[55] **viXra:1102.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Tim Jones

**Comments:**
17 pages.

Transcendence of a number implies the irrationality of powers of a
number, but in the case of π there are no separate proofs that powers
of π are irrational. We investigate this curiosity. Transcendence proofs
for e involve what we call Hermite's technique; for π's transcendence
Lindemann's adaptation of Hermite's technique is used. Hermite's
technique is presented and its usage is demonstrated with irrationality
proofs of e and powers of e. Applying Lindemann's adaptation
to a complex polynomial, π is shown to be irrational. This use of
a complex polynomial generalizes and powers of π are shown to be
irrational. The complex polynomials used involve roots of i and yield
regular polygons in the complex plane. One can use graphs of these
polygons to visualize various mechanisms used to proof π^{2}, π^{3}, and π^{4}
are irrational. The transcendence of π and e are easy generalizations
from these irrational cases.

**Category:** Number Theory

[54] **viXra:1102.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:**
11 pages.

The derivation of nonlinear quantum electron equation in the framework of nonlinear theory
of elementary particles (NTEP) is presented. It can help to understand many aspects of the
quantum description of elementary particles. In particular, it is shown that the fields
self-action is "the mechanism", which introduces the mass into the quantum electron equation.
This mechanism has a similarities with the Higgs mechanism of mass generation, however it is
not needed a Higgs boson. The results of the experiments, which were set until now, to find
the Higgs's boson, are negative. At the same time the NTEP has not difficulties, which will
appear in Standard Model theory, if Higgs's boson is not discovered.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[53] **viXra:1102.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-11 05:54:47*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

According to Einstein’s relativity theory, is the speed of light for every observer the same in
all reference frames.
However, there seem to be incidental differences in the lightspeed if we observe the outliers of GPS satellite to CHAMP satellite distance measurements of 180m.
At the same time in the literature I found tiny structural but characteristic unexplained irregularities in Planetary radar-pulse reflection measurements, made by I.I. Shapiro in 1964, between the Earth and Venus.
Both observations support the idea of the existence of ellipsoidal lightspeed extinction
(or vacuum adaptation) volumes around massive objects like the earth. Such a volume I will call LASOF or Local Asymmetric Oscillating Vacuum Frame.
Other historic lightspeed experiments support the idea that all objects with mass are equipped with some extinction volume.
As a consequence I propose new triangular trajectory lightspeed comparison experiments between the earth and dual satellites or dual balloons and even in the laboratory to support these lightspeed extinction and adaptation ideas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1102.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:**
9 pages.

Using the well documented technique of dowsing abstract geometrical shapes, this
paper is one of several demonstrating that perception and hence consciousness is
linked into the structure of universal space-time as evidenced by a linear relationship
to geometry with a high correlation coefficient and the possible involvement of
universal constants. This is augmented by local space-time variables such as the
earth's spin, magnetism and orientation also affecting auras of abstract geometrical
shapes, and hence the mind's perception.

**Category:** Mind Science

[51] **viXra:1102.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:**
4 pages.

Proposal for an atomic nuclear polar ring geometry, based on Magic Number logic.
The numerology of magic numbers was reason to do research on geometrical solutions for the
shape and structural system of nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside atom nuclei.
We found only one solution, which was not only able to match the sequence of magic number
numerology in a surprising way. but also the well known axis-symmetrical shape of some
atomic electron clouds.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[50] **viXra:1102.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-31 02:54:43*

**Authors:** K.L. Margiani

**Comments:** 105 Pages.

same

**Category:** Archaeology

[49] **viXra:1102.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-08 14:23:28*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral
lattice models and some consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature
and Time variation, including cyclic Universal time, and local time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1102.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
9 pages.

The Diophantine equations a^{2} ± m b^{2} = c^{n} ,
and a^{3} ± m b^{3} = d^{2} have infinitely many nonzero
integer solutions, Using the methods of infinite descent and infinite ascent we prove
y_{1}^{4} ± m y_{2}^{4} = R^{2} .

**Category:** Number Theory

[47] **viXra:1102.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:**
8 pages.

In the process to combine two charged systems, potential-different
systems, we testified that energy would transfer from the high-potential
system to the low-potential one, during which the entropy of the two systems
show corresponding changes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[46] **viXra:1102.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:**
7 pages.

In a system consisting of a large number of charged particles, the
potential energy of the in-system particles satisfy probability distribution.
Starting from such consideration, we defined the partition function Z and
get the particles in-system distribution function N_{i}, and obtained the
Lagrangian multiplier 1/(qΦ) by using the Lagrange's multiplication method.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1102.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:**
9 pages.

If a system is consisted of a large number of charged particles, any
one of the system's particles would couple with its neighbors by dissimilar
strengths. Therefore, the system's particles would produce dissimilar
potentials, which satisfy the probability distribution. To make the potential
induced by wave number k an exact differential, we introduced the function λ.
In this way, we defined the potential function Φ and entropy function S
of the system.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[44] **viXra:1102.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:**
13 pages.

In the present article the writer discuss a number of alternative model of world population growth.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[43] **viXra:1102.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
16 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang
determinates the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991
Jiang studies the composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for
prime exponent p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic
curve ,now called a Frey curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves
Fermat last theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof
is indirect and very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported
and recognized Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat
last theorem,because in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received
many prizes and awards, he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To
support and to publish Jiang Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and
permutation group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent.

**Category:** Number Theory

[42] **viXra:1102.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Constantin Scheau

**Comments:**
8 pages.

The multi-space structure has been defined by Fl Smarandache as a union spaces with
some additional conditions hold. The mathematician L. Mao wrote a series of works in which he
introduces the concepts of multi-group, multi-ring, multivector - space etc. In [1] (Smarandache
Multi-Space Theory (I)), at open problems section, he suggests the introduction of a theory of
matrices and applications defined on the multi-linear spaces. This paper will give an example of
a multi-ring structure, introduces the notion of multi-matrix and defines the multi-matrix addition
and multiplication.

**Category:** Algebra

[41] **viXra:1102.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:**
2 pages.

It is a surprise to learn that free-fall acceleration
in the space of the earth actually indicates that the
speed of light in earth's space is reduced. We
calculate the indicated reduction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1102.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** M. Mantovani

**Comments:**
11 pages.

In this paper we propose a quantum field theory involving Dark
Matter and Dark Energy, explaining the expansion of the
Universe. The theory is presented through a Feynman diagram.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[39] **viXra:1102.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:**
18 pages.

In this chapter of nonlinear theory of elementary particles (NTEP) a review of the nonlinear field
theories in the framework of classical electrodynamics is presented. It is shown that the results
found within these theories can be transferred to quantum theory. These results can also help us
to understand many aspects of the quantum description of elementary particles. In particular, they
explain why electron can be interpreted as a point and non-point particle simultaneously.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[38] **viXra:1102.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Shpend Mushkolaj

**Comments:**
21 pages.

The most astonishing properties of condensed matter are the formation of collective quantum
states of superconductivity, magnetic order, electric order and crystalline order. In this paper,
new universal formulas for transition temperatures are derived, that depend simply on atomatom
distances, atomic masses and electron masses. The universality of these formulas is
tested by comparing the calculated values and experimental data for critical temperatures of
different systems and phases.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[37] **viXra:1102.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
17 pages, one table. Attempt to start preparing for bridge to actual experimental measurements. Based upon
some structural considerations as far as space time geometry.

We introduce a criterion as to the range of HFGW generated by early universe conditions. The 1 to 10
Giga Hertz range is constructed initially starting with what Grupen writes as far as what to expect of GW
frequencies which can be detected assuming a sensitivity of h ~ 10^{-27} . From there we examine the
implications of an earlier Hubble parameter at the start of inflation , and a phase transition treatment of
pre to post Planckian inflaton physics. We close with an analysis of how gravitational constant G may vary
with time , the tie in with the NEC condition and how to select a range of relic GW frequencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1102.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-14 11:04:27*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

It is generally believed that planetary magnetism is the result of motion of molten iron alloys in planetary body’s core region. An assumed dynamo mechanism, in core region of a planetary body, generates magnetic field by feedback loop: electric current loops in the region creates magnetic field and changing magnetic loops in turn creates electric fields. This assumption uses circular logic. As linear speed of a spinning planetary body is much greater than (tangential) linear motion of its constituent matter particles due to planetary body’s spin speed, every matter particle in spinning planetary body always moves in same direction in space. Spin motion of a planetary body is an illusion and it is valid only for considerations with respect to static reference of planetary body’s spin axis. As real motion of all matter particles of a spinning planetary body (with respect to absolute reference) is always in same linear direction, swirling motion of a planetary body’s interior is a myth. To consider this imaginary swirling motion of planetary body’s magma, as the cause of planetary magnetism is not tenable. Even for dynamo effect to occur, a primary source of magnetism is required, which is absent in this case. Cause and nature of planetary magnetism, described in this article, is based on a radically different concept, presented in ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’. For details, kindly refer to same [1].

**Category:** Astrophysics

[35] **viXra:1102.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Ayind T Mahamba

**Comments:**
8 Pages. Submissions for FQXi essay contest.

The quest to explain the true nature of reality is one of the great scientific goals. In fact, this essay contest
asks: is Nature fundamentally continuous or discrete and how can these two different but very useful concepts be
fully reconciled? Physical science is vast, complex and remains mysterious [10]. Since long ago, the great thinkers
and scholars have dedicated their lives to the attempted comprehension1 of this reality that has become so abstract.
Throughout the centuries and through experimentation, they have established numerous laws, concepts, theories,
and principles concerning the fundamental notions of reality (centered on matter-energy and spacetime). I propose a
central theory (MIT), based on the information of, and compatible with, the contemporary scientific knowledge; the
existing fundamental relation between the "physical entities" passes through the determined quantitative
transmission (quantity) of this preserved transcendent greatness (quality). In addition to a "formal" relationship
(existence) which creates an informal description of what is real, there is a causal relationship between
"phenomena" (relativity). My informational approach has been productive in several domains where many enigma
persist; solutions for these problems must be envisaged globally, using ideas and concepts from numerous different
fields, with a coherent schema...
The "Theory of Universal Relativity" (TUR as a ToE) proposed here lays bridges between domains which, at first
glance, have nothing to do with each other; it also provides insight into how we can improve our knowledge by
understanding the interplay of complexity and simplicity. Therefore emerging from simplexity (contraction of
simplicity and complexity), reality is both digital and analogue (and between) and also more! We know there is a
strange and mysterious world that surrounds us, a world largely hidden from our senses with extra dimensions and
as a mathematical concept of reality, MIT may confirm that we are part of a cosmic hologram (a paradigm shift).
My theory has the advantage of being extremely simple, not limited to scientists because everyone can understand it
(I = 1 ± i). So, in this essay, I will try to explain why and how [1][13][48][51].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[34] **viXra:1102.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:**
10 Pages.

The English naturalist Charles Darwin established that all species of life have descended
over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching
pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. In fact, Darwin
theory dealt with the evolutional phenomena of the biosphere, not its origins. Further more,
there exist the natural worlds other than our beloved one. Compared to the large-scale structure
of galaxies, the biosphere is "microscopic". The electromagnetic and nuclear forces which rule
the world disappear in the formation of large-scale galaxy structure. Similarly they disappear in
the formation of the solar system. My previous papers showed that large-scale galaxy structure
originates rationally from an algebraic cubic equation. This paper presents the nature's selection
of the cubic roots and its application to the galaxy NGC 3275.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1102.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Alejandro Rivero

**Comments:**
2 Pages.

This sheet presents an extreme interpretation of the global SU(5) symmetry that has
been gradually discovered in the spectrum of scalar particles of the Supersymmetric
Standard Model. It postulates that such scalars are actually the different aspects of the QCD
string. If so, only the gauginos and perhaps two neutral higgs particles are candidates for
discovery in the LHC.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[32] **viXra:1102.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Yu. N. Bratkov

**Comments:**
17 pages English, 19 pages Russian.

The periodic system of the socion (PSS) gives direction and intensity
of informational voltage between two people. The first version of the
PSS (G. A. Shulman) was a flat table with two poles. There exists some
voltage between the two poles. New version of the PSS (the author) is
a two-dimensional projective manifold with two maps. The second map
defines some gluing of the two poles of the PSS. It means propagating
informational voltage through the glued poles, i.e. through some abstract
infinity. One could see correlation with Euler-Varshamov projective arithmetic
(by Euler, negative numbers are greater than infinity). Algebraic
interpretation of intuition is given.

**Category:** Mind Science

[31] **viXra:1102.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-07 08:01:52*

**Authors:** Malcolm Macleod

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article I propose the sqrt of Planck momentum, denoted here as Q, as a potential link between the mass constants and the charge constants. Formulas for the fundamental physical constants are derived as geometrical shapes in terms of Q, the Sommerfeld fine structure constant alpha (11-12 digit precision), the vacuum of permeability (exact value) and the speed of light c (exact value). By defining Q in terms of the Rydberg constant, the most accurate natural constant (12-13 digits), the numerical solutions for the physical constants are then limited only by the precision of the fine structure constant. Solutions (below) are consistent with CODATA 2014. Furthermore we may replace the 5 SI units (kg, m, s, A, k) with 3 (s, m/s, \sqrt{kg.m/s}). The electron is solved using magnetic monopoles which then suggests a Planck unit theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[30] **viXra:1102.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:**
11 pages, no figure, no tables.

As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists
of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not
outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led
the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac equation. The Dirac
equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical World. In
this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless question, "Do negative probabilities exist in
quantum mechanics?''. In an effort to answer this question, we arrive at the conclusion that
depending on the choice one makes of the quantum probability current, one will obtain
negative probabilities. We thus propose a new quantum probability current of the
Klein-Gordon theory. This quantum probability current leads directly to positive definite quantum
probabilities. Because these negative probabilities are in the bare Klein-Gordon theory,
intrinsically a result of negative energies, the fact that we-here arrive at a theory with
positive probabilities, it means that negative energy particles are not to be considered
problematic as is the case in the bare Klein-Gordon theory. From an abstract-objective
stand-point; in comparison with positive energy particles, the corollary is that negative
energy particles should have equal chances to exist. As to why these negative energy
particles do not exist, this is redolent to asking why is it that Dirac's antimatter does not
exist in equal proportions with matter. This problem of why negative energy particles not
exist in equal proportions with positive energy particles is a problem that needs to be solved
by a future theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1102.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
17 pages.

The universe is now dominated by DE leading to renewed acceleration, so what we can do is to examine
how DE arose in the first place, and what role cosmologies not obeying the null energy condition play in
terms of facilitating information exchange from a prior to the present universe. So how do we test for this,
and what are the data collection protocols? Based upon a Rencontres De Moriond, 2008 article, we
present a glimpse as to how to ascertain data collection procedures via inputs into a spectral index model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1102.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Fu Yuhua

**Comments:**
210 pages. English-Chinese Bilingual

The purpose of this book is to extend the foundation and
application range of 'Tao Te Ching'. The reasons for this are as follows.
Firstly, we are willing to point out that 'Tao Te Ching' already has some
limitation, because many questions we are interested in cannot be
answered within 'Tao Te Ching'. For example, 'Tao Te Ching' basically
discussed the matters in China, however considering all possible
situations it should matter in foreign countries as well, i.e. the "global
village". This was impossible in Lao Tzu's time. Secondly, if the original
"Tao Te Ching" is regarded as "Positive Tao Te Ching", its opposite is
"Negative Tao Te Ching", while the intermediate or compound state is
"Neutral Tao Te Ching". Thus, our book presents the way to extend the
original "Tao Te Ching" in various neutrosophic interpretations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[27] **viXra:1102.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-02 08:46:48*

**Authors:** Diego Meschini

**Comments:** v3: English version, typeset anew and light-handedly amended, 32 pages. v2: Spanish version, translated by the author, 38 pages.

A psychological enquiry into the Planck scale in quantum gravity, as guided by the application of Garrett Hardin's three filters against folly: literacy (what are the words?), numeracy (what are the numbers?), and ecolacy (and then, what?).

Una indagación psicológica sobre la escala de Planck en la gravedad cuántica según los tres filtros contra la zoncera de Garrett Hardin: alfabetismo (¿cuáles son la palabras?), numerismo (¿cuáles son los números?) y ecolismo (¿y después, qué?).

[26] **viXra:1102.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-06 04:35:29*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Turkish Journal of Physics, 2012, Vol. 36, No 3, P. 461 – 464.

The scale dimension discovered in the theory of infinite nesting of matter is studied from the perspective of physical implementation of well-studied four-and n-dimensional geometric objects. Adding the scale dimension to Minkowski four-dimensional space means the necessity to use the five-dimensional spacetime.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[25] **viXra:1102.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Jacek Safuta

**Comments:**
10 pages.

I frame a concept that the matter and energy have evolved from a primordial, conformally flat
spacetime (starting before the Planck Era). I apply the theory of Darwinism beyond its original
sphere of organic evolution on Earth. Finally I present some points of view on computability of
the actual Universe and its evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1102.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
19 pages, one figure one table. Two themes. First that Octonionic gravity breaks down

Our contention, is that reality is actually analog, but that at a critical limit, as when the Octonian gravity
condition kicks in, that for a time it is made to appear discrete. This due to an initial phase transition just at
the start of the big bang. Our second consideration is, that symmetry breaking models, i.e. the Higgs boson
are in themselves not appropriate or necessary for the formation of particles with mass just before
Octonionic gravity which could arise in pre Planckian physics models without a potential. Also the
necessity of potentials for pre Octonionic gravity physics can be circumvented via judicious use of Sherrer
k essence physics The universe is now dominated by DE leading to renewed acceleration, so what we can
do is to examine how DE arose in the first place, and what role cosmologies not obeying the null energy
condition play in terms of facilitating information exchange from a prior to the present universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1102.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Aziz Sahraei

**Comments:**
7 pages.

Always, when viewing papers whose writers show polyominoes graphically, this question crossed my mind, are there
any equations which may be given to avoid the need for drawings? Polyominoes are sometimes called by the number
of faces (like triomeno or tetraomino). In this paper, I try to formulate polyomino shapes and establish a
correspondence between them and polynominals. About the final part where I refer to the Goldbach conjecture,
I must to say that my aim is to give a geometric representation of the proof of this conjecture so that if a
special chain of subsets such as, (see paper) exists in a set Ω, where both ends of the chain include trivial
subsets, and if the conjecture be true for at least one arbitrary member of this chain, then it will be true
for all the other members of the chain.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1102.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:**
3 pages.

When a body is quickly cooled by thrusting it in a very cold
medium, does its internal temperature go up? We examine the
case of a heatstroke patient thrust in ice-water to lower his or
her temperature. Recent research in photon science suggests
that core temperature increases.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[21] **viXra:1102.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:**
11 pages.

As stated in P. Rochette et al., "Micrometeorites from the transantarctic mountains",
micrometeorites constitute the main part of the flux of extraterrestrial matter accreting on Earth.
They are very important to understanding the composition of the solar system. Micrometeorites
have been recovered from a variety of terrestrial surfaces (desert, beach sands etc.), showing that
their deposition can be evidenced on any surface, provided that the accumulation time is sufficient,
and discrimination from terrestrial particles is feasible.
I present here my amateur activity of micrometeorite collector in the backyard and in desert sand.
Sahara desert sand brought to me by my friend Silvia Calamity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:1102.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-21 14:11:28*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A single mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing is described. This model exploits
the fact that when a 3 × 3 rotation matrix whose elements are squared is subtracted from its transpose,
a matrix is produced whose non-diagonal elements have a common absolute value, where this
value is an intrinsic property of the rotation matrix. For the
traditional CKM quark mixing matrix with its second and third rows interchanged (i.e., c - t interchange),
this value equals one-third the corresponding value for the leptonic matrix (roughly, 0.05 versus 0.15).
By imposing this and two additional related constraints on mixing, and letting leptonic φ_{23} equal 45^{°},
a framework is defined possessing just two free parameters. A mixing model is then specified
using values for these two parameters that derive from an equation
that reproduces the fine structure constant.
The resultant model, which possesses no constants adjusted to fit experiment, has mixing angles of
θ_{23} = 2.367445^{°},
θ_{13} = 0.190987^{°},
θ_{12} = 12.920966^{°},
φ_{23} = 45^{°},
φ_{13} = 0.013665^{°}, and
φ_{12} = 33.210911^{°}.
A fourth, newly-introduced constraint of the type described above produces
a Jarlskog invariant for the quark matirx of 2.758 ×10^{−5}.
Collectively these achieve a good fit with the experimental quark and lepton mixing data.
The model predicts the following CKM matrix elements:
|V_{us}| = √0.05 = 2.236 × 10^{−1},
|V_{ub}| = 3.333 × 10^{−3}, and
|V_{cb}| = 4.131 × 10^{−2}.
For leptonic mixing the model predicts
sin^{2}φ_{12} = 0.3,
sin^{2}φ_{23} = 0.5, and
sin^{2}φ_{13} = 5.688 × 10^{−8}.
At the time of its 2007 introduction the model's values for |V_{us}| and
|V_{ub}| had disagreements with experiment of an improbable
3.6σ and 7.0σ, respectively, but 2010 values
from the same source now produce disagreements of just
2.4σ and 1.1σ, the absolute error for |V_{us}| having been
reduced by 53%, and that for |V_{ub}| by 78%.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[19] **viXra:1102.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
14 pages, one table, one figure. This is the complete article. Sent to Pre space time, for article processing
if the FQXi entry does not get a prize.

Our contention, is that reality is actually analog, but that at a critical limit, as when the Octonian gravity
condition kicks in, that for a time it is made to appear discrete. This due to an initial phase transition just at
the start of the big bang. Our second consideration is, that symmetry breaking models, i.e. the Higgs boson
are in themselves not appropriate or necessary for the formation of particles with mass just before
Octonionic gravity which could arise in pre Planckian physics models without a potential. Finally, that the
necessity of potentials for pre Octonionic gravity physics can be circumvented via judicious use of Sherrer
k essence physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1102.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
12 pages, 24,981 characters. Actual entry for the FQXi contest. One figure one table. This document incorporates feed back from L. Crowell and J. Dickau, in its text, with replies
from the author, which the author views as pertinent. The feed back was accumulated through the FXQi conference in commentary.

Our contention, is that reality is actually analog, but that at a critical limit, as when the Octonian gravity
condition kicks in, that for a time it appears discrete. This due to al phase transition at the start of the big
bang. Our second consideration is, that symmetry breaking models, i.e. the Higgs boson are not necessary
for the formation of particles with mass just before Octonionic gravity which could arise in pre Planckian
physics models without a potential. Finally, the necessity of potentials for pre Octonionic gravity physics
can be circumvented via Sherrer k essence physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1102.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:**
7 pages.

It is shown that under suitable compositions of systems, arbitrary
large amounts of entangled type states can easily be obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1102.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
20 pages.

1637 Fermat @@wrote: "It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain." part (4)

**Category:** Number Theory

[15] **viXra:1102.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 May 2011*

**Authors:** Peter A. Jackson

**Comments:**
5 pages.

We describe a solution to Cosmic Microwave background Radiation (CMBR) quadrupolar asymmetry and
anisotropy, predicted by the discrete field model (DFM) described in earlier papers, and explain how it
could have taken it's spiral, or, we predict; 'helical' form. Also explaining the so called 'axis of evil', and
the big bang, (or more appropriately big 'whoosh'), and implied pre big bang conditions. We provide
logical and photographic evidence. Apparent 'magic bullet' properties of the DFM and are found as part
of a falsification exercise which has recently also provided a new galactic secular evolutionary sequence.
We explore how the model unites Relativity with a Quantum mechanism, using the postulates of Special
Relativity (SR) but applies conceptual refinement to one assumption for a better fit to observation and
improved understanding, giving it a basis precisely equivalent to General relativity (GR) and better
defining Quantum mechanics. We find a 3rd way, with fields but no absolute frame, with no new physics
or maths but using a different way of thinking, as anticipated necessary by Einstein and Bragg. This is an
interim report pending consideration of further fuller papers, which will be followed up here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1102.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** S. Bhattacharya

**Comments:**
2 pages. Romanian language.

Prezentam aici un model simplu al geometriei Smarandache si
invitam cititorul, ca o distractie matematica, sa compuna alte modele.

**Category:** Geometry

[13] **viXra:1102.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** L. Kuciuk, M. Antholy

**Comments:**
4 pages. Romanian language.

O Geometrie Smarandache este o geometrie care are cel putin o axioma negata in mod smarandachean (1969).
Spunem ca o axioma este negata smarandachean daca axioma se comporta cel putin in doua moduri diferite
in acelasi spatiu (i.e. validata si negata, sau numai negata dar in mai multe moduri diferite).

**Category:** Geometry

[12] **viXra:1102.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-29 14:27:18*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The fine structure constant is shown to arise naturally in the course of altering the symmetry
of two algebraic identities. Specifically, the symmetry of the
identity *M*^{2} = *M*^{2} is "broken" by making the
substitution *M* → *M* − *y* on its left side, and the
substitution *M*^{n} → *M*^{n} − *x*^{p} on
its right side, where *p* equals the order of the identity; these substitutions convert the above identity into
the equation (*M* − *y*)^{2} = *M*^{2} − *x*^{2}. These same
substitutions are also applied to the only slightly more complicated
identity (*M* / *N*)^{3} + *M*^{2} = (*M* / *N*)^{3} + *M*^{2} to
produce this second
equation (*M* − *y*)^{3} / *N*^{3} + (*M* − *y*)^{2} =
(*M*^{3} − *x*^{3}) / *N*^{3} + *M*^{2} − *x*^{3}.
These two equations are then shown to share a mathematical property relating to *dy*/*dx*, where, on the second
equation's right side this property helps define the special
case (*M*^{3} − *x*^{3}) / *N*^{3} + *M*^{2} −
*x*^{3} = (10^{3} − 0.1^{3}) / 3^{3} + 10^{2} − 0.1^{3} = 137.036,
which incorporates a value close to the experimental fine structure constant inverse.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1102.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:**
5 pages.

The following paper deals with the distribution of prime numbers, the twin prime
numbers and the Goldbach conjecture. Starting from the simple assertion that prime
numbers are never even, a rule for the distribution of primes is arrived at. Following the
same approach, the twin prime conjecture and the Goldbach conjecture are found to be
true.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10] **viXra:1102.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard, G. Dungworth

**Comments:**
15 pages.

In a quantum information approach to quantum gravity, one naturally extends
the Bilson-Thompson braid particle spectrum by a right handed neutrino sector.
This suggests a parity restoring non local form of mirror matter, considered
as a novel contributor to the dark matter sector. In the non standard Riofrio
cosmology, where the entire dark matter sector is approximated by black hole
states, the mirror matter should occupy a space on the other side of our conformal
horizons, which are present everywhere in our universe. In particular we note that
the Koide matrix antineutrino rest mass prediction of 0.00117 eV corresponds
precisely to a black body peak temperature of 2.73 K, the CMB temperature,
as a result of its annihilation with mirror antineutrinos. Initial consequences of
these ideas for dark matter profiles are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1102.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 7 pages, 5 figures.

The criteria of stability defined in the standard theory of linear systems aren't
exhaustive and show some inconsistencies. In this article we define new
criteria of stability more consistent with real physical situations. In particular
we distinguish between static stability and dynamic stability in order to analyse
the stability of systems in the time domain and in Laplace's equivalent
domain. Let introduce then the frequency stability in order to analyse the
stability of systems in the Fourier domain.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1102.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 18 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7]:Jiang mathematics is true,but Jiang
determinates the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p.In
1991 Jiang studies the composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat
last theorem for prime exponenet p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last
theorem at the elliptic curve that is Frey curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.
In 1994 Wiles proves Fermat last theorem[9,10]. Conclusion:Jiang proof(1991) is
direct and simple,but Wiles proof(1994) is indirect and complex.If China
mathematicians had supported and recognized Jiang proof on Fermat last
theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat last theorem,because in 1991 Jiang
had proved Fermat last theorem.Wiles has received many prizes and awards,he
should thank China mathematicians.

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1102.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 36 pages, 15 pages of article, 21 pages of optional appendix entries.
Sent to Pre space time editor, Johanthan Dickau, where I expect it to undergo
drastic revisions. NO problem.

While assuming the relatively narrow spectrum of graviton frequencies in the onset of inflation, it is
necessary to examine how this could tie into instanton-anti-instanton production. We do so via a thermal
input from the prior universe model. We also discuss how the break up of such structure could influence
later inflationary cosmology -physics. The following paper attempts a thought experiment as to how to
present a genesis of irregularites in the CMBR spectrum. This is not meant to be a substitute for Sakar's
ground breaking work, but an addendium as to how the initially very smooth start of inflation could lead to
the pronounced irregularities Dr. Sarkar commented upon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1102.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Ovidiu Sandru

**Comments:** 3 pages.

A model formed by two parallel plans is constructed which behaves the Smarandache geometries.

**Category:** Geometry

[5] **viXra:1102.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 pages. 3 tables, 1 figure. Meant as a companion piece to the Octonionic gravity work done earlier for
possible inclusion in the Nova Book Chapter of Cosmology.

If we have a non infinite but huge negative value of the cosmological vacuum energy in the wormhole, then
we have 10^{10} bits of computing information. When we leave the wormhole, we have 10^{120} bits of
computing information We specify a transition between the two regions in terms of a causal discontinuity
regime created by a(t) chaotic behavior due initially to the initially very large value of thermal vacuum
energy transmitted. Note that this is a toy model to account for thermal transfer of energy from a prior to a
present universe perhaps enabling graviton production. This is a companion piece to the Octonian gravity
document.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1102.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages. Submitted to the Hadronic journal, to senior Editor, Christian Corda, PhD

We analyze how entropy could be generated via a semi classical argument as well as by multiple braneanti
brane combinations leading to an initial soliton-instanton formation. The supposition is that the two
different types of methods give similar initial conditions for entropy and information/ computational bits of
information in the initial universe. We close then with observations we think are pertinent to entropy
increase . This is linkable to a table of computational bits as presented by Smoot in 2007.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1102.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith, F.Y. Li, N. Yang, J. Dickau, G. Stephenson, L. Glinka, R. Baker

**Comments:** 31 pages, companion piece to the following two articles. A.W. Beckwith, ” Energy content
of Gravition as a way to Quantify both Entropy and Information Generation in the early Universe”,
accepted for publication in JMP, February 2011
Is Octonionic Quantum Gravity Relevant Near the Planck Scale? if Gravity Waves Are Generated by
Changes in the Geometry of the Early Universe, How Can We Measure Them?

This document will out line what the authors suppose is relevant to squeezed states of initial space time
and how that affects both the composition of relic GW, and also gravitons. A side issue to consider is if
gravitons can be configured as semi classical "particles" , which is akin to the Pilot model of Quantum
Mechanics as embedded in a larger non linear 'deterministic' background. In addition, as the main author
has discussed with Stuart Allen in long evening talks, the relative classical embedding of QM will be
linkable to upper bounds to the graviton mass, for reasons brought up in the manuscript.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1102.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-17 18:09:23*

**Authors:** Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Please replace version 3 of the paper with the attached version 4.

Evidence of a big bang is overwhelming and most scientists accept that we live in a region of space that began its expansion some 13.8 billion years ago. The currently supported model of the universe, however, has encountered several anomalies that are not well accommodated by that model. This paper presents an analysis of these anomalies and presents an alternative model that seems to better fit the data. It also provides an architecture that’s predictive of much additional evidence we might expect to encounter in the near future.
This new model is based on the view that dark energy; matter/antimatter disparity; cosmic microwave background texture; anthropic conditions; and the genesis of early stars and galaxies are a coherent body of evidence which suggests that the big bang did not occur in an empty void.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1102.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 pages.

The origin of physical dynamics and the reason of existence of special
relativity are explored. This endeavour is started by analysing the logic of nature.
Next, only mathematics is used in order to explore the dynamics of this model of
physical reality.
The model that is described here annihilates the old reality and creates a new
reality at each dynamic step. Hilbert space cannot treat dynamics. It contains
nothing that supports dynamics. In the contrary, dynamics manages the Hilbert
spaces. Like traditional quantum logic, Hilbert space cannot treat physical fields.
By embedding the separable Hilbert space in a rigged Hilbert space, it can house
fields by representing them as blurred sets of Hilbert vectors. The field is the
convolution of the blur with a set of Dirac delta functions that represent
Hilbert vectors. When the blur is differentiable, then the field is differentiable
as well. The field values are attached to the Hilbert vectors. In this way
traditional quantum logic can be expanded, such that it also treats fields.
This extended quantum logic still cannot handle dynamics. The logic only
describes a static status quo. Dynamics let nature step from one status quo to
the next. It does that by letting nature transform from configuration space to
Fourier space. There the fields control the difference between the past and the
future status quo. The Fourier transform converts the rather complicated
differentiation into a simple multiplication and since the multiplication factors
are close to unity, this comes down to still simpler addition. After the
confrontation in Fourier space, nature returns back to configuration space.
Feynman's path integral approach exploits this fact. The up and down Fourier
transforms reshuffle the Hilbert vectors. All Hilbert vectors are affected.
The Hilbert vectors represent virtual or actual quanta and present themselves
as shot noise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics