[96] **viXra:1209.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 21:46:09*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional balance of typical chocolates was studied by Perezgonzalez in 20111. A sample of chocolate bars, chocolate blocks and bonbons currently available in New Zealand shared a similar nutritional profile yet differed enough as to being able to be separated into particular categories. The most populated categories shared a nutritional profile characterized as being low in protein, high in fat, high in saturated fat, low in fiber and low in sodium. Typical chocolates, the most frequent category, differed from the others in also being high in sugar but low in total carbohydrate.
On average, the typical chocolate has a nutritional balance of BNI 126.94-fb, being particularly unbalanced towards deficiency in fiber.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[95] **viXra:1209.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 15:49:59*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 14 pages.This will be submitted to appreciation by NASA scientists

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both
Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the
known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor
is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a
classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the
Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of
it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre
himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the
warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.Ford and Pfenning computed the amount of negative
energy needed to maintain an Alcubierre warp drive and they
arrived at the result of $10$ times the mass of the entire
Universe for a stable warp drive configuration rendering the warp
drive impossible.However Harold White manipulating the parameter
$@$ in the original shape function that defines the Alcubierre
spacetime demonstrated that it is possible to low these energy
density requirements.We repeat here the Harold White analysis for
the Natario spacetime and we arrive at similar conclusions.From
$10$ times the mass of the Universe we also manipulated the
parameter $@$ in the original shape function that defines the
Natario spacetime and we arrived at a result of $10$ billion tons
of negative mass to maintain a warp drive moving with a speed
$200$ times faster than light.Our result is still a huge number
about the weight of the Everest Mountain but at least it is better
than the original Ford-Pfenning result of $10$ times the mass of
the Universe.The main reason of this work is to demonstrate that
Harold White point of view is entirely correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1209.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 14:55:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we present three new examples of using the α-Discounting Multi-Criteria
Decision Making Method in solving non-linear problems involving algebraic equations and
inequalities in the decision process.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[93] **viXra:1209.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 06:54:46*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Apeiron, 2007, Vol. 14, No. 4, P. 385 – 413.

The review of the theory of electromagnetic field together with the special and general theories of relativity has been made. The similar theory of gravitation has been presented which has the property of Lorentz-invariancy in its own representation in which the information is transferred at the speed of propagation of the gravitational field. Generalization of the specified gravitation theory on noninertial reference systems has been made with the help of the mathematical apparatus of the general relativity. It allows to avoid some drawbacks of the standard general relativity theory and to expand its applicability. The possibility of complementary descriptions of the physical phenomena with the help of simultaneous use of the theories of gravitational and electromagnetic fields has been shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1209.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 06:18:15*

**Authors:** Sergey G Fedosin

**Comments:** 11 Pages. FQXi 2012 Essay Contest "Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?"

With the help of the theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter the need for change in the theoretical foundations of the scientific world outlook is derived – in the philosophy; in the logic of thinking; in the system theory; in cosmology; in interrelation of matter levels; in describing the properties of matter carriers and the laws of their interaction; in the theory of gravitation; in the analysis of the mass origin; in the theory of relativity; in the theory of elementary particles; in thermodynamics and other fields of knowledge. The possible ways are described of overcoming the difficulties and challenges existing in a number of modern physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[91] **viXra:1209.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 13:57:26*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 210 Pages.

Tetrahedra as basic cells of the 600-cell describe geometry related to my E8 physics model of vixra 1108.0027. Arrays of tetrahedral Josephson Junctions may allow observation of and interaction with Dark Energy. Jitterbug transformations of Tetrahedral/Octahedral Palladium atom clusters containing Deuterium may produce Cold Fusion as described in vixra 1209.0007. An optimal size for such clusters may be 147 Pd atoms with diameter about 1.56 nm, similar in size to 1.5 nm clusters recently synthesized at Sandia and UNM. V2 makes clear that the Large N Limit of 4N Tetrahedra Clusters for packing 3-dim space with Tetrahedra corresponds to a generalized Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor AQFT. V2 adds superposition characteristics of diamond network.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[90] **viXra:1209.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-29 11:14:31*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we’ll prove through computation the Feuerbach’s theorem relative to the
tangent to the nine points circle, the inscribed circle, and the ex-inscribed circles of a given
triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[89] **viXra:1209.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-03 15:35:24*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Robert D. Nevels

**Comments:** 5 Pages. accepted for publication in PLoS ONE

We present and analyze a gedanken experiment and show that the assumption that an antenna operating at a single frequency can transmit more than two independent information channels to the far field violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Transmission of a large number of channels, each associated with an angular momenta ‘twisted wave’ mode, to the far field in free space is therefore not possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[88] **viXra:1209.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-28 12:21:32*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Searching, collecting, sorting and compiling the cosmic code is an essential part of unification

The definition of Avogadro number (N) and the current experiments to estimate it, however, both rely on the precise definition of “one gram”. Hence most of the scientists consider it as an ad-hoc number. But in reality it is not the case. In atomic and nuclear physics, atomic gravitational constant is Avogadro number times the Newton’s gravitational constant. Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit,(c^4/G). Ratio of classical force limit and weak force magnitude is (N^2). Thus in this paper authors proposed many unified methods for estimating the Avogadro number.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[87] **viXra:1209.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-28 10:52:47*

**Authors:** M. Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 3 Pages. invited "book review" published in: Journal of Cosmology, 18, VI (2012)

One might well question the need for a new reference work on cosmology, given that plenty of them have already been published. In my opinion, there is a need to offer a complete overview of the subject taking on board a wider range of
opinions than is at present the case with typical reference works on cosmology. A student can easily get the impression that everything is now well known, and that only a few minor conceptual details or finer measurements of parameters
remain to be worked out. Only standard viewpoints are usually offered in some detail, all others being entirely neglected. There are also books by heterodox authors who present their own alternative theories, but most of these are
sectarian, aiming to press home a particular view, rather than representing all current knowledge of the subject. There is a dearth of books on cosmology with well-balanced content that present the fundamentals and current knowledge of this area with rigor while at the same time covering controversial observations
and discussions that might cast doubt on the science which is being built. This book stands out as an attempt to cover both goals. It offers "Fundamental Questions" rather than "definitive answers".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1209.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-28 10:57:40*

**Authors:** M. Lopez-Corredoira, A. Gabrielli

**Comments:** 23 Pages. accepted to be published in Physica A

The purpose of our study is to understand the mathematical origin in real space of modulated and damped sinusoidal peaks observed in cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies. We use the theory of the Fourier transform to connect localized features of the two-point correlation function in real space to oscillations in the power spectrum. We also illustrate analytically and by means of Monte Carlo simulations the angular correlation function for distributions of filled disks with fixed or variable radii capable of generating oscillations in the power spectrum. While the power spectrum shows repeated information in the form of multiple peaks and oscillations, the angular correlation function offers a more compact presentation that condenses all the information of the multiple peaks into a localized real space feature. We have seen that oscillations in the power spectrum arise when there is a discontinuity in a given derivative of the angular correlation function at a given angular distance. These kinds of discontinuities do not need to be abrupt in an infinitesimal range of angular distances but may also be smooth, and can be generated by simply distributing excesses of antenna temperature in filled disks of fixed or variable radii on the sky, provided that there is a non-null minimum radius and/or the maximum radius is constrained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1209.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-07 09:17:38*

**Authors:** Fernando Sanchez-Escribano

**Comments:** Spanish original(11 pages) and English translation (11 pages)

Hereby it is presented a new set theory (generalized as the so-called system theory, fully respectful with the dictates of intuition (including the existence and numerability of the universal set, of which all beings are elements) and capable to overcome all the logical difficulties that forced logicians in last century to accept never desired axioms for avoiding contradictions.
The somewhat philosophical nature of the essay, imposed by the need to distinghish between concepts before not sufficiently clear, if not confused, and now denoted with distinct names (some neologisms), such as entema, concept, reflexo, set, system, aente, uente…, should not prevent the appreciation of its mathematical significance.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[84] **viXra:1209.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-07 17:49:28*

**Authors:** Fernando Sanchez-Escribano

**Comments:** Spanish original (16 pages) and English translation (16 pages)

This new theory explains physical phenomena according to the dictates of intuition historically recognized (determinism of their laws, absolute character of instants, lack of speed limit...) and assuming all verified achievements of classical and quantum theories, while replacing the principles considered erroneous with new ones, which allow to derive all fields of force from a single (gravelectric) potential, generated by matter each of whose (elementary) particles consists of two semiparticles (antiparticles one another), endowed with charges of types (gravon or lectron) and values (positive or negative) opposite each other, associated with senses of translation (dextrorse or sinistrorse, each own of one of both transor components of any rotor, in the postulated geometry of space) also contrary each other, and in mutually determined solidary states.
Some particular achievements of this theory are:
– New concepts (all defined mathematically, denoted some with neologisms) of: (physical point) medium; spatial (global character) geometry; medial (local character) geometry; particle; semiparticle (or semiparticular component of particle: gravon or lectron); particle charge; semiparticle charge; semiparticle transorial sense; semiparticle density field (scalar of charge, rectorial of current); fundamental field (scalar of medium density, rectorial of physical point velocity); gravelectric potential (scalar, rectorial); total (gravonic or lectronic) density field (of charge, of current); gravonic (time advanced) and lectronic (time retarded) components of the gravelectric potencial; semiparticle (transorial) current; semiparticle (scalar) coenergy and (rotorial) coimpulse; semiparticular (gravonic and lectronic) momenta (scalar energies, rotorial impulses) of particle; semiparticle comass and particle mass; semiparticle coinertia and particle inertia; particle own (rotorial) velocity and primary and secondary components of its own; active and passive charges of a body….
– New quite intuitive postulates interrelating: medial geometry and propagation of gravelectric waves; fundamental field (relative to a space-time reference system) and gravelectric potential (absolute, nonrelative to space-time reference system); continuity condition of fundamental field and Lorentz condition of gravelectric potential; medial geometry and gravelectric potential; type of charge (lectronic, gravonic) and temporal sense (normal, antinormal) of wave generation; transorial senses of both antiparticles; impulse, inertia and velocity primary component of particle; semiparticle densities (of charge and of current) and semiparticle (quantum) wave function….
– Unquestionable explanations of: tridimensional appearance of physical space; existence of (elementary) particles, of two semiparticle charge types and of two transorial senses (of spin); result of Michelson-Morley experiment; bending of light rays by gravitational fields; slowing down of wave frequencies when generated in gravitational fields; origin of terrestrial electric and magnetic field; non-detection (by ordinary means) of photons with velocity appreciably higher than usual constant….
– Natural explanations of: greater accuracy of relativistic quantum theory –errors of the first are offset each other better than those of the second– than of classical theory (providing some feasible experiments for the failure of relativistic predictions); apparent lack of effectiveness of the electric (gravelectric much stronger than ordinary gravitational) fields on conventional neutral corpuscles (with the same number of protons as electrons, but with gravonic net charge); similarity –both are essentially equivalent– of Newton’s and Coulomb’s force laws; quasi-cyclical evolution of ordinary matter universe….
– Intuitive models of stable corpuscle structures, corresponding to proton, neutron, neutrinos, atomic nuclei…, that allow to explain and control their disintegration processes.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[83] **viXra:1209.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-27 16:16:38*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™)7 is a technological application for assessing the nutritional balance of foods, recipes and diets. It uses dietary recommended intakes (RDIs) in order to analyse the nutrition composition of foods and assess their nutritional balance. Thus, it is able to index foods according to such balance. The BNI underlying principle is quite simple: subtract actual macronutrients contribution to foods from 'ideal' macronutrients contribution, add the differences and, in so doing, compile a unique figure that allows indexing a given food product according to its degree of nutritional balance (or, rather, unbalance).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[82] **viXra:1209.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-27 20:49:05*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author

This is a part of Dr. Tian-Chou Wang's proof to the Riemann Hypothesis. It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063), Chapter 1 (viXra citation number: 1209.0068), Chapter 2 (viXra citation number: 1209.0078), Chapter 3 (viXra citation number: 1209.0090).

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1209.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-02 11:53:37*

**Authors:** Michael Pogorsky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Fermat’s Last Theorem is proved by means of general algebra in four major steps. a)The expressions for a, b, c of type a=uwv+v^n;b=uwv+w^n; c=uwv+v^n+w^n required to satisfy equation a^n+b^n=c^n deduced for two main versions of the equation. b)The existence of positive integers u_p and c_p such that a+b is divided by u_p^n and c is divided by c_p u_p proved to be required. c)Polynomial a^n+b^n presented through expressions for a and b proved to be a sum of three divisible by c polynomials. d)The long division of one of them w^(n∙n)+v^(n∙n) by either of two other gives remainder not divisible by c. This contradiction proves the Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[80] **viXra:1209.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-09 16:51:12*

**Authors:** Arnab Shome

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Published in Elixir International Journal in the year 2012

Even though we have advanced tremendously in technology in the 21st century, we still have not been able to contact with any extraterrestrial civilizations. There have been many research and hypothesis on extraterrestrial civilizations such as The Drake Equation, The Fermi Paradox, Rare Earth Hypothesis. With the help of previous research and hypothesis on this subject by others, I have here try to find out the possible reasons of not been able to contact with any extraterrestrial civilizations till now.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[79] **viXra:1209.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-27 05:05:24*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Constraints imposed directly on accelerations of the system leading to the relation of constants of motion with appropriate local projectors occurring in the derived equations are considered. In this way a generalization of the Noether's theorem is obtained and constraints are also considered in the phase space.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[78] **viXra:1209.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-27 05:12:29*

**Authors:** Real Samit

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Grey Body Radiation and Interpretations of Intensity, Temperature and Wavelength Graph

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[77] **viXra:1209.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-24 21:31:35*

**Authors:** Talon J. Ward

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Collatz conjecture is a famous problem in number theory. Given an integer, if it's odd, multiply it by three and add one, or, if it's even, divide it by two. The Collatz conjecture states that any trajectory of iterates of this Collatz transformation on the positive integers will reach one in a finite number of steps. This problem explores the behavior of a complicated discrete dynamical system that has eluded solution for over seventy years.

This paper addresses the Collatz conjecture by altering the Collatz transformation into a friendlier format, which tells us what to do with an odd integer given its congruence modulo eight. We then describe how to find the numbers whose first few iterates follow a given pattern, which leads us to a directed graph that every trajectory must eventually enter. This directed graph then shows us that, in a finite number of steps, every iterate of a trajectory must either converge to one or strictly increase thereafter. Since there is no number whose trajectory strictly increases, the Collatz conjecture holds.

**Category:** Number Theory

[76] **viXra:1209.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-26 16:53:19*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional composition of chocolate snack bars in New Zealand and Australia has remained unchanged in the four years between 2007 and 2011, according to a research done by Perezgonzalez (2011). That is, although individual chocolate bars may have changed slightly in nutritional composition, the average chocolate bar in 2007 and the average chocolate bar in 2011 were practically the same.
Using a sample of 15 chocolate snack bars of the same brand and make for both periods, Perezgonzalez found no significant differences in either the nutritional composition of the snack bars or their overall nutritional balance. The average nutritional balance was BNI 124.05s in 2007 and BNI 123.53s in 2011, hardly any change at all.
Results were also very similar for individual macronutrients, which showed that an average chocolate bar is extremely low in protein and fiber, and extremely high in sugars, fat and saturated fat; on the positive side, it is also extremely low in sodium.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[75] **viXra:1209.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 11:27:45*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 11

This essay presents some features of a non Standard Model philosophy called the Quantum Function Follows Form model (Q-FFF). In the Q-FFF model, it is assumed that the different Functions in nature are based on Form differences of real particles with different internal and external structure and that the Higgs is the origin of all basic singular particles by its convertibility. Quarks are supposed to be compound particles with one, two or three electrons or positrons as a base merged with one or two real Gluons.
In the Q-FFF model, mass is interpreted as the capacity of real shaped and spinning Fermions to produce gravitons, as the resulting (form) information products of collisions with an alternative (non-Standard Model) Higgs vacuum lattice system. Consequently the Higgs system itself can have no mass, it is supposed to be the transportation device for graviton- and other photonic information. Thus the Higgs mass found in the LHC at Geneva of 126 GeV, is interpreted as pure oscillatory energy of real “new Higgs” vacuum particles.
The new Higgs particles are supposed to be convertible by an internal rotational structure they are responsible for the creation of “Something” out of “Nothing”.
Thus the Big bang nucleus should contain already all particles of the multiverse in the form of a knot of “virgin” Higgs particles able to form different chiral but entangled the Higgs fields inside different chiral space bubbles expanding into the form of a raspberry.
If the new Higgs field has chiral lattice structure (left or right handed) then the origin of a material- and anti-material universe is secured by the prevalence for left or right handed Fermions to merge with photons to form left or right handed Quarks with larger stability than Fermions with the opposite handedness are able to.
The raspberry shaped entangled CP symmetric Multiverse seems to be the logic result of the quest for symmetry and inter-multiversal entanglement between anti-copy universes could be the base for the collapse of all wavefunctions (Schrödinger’s cat) including consciousness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1209.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 18:28:54*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submittal to Proceedings of ICCF17

This paper gives explanation on the basic physics of cold fusion by the TSC (tetrahedral symmetric condensate) theory. Models of TSC formation conditions in condensed matter are first proposed. Secondly formulas for cold fusion rates per D(H)-cluster are explained with typical quantitative results. The 4D/TSC fusion and the 4H/TSC WS fusion are answers, respectively for the D (deuterium)-system and the H (protium)-system.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[73] **viXra:1209.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 19:08:59*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

This is a part of Dr. Tian-Chou Wang's proof to the Riemann Hypothesis. It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063), Chapter 1 (viXra citation number: 1209.0068), and Chapter 2 (viXra citation number: 1209.0078).

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1209.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 22:58:29*

**Authors:** Zhou Fang

**Comments:** 210 Pages.

本文介绍周方变换

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1209.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-26 07:39:28*

**Authors:** David R.B. Stockwell

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we prove a logical circularity undermines the validity of a commonly used method of homogenizing surface temperature networks. High rates of type I error due to circularity may explain the exaggeration of surface warming found in official temperature networks.

**Category:** Climate Research

[70] **viXra:1209.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-08 07:34:16*

**Authors:** Oliver R Jovanovic

**Comments:** 37 Pages. Additional explanation

It's about, among other things, gravitational mass defect and its consequence. That other things are: -quark structure, -electron structure, -Planks “constant”...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[69] **viXra:1209.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-24 12:10:08*

**Authors:** Akindele O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 37 Pages. A paper from volume one of the Fundamenatl Theory... (monograph)

Propagation of light in the gravitational field is studied in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR). A local gravitational red shift relation is derived as a consequence of the gravitational time dilation formula in the context of TGR. A light ray emitted at a given position in a gravitational field, or a light ray emitted elsewhere, which is momentarily passing through the given position, suffers local gravitational red shift at that position. And when the light ray has propagated to another position, it suffers the local gravitational red shift at the new position. The gravitational red shift as a light ray passes through two positions of different gravitational potentials is inferred from the local gravitational red shifts at the two positions. The invalidity of the underlying assumptions of two theories of gravitational red shift encompassed by the general theory of relativity (GR), which invalidates those theories, are shown, while upholding the theory of gravitational red shift in the context of TGR as the valid theory. The prediction of gravitational red shift for a terrestrial light ray in the context of TGR is in agreement with the result of the Pound, Rebka and Snider experiment (PRS) to within 99.94% accuracy. Although the prediction of Einstein's theory of gravitational red shift of light (in GR) is in agreement with the result of this experiment to within the same accuracy of 99.94%, it is shown that this does not imply the validity of that theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1209.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-24 15:17:51*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This document describes a technological application for the field of economics. It aims to fix part of the economical wandering between the 'real' and 'nominal' value of money in order to increase standardization in reporting, as well as to allow for more meaningful comparisons in time and easier understanding by readers. The proposal made here is for a fix at sovereign currency levels rather than at international levels. That is, it works at the level of, for example, the US dollar, Australian dollar, British pound or Euro, but does not propose an international currency.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[67] **viXra:1209.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 01:13:09*

**Authors:** Real Samit

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Theory Of EveryThing : Systems Tends to Attain Equilibrium

Everything has its own reality ,Everythings tends to attain ground state.
Reasons behind Wave Particle Duality and Theory About Everything are presented in this Paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1209.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-24 05:42:16*

**Authors:** Hans-Joerg Hochecker

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

When an electrical charge moves, then, in a vertical direction to its velocity, an angle φ results between the propagation direction of the electrical field of this charge (which propagates with light speed) and the connecting line of the field points issued by the charge one after each other. The aim of this work is to show that this angle (φ) is suitable to describe the magnetic effect.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[65] **viXra:1209.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-24 09:00:38*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article explains how Geometry and geometrical constructions , [ Spaces , Anti-Spaces , Sub-Spaces ] are able to connect Properties , such as Mass , Energy , and the conservation laws of Physics with only one substance , that of Vector ds , which is ds = AB > 0 → < ∞ with Impulses P A + P B = 0 or ≠ 0 at edge points A , B . Since neutrinos may travel faster than light and also gravity instantly affects , a new explanation is needed . The present
article < The Higgs Boson ( Particle ) and the Euclidean Geometry > describes the motion of one of the infinite Sub-Spaces in [ PNS ] , which are moving in Primary Neutral Space . It has been shown that ,
1.. Primary point A , having not Position and consequently not any Space existing , therefore is the only Space , and to exist at a second point B somewhere else , point A must move at point B , where then A ≡ B . Point B is the Primary Anti-Space which Equilibrium point A [ PNS ] = [ A ≡ B ] . Since Primary point A is the only Space , then on it exists Principle of Virtual Displacements W = ∫ P.ds = 0 , or [ ds . ( PA + P B ) = 0 ] , i.e. for any ds > 0 Impulse P = ( PA + P B ) = 0 . All points may exist with P = 0 → ( PNS ) and also with P ≠ 0 , [ P A + P B = 0 for points in Spaces and Anti - Spaces ] , therefore [ PNS ] is self created , and because at each point may exist also P ≠ 0 , then [ PNS ] is a Field with infinite points which have a ± Charge with P = 0 → P → ∞ . Primary Neutral - Space [ PNS ] exists with the infinite Points N with three Spatial dimensions ( Xo , Yo , Zo ) and the infinite Impulses P , ( P xi , Pyi , Pzi ) , and i = 0 → ∞ .
2.. Since points A , B of [ PNS ] coincide with the infinite Points , of the infinite Spaces , Anti-Spaces and Sub-Spaces of [ PNS] , and since Motion may occur at all Bounded Sub-Spaces , then this Relative motion is happening between all points belonging to [ PNS ] and to those points belonging to the other Sub-Spaces ( A ≡ B ) . The Infinite points in [ PNS ] form infinite Units AiBi = ds , which equilibrium by Primary Anti – Space by an Inner Impulse ( P ) at edges A , B where PiA + Pi B ≠ 0 , and ds = 0 → N = ∞ .
3 .. Monads = Quantum = ds = AB / ( n = ∞ → 0 ) = [ a ± b.i ] = 0 → ∞ create Spaces ( S ) , Anti -Spaces ( A-S ) , and Sub-Spaces ( S-S ) of AB , which Sub-Spaces are Bounded Spaces , Anti-Spaces and Sub Spaces in it , and are not purely spatial because are Complex numbers which exist for all Spaces , since binomial dsⁿ is Complex number also .
4.. Monads ds ( dipole AB ) and according to their position in S , A-S , S-S , make the four types of matter , and the Combination of the four types of matter , creates all gauge magnitudes which is Mass and Energy , and so all types of Particles and Fields in universe .The 15 possible types of matter correspond to the , Visible , Invisible , Real and Imaginary Universes ( Visible and Invisible Dark matter and Energy ) . Dipole AB is composed of the two Elements → the [ Dipole AB = matter ≡ is the communicator] , and the Impulse [ P ] with the Bounded Impulses ( PA , P B ) .
5.. The difference of Impulses dP = P B – PA > = < 0 of Dipole AB (mass) , creates ± charge . For very small ds ( near zero) which happens at the boundaries of Spaces , ± charge may be point charge ( Spaces form open Strings while Sub-Spaces form closed Strings . Cosmic rays is a Quantum field from a , near zero ds Sub-Space ) , and in very large scales ds ,
is of ± charge and of the same Field , ( This because Particles , wave like , do not enter a Space smaller than their wavelength ) .
6.. A ray , say M - Ray , interact on the infinite Monads of [PNS] with infinite velocity and zero frequency . This Motion is Continuous and occurs on Dimensional Bounded Units , ds , and not on Points ( this happens only for very small ds near zero and at boundaries of the Spaces ) which are dimensionless . The difference of Impulse dP = P B-PA on points A , B and on points Pi A , Pi B is ± charge . All particles act as wave ( wave-particle duality ) because of the Total energy conservation law of Pythagoras in 2,3 Dim .
7.. The four Interaction of particles or Fields occur directly or Indirectly .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[64] **viXra:1209.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-03 10:01:00*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 4 references

It is proposed a new approach towards explaining why the Hawaiian Archipelago plume has changed direction in regards to the top crustal layer.

**Category:** Geophysics

[63] **viXra:1209.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-27 10:50:01*

**Authors:** Ibrahim M. Alabdulmohsin

**Comments:** 135 Pages.

In this manuscript, we present the foundations of Summability
Calculus, which places various established results in number theory, infinitesimal calculus, summability theory, asymptotic analysis, information theory, and the calculus of finite differences under a single simple umbrella. Using Summability Calculus, any given finite sum bounded by a variable n becomes immediately in analytic form. Not only can we differentiate and integrate with respect to the bound n without having to rely on an explicit analytic formula for the finite sum, but we can also deduce asymptotic expansions, accelerate convergence, assign natural values to divergent sums, and evaluate the finite sum for any complex value of n. This follows because the discrete definition of the simple finite sum embodies a unique natural continuation to the entire complex plane. Throughout the paper, many established results are strengthened such as the Bohr-Mollerup theorem, Stirling's approximation, Glaisher's approximation, and the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, many celebrated theorems are extended and generalized such as the Euler- Maclaurin summation formula and Boole's summation formula. Finally, we show that countless identities that have been proved throughout the past 300 years by different mathematicians using different approaches can actually be derived in an elementary straightforward manner using the rules of Summability Calculus.

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1209.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-23 19:30:41*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

Chapter II is a part of a series of Dr. Tian-Chou Wang's proof to the Riemann Hypothesis.
It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063) and Chapter 1 (viXra citation number: 1209.0068).

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1209.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-23 23:56:15*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 30 Pages. The preprint of the book "The physical theories and infinite nesting of matter" by Sergey G. Fedosin, § 7, translation into English in 2012.

The law of Newton for the attraction of bodies is derived with the help of the concept of gravitons. The expression for gravitational constant is obtained through the momentum of gravitons and the absorption coefficient. Calculations of the values of the coefficient of absorption and of the energy power of graviton flux in the space were made. It is shown that during the movement with constant speed the law of inertia is acting.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[60] **viXra:1209.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-23 09:56:27*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The exact mechanism of the Unity principle and the basic constituent of the physical Universe are disclosed with their consequences for theoretical physics. It is shown briefly how the Universe works at its micro and macro levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] **viXra:1209.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-01 10:52:13*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the Einstein tensor $G_{00}$ is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the warp drive are the so-called Quantum Inequalities(QI) that restricts the time we can observe the negative energy density.This time is known as the sampling time.Ford and Pfenning computed the QI for the Alcubierre warp drive using a Planck Length Scale shape function and concluded that the negative energy in the Alcubierre warp drive can only exists for a sampling time of approximately $10^{-33}$ seconds rendering the warp drive impossible for an interstellar trip for example a given star at $20$ light years away with a speed of $200$ times faster than light because such a trip would require months not $10^{-33}$ seconds. We repeated the QI analysis of Ford and Pfenning for the Natario warp drive using the same Planck Length Scale but with a shape function that although different from the function choosed by Ford and Pfenning it obeys Natario requirements and because the Natario warp drive have a very different distribution of negative energy when compared to its Alcubierre counterpart this affects the QI analysis.We arrived at a sampling time that can last longer than $10^{-33}$ seconds enough to sustain a warp bubble for the interstellar travel mentioned above.We also computed the total negative energy requirements for the Natario warp drive and we arrived at a comfortable result.This leads us to conclude that the Natario warp drive is a valid solution of the Einstein Field Equations of General Relativity physically accessible for interstellar spaceflight. We also discuss Horizons and infinite Doppler blueshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1209.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-20 11:24:21*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 2 Figures, 9 Pages

Since the birth of mankind, human beings have been looking for the origin of life. The fact that human history is the history of warfare and cannibalism proves that humans have not identified their origin. Humanity is still in the dark phase of lower animals. Humans can see the phenomenon of life only on Earth, and humans' vision does not exceed the one of lower animals. However, it is a fact that human beings have inherited the most advanced gene of life. Humans should be able to answer the following questions: Is the Universe hierarchical? What is Heaven? Is Heaven the origin of life? Is Heaven a higher order of life? For more than a decade, I have done an in-depth study on barred galaxy structure. Today (September 17, 2012) I suddenly discovered that the characteristic structure of barred spiral galaxies resembles the breasts of human female essentially. If the rational structure conjecture presented in the article is proved then Sun must be a mirror of the universe, and mankind is exactly the image on earth of the Heaven.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[57] **viXra:1209.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-20 14:27:56*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 1 table, no figures

Various parameters tied to the electrical conductivity of typical metals are estimated and are expressed in terms of universal constants. It happens that they are close to those found in metallic copper at room temperature. The fact that the realization of the model occurs at room temperature is explained by using the Landauer’s erasure principle. The averaged collision time of the electron of conduction is also thought as a particle lifetime. Finally an analogy is established between the motion of the electron of conduction and the cosmological constant problem, where a spherical surface of radius equal to the electron mean free path has been thought as a surface horizon for the charge carriers.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[56] **viXra:1209.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-20 17:26:27*

**Authors:** Nader Vakil

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we show the consistency of the essential part of Sergeyev's numerical methodology (\cite{Yarov 1}, \cite{Yarov 2}) by constructing a model of it within the framework of an ultrapower of the ordinary real number system.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[55] **viXra:1209.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-20 18:38:12*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The concept of 'balanced nutrition' is a difficult one to anchor to a particular idea, namely because it is used for referring to different things. An appropriate dictionary meaning for balance when referring to nutrition is "to compute the difference between the debits and credits (of energy)", as well as being "nicely or evenly balanced, such as a well–balanced diet" (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2005). Thus, the concept of "balanced nutrition" in science could be restricted to using it for referring to the equilibrium in the amount of energy or nutritional chemicals ingested in relation to the energy or nutritional chemicals spent (Webb, 1995). A diet which provides either an excess or a deficiency of energy or nutrients can, thus, be considered to be unbalanced.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[54] **viXra:1209.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-20 23:54:14*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Publication scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

Chapter I is a part of a series of publications by Dr. Tian-Chou Wang, who has tested the Riemann Hypothesis. It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063).

**Category:** Number Theory

[53] **viXra:1209.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-21 12:08:34*

**Authors:** G. M. Narasimha Rao, P. Prayaga Murty

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Mangroves and halophytic vegetation of Chudamani region and Dhamara mouth region of Gamui estuary, Orissa was studied by using the transect with 4x4m quadrate. In each station, 5 transect samples were collected and total samples analyzed for getting relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency of individual species in the studied area. Maximum Important Value Index (IVI) was obtained for the species Suaeda maritima and minimum value for Sonneratia apetala. A total of 11 plant species were reported, out of them 3 were true mangroves species, remaining 8 were halophytes. Along with data on plant populations hydrographical and sediment analysis was gathered to correlate with distribution and abundance of mangrove species. Maximum density was reported Suaeda maritima and minimum density for Prosophis juliflora. Maximum height of forest is only 2 to
M
2.5 meters with diameter of plant species is not more than 26cm. Sediment analysis and low input of fresh water may be responsible for degraded mangroves with stunted growth.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[52] **viXra:1209.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-21 14:46:32*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Still today the discussion about the foundations, physical interpretation, and real scope of quantum mechanics has never ceased. It would be wrong to dismiss these issues as mere philosophical problems, because questions of consistency and interpretation are not devoid of practical utility.
We present the foundations and main properties of a positive definite phase space quantum mechanics. A new quantization procedure is proposed as well. This new interpretation/formulation eliminates conceptual and technical difficulties from quantum mechanics: (i) many paradoxes typical of the wave-particle duality, EPR experiments, macroscopic superpositions, and collapse of wavefunctions disappear; (ii) the elimination of the wavefunctions from quantum theory is in line with the procedure inaugurated by Einstein with the elimination of the ether in the theory of electromagnetism; (iii) it is useful in considering the classical limit, can treat mixed states with ease, and brings certain conceptual issues to the fore; (iv) confirms the ensemble interpretation of the wavefunctions, derives its statistical interpretation, corrects the temporal dependence of the old wavefunctions, and considers pure classical states --localizable states-- beyond the Hilbert space; (v) the quantum equation of motion is of the Liouville kind and star-products are not needed, simplifying the formalism; and (vi) eliminates the hypothetical external quantum field of the pilot wave interpretation, solving its problems on the status of probability, and correcting well-known inconsistencies of the Bohm potential.
Finally, we offer some perspectives on future developments and research in progress.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1209.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-19 20:02:11*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

This is a series of publication by Dr. Tian-Chou Wang, who tested the Riemann Hypothesis. His proof contains eleven chapters and eleven appendices, and is composed of about 500,000words and 5000 equations in total.
The first manuscript of 'the opening' provides the overview of Riemann Hypothesis and the work flow of Dr. Wang's proof.

**Category:** Number Theory

[50] **viXra:1209.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-19 22:55:56*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The reliability of the iPhone's GPS tracking feature was assessed empirically by Perezgonzalez in 2010. The research used an iPhone and a specialized tracking device (Spidertracks) on the same training flight. At the end of the flight, the data collected by both technologies were compared. More specifically, data regarding four flight parameters were correlated to assess the tracking variability of the two technologies.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[49] **viXra:1209.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-04 01:49:20*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles.
As a result, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS dual Black Hole system seems to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) efficiently into real electric energy by entropy decrease (nuclear electric potential) and is responsible for all dark matter in the universe.
The electric energy production of Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), seem to be able to explain quick Star- and Galaxy formation, Birkeland Currents, Alfven Circuits and Herbig Haro Objects. However, smaller Black holes (created by magnetic interference) are supposed to be responsible for Sunspots, micro-Comets and even Ball Lightning.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1209.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-19 12:28:24*

**Authors:** Mohit Kumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

When sewage is untreated and is discharged into any water course will be effected severely. Sewage which has many pathogens and is rich in organic matter and high BOD when released into water course the dissolved oxygen of the stream decreases drastically which effects flora and fauna of the stream and also makes the water unfit for any purpose. Visakhapatnam is a city where nearly 18 lakh (384 per km2) (Eenadu, dated on 1st April) people resides. The day – to – day sewage which generates in the city has been collected and treated in the municipal sewage treatment plants at Appugar, Port area, Old town and Mudarsalova. Where Appugar plant holds 25 MLD, Port area plant holds 10 MLD, Old town plant holds 38MLD and Mudarsalova plant holds 13MLD of sewage of Visakhapatnam. The sewage treatment plants are not enough to hold the existing huge volume of sewage that is generated in the city. People and tourists are attracted more towards locations like Lumbini Park, Tenneti Park, Tourists Resorts located along the Beach and make frequent visits to those places. Aim of this study is to estimate physico-chemical and biological parameters of the sewage samples from different sewage disposal points along the coast of Visakhapatnam and to identify that objectionable parameters of the sewage ,which should be minimized before it is being disposed off.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[47] **viXra:1209.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-19 18:02:40*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Appeared in the 20th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2012), Redondo Beach, California, The United States

Geographic information systems traditionally dealt with only outdoor spaces. In recent years, indoor spatial information systems have started to attract attention partly due to the increasing use of receptor devices (e.g., RFID readers or wireless sensor networks) in both outdoor and indoor spaces. Applications that employ these devices are expected to span uniformly and supply seamless functionality in both outdoor and indoor spaces. What makes this impossible is the current absence of a unified account of these two types of spaces both in terms of modeling and reasoning about the models. This paper presents a unified model of outdoor and indoor spaces and receptor deployments in these spaces. The model is expressive, flexible, and invariant to the segmentation of a space plan, and the receptor deployment policy. It is focused on partially constrained outdoor and indoor motion, and it aims at underlying the construction of future, powerful reasoning applications.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[46] **viXra:1209.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-18 16:52:53*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is shown empirically that Mars and the Moon have been magnetized which is evidence of the past presence of a much larger magnetic field which can be explained by stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Geophysics

[45] **viXra:1209.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-19 22:40:06*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A model of final state interaction for 8Be* of 4D/TSC fusion is proposed. The 8Be*(Ex=47.6MeV) may damp its excited energy by major BOLEP (burst of low energy photons) process from

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[44] **viXra:1209.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-19 03:31:37*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Zero-postulation, as we can see, sits at the heart of abstraction. Null-postulation or zero-postulation favours no given result or a given set of results over all others. In that way, null postulation does not assume anything beforehand. What it does is to consider all possible results and derive the ultimate results from this exhaustive set of possible results. Each valid element inside the exhaustive set of results might interact in order to culminate into the ‘real’ results or happenings.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[43] **viXra:1209.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-18 12:02:35*

**Authors:** Mohit Kumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Petrol, diesel and kerosene are important hydrocarbons which are widely used in different form in our life. The manufacture of hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, form paraffin is familiar commercial process. However, this process is very costly, involves elaborate method and is time consumable. Consequently, this process does not seem to be economically viable.

**Category:** Chemistry

[42] **viXra:1209.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-17 11:14:05*

**Authors:** Paul. J. Werbos

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In press invited to inaugural issue of journal Space Philosophy

This paper asks what serious philosophy says about the ultimate goals and figures of merit, for use in evaluating and guiding activities such as NASA and other space program. It begins with a condensed review of a new viewpoint in philosophy, "the philosophy of sanity and integrity," citing papers in Neural Networks in more detail. More controversially, it presents concepts of the soul grounded in that philosophy, but also addressing more data from experience, bearing upon our goals in space and on earth as well.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[41] **viXra:1209.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-17 13:56:29*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 72.8. 22.7, and 4.53, respectively, in agreement with observed 72.8, 22.7, and 4.56, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.47 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 +/- 0.98 billion years ago. The calculation is based on the unified theory of physics derived from the zero-energy universe and the space-object structures. In this model, the maximum percentage of variable dark energy is 75%, and the ratio of dark matter to baryonic matter is 5 to 1. For our universe, the zero-energy universe produced the symmetrical positive-energy and negative-energy universes, which then underwent a symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism to generate eventually our universe of baryonic-dark matter with massless particles and the parallel universe of dark energy without massless particles, respectively. The further symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism differentiated baryon matter with massless electromagnetism and dark matter without massless electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1209.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-17 05:15:21*

**Authors:** Jiawei Gao, Ton Kloks, Sheung-Hung Poon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We show that there is a linear-time algorithm to
partition the edges of a planar graph into triangles. We show that the problem is also polynomial for toroidal graphs but NP-complete for
k-planar graphs, where k is at least 8.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[39] **viXra:1209.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-15 13:09:30*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 16 pages

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the Einstein tensor $G_{00}$ is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the warp drive are the so-called Quantum Inequalities(QI) that restricts the time we can observe the negative energy density.This time is known as the sampling time.Ford and Pfenning computed the QI for the Alcubierre warp drive and concluded that the negative energy in the Alcubierre warp drive can only exists for a sampling time of approximately $10^{-10}$ seconds rendering the warp drive impossible for an interstellar trip for example a given star at $20$ light years away with a speed of $200$ times faster than light because such a trip would require months not $10^{-10}$ seconds. We repeated the QI analysis of Ford and Pfenning for the Natario warp drive and because the Natario warp drive have a very different distribution of negative energy when compared to its Alcubierre counterpart this affects the QI analysis.We arrived at a sampling time that can last longer than $10^{-10}$ seconds enough to sustain a warp bubble for the interstellar travel mentioned above.We also computed the total negative energy requirements for the Natario warp drive and we arrived at a comfortable result.This leads us to conclude that the Natario warp drive is a valid solution of the Einstein Field Equations of General Relativity physically accessible for interstellar spaceflight. We also discuss Horizons and infinite Doppler blueshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1209.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-16 08:11:39*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages

We propose two novel techniques for detecting gravitational waves. First technique is based on detecting electromagnetic waves generated through oscillating dipoles formed by separated charges on capacitor plates kept perpendicularly to incoming gravitational waves, in the y-z plane say. We keep two parallel plate charged capacitors in the y-z plane, kept perpendicularly to each other with plates kept perpendicularly to y-z plane and let the separation between plates be d say. When plane gravitational waves will be passing this apparatus by falling perpendicularly on y-z plane there will be switching of direction of elongation and contraction periodically in such a way that there will be elongation along y-direction and contraction along z-direction and then the reversal of these conditions, i.e. there will be contraction along y-direction and elongation along z-direction. Due to this the separation between these fully charged parallel plates will be changing periodically. This variation will essentially amount to formation of several oscillating dipoles which will emit electromagnetic waves. If these electromagnetic waves could be found then their existence will conclude the arrival and passing of gravitational waves! Alternatively with the same setup can be utilized based on variation in the value of capacity of the above mentioned parallel plate capacitors connected with suitable inductors and a power supply forming a resonant LC circuit and measuring the shift in the resonant frequency. If detectable shift in the resonant frequency will be found due to variation in the value of capacity with variation in the value of separation between the parallel plates of the capacitors then this will imply the successful detection of gravitational waves! The second technique we propose is based on replacing usual suspended Weber bar by a strong magnet and keeping a fixed helical solenoid around this strong magnet and connecting two ends of this solenoid wire two current meter to measure the induced current. When the magnetic Weber bar will oscillate in response to passing gravitational wave there will be change in magnetic flux producing induced current in the solenoid coil. If detectable current will be found to be induced in the coil then again this will imply the successful detection of gravitational waves!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[37] **viXra:1209.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-20 14:44:51*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In order to support clear discussions, a simple self- consistent model of fundamental physics is constructed. It is strictly based on the axioms of traditional quantum logic and uses the isomorphism of the set of propositions of this logic system with the set of closed subspaces of a quaternionic separable Hilbert space. This primitive model cannot represent dynamics and does not include a representation of fields. For that reason the model also uses the Gelfand triple of the Hilbert space and a set of links that connect the eigenvectors of a particle location operator in the Hilbert space with the continuum eigenspace of a corresponding location operator in the Gelfand triple. These links are quaternionic probability amplitude distributions (QPAD’s) that will act as the quantum state functions of the particles. The combination of a quaternionic Hilbert space, its Gelfand triple and the set of linking QPAD’s still can only represent a static status quo of the universe. However, a dynamic model may consist of an ordered sequence of such sandwiches. The subsequent sandwiches form the pages of a book that we will call the Hilbert Book Model.
The quaternionic derivative of a QPAD leads to a continuity equation that describes how the derivative is coupled to its source. When the strength of the coupling is made explicit, then the resemblance with linear equations of motion becomes apparent.
This interpretation extends conventional quantum physics with quantum fluid dynamics. It throws an unprecedented view on the undercrofts of fundamental physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1209.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-15 13:56:57*

**Authors:** Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This article is accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (August 30, 2012)

In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[35] **viXra:1209.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-14 16:02:05*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Concept originally penned in 2002 and partially included in author’s “Challenging Science”

An explanation for gravity was listed as one of the 11 greatest unanswered questions of physics in 2002 and still remains a hot issue. Many have tried; none has successfully succeeded. Einstein spent much of his later life trying. The quantum theorists have preceded under two hypotheses: that gravity is a separate force from other forces and that it fits the quantum theory ideal (thus, the proposed "graviton"). After a fruitless 75+year attempt to explain gravity with these restrictions and make it fit a grand unification theory, it should strike most that these tenets are faulty. The BIG BAND Theory of Gravity recognizes the long known “identity” of the electrostatic and gravity mathematical expressions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1209.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-15 01:50:00*

**Authors:** Alexander Egoyan, Ilia Khipashvili

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article we perform theoretical analysis of long jumps with the purpose to find contribution of air resistance and wind into final results. It appears that in the absence of wind the drag effect during a long-jump would reduce the jump by no more than 1%. The wind has a significant effect mainly because of changes in take-off values. The faster the athlete runs, the greater the horizontal velocity at the instant he/she touches the take-off board and the greater the take-off velocity. The model predicts an increase in jump distance up to 23 cm from a jump on a still day to a jump by the same athlete with 2 ms-1 tailwind (the allowable limit for records).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[33] **viXra:1209.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-14 13:38:57*

**Authors:** K F Morton, David Grace

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A vast numberof malware is packed by packers. Obfuscation tools are not only cost effective and readily available but also provide an effective camouflage to malware code. Unpacking and analyzing the malicious code may appear aoptimum solution to this problem; but provided with gigantic number of malware being released every single day, this is not a tranquil peace of work for security companies and researchers. In this paper we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of packer problem with practical demonstration of their effectiveness and we will be reviewing various generic techniques to handle this problem.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[32] **viXra:1209.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-13 17:18:57*

**Authors:** Tomaz Kopac

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A simple theory is put forward that unifies Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s law for charged particles. An equation with its solutions is presented and is the mathematical framework that connects both laws. An underlying principle on which the derivation of the equation was based on is proposed. The result is that a simple underlying physical principle of two densities trying to reach equilibrium, combined with a few equations, yields both Newton’s and Coulombs’ laws. This work tries to sum up the current state of this theory, which is still in its very beginning stages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:1209.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-12 19:27:41*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

中国人把费马大定理成果送绐Wiles是犯罪

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1209.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-19 19:58:01*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is shown empirically that supernovas cannot destroy stars. This has serious consequences as to the actual nature of these events.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[29] **viXra:1209.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-20 09:45:06*

**Authors:** Michael James Goodband

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A geometric theory in 10+1 dimensions is developed starting from a transition S^{10} → S^{3}×S^{7} followed by dynamical compactification in which S^{7} becomes the compactified particle dimensions in a Kaluza-Klein theory, and the spatial S^{3} inflates. The closed space acquires a vacuum winding π_{7}(S^{3})=π_{4(S3)=Z2 with Spin(3), SU(2), U(1) eigenvalues (0,–½ 1) and chirality Z2 = {L, R}. This vacuum breaks the symmetry of the particle space SU(4)/SU(3) ≅ S7 to (Spin(3)⊗SU(2)⊗U(1))/Z3 giving 12 topological monopoles (π6(S2) = Z3×Z4) with spin ½ giving 3 families of 4 fermionic monopoles that split into Spin(3) coloured and colourless SU(2) doublets with the same charges as the fundamental particles. Topological conditions in the classical theory give a definition of Planck's constant ħ=c3χ2/G as the physical scale of the topological spin charge, and define the Weinberg angle as tan2θ_W=5/16. Closed formulae for e, g, g', mZ, mW, mH are derived in the classical theory. The topological monopoles take the form of rotating compactified black holes in the dimensionally reduced theory, where their ergo-region can trap virtual-radiation sufficient to cancel the rest mass of the black hole. This leads to the derivation of a quantum field theory for the topological monopoles where the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction gives a Lagrangian containing the terms of the Standard Model, including a quartic scalar field term which gives the coupling constant value λ=1/8 for the Higgs term.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory}

[28] **viXra:1209.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 03:59:57*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 22 Pages + 18 Pages of Appendices, 25 Figures, 2 Tables

In general, science accepts that both the structure of the universe and the laws of physics were created simultaneously at the beginning of the Big Bang, and have since remained constant
throughout the observable universe. The experimental evidence detailed in this paper
demonstrates that consciousness, in its widest sense, was also created at the time of the big
bang, and together with the storage,communication and perception of information, is intimately connected to the structure of the universe and the laws of physics. The introduction
of this concept of consciousness helps to explain the “weird” effects of quantum physics and
hitherto other inexplicable phenomena including entanglement, dark energy, inflation theory,
the universe’s expansion against gravity, and the possible connection between the essence of
consciousness and the Higgs field. This paper augments existing knowledge with published
findings from recent mind science experiments. Using noetics and without the use of physical
equipment, equations are found with high correlation coefficients which include universal
constants such as the Golden Ratio, 1.61803... (φ), Feigenbaum’s Constant, 4.6692... (δ), sine
1/3, and polyhedra angles. It is thus demonstrated that both consciousness and the structure of the universe are closely linked to concepts including: universal constants, geometry, chaos theory, numbers and mathematics, vortices, fractal geometry, interaction of mind and matter, multi-body interactions, entanglement and information. General acceptance of the above facts should lead to a monumental paradigm shift in mankind’s understanding of the cosmos and
its incorporation of consciousness.
Key Words mind; consciousness; spirals; torus; vorticity; chaos; Feigenbaum’s constant; golden ratio; gravity; electromagnetism; entanglement; cosmic and subtle energies; Planck level; Higgs
field; structure of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1209.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-11 14:28:10*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Frobenius-Perron transfer operator of the harmonic sawtooth map is investigated and
some expressions for its eigenvalues are found.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1209.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-11 08:04:10*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Abstract,
In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of
elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
In my former paper “3-Dimensional String based alternative particle model,”
I presented a possible solution based on complex 3-D ring shaped particles.
I will give it the name: Quantum- FFF Theory. (Function Follows Form Theory).
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is
coined non-SM Higgs particle, supplied with the 3-hinges coded (OOO).
This paper presents the possible consequences of such a 3-D string particle system for
MAJORANA particles and so called STERILE NEUTRINOS.
It seems to be a surprise that in the Q-FFF model there is a possibility for 4x different shaped
Sterile Neutrinos and one symmetrical and two anti-symmetrical Majorana solutions.
At the same time I present some detailed features of how some Q-FFF particles can click-on
to form micro black hole nuclei for Ball lightning or other anomalous effects happening inside particle accelerators.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1209.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-14 13:27:26*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the special relativity theory and the quantum theory, the Compton effect is the effect about the standing electron and the moving photon. The general Compton effect is the case that the moving photon impulses the moving electron in the line. In this time, the photon’s sense is the opposite sense and the same sense of the moving electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1209.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-10 11:52:58*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 21 pages

This article is about the concept of mass and electric charge: When the fundamental relativistic equation E^2=m^2 c^4+〖|p|〗^2 c^2 is solved in the complex, this inevitably leads to an irreducible representation of the extended Lorentz group as U(4) operating on the complex Clifford algebra Cl(1,3) in which mass is a complex 4x4-spinor. Spinors are a direct consequence of taking the root of the Minkowski square distance. Doing so with the Minkowski square of differentials then gives a spinor-valued differential form. With that, classical electrodynamics is shown to be extendable into a relativistically invariant theory, in fact the simplest possible relativistically invariant one. Its symmetries reveal a unified concept of classical charge and mass. A dynamical system based on this, splits into the direct sum of a dynamical system of pure electromagnetic charges and one of purely neutral particles. In it, charged particles must be fermionic in order to conserve their net charge, and neutral non-magnetic ones are bosonic in order to be able to assign to them a positive mass.
Also, it will be seen that within the Clifford algebra, the Hamiltonian of a self-interacting mechanical dynamical system of particles can be given in a closed form. I end the paper with a section on superconductivity, where it is shown that superconducting material should electromagnetically behave as opaque, dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1209.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-08 13:16:09*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 Pages. First published: Rev. Bras. Ensino Fis.v38, n3306 (in portuguese)

The basic structure of the classical electromagnetism is used as a means to study the strong interaction. The strong coupling constant and the strong field (expessed in terms of an equivalent electric field) inside the nucleon (proton or neutron) are estimated. It is also evaluated the vacuum pressure on the boundary of the nucleon. Quark confinement is briefly discussed. Simplified versions of the MIT bag model are also considered in making the present treatment

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22] **viXra:1209.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-08 14:47:15*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is proposed that there are root assumptions that are stagnating human beings’ understanding of astronomy related issues. A few of these assumptions are listed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1209.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-08 19:23:31*

**Authors:** A. Laidlaw

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Apeiron Vol 11, no. 3 July 2004

The relationships between two alternative theories of gravity, the "physicalist", Electromagnetics based, "Polarisable Vaccuum"
theory of Puthoff and Dicke, and Yilmaz's "phenomenological" variation of the General Theory of Relativity, are explored by virtue of a simple physical model based in the application of
Newtonian mechanics to propagative systems. A particular virtue of the physical model is that, by introducing distributed source terms, it anticipates nonlocal relationships between observables within the framework of local realism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1209.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-05 17:18:52*

**Authors:** A. Laidlaw

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Revised conclusions. Clarifications throughout.

Lorentz Invariance implies definite structural constraints on the massive particles. It is shown, from the basic physics
of luminal waves of any kind, that multi-component wave systems conform to the usual relativistic mechanics for matter.
This motivates further consideration of luminal wave models of matter. The usual length contraction and time dilation
phenomena are shown in such models, leading to a paradox-free wave interpretation of Lorentz Invariance and the conclusion
that internal movements referred to the co-moving frame will be luminal in any Lorentz invariant particle model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1209.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-07 06:35:31*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. To be submitted to a peer review journal

In the reading Nyambuya (2009), it is shown that one can write down a general spin Dirac equation by modifying the usual Einstein energy-momentum equation via the insertion of the quantity ``s" which is identified with the spin of the particle. That is to say, a Dirac equation that describes a particle of spin \frac{1}{2}s\hbar\vec{\sigma} where \hbar is the normalised Planck constant, \vec{\sigma} are the Pauli 2 \times 2 matrices and s=(\pm 1, \pm2,\pm 3, \,\dots etc). What is not clear in this reading Nyambuya (2009) is how such a modified energy-momentum relation would arise in Nature. At the end of the day, the insertion by lathe of hand of the quantity ``s" into the usual Einstein energy-momentum equation, would then appear to be nothing more than speculation. In the present reading -- by making use of the curved spacetime Dirac equations proposed in the work Nyambuya (2008), we move the exercise of Nyambuya (2009) from the realm of speculation to that of plausibility

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1209.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-11 22:39:16*

**Authors:** Okunoye Babatunde

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Accepted and Revised at IEEE African Journal of Computing and ICTs

In earlier work, the author conjectured that under two special conditions relating to theorems on the determinant of a matrix: the absence of a zero row (column) and the absence of similar rows (columns), a non-zero determinant value certifies the existence of a Directed Hamiltonian Path in an arbitrary adjacency matrix. Here, a formal proof is provided by means of deductive logic to establish that in an arbitrary adjacency matrix of size n (n rows and n columns), a non-zero determinant value verifies the existence of a Directed Hamiltonian Path in the adjacency matrix

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[17] **viXra:1209.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-06 22:57:02*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A new piece of evidence for the periodic variations of nuclear decay rates in astrophysical time scales has been reported by Sturrock et al: now in the case of Ra-222 nuclei. In this article the TGD inspired explanation for the variations is developed in more detail by utilizing the data provided in this article. The explanation relies on nuclear string model predicting the existence of almost degenerate ground states of nuclei (in the natural MeV energy scale) with excitations energies assumed to lie in keV energy range. The variations of the decay rates defined naturally as averages for the decay rates of excitations would be induced by keV radiation from the solar corona. The would also explain the anomalously high temperature of solar corona and relate the observed periodicities to the rotation rate of corona.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16] **viXra:1209.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-06 15:40:15*

**Authors:** Lexi Neale

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

To propose an experiential code for Quantum Consciousness, two pre-requisites are also presented: First, a model differentiating Consciousness, Mind and Energy called the AQAL Cube. It is an extension of both Wilber's All-Quadrant, All-Level Integral model, and of Rauscher's Complex Eight Dimensional Minkowsky Space model. Second, a Meta-Theory of Integral Relativity, as a non-local extension of General Relativity. Its two Tenets state (a) The Equation of Energy with Consciousness, and (b) The Law of Conservation of Consciousness. This hypothesisof a Quantum Consciousness code is corroborated by the collaborative work of Penrose and Hameroff in Quantum Consciousness; and by the confirmation of the empirical reality of the non-local wave function by Pusey, Barrett and Rudolph in 2011, 2012.

**Category:** Mind Science

[15] **viXra:1209.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-06 08:38:09*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this article, we present a complete theory of dark matter, based on the idea of a substance filling all what we call vacuum, interpreting the curve of velocities of stars in galaxy and the Tully-Fisher's law. We will also justify a very simple topological form of the Universe, and the position of our galaxy in this Universe. We will obtain also the expression of Hubble's constant and of the redishift due to the expansion of the Universe;

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14] **viXra:1209.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-05 10:23:58*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 5 pages

A model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author involves an
unusual set of constants, such as the temperature T of the
graviton background, a new dimensional constant D defining a
cross-section of interaction by forehead collisions of any
particle with a graviton, the Newton and Hubble constants which
are computable here. The set of used constants of this model and
links between them are considered in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1209.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-05 00:31:28*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 159 Pages.

The concept of dual numbers was introduced in 1873 by W.K.Clifford. In this book the authors build higher dimensional dual numbers, interval dual numbers and impose some algebraic structures on them. The S-vector space of dual numbers built over a Smarandache dual ring can have eigen values and eigen vectors to be dual numbers.
Complex modulo integer dual numbers and neutrosophic dual numbers are also introduced. The notion of fuzzy dual numbers can play a vital role in fuzzy models. Some research level problems are also proposed here.

**Category:** Algebra

[12] **viXra:1209.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-04 14:59:49*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the special relativity theory, the acceleration about the accelerated matter in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system and the other acceleration about the accelerated matter in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system are same. Therefore using it, derive the transformation of the power. And if the acceleration is the constant acceleration , the acceleration in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system and in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system is the constant acceleration .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1209.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-04 06:33:45*

**Authors:** Peter Punin

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

ABSTRACT: The theory of decoherence, provided we accept its validity, partially solves the quantum-macro clash as it had been seen few decades before. Namely, the theory of decoherence permits us to understand (better) why a given macro-system, in contrast to the quantum entities that compose it, does not superpose simultaneously several possible states. Subsequently, the theory of decoherence partially solves the paradox stemming from the Gedankenexperiment known as “Schrödinger's cat”. In terms of decoherence, it seems reasonable to admit that the feline, independently from any measurement process, is either alive or dead, but never superposes these mutually exclusive states.
On the other hand, the resolution of a second essential aspect of the quantum-macro clash cannot find any help from the theory of decoherence. While now the overall wave packet reduction by the macroscopic environment of each quantum phenomenon manifesting itself at our scale seems quite plausible, the theory of decoherence does not explain from where our macroscopic world – ultimately irreducible to the only quantum axioms and laws – could emerge. In other words, whereas the macro-non-superposition problem seems almost solved, the supra-quantum emergence problem entirely persists.
From the (current) perspective of the macroscopic non-superposition problem, Schrödinger's cat perhaps retains only a historical interest .
But in the present paper, we will try to show that in the context of the supra-quantum emergence problem, the “cat” continues to have a specific relevant significance.
On the other hand, it seems commonly admitted that the special status of the “cat” as a representative of living matter does not have any intrinsic meaning within the Gedankenexperiment. Other antithetical “macroscopic superpositions” such as a broken-intact phial or simply the needle of a measurement apparatus pointing simultaneously upwards and downwards would express the same message than the dead-living “cat.”
However, here we aim to prove that the living matter status of the “cat”, when related to the supra-quantum emergence problem, does have – despite its author – an intrinsic signification which the modern philosophy of science generally denies.
Indirectly inspired by certain assumptions of the neo-Darwinian biologist Ernst Mayr denoting that the existence of living matter expresses a key aspect of the supra-quantum emergence problem, this paper is purposed to establish
1° that the efficient elucidation of the supra-quantum emergence problem should have a formally and experimentally operating “general systems theory” according to Ludwig von Bertalanffy,
2° that this “general systems theory” still looking for its own scientificity remains until further notice reduced to a kind of not entirely full scientific “world vision” or “intellectual attitude” commonly called “holism”.
3° that a generally neglected text passage of Schrödinger's article “Die gegenwärtige Situation in der Quantenmechanik” containing the “cat” closely anticipates – despite its author and far ahead of time – the fundamental assumption of “general systems theory”, i.e. “the whole transcends the 'sum' of its parts”,
4° that the factors ensuring the powerful formal consistence of quantum physics are – except for one determining detail – the same which hamper the creation of a scientifically relevant “general systems theory” and, subsequently, impede the elucidation of the supra-quantum emergence problem.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[10] **viXra:1209.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-04 05:55:45*

**Authors:** David W. Wright, Shunzhou Wan, S. Kashif Sadiq, Stefan J. Zasada, Peter V. Coveney

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Many infectious diseases as well as cancers are strongly influenced by molecular level processes. In several cases, the advent of rapid genetic sequencing, already available in the case of HIV, means that patient-specific treatment based on genetic data becomes conceivable. Targeted therapies use drugs to interfere with specific
biomacromolecules involved in disease development. Given the complexity of emergent mutations in such biomacromolecules and in the disease itself, clinicians need to resort to decision support software for patient-specific treatment. Incorporating model based molecular level information into such decision support systems offers the potential to substantially enhance personalised drug treatment by providing first principles based ranking of drug efficacy on a specific patient. Patient specific molecular models of targeted macromolecules are constructed and molecular dynamics simulations are used to rank drug binding affinities. Here we present results from clinically relevant protein variants that arise from two distinct pathologies: HIV and lung carcinoma. Our findings demonstrate the potential for molecular simulations to achieve an accurate ranking of drug binding affinities on clinically relevant time scales and represent the first steps towards the eventual goal of providing
data derived from patient specific simulation to enhance clinical decision support systems. The approach gives rapid, robust, and accurate computational results and is dependent on an automated workflow for building, simulating and
analysing models distributed over petascale computing resources which are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of compute cores.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[9] **viXra:1209.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-25 15:32:31*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Expanded/revised draft. See also viXra:1208.0076

A non-unitary quantum theory describing the evolution of quantum state tensors is presented. Einstein’s equations and the fine structure constant are derived. The problem of precession in classical mechanics gives an example.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1209.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-02 17:35:32*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In a separate paper [1] (http://vixra.org/abs/1208.0042), the author advanced the thesis that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles. Here, we apply the Gordon decomposition to the final results from [1] to understand what is “inside” a Yang-Mills magnetic monopole baryon. We develop a local chiral duality formalism inherent in the Dirac algebra which appears to have lain undiscovered for decades. We also discover a “vector/axial inversion” that is inherent in hadron physics rooted in Dirac’s γ5=iγ0 γ1 γ2 γ3 which may explain the observed chiral asymmetries in hadrons including the many vector and axial mesons clearly observed in phenomenological data. Finally, to define what is “inside” a baryon in experimental terms, in (5.1) we specify the form from which predicted cross sections of magnetic monopole baryons can be computed and then used to experimentally confirm the thesis that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1209.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-02 17:43:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Current mathematical theories have failed to explain why the Sun is observed to be extremely round. An explanation is provided of why the current mathematical theories explaining the Sun’s extreme roundness have failed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[6] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-24 06:35:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy. Version 10 (vA) adds material including conversion of fusion energy to zeolite capacitor electrical energy. Version 11 (vB) adds experimental details for fusion energy utilization by Zeolite-D20 steam and by Zeolite-Templated Carbon capacitor. Version 12 (vC) adds overview of energy sources and Schwinger Coherent Electron process for transferring fusion energy to Zeolite heat. Version 13 (vD) adds a 5-page introductory preface / preamble to the paper. Version 14 (vE) describes an alternative TSC geometry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[5] **viXra:1209.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-03 06:41:39*

**Authors:** Vladimir Godovalov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Russian version

This paper is supplement to Powers Fields Theory, http://vixra.org/abs/1206.0025. Here in more comprehensive way the substance of Fermat’s last theorem is revealed. It becomes possible, because in fact, it is closely related to Pascal’s triangle so its proof is achieving for all the exponents without extreme difficulties.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1209.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-03 13:27:34*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Summary of articles [1, 2] is shown, and a new approach to quantum
gravity is presented. It is based on suppositions that masses of black holes can be
smaller than Planck's mass, that dimensionless masses of particles or black holes
are a fifirst hint toward development of quantum gravity. It is shown a new way to
develop principle of uncertainty, and this principle is more fundamental than
wave function. Virtual gravitons are based on a wave function and if it does not exist,
they also do not exist. Thus, it is excluded contradiction that "virtual photons exist
in background space-time".At the same time all is based on the principle that "gravity
is not a force".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1209.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-02 06:39:06*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Based on the work of Jacobson [1] and Gibbons, [2] Schiller [3] has
shown not only that a *maximum force* follows from general relativity, but
that general relativity can be *derived* from the principle of maximum force.
In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given.
Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification
of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from
uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of
gravitational *horizons* plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the
case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit
a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the
geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1209.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-01 12:53:02*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A complete Doppler formula is deduced from first principles and it can dispute predictions to the famous relativistic one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1209.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-11 18:34:21*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Standard Model of particle physics is built upon the implied assumption that non-gravitational interaction can occur in the absence of gravity.
This essay takes this implied assumption at face value and then considers the alternative assumption -- non-gravitational interaction {\it can't} occur in the absence of gravity.
The alternative assumption is then discussed in terms of the dark sector of the Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics