## A Virtual Black-Hole Electron and the Sqrt of Planck Momentum

**Authors:** Malcolm Macleod

In this article the sqrt of Planck momentum is applied as a distinct Planck unit and is used as a link between the mass constants and the charge (electric) constants. From these constants, formulas for a magnetic monopole (AL = ampere-meter) and an electron frequency $f_e$ ($A^3L^3/T$) are constructed. The electron is seen as oscillating between an electric-state whose duration in units of Planck time $t_p$ is dictated by $f_e$, and a mass-state whose duration equals to (or is defined by) 1 Planck time T. The premise being that after 1 oscillation cycle the magnetic monopoles $(AL)^3$ combine with time T and cancel, $f_e$ units = $(AL)^3/T$ = 1, exposing for 1$t_p$ the mass-state black-hole electron center. The SI units $kg, m, s, A, K$ are thus not independent but overlap and cancel in this electron frequency ratio. This permits us to reduce the number of required units to 2 and develop relationships between the fundamental physical constants. For example, we can define the least precise constants $G, h, e, m_e, k_B$ in terms of the most precise $c, \mu_0$ (exact values), the fine structure constant alpha (10-12 digits) and the Rydberg constant (12-13 digits). Results are consistent with CODATA 2014 (table). This thus becomes a Planck unit theory where the dimensionless electron formula $f_e$ dictates the frequency of Planck events, i.e.: electron mass as the frequency of occurrence of units of Planck mass.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

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### Submission history

[v1] 19 Feb 2011

[v2] 20 Feb 2011 (removed)

[v3] 18 May 2011

[v4] 3 Oct 2011 (removed)

[v5] 2016-01-17 00:50:31 (removed)

[v6] 2016-02-03 07:56:27 (removed)

[v7] 2016-02-07 08:01:52 (removed)

[v8] 2016-04-07 16:31:34

[v9] 2017-12-29 02:13:41

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