция совершает поступательное безопорное движение. Описываются математическая модель и результаты эксперимента с математической моделью конструкции. Даются некоторые рекомендации по реализации конструкции.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:1404.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-12 02:01:58*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

The discussed experiment demonstrates the preservation of integrity in a prefabricated construction in the absence of visible fastening forces. It is shown that the experiment can be explained by the fact that a flow of electromagnetic energy appears within the construction. We are considering the conditions in which such flow of electromagnetic energy is maintained for an indefinite length of time. // Рассматривается эксперимент, демонстрирующий сохранение целостности сборной конструкции при отсутствии видимых скрепляющих сил. Показывается, что эксперимент объясняется появлением потока электромагнитной энергии внутри конструкции. Рассматриваются условия, при соблюдении которых поток электромагнитной энергии сохраняется сколь угодно долго.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:1404.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-28 07:33:51*

**Authors:** Jamel Ghanouchi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We begin with Catalan equation and solve it.

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1404.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 00:13:34*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving a path to establish the volume charge density functional theory (VDFT).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:1404.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-05 12:59:48*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Twin Paradox is one of the most fascinating paradoxes in physics. In Special Relativity, the paradox arises due to the nonexistence of a preferred frame of reference, resulting in both twins observing that he or she is younger than the other twin. Nonetheless, it is commonly agreed that the "traveling" twin returns younger than the "staying" twin. The prevailing solution is obtained by deviating from the relativity principle and assuming that the "staying" twin's frame is preferred over the "traveling" twin's frame. Here I describe a newly proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) and show that it solves the twin paradox symmetrically, with the twins aging equally.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1404.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 20:59:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 123 Pages.

Neutrosophic Statistics means statistical analysis of population or sample that has indeterminate (imprecise, ambiguous, vague, incomplete, unknown) data. For example, the population or sample size might not be exactly determinate because of some individuals that partially belong to the population or sample, and partially they do not belong, or individuals whose appurtenance is completely unknown. Also, there are population or sample individuals whose data could be indeterminate.
In this book, we develop the 1995 notion of neutrosophic statistics. We present various practical examples. It is possible to define the neutrosophic statistics in many ways, because there are various types of indeterminacies, depending on the problem to solve.

**Category:** Statistics

[58] **viXra:1404.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-15 23:12:47*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Göran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 11 Pages. missing/incorrect abstract fixed; extended (second) version

Recently, Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. We proved in a former paper [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1404.4664] that GAA’s mathematical model is unphysical. Here we analyze GAA’s cracking scheme and show that in the cable loss free case it serves less eavesdropping information than the old mean-square based attack, while in the loss-dominated case it offers no information. We also investigate GAA's experimental claim to be capable of distinguishing, with a poor statistics over a few correlation times, the distributions of two Gaussian noises with a relative variance difference of less than 10–8. Normally such distinctions would require hundreds of millions of correlations times to be observable. We identify several experimental artifacts due to poor design that can lead to GAA’s assertions; deterministic currents due to spurious harmonic components ground loop, DC offset; aliasing; non-Gaussian features including non-linearities and other non-idealities in the generators; and the time-derivative nature of their scheme enhancing all these aspects.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[57] **viXra:1404.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 00:15:03*

**Authors:** Abel Cavaşi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A relationship between generalized helices and Mannheim pairs.

**Category:** Geometry

[56] **viXra:1404.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 01:00:25*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 430 Pages.

The author Wan-Jiung Hu(born1973) is a MD (National Taiwan University) and PhD (Johns Hopkins University). This book contains theories of everything in physics, chemistry, biology, geosciences, and economics. Spinity is a force to drag spacetime to rotate around central mass. Rest mass produces gravity, spinning mass produces spinity; rest charge produces electricity, spinning charge produces magnetism. Light is also gravity wave. Space has smallest unit, and time is decided by light. Lightity is dark energy. Photon emitted from galaxy expands the universe acceleratedly via light pressure. General relativity suggests mass induces spacetime curvature; charge relativity suggests charge induces spacetime torsion(vortex). There is no dark matter, and spiral galaxies (vortex) are formed due to charge relativity which replaces quantum electrodynamics. Integrating general relativity, charge relativity, and radiation tensor, we get Universe Field Theory. We can also deduct the birth and end of universe. Unified field theory can also be obtained. Integrating gravitospinity and electromagnetism, we deduct a determinative atom model and chemical bond theory replacing quantum mechanics. In addition, I propose a new chemical bond theory according to the new atom model. Homochirality is due to co-catalysis of L-amino acids and D-sugars. Extinction is due to Milankovitch cycle. Earthquake is caused by radiation release from inner earth which explains Electromagnetism/ ionosphere anomaly and intra-tectonic earthquakes replacing plate tectonic earthquake theory. Tornado genesis is related to charge relativity. In economics, I propose money conservation and monetary leverage to explain economic bubbles. In mathematics, I propose strong light interaction. This book is very important to earthquake prediction and tornado control.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[55] **viXra:1404.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 10:05:23*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 1 Table

From a logical starting point that the whole and parts are immanently depandant on each other, I calculated relations between physical constants. Also, I created a Ttable presenting the possibility of using original formulas obtained in that way for the purpose of calculating more accurate values of physical constants corresponding to the publishing years of CODATA reports.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:1404.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 10:41:51*

**Authors:** Piyush Singhal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concepts of divergence and curl and their applications to the j-space are described. The importance of the observer's capability and the correlation to the commutation property and the measurement space quanta is explained. Finally the significance of lower “mass” bound in j-space is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[53] **viXra:1404.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 21:41:25*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Schiller has shown not only that a maximum force follows from General Relativity, he has also argued that General Relativity can be derived from the principle of maximum force. In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given. Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of gravitational horizons plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1404.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 22:26:41*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to deduce the possible origin of particle and evolution of their intrinsic properties through spiral dynamics. We consider some of the observations which include exponential mass function of particles following a sequence when fitted on logarithmic potential spiral, inwardly rotating spiral dynamics in Reaction-Diffusion System, the separation of Electron’s Spin-Charge-Orbit into quasi-particles. The paper brings a picture of particles and their Anti Particles in spiral form and explains how the difference in structure varies their properties. It also explains the effects on particles in Accelerator deduced through spiral dynamics.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[51] **viXra:1404.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 22:53:35*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 1 Page.

With respect to logarithmic scales spanning over 80 orders of magnitude of mass and over 70 orders of magnitude of density, this chart represents essentially all known bodies of matter in the Universe, including the Universe itself. A variety of essential cosmic relationships become immediately evident: the broad span of atomic matter, which branches toward increasing and decreasing density at the mass of stars; the Chandrasekhar limit mass; some curious ratios involving the fine structure constant; and the artificial, unnatural appearance of the Schwarzschild horizon line. Also displayed is a simple expression that defines Newton's constant G in terms of two key densities and three fundamental atomic constants

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1404.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 01:16:57*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

First, I refer you to two statements in "Solving the mystery of COSMIC RAYS" by Angela Olinto (Astronomy magazine - April 2014):
a) In 2013, scientists discovered that cosmic rays - charged particles travelling near the speed of light - get their energy by travelling back and forth over the edges of supernova remnants ... The origins of the highest-energy cosmic rays, though, remain a mystery."
b) "Or are they (ultra-high-energy cosmic rays) accelerated in the explosive deaths of the massive stars that create black holes and neutron stars?"
Then I ask if the theories of Einstein suggest the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is, ultimately, gravitational?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1404.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 02:19:40*

**Authors:** Xiong Wang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the recent paper {\it Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation.
Vol.18. No.11. (2013) 2945-2948}, it was demonstrated that a violation of the Leibniz rule is a characteristic property
of derivatives of non-integer orders.
It was proved that all fractional derivatives ${\cal D}^{\alpha}$,
which satisfy the Leibniz rule
${\cal D}^{\alpha}(fg)=({\cal D}^{\alpha}f) \, g + f \, ({\cal D}^{\alpha}g)$,
should have the integer order $\alpha=1$, i.e.
fractional derivatives of non-integer orders cannot satisfy the Leibniz rule. However, it should be noted that this result is only for differentiable functions.
We argue that the very reason for introducing
fractional derivative is to study non-differentiable functions.
In this note, we try to clarify and summarize the Leibniz rule for both differentiable and non-differentiable functions. The Leibniz rule holds for differentiable functions with classical integer order derivative. Similarly the Leibniz rule still holds for non-differentiable functions with a concise and essentially local
definition of fractional derivative. This could give a more unified picture and understanding for Leibniz rule and the geometrical interpretation for both integer order and fractional derivative.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[48] **viXra:1404.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 10:40:14*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. Based on the derivation of the exact formula for the shadow-gravity force the basic objection against the shadow-gravity theory was eliminated.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1404.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 12:11:47*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two unsolved problems in quantum mechanics are addressed: a source of randomness and an origin of entanglement. These problems being hidden in the Schrödinger equations became transparent in its Madelung version. Special attention is concentrated on equivalence between the Schrodinger and the Madelung equations.
It has been demonstrated that randomness in quantum mechanics has the same mathematical source as that in turbulence and chaos, and the origin of entanglement is the global constraint imposed by the normalization constraint of the probability density that becomes an additional variable in the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[46] **viXra:1404.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 06:17:49*

**Authors:** D.V. Lande

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Russian language

The technique of building of networks of hierarchies of terms based on the analysis of chosen text corpora is offered. The technique is based on the methodology of horizontal visibility graphs. Constructed and investigated language network, formed on the basis of electronic preprints arXiv on topics of information retrieval.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] **viXra:1404.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-26 21:36:53*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Journal Ref: Hadronic J. 37(2), 241-245 (2014)

Many galaxies have a concentration of mass at their center. In what follows, the mass is attributed to a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. It is found that electron degeneracy pressure supports the smaller masses against gravity. The larger masses are supported by ideal gas and radiation pressure. Physical properties are calculated for the range 450 to 45 billion solar masses.
Keywords: model; supermassive black hole; active galaxy; quasar

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1404.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 12:32:15*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 9 pages.

In this paper we discuss new approach to deal with k-clique problems or their equivalents, namely, k-independent set problems.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[43] **viXra:1404.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 13:43:39*

**Authors:** Björn Schemmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The current version of the text is in German

The author is showing a memory hook to calculate the traces of products of Dirac matrices which might be useful for the average student of physics during his QED-class. Further the author proves the universal validity of this technique applied to an arbitrary even number of gamma matrices using complete induction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1404.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 10:41:00*

**Authors:** Felix Hovsepian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Author shows there are two different time in Nature. One of these times we know very well: this is time on our wristwatches. Time on "wristwatch" harmonic wave is different. When you change the frequency of the oscillation wave automatically changes time of its own "wristwatch", ie speed is constant at any frequency, but on the testimony of its own "wristwatch". It is hard enough to understand as this wave in terms of mathematics is not a function. Author gives design of waves, and in addition to this paper, he gives a mathematical proof of this design. The fallacy of the concept of special relativity follows from the proof and the examples that occur in Nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[41] **viXra:1404.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 14:29:44*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the improved design of Four-photon entanglement device and the definition of Encoding rules, Decoding rules and Error correction rules, we could be able to achieve the information transmission in the quantum channel directly, and lead to the superluminal communication result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:1404.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 23:35:18*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is one thing to draw lobes for electrons with the understanding that one does not know what is going on inside those lobes. It is something entirely different to indicate that those lobes are filled with clouds or bits of electron presence! The wave approach to indicate an electron’s path is quite appropriate, however. Electron movement is well defined per the precise spectral data generated. Movement of electrons to and fro within and between atoms will be on well-defined pathways with their electrostatic fields moving with them. The movement of an electrostatic field is illustrated as its associated particle moves along an elliptical path.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1404.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-22 10:59:16*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 6 pages. International Frontier Science Letters, ISSN: 2349 – 4484, 2014, Vol. 1, No 1, P. 41 – 46. http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ifsl.1.41 .

The metric outside a charged body is calculated. As part of the given approach it is shown that the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are equally involved in the formation of the metric tensor components. And the contribution of fields in the metric is proportional to the energy of these fields. From equations for the metric it follows that the metric tensor components are determined up to two constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1404.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-02 22:57:06*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

The 24,925 year period beginning with the Shock Wave of the Geminga SuperNova 36,525 years ago and ending with the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago corresponds roughly to one 26,000 year Earth Precession Period. No written historical record has been found for that SuperNova Precession Period during which Humans had migrated out of Africa to populate much of the Earth continuing the African IFA divination system, producing Cave Art, developing Sanskrit and the Rig Veda and the Meru Prastara, and building the Great Pyramid complex at Giza. Human Civilization during much of that SuperNova Precession Period seems to have been Peaceful, living in Harmony with Nature and with Each Other, so Manetho characterized it as the time of the Rule of Gods, Demigods and Spirits and I would call it the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace. However, after the Vela X SuperNova 11,600 years ago Human Civilization entered the Present Precession Period, Manetho’s time of the Rule of Mortal Humans characterized by (to paraphrase Terence McKenna) scarcity, preservation of privilege, and ever-more-sophisticated use of technology and ideology to control people. This paper is an attempt to describe the SuperNova Precession Period of Peace and to explore possible future paths of the Present Precession Period, including possible Global Nuclear War and possible Global Reconciliation and Peace. SuperNova Precession Period of Peace ... pages 2-10, IFA ... page 4, Rig Veda ... page 4, Cave Art ... page 6, Meru Prastara ... page 7, Great Pyramid ... page 9, Present Precession Period ... pages 11-12, Appendix I: Lullian Art ... pages 13-19, Appendix II: Gods, Demigods, Spirits ... pages 20-28, Appendix III: Geminga and Toba ... pages 29-31. V2 has some corrections and adds Appendix III. V3 adds Vico, Joyce and Finnegans Wake to Appendix II V4 adds more about Finnegans Wake

**Category:** Social Science

[37] **viXra:1404.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 03:37:36*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Various types of irrational inflationary models of universe were introduced to oppose possible accumulation of all material bodies at a point due to gravitational attraction between them. As no logical mechanism could produce inflationary universe and maintain its stable state, diverse assumptions including big bang origin of universe were proposed. As no known origin to CMBR was readily available, it was accepted as a proof to these assumed theories. However, CMBR has a logical reason and definite mechanisms of production. These are not linked to big bang creation or inflationary state of universe but to its steady state of existence.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[36] **viXra:1404.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-24 20:56:13*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Mass of Universe correlated with neutron.

The
113 PlanckPressure Pascals 4.63309*10
. In this paper the author proposes
that Planck Pressure could be the gravitational force of attraction between
two equal sized universes all concentrated on the tiny area of one fourth of
Planck Area. This paper shows that the Critical density of the Hubble Sphere
Universe gives the same exact mass of the universe as the Planck Pressure
requires between two Hubble Sphere Universes, attracted gravitationally and
applied to the one fourth of Planck Area. This shows, that for such an
enormous pressure, to be concentrated on such a small area results in an
extremely rigid components of space and implies that matter and its
properties could not entirely travel through space, but must be transmitted
mostly through another mechanism which, likely, is a wave mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1404.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-08 09:47:54*

**Authors:** Y. Saez, X. Cao, L.b. Kish, G. Pesti

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Paper accepted for publication at FNL on May 19, 2014

We review the security requirements for vehicular communication networks and provide a critical assessment of some typical communication security solutions. We also propose a novel unconditionally secure vehicular communication architecture that utilizes the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] **viXra:1404.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 10:52:42*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the previous papers [1, 2] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor the in General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the effective mass tensor. Assuming that there is a relationship between metric tensor and the effective mass tensor we obtained modified Einstein’s field equations, which gives new meaning to GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1404.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-19 02:44:03*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D. and Pons, A. J. (2015) Pair Production Explained in a Hidden Variable Theory. Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics 5(3): 58-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.5923/j.jnpp.20150503.03.

Problem- Pair production is a key component of mass-energy equivalence yet the deeper processes whereby photons transform into matter-antimatter pairs are unknown. Purpose- A theory is presented for the mechanics of pair production at the fundamental level. Approach- Physical realism was accepted at the outset. A theory was developed comprising internal structures (hidden variables) and discrete fields, called the Cordus theory. Logical inference was used to determine the mechanics for pair production under these assumptions. Findings- Particles are found to be defined by their field emissions, with rearrangement of those fields changing the particle’s identity. The process mechanics are extracted from the theory, and successfully applied to explain remanufacture of the evanescent discrete fields of the photon into the electric fields of the electron and antielectron. The mechanics also explains recoil dependency on photon polarisation. Surprisingly, it also provides a physically natural explanation for electron holes. Originality- The ability to set out a mechanics for pair production at the foundational level is a novel advancement, as is the ability to explain in a physically natural way why the causality involves angular orientations of the inputs (polarisation) and outputs (recoil). There is further novelty in achieving this from the non-local hidden-variable sector of physics. Implications- Annihilation, which is the inverse process, has also been demonstrated within this same framework. An ontological explanation for mass-energy equivalence is now available by assuming physical realism and that particles have internal structures. These explanations are logically consistent with the rest of the Cordus theory for other phenomena. The hidden-variable sector is shown to have yielded an alternative theory of fundamental physics with excellent explanatory power under physical realism. It provides novel insights into processes at the next deeper level of physics, and shows a candidate route to a new physics.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32] **viXra:1404.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 22:23:17*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The hardest part of writing this was selecting a category. It involves physics, maths, biology, philosophy. But it speaks of computer science and the AI of bits being responsible for all creation. So maybe this is the right category?
This article is another version of my entry in FQXi’s 2014 contest – http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1977. I was inspired to write this new version after reading "The Missing Universe" by Bob Berman (Astronomy magazine - April 2014) which says, "... MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) works well in predicting how galaxies rotate, but it doesn't work as well in predicting motions at much larger scales, such as those between galaxy groups (clusters and superclusters - DM, dark matter, seems compelling at the largest scales)."
This sounds like a message from the universe that we don't have to choose between dark matter and modified gravity. The following article shows that they can be integrated. And if a Theory of Everything really does describe the universe, the strong force and electromagnetic force (p.28 of Bob Berman's article) must also be capable of integration with DM/MOND.
To do this, I'll "Einsteinize" my article by reminding readers of a 1919 paper he wrote. Further Einsteinization will return us to the Theory of Everything by speaking of his Unified Field Theory. Then I’ll finish with “What is Gravity?” (thanks to Einstein’s General Relativity explaining that gravity is the warping of space-time, this could also be called “What is Space-time?”) and a new interpretation of infinity.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[31] **viXra:1404.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-12 18:22:51*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The modern cosmology fundators have commited five dramatic deviations from scientific traditionnal methods, leading to a general crash of the current reductionist scientific system. The corrections of theses deviations lead to a Coherence Principle, ruling a simple galilean one-parameter cosmology rehabilitating Eddington's Fundamental Theory without primordial Big Bang, and abandon of reductionism. This unifies scientific domains, and introduces an Inverted Anthropic Principle.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[30] **viXra:1404.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 06:06:56*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

Given the general physical definition of displacement flow and opened falseness
of attributing Maxwell’s displacement current to a partial derivative from vector of an induction. It is shown that the displacement and conduction currents directed counter, and a chain of alternating currents to the capacitors are not closed and do not form vortex electric field. Concluded on the need to review a number provisions of electrodynamics and physics as a whole

**Category:** Classical Physics

[29] **viXra:1404.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 13:30:19*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Published in International Frontier Science Letters, Vol. 1, pp. 47-63, Jul. 2014

It is shown that the Theory of Special Relativity is not a theory free of contradictions. Putting apart our ingenious idea about clocks in a point (infinitesimal clocks), it is proved there are contradictions deriving from the synchronism of clocks. Other contradictions refer to the concept of relativity of simultaneity. One of these contradictions is proved through the idea of idealized experience: a simultaneous emission of two photons. Simultaneity related to an inertial frame of reference (inertial system) considered in movement, but whose system in movement stops moving between the first and the second emissions with respect to the steadied system (stationary system), ending up the experience “beforehand”. Only one photon would have been emitted with respect to the system in movement, which would make our prior hypotheses contradictory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1404.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 13:56:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English language.

Using the Lorentz Transformations between (x, y, z, t) and (X, Y, Z, T) and the fact that it is impossible to have clocks in a unique point (infinitesimal clocks), more exactly, the fact that time measured in a system does not depend on format, dimensions and internal mechanism of clocks and any periodical process adopted in measurement, it is proved the simultaneity of events E1, “Time measured at the stationary system (S) is t.” (Or “Clocks X1, X2, X3, …, Xn at rest at the stationary system indicate or set time t in this system”, i.e., no matter the position (x’, y, z) of measurement of time t in S, even to x’ <> x), and E2, “Time (or schedule, instant, time instant) measured at the moving system (S’), through a stationary clock at this system and at position (X, Y, Z), is given by T.”. Such simultaneity is related to the system considered stationary, of coordinates (x, y, z, t), as well as of the system considered in movement with respect to the first one, of coordinates (X, Y, Z, T). Of this simultaneity that is contained in the Lorentz Transformations of the time is easy to prove that is contradictory the definition of Synchronism of Clocks, used in the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1404.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 14:10:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. English language.

Considering it is not possible to have infinitesimal clocks and based on the Lorentz’s Transformation between (x, y, z, t) and (X, Y, Z, T), it is proved there is a contradiction on Lorentz’s Transformation of Time used in the Theory of Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1404.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 09:29:14*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Portuguese language.

Is shown contradictions in special relativity theory related to the clocks synchronization, covariance of the equations of electromagnetism and time dilatation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1404.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 10:48:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Published in International Frontier Science Letters, Vol. 3, pp. 19-31, Jan. 2015

It is shown that the special theory of relativity is not a theory free of contradictions, one of the contradictions related to the relativity of simultaneity. Another contradiction occurs when we calculate the speed of light relative to a moving reference frame by using the dilatation of the space and contraction of time, since it appears that the speed of light depends on the speed reference. Also shows that for low speeds, but large distances, the Lorentz transformation for time is not reduced to their respective transformation of Galileo, subject not explored in most science books, and even college.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1404.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 08:47:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Portuguese language. Article originally published in the Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, vol. 19, No. 3, September, 1997.

It is critically exposed the deduction of Lorentz transformations made by Einstein in 1905. The Lorentz transformations are deduced following a similar method to that of Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1404.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 05:05:55*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equation is solved with a new ansatz: the external boundary condition with mass M0 and radius R1 is dual to the internal boundary condition with density rbc and inner radius ri , the two boundary conditions yield the same result.
The inner boundary condition is imposed with a density rbc and an inner radius ri, which is zero for the compact neutron stars, but non-zero for the shell-stars: stellar quasi-black-hole and galactic quasi-black-hole. Parametric solutions are calculated for neutron stars, stellar quasi-black-holes, galactic quasi-black-holes. From the results an M-R-relation and mass limits for these star models can be extracted. A new method is found for solving the Einstein equations for Kerr space-time with matter (extended Kerr space-time), i.e. rotating matter distribution in its own gravitational field. Then numerical solutions are calculated for several astrophysical models: white dwarf, neutron star, stellar quasi-black-hole, galactic quasi-black-hole. The results suggest that quasi-black-hole star models resemble the behaviour of abstract black holes, but have finite redshifts and escape velocity v<c and no singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1404.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-06 21:38:37*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between underlying packing of Planck Spinning Spheres structure of the Hubble Universe correlation with higgs mass, W boson, Z boson, bottom Quark and top Quark and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres.
The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper.
I believe that Buckminster Fuller predicted space to be a cuboctahedron framework, but could not find a reference.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1404.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-05 00:13:33*

**Authors:** Abel Cavaşi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A corollary of the reccurence theorem of the Frenet formulas: the darbuzian of any order depends only on variations of the lancretians of lower order.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20] **viXra:1404.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-07 20:47:13*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi, Christian Corda

**Comments:** 13 pages, 6 figures, submitted to the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary work, we propose a hypothesis and initiate a step-by-step, systematic upgrade to the cutting-edge iso-electronium model by further equipping it with order parameters of fractional statistics to encode the topological deformations, spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking, correlated helices with long range order, and wavepacket wavefunctions for the toroidal polarizations. For this initial case, we consider the singlet planar coupling of two hydrogen atoms that are interlocked with a Santilli-Shillady strong valence bond to form a molecule with iso-electronium. The enhancement results support our hypothesis and are significant because the order parameters arm the iso-electronium model an extra degree of freedom to work with, which may authorize us to further decode and comprehend the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with the configuration of the toroidal polarizations. Thus, these outcomes should be subjected to additional rigorous scrutiny and improvement via the scientific method.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] **viXra:1404.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-04 14:34:52*

**Authors:** Idan Raman

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When defining O(N) as the sum of all divisors of N including himself, it is to be proved that there is no odd number which satisfy the equation:
O(N)=2N

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1404.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-04 07:43:10*

**Authors:** Arm Boris Nima

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We check that the relation between the angle
and the radius of the movement of an
object following a logarithm
spiral of
p
p
SO(2)
is constant.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17] **viXra:1404.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-03 22:36:37*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Gaussian integrals appear frequently in mathematics and physics, especially probability, statistics and quantum mechanics. One of the truly odd things about these integrals is that they cannot be evaluated in closed form over finite limits but are generally exactly integrable over +/- infinity. Yet their evaluation is still often difficult, particularly multi-dimensional integrals and those involving quadratics, vectors and matrices in the exponential. An added complication is that Gaussian integrals can involve ordinary real or complex variables as well as the less familiar Grassmann variables, which are important in the description of fermions. In this elementary primer
we present some of the more common Gaussian integrals of both types, along with methods for their evaluation.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[16] **viXra:1404.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-14 09:09:47*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Acupuncture and moxibustion are two most important managements of traditional Chinese medicine. However, their precise scientific mechanism is still unknown. Acupuncture is usually practiced on arms with three Ying and three Yang pathways and on legs with three Ying and three Yang pathways. The Ying and Yang pathways are actually co-related with the dermatome distribution on arms and legs. The analgesic effect of acupuncture is to sharply stimulate limbs to inhibit the referred pain area in the inner organs. For examples, the inner arm Ying path: 心包經 is actually the T1 dermatome distribution. Thus, 心包經 acupuncture can control the pain in chest including lung, heart, and esophagus. The other important concept of acupuncture mechanism is it can stimulate POMC production. The neuro-endocrine POMC can generate ACTH and endorphin. ACTH will then up-regulate corticosteroid production. Thus, acupuncture also has anti-inflammatory effects such as curing allergic rhinitis. Endorphin activation can also reduce pain and produce euphoria-like feeling. Acupuncture is mediated by sharp pain via A delta fibers. A delta fiber, stimulating sympathetic acute stress response including epinephrine and norepinephrine, can compete the accompanying slow pain/inflammation transmitting c fiber. Thus, acupuncture can suppress pain and inflammation via gate-control like mechanism. Moxibustion plays the opposite role. Moxibustion produces heat sensation which transmits via c fiber. Thus, it will facilitate the host inflammatory/immune response against pathogen infection. Thus, 黃帝內經云針所不宜灸之所治. Another important mechanism for acupuncture is nerve plasticity. In stroke patients, acupuncture stimulates paralyzed limb nerve re-generation and synapse re-formation. This nerve plasticity is the same as the principle of physical rehabilitation. It is worth nothing ear acupuncture mechanism. Vagus nerve distributes in the ear chlorea. Thus, ear acupuncture can also compete the inner organ pain sensation via vagus nerve inhibition as we view ear as another dermatome of inner organ.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[15] **viXra:1404.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-03 09:19:10*

**Authors:** Marcos Georgallides

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In prior articles , the position of points in Spaces creates Momentum [Λ] which is bounded
in the three constant Energy Layer States k1,2,3 [10] . This rotating energy E = Λ λ is transformed into the Acceleration al and Rotational Ellipsoid , and radiated away ,by loosing angular momentum E = r.m.vr and conserved as momentum E = M.v where emission of linear momentum creates vector v of generalized mass M . When vector v = 0 , this rotating Energy is generalized mass M which is mapped on the perpendicular to Λ plane as velocity v̄r which creates Newton smallest equilibrium accelerations (a f + a p = 0) from Centrifugal (Ff) and Centripetal (Fp) forces . On the infinite points of [PNS] and on the infinite dipole AiBi this acceleration vectors create the Wave motion of the infinite dipole AiBi which dipole are composed of the wavelength λ and the rotating Energy Λ . From this Position , Time enters in equations of motion as the meter of changes only .This rotating Energy is interchanged on dipole A B = (λ , Λ= mv) in the Configuration of co variants λ , m , v̄ as ellipsoid in the two perpendicular fields E = [(/x) + (/dy) + (/z)] . Λ and B = [(/x) + (/dy) + (/z)] xΛ following conservation laws only. Classical theories are confined in Space -Time and Planck-time (which are not assessing the outer reality of Spaces ) , with Time , which is only a meter of changes , and not existing differently . Spaces are composed of infinite points which are related each other with a quantum of Work ( Energy ) .The Norm is the Equation of Total Energy State of Monads equal to → ET = •[(k/ λv) .vE ²] ² + [Λ.vB +ΛxvB ] ² = • [(k/λv) .vE.² ]² + T ² ← which is completely refining Time and leaving only λ Λ = k which indicates a Space Energy Universe . Energy in a Vibrating system is either dissipated into Heat (temperature) which is another type of energy { Energy E as momentum vector Λλ is damped on the perpendicular to Λ plane , as it is like a < Spring-mass System with viscous dumping > , on the basic three co-variants of , Energy E , Lagranges generalized mass M = m , and velocity v̄ with Norm the wavelength λ , and secondly on the rotating Energy Λ= r̄.M.ūr } or radiated away. Newton's laws have a Universal application in all Configuration Systems instead of the referred as the Inertial ones . Even also to the smallest circular motion , ( anywhere that exists momentum ) , exists also Centrifugal and Centripetal forces which create acceleration and the Oscillatory motion . Since also velocity v maybe equal to 0 → c → ∞ then the velocity of light is not the faster in universe . In Black Holes Configuration a new Type of light is needed with a greater velocity than that of light to see what is happening . Light which is a quaternion is travelling either as wave ( photon Λ) either as particle (E =Mv̄= r.m.v̄r ) and in both cases as , a travelling Energy λ.Λ = k interchanged in the two perpendicular forced fields E = . Λ and B = x Λ
( Electromagnetic fields ) following conservation laws . Gauss laws spring from this property.
Oscillatory motion is the simplest case of Energy dissipation of Work embodied in dipole .
In the vibratory system , Energy k = λΛ is Spin of Dipole , dissipated on ⊥ to Λ plane and damped as momentum vector λ.mv̄ . Monad ĀB is the ENTITY and [ A ,B – PA , P B ] is the LAW , so Entities are embodied with the Laws . Entity is quaternion A B , and law |AB| = length of points A,B and imaginary part forces PA , P B . Dipole A B = [ λ , Λ ] in [PNS] are composed of the two elements λ , Λ which are created from points A ,B only where Real part |AB| = λ = wavelength (dipoles ) and from the embodied work , λ Λ , the Imaginary part
W = ∫ P.ds =(r.dP) = r̄xp = I.w = [λ.p] = λ.Λ = k2 , where momentum Λ = p= m.v and Forces
dP = P B –P A are the stationary sources of the Space Energy field . The moving charges is velocity v created from the rotating Energy momentum vector [ Ω = (λ.P) = ± Spin ] which creates the Centrifugal force (Ff) , the equal and opposite to it Centripetal force (Fp) and the acceleration ā mapped (damped ) on the perpendicular to Λ plane as → v E||dP and v B dP. F = q.E + q.v̄ x B = q.[ E + v̄ x B ] is Lorentz force in Electromagnetic crossed fields E and B . Since (dP ± Λ ) the work occurring from momentum p = mv = Λ acting on force dP is zero so when v E =0 , momentum Λ = mv only , is exerting the velocity vector v B to the dipole ,
, λ , and the generalized mass M ( the reaction to the change of velocity v̄ ) which creates the component forces , FE || dP .v and FB dP x v .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[14] **viXra:1404.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-11 07:40:17*

**Authors:** Charles L. Chandler

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The strength of the body force exerted on dusty plasmas by the electric force (due to the charge separation in Debye cells) is calculated, and the implications are considered.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13] **viXra:1404.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-03 04:41:56*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal as a research note.

It is generally assumed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is silent on the issue of planetary recession such as has been measured recently. In this short note, we demonstrate that the GTR is not silent on this matter, it does make a clear predictions albeit, predictions that is contrary with experience and for this task, we use the same solution that was and has been used triumphantly to explain the perihelion precession of the planet Mercury. From a pure stand-point of binary logic, we expect this solution to stand-up to all its predictions for both the precession of perihelion precession and as-well the expansion of orbits. At any rate imaginable, this apparent contradiction presents an interesting state of affairs for the GTR.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1404.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 19:48:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 23 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal

In light of the fact that our world requires new energy supply in order to replace fossil based energy, then it seems that new theory is badly needed – because it is often true that new energy requires new theory. And new theory can only come from new insights. In this paper, I will review the inadequacy of spherical solution of Schrödinger equation to say anything about the structure of molecules. It is a common fact, that the spherical solution of Schrodinger equation is hardly discussed properly in many quantum mechanics textbooks, with excuse that it is too complicated. Then I will discuss George Shpenkov’s wave equation which is able to derive the periodic table of elements, and other phenomena related to the structure of molecules, which is an elusive dream from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. It is argued here that one can expect to arrive at new energy methods using this wave equation as starting point, for instance by virtue of resonance vibration theory. Nonetheless, it is not our view here that the Shpenkov’s wave equation can substitute wave mechanics completely, instead we prefer to say that it can be a complementary approach of wave mechanics. By referring to Schrödinger’s dream in his 1926 paper to find connection between his wave mechanics and vibration frequency, I think that Shpenkov’s wave equation can fulfill that dream.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11] **viXra:1404.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 20:04:36*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

This article is summary of discussion in researchgate.net concerning possibility to use laser to create real particle from virtual particles (Schwinger effect).Virtual particles are indeed real particles. Quantum theory predicts that every particle spends some time as a combination of other particles in all possible ways. These predictions are very well understood and tested. Quantum mechanics allows, and indeed requires, temporary violations of conservation of energy, so one particle can become a pair of heavier particles (the so-called virtual particles), which quickly rejoin into the original particle as if they had never been there.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] **viXra:1404.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 22:35:49*

**Authors:** Abel Cavaşi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Contains an English translation from Romanian

We define the generalized helix of order k, then we make a link with movement on the generalized helix.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9] **viXra:1404.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 04:05:21*

**Authors:** R Santosh Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The notion of a geodesic line (also: geodesic) is a geometric concept which
is a generalization of the concept of a straight line (or a segment of a straight line) in
Euclidean geometry to spaces of a more general type. In this paper I have derived the
geodesic equation for a 2 dimensional spherical surface following a local local minkowski
frame with the minkowski metric localized .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1404.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 02:00:40*

**Authors:** Seleznev Vladimir, Denis Surzhko, Nikolay Khovanskiy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Despite the significant attention to the stress-testing issues in finances world-wide, the ways of quantitative assessment of the stress impact on the portfolios of non-public (in the absence of equity or debt market quotes) corporate borrowers are currently not sufficiently developed or standardized. The aim of this article is to propose high-level universal requirements to the quantitative models of stress-testing of non-public corporate borrower portfolios, and to describe the model, developed by the authors, which meets such requirements. Details of the model’s calibration, implementation (using Monte-Carlo simulations) and some practical issues are covered in the article.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[7] **viXra:1404.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 02:38:30*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In the Planck Model, broken symmetries are manifested on the mass levels of the three Planck sequences. Superpartners, resulting from the breaking of supersymmetry, are arranged symmetrically about superlevels within each sequence. There are two types of superlevel: every third level in each sequence (Type 1) and every fifth level in each sequence (Type 2). The superpartners of each charged lepton and quark are identified; the superpartnerships are centred on superlevels of Type 1. The electron, the up quark and, intriguingly, the proton participate in superpartnerships that are symmetrically arranged about coincident superlevels of Type 1. The W and Z weak gauge bosons and the 126 GeV Higgs boson participate in a trio of superpartnerships about three coincident superlevels of Type 2. Coincident superlevels are rare, concentrated at known particle mass scales, and lie in a symmetric pattern that results from the interplay of the Planck sequences. The pattern of coincident superlevels extends from the GUT scale to meV scale, forming the background to the see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1404.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 09:15:40*

**Authors:** Larissa Borissova, Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 170 Pages.

This book announces a mathematical theory of the internal constitution of stars,
and the sources of stellar energy according to the General Theory of Relativity.
This is an alternative to the conventional theory of gaseous stars which was introduced
in the 1920’s on the basis of classical mechanics and thermodynamics. In
contrast, the common consideration of a star and its field according to the General
Theory of Relativity, that presented in this book, comes to the model of liquid stars.
Such a star is homogeneous inside, with a tiny core (about a few kilometres in the
radius) in the centre. The core is selected from the main mass of the star by the
collapse surface with the radius according to the star’s mass. Despite almost all
mass of the star is located outside the core (the core is not a black hole), the force
of gravity approaches to infinity on the surface of the core due to the inner space
breaking of the star’s field therein. The super-strong force of gravity is sufficient for
the transfer of the necessary kinetic energy to the lightweight atomic nuclei of the
stellar substance, so that the process of thermonuclear fusion begins. The energy
produced by the thermonuclear fusion is that energy which the stars shine: the tiny
core of each star is its luminous “inner sun”, while the produced stellar energy is
then transferred to the physical surface of the star due to the thermal conductivity.
A new classification of stars is introduced according to the space breaking of
their fields: the regular stars (in the range from the dwarfs to the super-giants),
Wolf-Rayet stars, neutron stars (and pulsars), and black holes are considered. The
introduced liquidmodel matches with the new observational evidences for the state
of condensed matter inside stars; in particular, that the Sun consists of the high
temperature liquid metallic hydrogen.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1404.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 09:51:19*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In material world matter provides substance to all real entities. Hence, it is logical to conceive development-hierarchy of various matter-particles, starting from unstructured matter, rather than bifurcating superior matter-particles into inferior ones on the basis of noticed properties. Diverse properties of various matter-particles are derived from immediate inferior matter-particles and depend on their physical structures. Very brief account of development of various matter-particles, from unstructured matter, as conceived in alternative concept presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, is presented in this article.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1404.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 11:52:15*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Exploitation of the Method and Instruments since 1996 considerably increased a rate of troubleshooting in computer-maintenance company.

The paper considers a physical base of new approach to testing capacitors in-circuit as well as the appropriate instruments.
The method is based on injecting the probing current through an envelope of the capacitors due to polarization processes of associated conducted surface of the circuitry.
This is a first one-probe In-Circuit Method.
Special instruments, realizing the Method are also considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1404.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-28 07:35:41*

**Authors:** Jamel Ghanouchi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We deal with the concept of prime number together with the Riemann hypothesis and present a proof of Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[2] **viXra:1404.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-09 06:45:33*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 25 Pages. 25

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse with super (Charge Parity) symmetric entangled universes down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one, starting with an exploding central new physics Big Bang black hole and ending with a Big Crunch black hole.. The Big Bang Black hole can shortly be described as Higgs particle dark matter/ dark energy based nucleus of 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubbles, evaporating and splitting by a Fractal inflation epoch, leaving a so called Lyman Alpha forest of galaxy seeds behind.
Galaxy seeds are supposed to be represented by Quasars and large Quasar groups ( LQGs) but also by CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) hotspots and B-Modes.
The inflation epoch is supposed to end in the CMB if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole particle content, able to split and form local Quasars or LQGs.
It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes.
However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes could also be the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, which could be he origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes.
The fact that the B-Modes are unexpected large ( about 10- times larger than expected ) is reason to support this hypothesis, and support for future research on B-Modes.
I realize that “new paradigm dark matter black holes” are not only presented by knots of B-Mode polarization but also as Cometary knots and much larger Stellar Anchor black holes (dual bow shocks) in Planetary nebula like the Helix nebula.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1404.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 09:08:34*

**Authors:** Denis Surzhko, Rainer Glaser

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the paper we propose PD calibration framework for LDP that allows producing smooth non-zero
PD estimates for any given time horizon within the length of economic cycle. The advantages of the
approach is that produced PDs are consistent with two main anchors – PIT and TTC PD estimates
and are subject to smooth, monotonic transition between those two anchors. In practise, proposed
framework could be applied to risk-based pricing of mid-term deals, whose duration is too long
compared with PIT PD horizon and significantly shorter that the length of the whole economic
cycle.

**Category:** Economics and Finance