[211] **viXra:1504.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 17:49:37*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I make three conjectures regarding a certain relation between the number 4320 and the squares of primes respectively four conjectures on squares of primes involving deconcatenation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[210] **viXra:1504.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 22:04:59*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force. It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential and etc., revealing the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity, the quaternion electric potential and time-space. This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed, proposing the equations for superposition of quaternion velocity, and quaternion potential of TESTR respectively. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, which provides theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[209] **viXra:1504.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 23:52:07*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The nucleus displaying both the single particle aspects as well as
the collective aspects simultaneously, does not seem to be amenable to
a simple group theoretical structure to explain its existence. The isospin
group SU(2) takes account of the single particle aspects quite well
but the collectivity is basically put in by hand.
The point is that, is there some inherent symmetry connecting the single
particle aspect
and the collective aspects through some group theoretical structure.
We do consistent and exact matching of the deformed and the superdeformed
bands in various nuclei. Thus we shall show that
the Quantum Group $SU_q(2)$ fulfills this requirement - not in any approximate
manner, but in an exact manner.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[208] **viXra:1504.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:22:44*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 464-472

In conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number, the extra space dimensions are compactized. In string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly, and there is no compactization. Dimension number decreases with decreasing speed of light. and increasing rest mass. The 4D particle has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. The two different oscillations between 10D and 4D are the stepwise oscillation passing through every dimension number and the direct oscillation oscillating directly between 10D and 4D without the intermediate dimension numbers. Dark energy represents the stepwise oscillation, and dark energy becomes observable only when it has 4D space-time. 4D baryonic matter and 4D dark matter represent the direct oscillation directly from 10D to 4D. Our universe is the dual cyclic universe of the dark energy universe and the baryonic-dark matter universe. The Big Bang in the baryonic-dark matter universe produced irreversible kinetic energy that stopped the reversible direct oscillation. The reversible direct oscillation will resume after the Big Crush to remove irreversible kinetic energy. Our cyclic universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage transformation. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 68.3, 26.4, and 5.3, respectively, in agreement with observed 68.3, 26.8, and 4.9, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.28 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 billion years ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[207] **viXra:1504.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:42:41*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 1234-1243

In this paper, all elementary particles (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson) can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles based on string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, instead of conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number. Dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly. The oscillation of space-time dimension number (D) is accompanied by mass dimension number (d) to represent mass. Space-time dimension number decreases with increasing mass dimension number, decreasing speed of light and increasing rest mass. 4D particle originally is 4D10d particle, and has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. According to the proposed cosmology, the non-gravitational 4D10d particles were sliced into 4D4d core particles surrounded by 6 separated mass dimensions as the 6 dimensional orbitals constituting the non-gravitational forces (electromagnetism, strong, and weak). The combination of the 6 dimensional orbitals and the gravitational 4D10d particle resulted in the 7 dimensional orbitals. As the periodic table of elements based on the atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is based on the combination of the two asymmetrical sets of the 7 dimensional orbitals. One set as the principal dimensional orbitals is mainly for leptons and gauge bosons, and another set as the auxiliary orbitals is mainly for individual quarks. The calculated constituent masses of leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson are in good agreement with the observed values. For examples, the calculated mass of top quark is 176.5 GeV in good agreement with the observed 173.34 GeV, and the calculated average mass of the Higgs boson is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[206] **viXra:1504.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 06:04:47*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 1467-1472

This paper posits the discovery of the new elementary particles from the energy spectrum for the knees-ankles-toe of cosmic rays. The energy spectrum appears to follow a single power law except few breaks at the knees-ankles-toe. The power index increases at the first knee and the second knee, and decreases at the ankle. The fine structure of the cosmic ray spectrum shows that an ankle with decrease in power index is in between the first knee and the second knee, resulting in two knees, two ankles, and one toe. This paper posits that the knees-ankles-toe are explained by the very high-energy fermions and bosons in the periodic table of elementary particles that places all known leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson in the table with the calculated masses in good agreement with observed values. In the periodic table, some high-energy dimensional fermions (Fd where d = dimensional orbital number from 5 to 11) and bosons (Bd) are involved in the knees-ankles-toe. At the knees and the toe, some parts of the energies from the energy sources of cosmic rays are spent to generate Fd and Bd, resulting in the increase of power index. The ankles are the the middle points (midpoints) between the adjacent dimensional fermions and bosons. At a midpoint, the energy is too high to keep the thermally unstable high-energy dimensional particle, resulting in the decay and the decrease of power index. The calculated masses of B8, the midpoint, F9, the midpoint, and B9 are in good agreement with observed masses for the first knee, the first ankle, the second knee, the second ankle, and the toe, respectively. The mass of F10 is beyond the GZK limit, so F10 and above are not observed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[205] **viXra:1504.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 06:25:18*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2014, 4, 374-383

The paper derives the galaxy evolution by the non-interacting (incompatibility) between dark matter and baryonic matter in terms of the short-range separation between dark matter and baryonic matter, so dark matter cannot contact baryonic matter. In the conventional CDM (cold dark matter) model, dark matter and baryonic matter are interactive (compatible), so dark matter can contact baryonic matter. However, the conventional CDM model fails to account for the failure to detect dark matter by the contact (interaction) between dark matter and baryonic matter, the shortage of small galaxies, the abundance of spiral galaxies, the old age of large galaxies, and the formation of thin spiral galaxies. The non-interacting (incompatible cold dark matter) model can account for these observed phenomena. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing non-interacting (incompatibility) are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[204] **viXra:1504.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 19:28:50*

**Authors:** Mukunda P. Das, Frederick Green

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Presented by MPD at the International Conference on Bounds of Ethics, Bangalore, Jan 6-9, 2014.

Science, in particular physics, is a collective enterprise; a fruit of the exquisitely social nature of human living. So it is inevitable to encounter ethical issues in the natural sciences, since the contest of differing interests and views is perennial in its practice, indeed essential to its momentum. The crucial ethical question always hangs in the air: How is the truth best served? This is a very limited imperative for science to follow, excluding as it does most questions of meaning and valuation. For example, in science one does not normally ask: Why is the truth to be served? In this paper we describe some ethical aspects of our own discipline of science: their cultural context and the bounds which they delineate for themselves, sometimes in transgression. We argue that the minimalist ethic espoused in science, namely loyalty to truth, is a bellwether for the much
wider, more problematic, and more vital consequences of ethics – and its failure – in human relationships at large.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[203] **viXra:1504.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 15:08:09*

**Authors:** Kolosov Petya

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper described some new view and properties of the power function, the main aim of the work is to enter some new ideas. Also described expansion of power function, based on done research. Expansion has like Binominal theorem view, but algorithm not same.

**Category:** Number Theory

[202] **viXra:1504.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 15:14:43*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 02 pages, 04 links

In the present letter the time evolution of the universe is compared with the growth of a polymer chain. It is proposed a link between the Evolving Block Universe, a model by Ellis and Rothman, with the Self Avoiding Random Walk Model. An old popular song: “Que Sera, Sera”, nicely fits to the model’s unpredictability.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[201] **viXra:1504.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 10:08:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[200] **viXra:1504.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 11:27:53*

**Authors:** Dalius Balciunas

**Comments:** 1 page

A story about self-replicating life which unintentionally became organized struggling to survive.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[199] **viXra:1504.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 08:34:42*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The article shows that a lot of misunderstanding and confusion has been originated after Einstein published his article about the STR. Fundamental errors, manipulative mathematics and an unfounded believe in the transformation formulas of the STR caused this chaos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[198] **viXra:1504.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 04:55:04*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

According to improved Newton’s gravitational formula, variable dimension fractal method and steepest descent method, this paper presents the new three laws of planetary motion: (1) Accurate gravitational formula between Sun and planet, and accurate gravitational formula between Sun and photon for problem of light bending around Sun; (2) Two kinds of improved Titius-Bode laws; (3) Relation between planetary average moving speed and its average distance to Sun with variable dimension fractal form. By using the second and third laws to predict the un-found planet outside the Neptune (formerly known as the tenth planet), its average distance to Sun equals 59.54 AU, and its average moving speed equals 3.85km/s.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[197] **viXra:1504.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 05:17:22*

**Authors:** Carol Lynne Jessop, Paul August Winter

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The separate study of the two concepts of energy and vertex coverings of graphs has opened many avenues of research. In this paper we combine these two concepts in a ratio, called the eigen-3-cover ratio, to investigate the domination effect of the subgraph induced by a vertex 3-covering of a graph (called the 3-cover graph of ), on the original energy of , where large number of vertices are involved. This is referred to as the eigen-3-cover domination and has relevance, in terms of conservation of energy, when a molecule’s atoms and bonds are mapped onto a graph with vertices and edges, respectively. If this energy-3-cover ratio is a function of , the order of graphs belonging to a class of graph, then we discuss its horizontal asymptotic behavior and attach the graphs average degree to the Riemann integral of this ratio, thus associating eigen-3-cover area with classes of graphs. We found that the eigen-3-cover domination had a strongest effect on the complete graph, while this eigen-3-cover domination had zero effect on star graphs. We show that the eigen-3-cover asymptote of discussed classes of graphs belong to the interval [0,1], and conjecture that the class of complete graphs has the largest eigen-3-cover area of all classes of graphs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[196] **viXra:1504.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-29 13:02:14*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Legile lui Florentin nu sunt nici Legi ale lui Murphy (pesimiste), nici Legi ale lui Peter (optimiste), ci, pe de o parte, parțial pesimiste și pațial optimiste, iar pe de altă parte neutre (ambigue: nici pesimiste, nici optimiste) – ca în logica neutrosofică.
Fiind paradoxiste prin natura lor, Legile lui Florentin sunt devieri, modificări, generalizări, contra-proverbe, parodii sau combinații ale Legilor Murphy – Peter, mixturi de aforisme, proverbe, citate celebre, clișee, rezultate științifice (din fizică, matematică, filosofie ș.a.) etc.; alternativ, colaționări de idei contrare adunate din folclor, din anunțuri şi publicitate, din literatură, din vorbirea informală.

**Category:** Linguistics

[195] **viXra:1504.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 01:57:34*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures, 5 labeled equations, and 17 references. Keywords: Space, Time, and the Luminiferous Ether (Luminiferous Aether).

This work proves that the ether exists – at each event in space-time, there exists a state of translation only relative to which light speed is isotropic – proving as well that Special Relativity is inconsistent both internally and with observation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[194] **viXra:1504.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 03:02:32*

**Authors:** Wenlong Du

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper studies the relationship between the prime divisor and Stirling's approximation. We get prime number theorem and its corrected value. We get bound for the error of the prime number theorem. Riemann hypothesis is established.

**Category:** Number Theory

[193] **viXra:1504.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 03:04:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The cyclotron radiation emitted by a single electron has been measured for the first time by a team of physicists in the US and Germany. The research provides a new and potentially more precise way to study beta decay, which involves the emission of an electron and a neutrino. In particular, it could provide physicists with a much better measurement of neutrino mass, which is crucial for understanding physics beyond the Standard Model. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[192] **viXra:1504.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 12:22:52*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, it has been tried to provide an insight into the information system of Universe as a whole comparing it with the information system in our local reference frame of observables. With the conservation of information been carried out by the SU (1) gauge symmetry group of Universe, it explains how the same information is decoded in two different ways by respective information system mentioned above. It also provide with an introduction of different information processing methodology of the Universe and how their is loss of information by different dynamical changes in Universe including red shift.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[191] **viXra:1504.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 08:37:55*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here we show how in the early Earth, a matter column, which extended from the Earth’s surface down to near the upper boundary of the outer core, it was vaporized due to a suddenly increase of temperature greater than 8,367°C, and after ejected of the Earth by the enormous pressure at the bottom of the mantle (~136 GPa), forming posteriorly the Moon.

**Category:** Geophysics

[190] **viXra:1504.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 05:27:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A recent article in Physical Review Letters proposed a new way to detect gravitons. The setup could be done in a lab, which is in stark contrast to the usual view that you’d need a Jupiter-mass detector orbiting a neutron star to detect gravitons. It’s one of those “if we pull this off we’ll eat like kings” experiments…so naturally we should be a little skeptical. [6]
Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[189] **viXra:1504.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 02:59:28*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Although the explanation of general relativity for the advance of planetary perihelion is reasonably consistent with the observed data, because its orbit is not closed, whether or not it is consistent with the law of conservation of energy has not been verified. For this reason a new explanation is presented: The advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions. The first elliptical motion creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion. In the motion of planet-sun system, under the action of gravity, the planetary orbit is a closed ellipse, and consistent with the law of conservation of energy. Meanwhile, the planet also participates in the vortex motion of solar system taking the sun as center; the long-term trend of the vortex is the further topic, but in the short-term may be considered that due to the inertia the planetary perihelion will run circular motion in vortex and lead to the advance of perihelion, thus also without acting against the law of conservation of energy. Based on the result of general relativity, the approximate angular velocity of advance of perihelion is given; based on accurate astronomical observation, the accurate angular velocity is given. Finally the approximate expression for circular velocity of solar system’s vortex motion is presented. For ordinary vortex motion the circular velocity is inversely proportional to the radius r, but for solar system’s vortex motion, it is inversely proportional to r3/2.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[188] **viXra:1504.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 03:24:07*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on author’s published papers, summarizing some problems that special and general relativity cannot solve or induce wrong results, such as: special twin paradox that two brothers’ states of motion are quite same, contradictions between relativity and principle of conservation of energy, and the like. The two main shortcomings of relativity are as follows: firstly, applying mathematical principle (rather than physical principle) as the main principle to solve physics problems; secondly, as establishing relativity, the principle of conservation of energy is not considered. Referring to "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations of natural science so far, the related formulas and equations of relativity can be improved and restricted (or constrained) by principle of conservation of energy, and thus these formulas and equations can satisfy the principle of conservation of energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1504.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 16:41:06*

**Authors:** James E. Beichler

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper is being published in the Proceedings of the Vigier IX Symposium

A complete theoretical model of how consciousness arises in neural nets can be developed based on a mixed quantum/classical basis. Both mind and consciousness are multi-leveled scalar and vector electromagnetic complexity patterns, respectively, which emerge within all living organisms through the process of evolution. Like life, the mind and consciousness patterns extend throughout living organisms (bodies), but the neural nets and higher level groupings that distinguish higher levels of consciousness only exist in the brain so mind and consciousness have been traditionally associated with the brain alone. A close study of neurons and neural nets in the brain shows that the microtubules within axons are classical bio-magnetic inductors that emit and absorb electromagnetic pulses from each other. These pulses establish interference patterns that influence the quantized vector potential patterns of interstitial water molecules within the neurons as well as create the coherence within neurons and neural nets that scientists normally associate with more complex memories, thought processes and streams of thought. Memory storage and recall are guided by the microtubules and the actual memory patterns are stored as magnetic vector potential complexity patterns in the points of space at the quantum level occupied by the water molecules. This model also accounts for the plasticity of the brain and implies that mind and consciousness, like life itself, are the result of evolutionary processes. However, consciousness can evolve independent of an organism’s birth genetics once it has evolved by normal bottom-up genetic processes and thus force a new type of top-down evolution on living organisms and species as a whole that can be explained by expanding the laws of thermodynamics to include orderly systems.
Keywords: Consciousness, microtubules, neural correlates, neural nets, magnetic vector potential, quantum, space-time, emergence, magnetic domains, coherence, plasticity, evolution, thermodynamics

**Category:** Mind Science

[186] **viXra:1504.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 16:42:30*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Generally the simplistic distinction between a humanoid robot, a computerized machine capable of replicating a variety of complex human functions automatically, and an android is one of appearance; an android is meant to look and act like a human being even to the extent of being indistinguishable. While one day a yottaflop (1024 bits per second) hyper-supercomputer could have a sufficient holographic database and processing power to be truly indistinguishable from a human being, the issue of the applicability of sentience (self-awareness) to an android comes to the forefront. The currently dominant cognitive model of awareness, closely aligned to the AI model, states that mind equals brain and that once correct algorithms are known all of human intelligence could be replicated artificially. This is the so-called mechanistic view: ‘The laws of physics and chemistry are sufficient to describe all living systems; no additional life principle is required’. In this work we develop the point of view that the regime of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM) supplies an inherent action principle driving both the evolution of complex Self-Organized Living Systems (SOLS) and the physical processes of awareness. These UFM parameters in conjunction with ‘conscious quantum computing’ (class of quantum computer modeled with physical parameters of mind-body interaction) putatively leads directly to the construction of sentient (or sentient-like) Androids.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[185] **viXra:1504.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 23:31:53*

**Authors:** Pratish R. Rao, Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

n! is defined as the product 1.2.3………n and it popularly represents the number of ways of seating n people on n chairs. In a previous paper we conceptualized a new way of describing n!, using sequential cuts to an imaginary circle and derived a well known result. In this paper we use the same intuitive approach but reverse the cutting strategy by starting with n-cuts to the circle. We observe that this method leads us to estimate the approximate sum of an infinite convergent series involving factorials as unity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[184] **viXra:1504.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 00:05:36*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

With the help of Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the proof for negation of “the four color theorem” is given. In which the key issue is to consider the color of the boundary, thus “the two color theorem” and “the five color theorem” are derived to replace "the four color theorem".

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[183] **viXra:1504.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 14:06:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[182] **viXra:1504.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 06:28:55*

**Authors:** Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[181] **viXra:1504.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 06:31:47*

**Authors:** Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[180] **viXra:1504.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 06:33:42*

**Authors:** Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Shikha Baghel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[179] **viXra:1504.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 05:20:40*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, this paper presents the New Newton Mechanics (NNM) taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. Examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity by using the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space), derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum) can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal gravitation can be derived, which can be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion and the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun. Again, according to accurate experimental result, the synthesized gravitational formula (including the effects of other celestial bodies and sunlight pressure) for the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun is presented. Unlike the original Newton Mechanics, in New Newton Mechanics, for different problems, may have different laws of motion, different formulas of gravity, as well as different expressions of energy. For example, for the problem of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane, and the problem of advance of planetary perihelion, the two formulas of gravity are completely different.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[178] **viXra:1504.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 18:36:47*

**Authors:** James E. Beichler

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This paper is presently being published in Proceedings of Vigier IX Symposium

Too many physicists believe the ‘phallacy’ that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general ‘phallacies in fysics’ that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious ‘phallacies’ exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained – a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension – and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[177] **viXra:1504.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 20:19:36*

**Authors:** Dashan Shang, Yisheng Chai, Zexian Cao, Jun Lu, Young Sun

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Chin. Phys. B vol 24, No. 6 (2015) 068402

A complete and harmonized fundamental circuit relational graph with four linear and four memory elements is constructed based on newly defined elements, which provides a guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future. In addition to resistor, capacitor and inductor which are defined in terms of a linear relationship between the charge q, the current i, the voltage v, and the magnetic flux , Chua proposed in 1971 the fourth linear circuit element to directly relate flux and q. A non-linear resistive device defined in memory i-v relation and dubbed memristor, was later attributed to such an element and has been realized in various material structures. Here we clarify that the memristor is not the true fourth fundamental circuit element but the memory extension to the concept of resistor, in analogy to the extension of memcapacitor to capacitor and meminductor to inductor. Instead, a two-terminal device employing the linear magnetoelectric effects, termed transtor, possesses the function of relating directly flux and q and should take the position of the fourth linear element. Moreover, its memory extension, termed memtranstor, is proposed and analyzed here.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[176] **viXra:1504.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 00:10:51*

**Authors:** Xinyang Deng, Yong Deng, Zhen Wang, Qi Liu

**Comments:** 19 pages.

Quantization becomes a new way to study classical game theory since quantum strategies and quantum games have been proposed. In previous studies, many typical game models, such as prisoner's dilemma, battle of the sexes, Hawk-Dove game, have been investigated by using quantization approaches. In this paper, several game models of opinion formations have been quantized based on the Marinatto-Weber quantum game scheme, a frequently used scheme to convert classical games to quantum versions. Our results show that the quantization can change fascinatingly the properties of some classical opinion formation game models so as to generate win-win outcomes.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[175] **viXra:1504.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 14:25:33*

**Authors:** Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Physicists and mathematicians believe that the numerical method
is erroneous, despite correct results. But the diverging behaviour
of it belongs to nature, like the chaos.

It is demonstrated how to obtain quantities of free particles and
masses of nuclei from known equations of the electrovacuum
around the particle. A sampling method is used based on a higher number
of numerical tests.
The single computation ends at a geometric limit,
which involves eigenvalues. These eigenvalues, significantly correlating
with known particle values (mass, spin, electric charge,
magnetic moment) and also masses of nuclei, are detected. This
allows predicting particle quantities being unknown up to date.
In particular, possible masses of neutrinos are predicted.
Obtained values are 0.068eV, 0.095eV, 0.155eV, 0.25eV, 0.31eV,
0.39eV, 0.56eV, 1.63eV, 2.88eV, 5.7eV.
The algorithm is explained to some detail.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[174] **viXra:1504.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 10:08:56*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page letter

It is proposed here that our subjective experience of ‘consciousness’ and ‘mind’ seem to be related to the combined electrostatic field of the whole brain; produced due to compact packaging of electrically-charged neurons. Our subjective experience of ‘consciousness’ may get intensified if the potential-difference between the cell-walls of neurons can be increased from 70 milli Volts, to say, 80 milli Volts. And one may loose the subjective experience of ‘mind’ if the dense packaging of neurons is loosen, by diluting the brain in some liquid, and spreading the network in a larger volume; though the brain may continue to respond to the stimuli, like a machine.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[173] **viXra:1504.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 10:45:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Astronomers watching galaxies collide found evidence of nongravitational forces that could suggest dark matter interacts with itself. [13]
The main feature of dark matter is that it remains undetectable (invisible) to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t sometimes intermingle with light. Scientists have now studied the prospect that dark matter distributes star light, creating a potentially visible luminosity around galaxies. [12]
Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11]
A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[172] **viXra:1504.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 08:45:42*

**Authors:** Stefan Boersen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A gravitational ellipse is the mathematical result of Newton's law of gravitation. [Ref.1]
The equation describing such an ellipse, is obtained by differentiating space-by-time twice.
Le Verrier [Ref.2] stated: 'rotating gravitational ellipses are observed in the solar system'.
One could be asked, to adjust the existing gravitational equation in such a way, that a rotating gravitational ellipse is obtained.
The additional rotation is an extra variable, so the equation will be a three times space-by-time differentiated equation.
In order to obtain a three times space-by-time differentiated equation we need to differentiate space-by-time for the third time.
Differentiating space-by-time twice gives the following result.[Ref.3]
\begin{equation}
\centerline{ $(\ddot{X})^2 + (\ddot{Y})^2 = (\ddot{R} - R \dot{a}^2 )^2 + (R\ddot{a} + 2 \dot{R} \dot{a} )^2 $}
\end{equation}
A third time differentiation of space-by-time gives the result:
\begin{equation}
\centerline{ $(\dddot X )^2 + (\dddot{Y})^2 = (\dddot{R} - 3\dot{R} \dot{a}^2 - 3 R \dot{a} \ddot{a} )^2 + (R\dddot{a} + 3 \dot{R} \ddot{a} + 3 \ddot{R} \dot{a} - R\dot{a}^3 )^2 $}
\end{equation}
We are now simply performing the necessary mathematical exercise to produce the new equation, which describes rotating gravitational ellipses. \newline
\centerline{\includegraphics{20150202_RotatingEllipse.png} }\newline
I assume that the reader accepts the mathematical differential equation, which defines a rotating gravitational motion as observed.
But we now have two equations defining rotating gravitational ellipses as observed in nature:
the EIH equations (Ref.4) and the above equation 2, which obeys the Euclidean space premises.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[171] **viXra:1504.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-16 10:17:00*

**Authors:** Windra Yusman, Sparisoma Viridi, Sudjati Rachmat

**Comments:** Pages. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 29 (1), 012008 (2016); DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/29/1/012008

The non-discharges geothermal wells have been a main problem in geothermal development process and well discharge stimulation is required to initiate a flow. Air compress stimulation is one of the methods to trigger a fluid flow from geothermal reservoir. The result of this process can be predicted by using by Af/Ac method [3] but sometimes this method show uncertainty result in several geothermal wells and does not take into account the time required for the process. This paper presents a simulation model of non-discharges well under air compress stimulation to predict well behavior and time process required. The component of this model
consists of geothermal well data during heating-up process such as pressure, temperature and mass flow in water column and main feed zone level (based on several geothermal wells). One-dimensional transient numerical model is run in the Single Fluid Volume Element (SFVE) simulator [4] and the input data is read in to
model. Based on simulation result, the geothermal well behavior prediction after air compress stimulation will be valid under two specific circumstance such as single phase fluid density between 1 – 28 kg/m3 and above 28.5 kg/m3. The first condition shows that successful well discharge and the last condition represent failed well discharge after air compress stimulation (only for two wells data). Discharge time is
about 80 s or less, which is too short compared to a couple hours as observed field data. This models need to improve by updating more geothermal well data and modified fluid phase condition inside the wellbore.

**Category:** Geophysics

[170] **viXra:1504.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 22:32:28*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

It is widely believed that Dirac magnetic monopoles and their related electric charges must be quantized, and that any fractional charges one might posit cannot exist without creating forbidden observable singularities. Here, we explicitly present a vector potential for a Dirac monopole with fractional magnetic and electric charges whose curl is a Coulomb magnetic field and which potential has no observable singularities. We then demonstrate how these fractional charges are projected onto SO(3) from topological covering groups with generators which are the generalized mth roots of the 2x2 identity matrix I, situated at various Euler angles on the complex plane of the covering group generators, all without observable singularities.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[169] **viXra:1504.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-28 21:01:24*

**Authors:** Subramanyam Durbha

**Comments:** Pages. This article appeared in the Mathematics teacher(India) volume 50.Please make a note of my e-mail address which is on my abtract and is different from the e-mail address on the pdf document

e-mail:durbha@hotmail.com

**Category:** General Mathematics

[168] **viXra:1504.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 00:10:24*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 9 Pages. First published as an entry to the 2015 Essay Contest by the Foundational Questions Institute. http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2455

Wigner could not give any explanation why Mathematical laws can describe the the laws of Physics so effectively. My essay justifies his conclusion but does not share it. General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics use very different mathematics and without unified theories both of Physics and of Mathematics where everything is explained starting from simple premises it is impossible to understand how the two fields mesh together so well. I believe however that we should pursue a reductionist theory in Physics and that at the tiniest scale the laws of Physics and Mathematics will be one and the same. Nature has its own logic and Mathematical intelligence is not confined to human beings. Brainless single-celled slime mold can solve mazes and replicate the railway network of Tokyo. The brain also evolved in close proximity to Nature interacting with the Universe at the molecular level. That is the reason why some (but by no means all) of our Mathematics developed by the human mind explains the forces of Nature so well. To demonstrate how such unification of Physics and Mathematics might occur at the tiniest scale, four mathematical aspects of my outline theory of everything Beautiful Universe are presented: Probability, 3D Geometry and Symmetry, Chirality and Discrete Calculus.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[167] **viXra:1504.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-11 10:58:53*

**Authors:** Hashem Sazegar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Given the fact that the Gilbreath's Conjecture has been a major topic of research in Aritmatic progression for well over a Century,and as bellow: 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 2 6 4 2 4 6 6 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 The Gilbreath’s conjecture in a way as easy and comprehensive as possible. He proposed that these differences, when calculated repetitively and left as bsolute values, would always result in a row of numbers beginning with 1,In this paper we bring elementary proof for this conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[166] **viXra:1504.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 05:11:40*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unfortunately the Bell's correlation formula violates the law of logic: it is not theoretically founded. Here is shown, that it hardly can be ever founded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[165] **viXra:1504.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-24 10:29:18*

**Authors:** Robert James Johnson

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Submission ref. PHYSSCR-102611; submitted 6 Feb 2015; awaiting referee comments 24.4.15

Neither the collisional hydrodynamic nor the collisionless kinetic models have yet been able to fully explain the acceleration of the fast solar wind without ad hoc assumptions of additional energy input or suprathermal electron populations at the base of the models in the lower corona. Separate research has shown that plasma naturally forms a Current Free Double Layer when expanding into a lower-density region, the effect of which is to generate a suprathermal electron population and beams of fast ions on the low potential side. It is suggested that the expansion of the dense plasma in the body of the Sun will form a stationary Current Free Double Layer below the photosphere and thus provide initial ion acceleration together with the type of electron velocity distribution function that kinetic models require as boundary conditions. The turbulence generated by the outflowing particle beams colliding with the low-density plasma in and above the upper chromosphere may contribute to the additional wave energy which the hydrodynamic models require. The implications of the present model for the coronal heating problem are also explored.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[164] **viXra:1504.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-23 20:54:28*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Tariq Aziz

**Comments:** 82 Pages.

In this book, we introduce the concept of (/in, /in /or q_k)-fuzzy ideals and (/in_gamma, in_gamma /or q_delta)-fuzzy ideals in a non-associative algebraic structure called Abel Grassmann’s groupoid, discuss several important features of a regular AG-groupoid, investigate some characterizations of regular and intra-regular AG-groupoids and so on.

**Category:** Algebra

[163] **viXra:1504.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-23 23:26:34*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Preprint of ICCF19 Proceedings paper, to be published by J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci.

The condensed matter nuclear reactions (CMNR) are thought to happen for trapped H(D) particles within some chemical (electro-magnetic) potential well with finite life time. As the life time is much longer than the collision time of two-body interaction of free particles, CMNR reaction rates are significantly (on the order of 19-20 in magnitude) enhanced if we compare with estimated reactions rates by the two-body collision formula. The basis of CMNR rate theory is reviewed in this paper by extracting essence of the TSC theory tools developed until now. Derivation of Fermi’s golden rule with nuclear optical potential, rate formulas by Born-Oppenheimer wave function separation, estimation of bracket integral of inter-nuclear strong interaction rate, estimation of time dependent barrier penetration probability by the HMEQPET method for dynamic D(H)-cluster condensation/collapse process, and DD fusion power levels as functions of inter-nuclear d-d distance and effective existing (life) time are given. A DD fusion power level of 10 kW/mol-dd-pairs is possible for a 1 pm inter-nuclear d-d distance with 10 ato-seconds life time. The level of 2.8 nano-mol 4D/TSC formations/sec may release 10 kW neutron-free heat-power with 4He ash.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[162] **viXra:1504.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-24 03:39:05*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. If there is a flaw in the proof, I welcome it.Thank you.

Reputed Austrian American mathematician Kurt Gödel formulated two extraordinary propositions in mathematical lo0gic.Accepted by all mathematicians they have revolutionized mathematics, showing that mathematical truth is more than logic and computation. These two ground breaking theorems changed mathematics, logic, and even the way we look at our Universe. The cognitive scientist Douglas Hofstadter described Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem as that in a formal axiomatic mathematical system there are propositions that can neither be proven nor disproven. The logician and mathematician Jean van Heijenoort summarizes that there are formulas that are neither provable nor disprovable. According to Peter Suber, inn a formal mathematical system, there are un decidable statements. S. M. Srivatsava formulates that formulations of number theory include undecidable propositions. And Miles Mathis describes Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem as that in a formal axiomatic mathematical system we can construct a statement which is neither true nor false. [Mathematical variance of liar’s paradox]In this short work, the author attempts to show these equivalent propositions to Gödel’s incompleteness theorems by applying elementary arithmetic operations, algebra and hyperbolic geometry. [1 – 6 ]

**Category:** Geometry

[161] **viXra:1504.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-24 04:40:30*

**Authors:** Alberto Bononi, Ottmar Beucher, Paolo Serena

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We correct a typo in the key equation (20) of reference [Opt.Express 21(26), 32254–32268 (2013)] that shows an upper bound on the cross-channel interference nonlinear coefficient in coherent optical links for which the Gaussian Noise model applies.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[160] **viXra:1504.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-24 07:56:32*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Técnica 1, 53-61 (1994).

Two processes have been chosen to show the difficulty of attributing a physical significance to the first law - dU=dW+dQ, since it is not possible to separate the energetic exchange between two subsystems, dividing it into work - dW, and heat - dQ, with an energetic significance (attributed to each one of these terms), even if a "quasi-static" transformation is assumed. By analysing these processes we have shown that the First Law does not possess the significance commonly attributed to it. The analysis developed herein completes one recently published [3].

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[159] **viXra:1504.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-24 07:37:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[158] **viXra:1504.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-23 14:37:58*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A series of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and experiment is discussed that probes the interaction between multiple shock waves and the adjacent boundary layer at high supersonic speed. For a cone-cylinder-flare configuration the viscous boundary layer and its interaction with the outer flow field is computationally determined and then compared to an experimental technique using holographic interferometry. Ultimately, the base flow region of a projectile can be modeled using CFD and its results compared to experimental interferometric data during the validation stage of code development.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[157] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-01 11:58:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. arxiv link added

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[156] **viXra:1504.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:24:54*

**Authors:** Frederik Vantomme

**Comments:** 24 Pages. The original paper is written in LaTex format.

We explore the possibility that black holes and Space could be the geometrically Compactified Transverse Slices ("CTS"s) of their higher (+1) dimensional space. Our hypothesis is that we might live somewhere in between partially compressed regions of space, namely 4d_{L+R} hyperspace compactified to its 3d transverse slice, and fully compressed dark regions, i.e. black holes, still containing all _{L}d432-1-234d_{R} dimensional fields. This places the DGP, ADD, Kaluza-Klein, Randall-Sundrum, Holographic and Vanishing Dimensions theories in a different perspective.

We first postulate that a black hole could be the result of the compactification (fibration) of a 3d burned up S^{2} star to its 2d transverse slice; the 2d dimensional discus itself further spiralling down into a bundle of one-dimensional fibres.

Similarly, Space could be the compactified transverse slice (fibration) of its higher 4d_{L+R} S^{3} hyper-sphere to its 3d transverse slice, the latter adopting the topology of a closed and flat left+right handed trefoil knot. By further extending these two ideas, we might consider that the Universe in its initial state was a "Matroska" 4d_{L+R} hyperspace compactified, in cascading order, to a bundle of one-dimensional fibres. The Big Bang could be an explosion from within that broke the cascadingly compressed Universe open.

[155] **viXra:1504.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:57:30*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. spin, quantum mechanics

The historical development of spin and Stern-Gerlach experiment are summarized.
Then some questions on spin are stated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[154] **viXra:1504.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-08 11:28:41*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: the article presents the author developed an original analytical method high-precision determination of fundamental physical constants (FPC). Given a finite formulas and high-precision results of analytical calculations 26 fundamental constants. Presents a table comparing the results of calculations with the data CODATA 2010

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[153] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-07 17:49:31*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] **viXra:1504.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 08:23:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The main feature of dark matter is that it remains undetectable (invisible) to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t sometimes intermingle with light. Scientists have now studied the prospect that dark matter distributes star light, creating a potentially visible luminosity around galaxies. [12]
Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11]
A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[151] **viXra:1504.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 04:41:40*

**Authors:** Centre For Democracy And Development

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An act to regulate the acceptance and utilization of financial/material contribution of donor agencies to voluntary organisations.

**Category:** Social Science

[150] **viXra:1504.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 04:48:45*

**Authors:** Centre For Democracy And Development

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

matters arising from the voting phase during the Nigeria 2015 Governorship and State House of Assembly Elections

**Category:** Social Science

[149] **viXra:1504.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 05:54:02*

**Authors:** Centre For Democracy And Development

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

understanding women, youth and other marginalised groups in political party activities in Nigeria.

**Category:** Social Science

[148] **viXra:1504.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 18:06:25*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 640 Pages.

Folclor umoristic internetist, cules, selectat, prelucrat de Florentin Smarandache.
Bancuri, imagini, folclor in general.

**Category:** Linguistics

[147] **viXra:1504.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 02:41:47*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Luzboa A arte da Luz em Lisboa, 14-19, Extra]muros[ (2004).

The traditional presentation of special relativity is made from a rupture with previous ideas, such as the notion of absolute motion, emphasizing the antagonism of the Lorentz’s views and Einstein’s ideas. However, a weaker formulation of the postulates allows to recover all the results from Einstein’s special relativity and reveals that both viewpoints are merely diﬀerent perspectives of one and the same theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[146] **viXra:1504.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 12:33:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[145] **viXra:1504.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 09:20:01*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Consider the structure of the wire with constant current.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[144] **viXra:1504.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 10:22:44*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The question of the source of energy in a dust whirl is considered. Atmospheric conditions cannot be the sole source of energy, as such dust whirls exist on Mars, where the atmosphere is absent. Here we show that the source of energy for the dust whirl is the energy of the gravitational field. We present a mathematical model of the sand vortex, which uses a system of Maxwell-like gravitational equations. The model explains some of the properties of the dust whirl – preservation of cylindrical vertical shape of the dust whirl, motion of the dust whirl as a whole. \\ Рассматривается вопрос об источнике энергии в песчаном вихре. Атмосферные явления не могут быть единственным источником энергии, поскольку такие вихри существуют и на Марсе, где атмосфера отсутствует. Ниже показывается, что источником энергии для песчаного вихря является энергия гравитационного поля. Предлагается математическая модель песчаного вихря, в которой используется система максвеллоподобных уравнений гравитации. Объясняются некоторые свойства песчаного вихря - сохранение цилиндрической вертикальной формы вихря, движение вихря в целом.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[143] **viXra:1504.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 09:37:32*

**Authors:** V.Purushothaman, Naveen.M, Prem kumar.D, P.Manimaran, K.S.Sivaraman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product to acoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[142] **viXra:1504.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 08:40:29*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 15 Pages. A rough outline of this hypothesis has already attracted over 300,000 reads on my website. One of your contributing physicists suggested that I tidy it up and offer it to viXra. Regards, Pete.

The author proposes that a reinterpretation of cosmological redshift as arising from the small positive spacetime curvature of a 4-rotating Hyperspherical Universe of constant size can eliminate the current requirement for spacetime singularities, cosmic inflation, dark matter, and dark energy from cosmological models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1504.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 04:36:41*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the previous paper "Thermodynamics of elementary particles" we analysed the thermodynamic behavior of single elementary particles in the order of a continuous paradigm. Already we know elementary particles have in electrodynamics a few quantum features above all in regard to the emission of electromagnetic energy when they are accelerated. We want now to specify better this quantum behavior making use of particular mathematical functions and expanding successively this study from electrodynamic phenomena to thermodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[140] **viXra:1504.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-15 08:14:03*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Climate science's fundamental premise – assumed by all parties in the great climate debate – says the greenhouse gases – constituting some 1% of Earth’s atmosphere – first derived by John Tyndall‘s in his 1859 thermopile experiment, and demonstrated graphically today by infrared IR spectroscopy – are special because of their infrared (IR) ‘heat’ absorbing property. From this, it is paradoxically assumed the (remaining 99%) non-greenhouse gases Nitrogen (N2) and Oxygen (O2) are non-heat absorbent. This paper reveals, by elementary physics, the (deceptive) role thermopiles play in this paradox. It was found: for a special group substances – all sharing (at least one) electric dipole moment – i.e. CO2, and the other greenhouse gases – thermopiles – via the thermoelectric (Seebeck) effect – generate electricity from the radiated IR. Devices using the thermopile as a detector (e.g. IR spectrographs) discriminate, and have misinterpreted IR absorption for anomalies of electricity production – between the sample gases and a control heat source. N2 and O2 were found to have (as all substances) predicted vibrational modes (derived by the Schrodinger quantum equation) at 1556cm-1 and 2330cm-1 respectively – well within the IR range of the EM spectrum and are clearly observed – as expected – with Raman Spectroscopy – IR spectroscopy’s complement instrument. The non-greenhouse gases N2 and O2 are relegated to greenhouse gases, and Earth’s atmospheric thermoelectric spectrum was produced (formally IR spectrum), and was augmented with the Raman observations. It was concluded the said greenhouses gases are not special, but typical; and all substances have thermal absorption properties, as measured by their respective heat capacities.

**Category:** Climate Research

[139] **viXra:1504.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 12:46:56*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In Addenda to my previous paper “On the special relation between the numbers of the form 505+1008k and the squares of primes” I defined the notions of c/m-integers and g/s-integers and showed some of their applications. In a previous paper I conjectured that, beside few definable exceptions, the Fermat pseudoprimes to base 2 with two prime factors are c/m-primes, but I haven’t defined the “definable exceptions”. However, in this paper I confirm one of my constant beliefs, namely that the relations between the two prime factors of a 2-Poulet number are definable without exceptions and I make a conjecture about a generic formula of these numbers, namely that the most of them are s-primes and the exceptions must satisfy a given Diophantine equation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[138] **viXra:1504.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 10:19:08*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Nada vezes Nove, edição extra]muros[, 25-35, "Lisboa Capital do Nada" (2001)

Estava eu a ler o "Significado de Tudo" de Richard Feynman quando recebo o convite de escrever sobre o "Nada":"O Significado de Nada".

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[137] **viXra:1504.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 10:32:48*

**Authors:** Randy Sorokowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This natural units table shows the relationship between measured properties. A description as to how to use this grid will be in the next submission.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[136] **viXra:1504.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 06:39:55*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 14, Nº2/3, 65-72 (2002).

Neste artigo estabelecem-se as equações que permitem relacionar a tendência para o equilíbrio obtida por aplicação da 2ª Lei de Newton com a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica. Esta análise permite, de uma forma simples e directa, relacionar a condição final de equilíbrio correspondente à aceleração e velocidade nulas (equilíbrio mecânico estático) com a estacionaridade da entropia (equilíbrio termodinâmico). Através da introdução do conceito de pressão dinâmica determinam-se a origem, significado e condições de validade de algumas aproximações da Termodinâmica.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[135] **viXra:1504.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 08:14:03*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Substance's mass infinitely divisible. Substance mass infinitesimal small objects called magneton. Magneton mass tends to zero, but will never zero. Magnetic and spin are the magneton talent mettle.
Magnetic force enables multiple magneton orderly bond together, to form magneton group. Magneton bond into small and simple magneton group. Small and simple magneton group bond into big and complex magneton group. every hue independent magneton group construct every hue material forms.
Magneton collide with each other, make its spin speed and magneton's beeline speed transformed into each other. Bond into magneton group the magneton all maintain original characteristics. Magneton group have magneton the same characteristics. speed reach light speed, mass is about 10^-35 kg, such independent magneton group is photon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[134] **viXra:1504.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 08:40:39*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The study of the power of primes was for me a constant probably since I first encounter “Fermat’s last theorem”. The desire to find numbers with special properties, as is, say, Hardy-Ramanujan number, was another constant. In this paper I present a class of numbers, i.e. the numbers of the form n = 505 + 1008*k, where k positive integer, which, despite the fact that they don’t seem to be, prima facie, “special”, seem to have a strong connection with the powers of primes: for a lot of values of k (I show in this paper that for nine from the first twelve and I conjecture that for an infinity of the values of k), there exist p and q primes such that p^2 – q^2 + 1 = n. The special nature of the numbers of the form 505 + 1008*k is also highlight by the fact that they are (all the first twelve of them, as much I checked) primes or g/s-integers or c/m-integers (I define in Addenda to this paper the two new notions mentioned).

**Category:** Number Theory

[133] **viXra:1504.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 09:13:30*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 journal pages

For relatively moving inertial frames, the constancy of the speed of light principle physically leads to time dilation in the transverse direction. This time dilation is irreconcilable in the longitudinal direction unless a length contraction in the relative motion direction is postulated. However, time dilation is contradictorily coupled with length expansion, a fact erroneously twisted in the special relativity and related text books, as demonstrated in this paper. The typical physical demonstration of the length contraction is shown to be inconsistent and contradicts its derivation from the Lorentz transformation. The misinterpretation of the Lorentz Transformation in predicting the length contraction is revealed. The constancy of the speed of light is consequently unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[132] **viXra:1504.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 09:40:13*

**Authors:** Xinyang Deng, Yong Deng, Zhen Wang, Qi Liu

**Comments:** 22 pages.

Quantum game theory is a new interdisciplinary field between game theory and physical research. In this paper, we extend the classical inspection game into a quantum game version by quantizing the strategy space and importing entanglement between players. The quantum inspection has various Nash equilibrium depending on the initial quantum state of the game. Our results also show that quantization can respectively help each player to increase his own payoff, but can not simultaneously improve the collective payoff in the quantum inspection game.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[131] **viXra:1504.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 13:18:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons, the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the energy coordinates and some qualitative and partially quantitative description of proton flux as a function of rigidity are presented. Obtained results are consistent with the AMS data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[130] **viXra:1504.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 05:30:11*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 14, Nº 4, 36-40 (2002).

We analyse the acceleration of a mass with a simple structure taking into account Thermodynamics. Two situations are analysed. The first one for the application of a localized force to a point of the mass. The second one for the application of a force to the entire mass. The two situations are not equivalent. For the first situation we have an increase of temperature of the mass, resulting from an internal damping, during a transient.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[129] **viXra:1504.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 10:08:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity (SR) theory dictates, as a force majeure, an ontic view, according to which relativity is a true state of nature. For example, the theory’s solution to the famous twin paradox prescribes the "traveling" twin returns truly and verifiably younger than the "staying" twin, thereby implying the “traveling” twin returns to the future.
I propose an epistemic view of relativity, according to which relativity results from difference in Information about Nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The proposed theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (SR's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I derive the theory's time and distance transformations and compare them with the corresponding SR's transformations. I show that despite IR's contradiction with Lorentz's Invariance Principle, it accounts as good as SR for the results of a class of time measurement experiments, including Michelson-Morley's type of experiments as well as the time dilation detected in muon decay and in "around-the-world atomic clocks" experiments. More important, the theory accounts for the linear Sagnac effect, which starkly disobeys LI and SR. It also predicts with precision the (v-c)⁄c values reported in several neutrino velocity experiments, conducted by OPERA and other collaborations. I outline the necessary conditions for a stringent comparative test between IR and SR, and explain why the experimental designs of the linear Sagnac and the neutrino velocity experiments qualify as stringent tests of both theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[128] **viXra:1504.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 19:18:27*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I present the observation that the formula p^2 – q^2 + 1, where p and q are primes with the special property that the sums of their digits are equal, leads often to primes (of course, having only the digital root equal to 1 due to the property of p and q to have same digital sum implicitly same digital root) or to special kinds of semiprimes: some of them named by me, in few previous papers, c/m-primes, and some of them named by me, in this paper, g-primes respectively s-primes. Note that I chose the names “g/s-primes” instead “g/s-semiprimes” not to exist confusion with the names “g/s-composites”, which I intend to define and use in further papers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1504.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 02:37:56*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 13, Nº 1, 44-48 (2001).

Considera-se um Sistema constituído por dois sub-sistemas separados por uma parede adiabática móvel. Cada um destes sub-sistemas i (i=A,B) é constituido por Ni moléculas de gás. A condição final de equilíbrio corresponde à igualdade de pressões e de temperaturas de A e B. No entanto
este resultado tem sido posto em causa e originado controvérsia em artigos e livros. Mostra-se a origem desta controvérsia e qual a forma de a resolver: as condições dQA= 0 e dQB= 0 impostas nas equações obtidas através do primeiro princípio da termodinâmica e baseadas na adiabaticidade da parede, são incompativeis com a condição de aumento de entropia global na transformação espontânea que se dá pelo movimento da parede até que as pressões e as temperaturas sejam iguais, verificando-se então a condição de equilibrio dST=0. Tiram-se conclusões divergentes das de um artigo recentemente publicado (Brogueira, P. e Dias de Deus, J. Gazeta de Física, vol. 18, Fasc. 1, 19 (1995)).

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[126] **viXra:1504.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 03:29:27*

**Authors:** JinHua Fei

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper use the methods of References [1], we got a good upper bound of exceptional real zero of the Dirichlet L- function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[125] **viXra:1504.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 12:23:22*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Técnica 3, 15-21 (1994), (Int. Conf. on Phys. Ed. "Light and Information", Univ. do Minho, Braga, Portugal (1993).

The fundamental aim of this article is to show that by considering an ideal gas defined through p=αu, this relation between force and energy contains the whole thermodynamic information about the system. As a matter of fact we show that there is no need for an a priori introduction of the variables temperature or entropy since they result from the above relation and from the Energy Conservation Principle. Previous tautological treatments are thus eliminated and equations p=αu and pV = BT are related with generality. The theory is general since the ideal gas considered has the photon gas, which, of course, is ever present.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[124] **viXra:1504.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 13:56:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present the following observation: concatenating to the right the number p^2 – 1, where p is a prime of the form 6*k – 1, with the digit 1, is often obtained a prime or a c-prime; also, concatenating to the right the number p^2 – 1, where p is a prime of the form 6*k + 1, with the digit 1, is often obtained a prime or a m-prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[123] **viXra:1504.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-19 14:13:15*

**Authors:** Julian Borchardt

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Parts of this manuscript have been published in *Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders* (Vol. 8, pp. 145-150, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.msard.2016.03.005). The complete PDF can be downloaded for free from http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1TQWn7skoepyJK

We show that the quarterly updates about the risk of PML during natalizumab therapy, while in principle helpful, underestimate the real incidences systematically and significantly. Calculating the PML incidences using an appropriate method and on realistic assumptions, we obtain estimates that are up to 80% higher. In fact, with the recent paper [Plavina et al 2014], our approximate incidences are up to ten times as high. The present article describes the shortcomings of the methods used in [Bloomgren et al 2012] and by Plavina et al for computing incidences, and demonstrates how to properly estimate the true (prospective) risk of developing PML during natalizumab treatment. One application is that the newest data concerning the advances in risk-mitigation through the extension of dosing intervals, although characterised as not quite statistically significant, are in fact significant. Lastly, we discuss why the established risk-stratification algorithms, even on assessing the PML incidences correctly, are no longer state-of-the-art; in the light of all the progress that has been made so far, already today it is possible to reliably identify over 95% of patients in whom (a personalised regimen of) natalizumab should be very safe.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[122] **viXra:1504.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-25 09:28:16*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2 (2015), e1804/1--12, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101804

We study the relation between hidden variables theories and
quantum computation.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between a hidden variables theory and controllability of quantum computation.
To derive the inconsistency, we use the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We propose a solution of the problem by using new hidden variables theory.
Also
we discuss
an
inconsistency
between hidden variables theories and the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
hidden variables theories to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a specific case.
Hidden variables theories may not depicture quantum detector.
This is a quantum measurement theoretical profound problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[121] **viXra:1504.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 07:15:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[120] **viXra:1504.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-19 11:34:34*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Under construction (first draft). References not included.

There are several instances where non-analytic functions and non-integrable operators are deliberately excluded from perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Renormalization Group (RG) to maintain internal consistency of both frameworks. Here we briefly review these instances and suggest that they may be a portal to an improved understanding of the asymptotic sectors of QFT and the Standard Model of particle physics (SM).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[119] **viXra:1504.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-18 17:04:29*

**Authors:** R.J. Tang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is a profound principal in the universe that says there is no central entity or notion anywhere, and that everything has no special significance than any other things in physics terms. This principal dispelled ‘earth-centric’ idea and later the Newtonian absolute time-space concept. It is a universally accepted principal in modern science. If math and physics are intertwined inextricably then it seems natural numbers ought to have an equal standing as any other numbers, irrational, complex, or even numbers yet to be invented.
Is there any physical underlying reason for natural numbers’ special status? Or are the natural numbers just a convenient way for people to count and were invented by macro intelligent beings like us?
Since all natural numbers are mere derivatives of the number ‘1’, so let’s look closely at what this number one really means. There are two broad meaning of the number one, corresponding to different mental construct to define ‘1’. First it registers a definitive state of some physical attribute, such as ‘presence’ or ‘non-presence’. We can find its application in information theory, statistical physics, counting and etc. The second interpretation of number one is that it denotes the ‘wholeness’ of an entity. Yet another definition arises from set theory. Still another arises from the order of which one element in a sequence related to the other elements. Remarkably the concept of natural numbers can come from many different constructs, just as remarkable that natural numbers come from many different domains in the physical world.
In physics, natural numbers virtually have no sacred places prior to the establishment of quantum mechanics. After all, we don’t need any natural numbers in our gravity functions or the Maxwell electro-magnetic wave functions. Some sharp observers would argue that the ‘R squared’ contains a natural number 2. However on close examination the number 2 is merely a mathematical notation for a number multiplying by itself, and it has no actual physical corresponding object or attribute. The fact that there is no natural number in the formulae represents the idea that time-space is fundamentally smooth. For instance there is no such law in physics that requires 7 bodies (non quantum mechanical) to form a system in equilibrium.
Had we obtained calculus capability before we can count our fingers, we probably would have been more familiar with the number e than 1-2-3. We might have used e/2.718 to represent the mundane singletons. There is no logical requirement that we couldn’t or shouldn’t do it. It is all due to the accident that people happened to need to count their fingers earlier than the invention of calculus. There is no physical evidence that the number ‘2’ is more significant than the any other numbers in the natural world.
However with the standard model of quantum mechanics, energy is quantized, that is, it can only take natural numbers. This idea profoundly altered the status of natural numbers in physics and is a direct contradictory of the notion of ‘no center in the universe’ principal. In this sense it is far more unorthodox than the two relativity theories combined because the latter in fact enhance the ‘no center in the universe’ law. Why does the quantum have to be integer times of a certain energy level, and not an irrational number like square root of 17, or the quantity e? Does it really mean there are aristocrats in the number world, where some are nobler than others? Were the ancient Greek mathematicians right after all, who worshiped the sacredness of natural numbers and even threw the irrational number discoverer into the sea?
From this standpoint we can almost say that quantum theory has some bad taste among all branches of natural science.
Before the quantum theory got its germination, actually people should have noticed the unusual role natural numbers play in rudimentary chemistry. For instance, why two hydrogen atoms and not five, are supposed to combine with one oxygen atom to form a water molecule? If scientists are sharp enough back then they ought to be able to be alarmed by the oddity underlying the strange status of natural numbers. It could almost be an indirect way to deduce the quantized nature of electrons.
Fundamentally if natural numbers indeed play a very unusual role in nature, then nature resembles a codebook not just from a coarse analogy standpoint. It is the ultimate codebook filled with rules for a limited number of building block codes. The DNA code is an excellent example.
If it’s a codebook, inevitably it takes us to surmise if information itself is the ultimate being in the universe. It is probably not electrons, strings, quarks or whatever ‘entities’ people have claimed. It is the information that is the only tangible and verifiable entity out there. Everything else is a mirage or manifestation of some underlying information, the codebook.
In this sense physics has somewhat gone awry by focusing on the wrong things, the ‘attributes’ such as momentum, position and etc. Instead, information is what contemporary physicists talk about and experiment with. Otherwise, the physicists would have no right to laugh at the medieval scholars who based their intellectual work on the measurement of the distance between a subject and God’s throne.
The nature has revealed her latest hand of cards to us. It looks like it’s the final hand but no one can be sure of course.

**Category:** Number Theory

[118] **viXra:1504.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-18 17:06:16*

**Authors:** R.J. Tang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Simplicity is that a relative few theories and mathematical models can explain a number of phenomena. While complexity is the opposite where there seems to be an unending need to invent new theories. By this definition, physics and astronomy are in the former camp and social science and biology belong to the latter.
Why is the universe is even understandable? This itself is hard to understand according to Einstein. I propose a line of reasoning here. Simplicity is a result of long term evolution in a close system. The resulting equilibrium gives rise to simplicity. The infinite possibilities of any member of the system have been largely reduced to a highly confined options. Most of the possibilities are prohibited due to forces that have long been cancelled out during the long evolution. Because of this simplicity, there appears to be causal effect. In other words, causal effect is a direct product of simplicity. Take our universe as an example, the universe is in equilibrium by and large. Only a handful forces remain. Because there are relatively few forces and laws, the universe appears to be orderly and thereby allows mathematics to even exist and work. Mathematics owes its existence to the equilibrium of the universe. Equilibrium brings orderliness and slowness to change. Just imagine, if one puts one stone by another stone, and because the stones decay so fast, by the end of this action of moving them together, one counts zero stone. The law of addition will be forever different from what we know today. In this sense, math and physics have ‘this worldliness’ feature, and is a localized knowledge to this universe at this phase of equilibrium. It could be vastly different in other possible states of the universe or other universes.
A corollary is that the rules governing a simple universe is discoverable and free of controversy. The simplistic nature of the rules make it hard to miss the mark, so to speak. Once the framework of the rules is tested true over numerous times, what’s left is refining of the details. Contradiction between the rules and the reality should be worked away over the time. This is good news to scientists because it solves the age old anxiety of finding all theories are invalid one morning.
One notable exception to the simplicity in universe is the complexity in bio-sphere. Because the bio-sphere is inherently expansive and interactive, we cannot reduce the theories to a few laws and mathematics models. The bio-sphere is NOT an equilibrium system. Therefore it is very hard to apply causal effect to explain human society for instance. It is very hard to generalize theories or apply mathematics in bio-sphere or human society, as we are able to in cosmology.
Humans’ brain is wired to understand simple things and not complex things. We seek patterns and generalize. This skill helps tremendously in our evolutionary past. For instance, our eyes are adept in figuring out patterns like straight lines. Our eyes are especially good at spotting moving object in a static background. The predisposition to seek simplicity gave humans survival advantage in its evolutionary history. We appreciate simplicity over complexity. Humans process limited computational power. It is most efficient to apply the limited resource to a fast algorithm. The design principal of the fast algorithm is simplicity. There is an aesthetic side from human eyes for simplicity, whether be a new physics theory or a design of a gadget. The propensity of seeking simplicity is a very human specific trait, and has nothing to do with the reality whether the world is simple or complex.
The coincidence of the simplicity of the universe and human’s preference of simplicity is fortunate and fruitful. Specifically in the math and physics the coincidence yielded amazing results. There is no reason to doubt that more amazing discoveries will surface in the future. However, a grain of salt must be added so that we are conscious that there is less mysterious processes or agent involved in the coincidence. This article hopefully explained why. In fact, if we are blindly led by our pursuit of simplicity, we might fall into traps of naturally complex traps. For instance, any attempt to gain simplistic insight into a complex system is not a good idea. Our brain comes into my mind as an example of complex system. There are so many facets to this simple object that no one can claim a brain can be modeled with a finite number of rules.
However, the simplicity on the surface for the natural world might be just a disguise of a chaotic and unpredictable reality. The equilibrium masks over much of the chaos and most noises or complex nuisances cancel each other out. What’s left is the poetic simplicity skin. Underneath the skin, things might not be that smooth, or elegant or simple after all. It is a possibility. We probably are able to see some hints as we get more refined data, better models and more powerful observation tools.
Another aspect of the simplicity is that it indicates the death process of the universe toward infinite entropy. Based on the second law of thermal dynamics, our universe is slipping into this final death of maximum entropy. An accompanying result of this process is that the universe becomes simpler and simpler. Imagine a universe where homogeneity rules and any imaginable infinitesimal particles and forces are distributed absolutely uniformly and cannot be changed a bit. This would be the simplest state and requires the simplest mathematics or physics. If we are slipping in that direction, which I think we are, then we should not be surprised that the physics laws in describing the universe is becoming simpler. Our current simplistic physical forces and laws are hinting that.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[117] **viXra:1504.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-18 17:21:12*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper I define the “Smarandache-Coman sequences” as “all the sequences of primes obtained from the Smarandache concatenated sequences using basic arithmetical operations between the terms of such a sequence, like for instance the sum or the difference between two consecutive terms plus or minus a fixed positive integer, the partial sums, any other possible basic operations between terms like a(n) + a(n+2) – a(n+1), or on a term like a(n) + S(a(n)), where S(a(n)) is the sum of the digits of the term a(n) etc.”, and I also present few such sequences.

**Category:** Number Theory

[116] **viXra:1504.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-18 21:01:02*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes of the form 2*p^2 – p – 2, where p is a Sophie Germain prime, I show first few terms from this set and few larger ones.

**Category:** Number Theory

[115] **viXra:1504.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 02:33:16*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of squares of primes of the form 109 + 420*k, also an infinity of primes of this form and an infinity of semiprimes p*g of this form such that q – p = 60.

**Category:** Number Theory

[114] **viXra:1504.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-08 14:27:50*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** Pages. Newer versions may include change of title, shortened or rewritten abstract, editorial corrections and/or minor revisions of the text, but no major change of the content unless otherwise mentioned.

Our space-time is postulated to have the following characteristics: (1) the space is an ocean filled with the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass and of a certain size; (2) both time and distance are discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next in some process of relativistic boost of the internal energy. These postulates provide us with a theoretical basis to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant in all inertial reference frames. The discrete process of light propagation leads us to a set of natural units. As a result, new physically based “Planck element units” may be defined with the new mass scale being ~7.37 x 10-51 kg (~4.14 x 10-15 eV/c2). The length scale is estimated from the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays, in the range of 1 x 10-19 m ‒ 1 x 10-25 m, and the new time scale then being in the range of 3.34 x 10-28 s ‒ 3.34 x 10-34 s. The Planck element units are shown to relate with the fundamental constants, c (speed of light), G (gravitational constant), and h (Planck constant) with the same dimensional relationship as the conventional Planck units, but the length and time units are larger than those of the latter by 109 – 1016 orders of magnitude while the mass is smaller by whopping 10-43 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1504.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:50:01*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We postulate that our space is filled by the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass with the size approximately given by the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays and that time and distance are both discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next. These postulates provide us with a theoretical ground to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant to all observers regardless of their inertial frames of reference. In the cosmological scale, the energy of the Gamma elements filling space has been equated to the energy represented by the cosmological constant, i.e., the dark energy. When applied to the expanding universe, the EST model brings additional 25% of the total mass simply as the relativistic correction to the non-relativistic results; hence the dark matter is closely identified as merely the relativistic correction to the dark energy predicted by the Friedman equation. The agreement with the observed magnitudes convincingly supports this interpretation of dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1504.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:55:26*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new relativistic quantum wave equation has been derived by applying the quantum prescription to the momentum and the kinetic energy rather than to the momentum and the total energy, since after all it is the kinetic energy that generates the momentum. The resulting equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit and to the Klein-Gordon equation for “massless particles” in the relativistic limit, i.e., if the velocity of the particle approaches that of light, c. For massive particles in general, the new equation deviates from the Klein-Gordon equation. The same equation is shown to decouple according to the Dirac formalism, yielding a modified form of Dirac equation. When applied to a rest particle, the modified Dirac equation is shown to avoid a negative energy solution and instead include a constant solution. The other, the time-dependent particle solution of the modified Dirac equation, has the characteristic frequency Mc2/(ћ/2) , i.e., twice those of the Dirac solutions, Mc2/ћ.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[111] **viXra:1504.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 08:19:42*

**Authors:** Bishnu Charan Behera

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

THIS IS A ALGORITHM WHICH HAS THE SAME TIME COMPLEXITY AS THAT OF LINEAR SEARCH OF O(n).BUT STILL IT IS BETTER THAN LINEAR SEARCH IN TERMS OF EXECUTION TIME. LET A[ ] BE THE THE ARRAY OF SOME SIZE N. IF THE ELEMENT WHICH WE WANT TO SEARCH IS AT ANY POSITION BEFORE N/2 THAN MY-SEARCH AND LINEAR-SEARCH BOTH WILL HAVE EXECUTION TIME , BUT THE MAGIC HAAPENS WHEN THE SEARCH ELEMENT IS AFTER N/2 POSITION.SUPPOSE THE ELEMENT WANT TO SEARCH IS AT Nth POSITION, THEN USING THE LINEAR SEARCH WILL FIND THE ELEMENT AFTER Nth ITERATION,BUT USING MY-SEARCH WE CAN SEARCH THE ELEMENT AFTER 1st ITERATION ITESELF.
WHEN WE ARE DEALING WITH A SITUTATION WHEN SIZE IS SOMETHING 10 OR 15 ITS OK. BUT CAN YOU IMAGINE THE CASE WHEN THE SIZE IS “100000000” OR EQUIVALANENT.IF WE USE THIS LINEAR SEARCH TECHINIUQE THAN THE TOTAL EXPENDITURE YOU CAN THINK OFF TO CONTINUE THE LOOP FOR 100000000 TIMES.BUT RATHER IF USE MY-SEARCH U GET THE DESIRED SEARCH JUST AFTER 1 ITERATIONS.
SO ,NOW YOU CAN IMAGINE HOW WE CAN PREVENT SUCH A BIG LOSS THROUGH MY-SEARCH.
THANK YOU

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[110] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 09:31:28*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[109] **viXra:1504.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 23:25:44*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 1 Page.

we prove that a negative length and mass are absent in nature if there are negative charges with not equal to one factors in the form of dimensionless fundamental constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[108] **viXra:1504.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 00:40:25*

**Authors:** Bojan Vasiljević

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Here we have very slight improvement of Fermat factorization method, where instead for looking off odd N, we are looking for odd or even B.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1504.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 01:53:05*

**Authors:** Branko Kozulic, Matti Leisola

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Over two millennia ago Socrates was pondering whether our Universe and all things in it are governed by randomness or by a regulating intelligence. This philosophical question has been alive till the present day, since the
proponents of neither side have been able to convince their opponents. Scientists seldom express or recognize clearly their philosophical presuppositions and many think that there is no room for philosophy in science. Our view is that although science cannot determine which philosophical view is correct, it can show which one is wrong. Here we critically review the experimental results obtained during the past twenty years by Jack W. Szostak and his co-workers relating to functional information among random RNA and protein sequences. We
explain in detail why their experiments with random or partially randomized protein sequences do not mimic the processes that take place in natural populations. Simple calculations show that in the laboratory scientists have searched much larger sequence space than could have been searched by random natural processes. We further argue that the discovery of singletons and of protein-protein-interaction networks has removed the randomness concept from biochemistry, and that neo-Darwinian view of the living world is false. We see faulty Hegelian logic as a major reason for the survival of the illusion that evolution is true, and the same logic is misleading many scientists into accepting empty phrases like “intrinsically disordered proteins” as existentially meaningful.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[106] **viXra:1504.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 05:21:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14]
Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1504.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 05:04:10*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Any mobile having a velocity which is the addition of a rotation velocity and a translation velocity, both with a constant modulus, will follow a trajectory that respects the three laws of Kepler. This article demonstrate this theorem and discuss it. An important result is to forecast the mathematical structure of the Newton's acceleration of attraction, not any more as a prior, but as a consequence, the subsequent centripetal acceleration due to the rotation velocity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[104] **viXra:1504.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 23:49:17*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Experiments have repeatedly revealed the existence of a dynamical structured fractal 3-space, with a speed relative to the Earth
of some 500km/s from a southerly direction. Experiments have ranged from optical light speed anisotropy interferometers to
zener diode quantum detectors. This dynamical space has been missing from theories from the beginning of physics. This
dynamical space generates a growing universe, and gravity when included in a generalised Schrodinger equation, and light
bending when included in generalised Maxwell equations. Here we review ongoing attempts to construct a deeper theory of
the dynamical space starting from a stochastic pattern generating model that appears to result in 3-dimensional geometrical
elements, “gebits”, and accompanying quantum behaviour. The essential concept is that reality is a process, and geometrical
models for space and time are inadequate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1504.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 23:56:04*

**Authors:** Reginald t Cahill

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

During the last decade the existence of space as a quantum-dynamical system was discovered, being first indicated by the measured anisotropy of the speed of EM radiation. The dynamical theory for space has been under development during that period, and has now been successfully tested against experiment and astronomical observations, explaining, in particular, the observed characteristics of galactic black holes. The dynamics involves G and alpha- the fine structure constant. Applied to the earth this theory gives two observed predictions (i) the bore hole g anomaly, and the space-inflow effect.The bore hole anomaly is caused by a black hole (a dynamical space in-flow effect) at the centre of the earth. This black hole will be associated with space-flow turbulence,which, it is suggested, may lead to the generation of new matter, just as such turbulence created matter in the earliest moments of the universe.This process may offer a dynamical mechanism for the observed expanding earth.

**Category:** Geophysics

[102] **viXra:1504.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 00:00:48*

**Authors:** Reginald T cahill

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The anisotropy of the velocity of EM radiation has been repeatedly detected, including the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887, using a variety of techniques. The experiments reveal the existence of a dynamical space that has a velocity of some 500km/s from a southerly direction. These consistent experiments contradict the assumptions of Special Relativity, but are consistent with the assumptions of neo-Lorentz Relativity. The existence of the dynamical space has been missed by physics since its beginnings. Novel and checkable phenomena then follow from including this space in Quantum Theory, EM Theory, Cosmology, etc, including the derivation of a more general theory of gravity as a quantum wave refraction effect. The corrected Schrodinger equation has resulted in a very simple and robust quantum detector, which easily measures the speed and direction of the dynamical space. This report reviews the key experimental evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:1504.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 00:03:56*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In 2014 Jiapei Dai reported evidence of anisotropic Brownian motion of a toluidine blue
colloid solution in water. In 2015 Felix Scholkmann analysed the Dai data and detected
a sidereal time dependence, indicative of a process driving the preferred Brownian motion
diusion direction to a star-based preferred direction. Here we further analyse the
Dai data and extract the RA and Dec of that preferred direction, and relate the data
to previous determinations from NASA Spacecraft Earth-flyby Doppler shift data, and
other determinations. It is shown that the anisotropic Brownian motion is an anisotropic
“heating” generated by 3-space fluctuations: gravitational waves, an eect previously
detected in correlations between ocean temperature fluctuations and solar flare counts,
with the latter being shown to be a proxy for 3-space fluctuations. The dynamical 3-
space does not have a measure of energy content, but can generate energy in matter
systems, which amounts to a violation of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1504.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 13:12:52*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A single equation within Theory of Everything would be infinitely complex so we should formulate a fractal skeletal theory which should lead to the much simpler partial theories. In such theory should not appear free parameters and the indeterminate mathematical forms. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is such a skeletal theory. Its structure looks as a Christmas tree. Here, within a model which is self-similar/dual to the structure of baryons, applying the SST, we calculated the median effective radius of the Type 1 cosmological voids in observed redshift coordinates, number of such voids in the Universe, the quantized median effective radii of such voids, radius of the WMAP Cold Spot and the Cosmological Ruler. Obtained results are consistent with observational facts. Moreover, there is calculated the expected void abundance. Presented here theoretical results suggest that the picture of the high-redshift Universe obtained within the mainstream cosmology is misshapen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[99] **viXra:1504.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 14:35:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I derive the lepto-baryonic formula for the electric charge. The formula is based on
the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant that I published recently. This paper
shows that the electrical charge is a function of the ratio of the mass difference between the two
lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the mass difference between the two
lightest baryons: the proton and the neutron. Thus the formula for the elementary charge is a
function of the mass of four elementary particles. Two of these particles (the electron and the electrino) control the sign of the electric charge. This allow us to derive the electric charge of the positron from the electric charge of the electron by interpreting the positron, as Feynman did, as an electron of negative energy travelling backward in time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[98] **viXra:1504.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 11:13:03*

**Authors:** Th. Guyer

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The nicest possible ABC Formula in Mathematic.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1504.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 08:01:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11]
A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[96] **viXra:1504.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 06:14:42*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Técnica 2, 100-104 (1985)

The <

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[95] **viXra:1504.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 13:54:17*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article we consider the variant of quantum mechanics (QM) which is based on the non-realism. There exists the theory of the modified QM introduced in [1] and [2] which is based on the non-realism, but it contains also other changes with respect to the standard QM (stQM). We introduce here the other non-realistic modification of QM (n-rQM) which contains the minimal changes with respect to stQM. The change consists in the replacement of the von Neumann`s axiom (ensembles which are in the pure state are homogeneous) by the anti-von Neumann`s axiom (any two different individual states must be orthogonal). This introduces the non-realism into n-rQM. We shall show that experimental consequences of n-rQM are the same as in stQM, but these two theories are substantially different. In n-rQM it is not possible to derive (using locality) the Bell inequalities. Thus n-rQM does not imply the non-locality (in contrast with stQM). Because of this the locality in n-rQM can be restored. The main purpose of this article was to show what could be the minimal modification of QM based on the non-realism, i.e. that the realism of stQM is completely contained in the von Neumann's axiom.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[94] **viXra:1504.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 11:10:18*

**Authors:** M.pooja, S.k Manigandan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This project income tax deals
with computerizing the process of tax
payment. The entire process of tax payment
will be maintained in an automated way. The
main objective of this project is to reduce the
time consumption. The income tax system has
been categorized into three groups according
to the mode of payment to the central
government, state government, and the
municipality. The online tax payment system
will be helpful for paying the money from
anywhere and at any time. Earlier it was
impossible to pay the money online using
Debit card / Credit card. The main objective of
our system is; we can pay the money use of
Debit card / Credit card. Our project has
included the concept of paying money through
card number which is provided by the bank. It
is very secure and easy to reimburse. Through
the card security code providing secure money
transaction in the system .in other hand
through account number and bank name user
has to pay the tax in the system. User has to
viewing their tax calculation and money
transaction status whether payment succeeds
or not user has to monitor their entire tax
calculation through the tax view module in the
system. Admin login is used to login in admin
side. Admin side has a security of Money
Transaction and confidentiality of user
information. Admin provides the security to
their users. Admin view is used to view the
Tax payments of the login User. Admin
monitoring the user activities through admin
view module.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[93] **viXra:1504.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 12:14:30*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S0 frequency after eleven earthquakes in the years 2001 to 2011 by fifteen superconducting gravimeters show that this resonance frequency of the Earth has temporarily changed greatly. In addition to a slow drift there are also wide frequency jumps.

**Category:** Geophysics

[92] **viXra:1504.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 06:42:07*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Portuguese

Considera-se uma massa imersa numa atmosfera, infinita, constituída por um gás ideal clássico na presença de um campo gravitacional constante. A massa desloca-se de uma altura inicial em que está em repouso, até uma altura final de equilíbrio. Determina-se a variação de entropia da atmosfera devida ao movimento da massa entre a altura inicial e final, por dois métodos: através das relações que resultam de se considerar que a energia da atmosfera é função da altura em que se encontra a massa e da entropia, e através da estatística de Maxwell-Boltzmann. A variação de entropia é calculada na transformação irreversível resultante da variação de posição da massa. A interpretação do cálculo da variação de entropia através da estatística de Maxwell-Boltzmann é comparada com o cálculo feito através do outro método. Mostra-se a consistência das duas análises e interpreta-se físicamente. Considera-se, como caso particular, uma parte da atmosfera confinada a um cilindro provido de um êmbolo. A analogia entre este modelo e o considerado anteriormente permite ilustrar, através de um modelo concreto, o tratamento unificado da interacção entre sub-sistemas em transformações irreversíveis, origem de uma controvérsia bem conhecida.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[91] **viXra:1504.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:11:26*

**Authors:** Sakineh Jahangirzadeh, Ebrahim Farshidiy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Data weighted averaging algorithm work well for relatively low quantization levels , it begin
to present significant problems when internal quantization levels are extended farther. Each
additional bit of internal quantization causes an exponential increase in the complexity, size,
and power dissipation of the DWA logic and DAC. This is because DWA algorithms work with
unit-element DACs. The DAC must have 2N - 1 elements (where N is the number of bits
of internal quantization), and the DWA logic must deal with the control signals feeding those
2N-1 unit elements. This paper discusses the prospect of using a segmented feedback path with
coarse and ne signals to reduce DWA complexity for modulators with large internal quantizers.
However, it also creates additional problems. mathematical analysis of the problems involved
with segmenting the digital word in a
P- ADC feedback path are presented, along with a
potential solution that uses frequency-shapes this mismatch error. A potential circuit design
for the frequency-shaping method is presented in detail. Mathematical analysis and behavioral
simulation results are presented.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[90] **viXra:1504.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:13:44*

**Authors:** Yadvendra Singh, Nirbhow Jap Singhy, Ravinder Aggarwalz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Prosthetic is a branch of biomedical engineering that deals with missing human body
parts with artificial one. SEMG powered prosthetic required SEMG signals. The SEMG is a
common method of measurement of muscle activity. The analysis of SEMG signals depends on
a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time and frequency domain properties.
In the present work, the study of SEMG signals at different location, below elbow and bicep
branchii muscles for two operation of hand like grip the different weights and lift the different
weights are carried out. SEMG signals are extracted by using a single channel SEMG amplifier. Biokit Datascope is used to acquire the SEMG signals from the hardware. After acquiring the
data from two selected location, analysis are done for the estimation of parameters of the SEMG
signal using LabVIEW 2012 (evaluation copy). An interpretation of grip/lift operations using
time domain features like root mean square (rms) value, zero crossing rate, mean absolute value
and integrated value of the EMG signal are carried out. For this study 30 university students
are used as subjects with 12 female and 18 male that will be a very helpful for the research in
understanding the behavior of SEMG for the development for the prosthetic hand.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[89] **viXra:1504.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:14:54*

**Authors:** Sajad Sarajian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper presents design and analysis of an LCL-based voltage source converter using
for delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL
filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are
obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The
power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and
grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation.
Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter.
Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85kV A industrial
setup.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[88] **viXra:1504.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:17:27*

**Authors:** S.C.Swain, Susmita Panday, Priyanka Karz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-
based damping controller considering dynamic power system load is thoroughly investigated in
this paper. Only remote input signal is used as input to the SSSC-based controller. For the
controller design, Firefly algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. To
check for the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller, the system is subjected
to various disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine
power system. Detailed analysis regarding dynamic load is done taking practical power system
loads into consideration. Simulation results are presented.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[87] **viXra:1504.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:18:42*

**Authors:** Yung-Chung Chang, Chai-Chee Kong, Chien-Yi Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien- Shun Chan

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This study used linear regression analysis, neural network and genetic neural network to build the coefficient of performance (COP) model of chiller before the condenser was cleaned respectively. The data were collected after the condenser was cleaned. The model was used to simulate the COP before the condenser was cleaned, and analyzed and compared the simulation results and improvement efficiency of the three methods under the same benchmark. The neural network used backpropagation network, whereas the genetic neural network designed appropriate fitness function according to the simulation result of backpropagation network to search for the optimum weighted value and bias value. This study used two cases for simulation comparison. The results showed that the COP of chiller of Case 1 increased by 3.82% in average, and the COP of chiller of Case 2 increased by 3.78% on average. Generally speaking, the accuracy of simulation by neural network was very high. The genetic neural network searched for the optimum weighted value and bias value according to the designed conditions, so as to achieve the optimized simulation result.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[86] **viXra:1504.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:19:42*

**Authors:** Sajad Sarajian

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper deals with design and implementation of a grid interfaced voltage source converter which uses an LCL passive filter in its output terminal and a Proportional Resonance (PR) controller to delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85 kVA industrial setup.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[85] **viXra:1504.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:21:07*

**Authors:** Anand P. Mankodia, Satish K. Shah

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Content based video indexing and retrieval has its foundations in the analyses of the prime
video temporal structures. Thus, technologies for video segmentation have become important
for the development of such digital video systems. Dividing a video sequence into shots is the
first step towards VCA and content-based video browsing and retrieval. This paper presents
analysis of histogram based techniques on the compressed video features. Graphical User
Interface is also designed in MATLAB to demonstrate the performance using the common
performance parameters like, precision, recall and F1.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[84] **viXra:1504.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 07:22:14*

**Authors:** Hardik A.Shah, Satish K.Shah, Ami D. Patel

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper presents discrete time sliding mode Position control of d.c.motor using MROF.
Discrete state space model is obtained from continuous time system of d.c.motor. Discrete state
variables and control inputs are used for sliding mode controller design using Multirate Output
Feed back approach(MROF) with fast output sampling. In this system output is sampled at a
faster rate as compared to control input. This approach does not use present output or input.
In this paper simulations are carried out for separately excited d.c.motor position control.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[83] **viXra:1504.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 04:56:09*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Presented strong arguments against Black Hole production via two particle collision. Secondly, is talked about Black Hole strong curvature at event horizon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[82] **viXra:1504.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 08:09:15*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Revised version: added discussion of Doran and Lasenby's attempt to geometrize quantum information; more neutral, less extensive, evaluation of Christian's model

Geometric algebra has been proposed as an alternative framework to the quantum mechanics of interacting qubits in a number of pioneering papers by Chris Doran, Anthony Lasenby and others, building on the foundations laid by David Hestenes. This line of work is summarised in two chapters of the book Doran and Lasenby (2003). Since then however, the approach has been pretty much completely neglected, with one exception: in 2007 Joy Christian published the first of a series of works, culminating in a book Christian (2014), which took off in a completely different direction: he claimed to have refuted Bell's theorem and to have obtained a local realistic model of the famous singlet correlations by taking account of the geometry of space, as expressed through geometric algebra. His geometric algebraic model of the singlet correlations is completely different from that of Doran and Lasenby.
One of the aims of the paper is to explore geometric algebra as a tool for quantum information and to explain why it did not live up to its early promise. The short answer is: because the mapping between 3D geometry and the mathematics of one qubit is already thoroughly understood, while the extension to a system of entangled qubits does not bring in new geometric insights but on the contrary merely reproduces the usual complex Hilbert space approach in a slightly clumsy way. We also work through the mathematical core of two of Christian's shortest, least technical, and most accessible works (Christian 2007, 2011), exposing both a conceptual and an algebraic error at their heart.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1504.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 02:53:18*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Symmetry information beneath wave mechanics is re-examined. Homogeneity of space is the symmetry, fundamental to the quantum free particle. The unitary information of the Canonical Commutation Relation is shown not to be implied by that symmetry.
Keywords:quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space unitary, non-unitary.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[80] **viXra:1504.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-13 14:21:13*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Técnica 3, 47-53 (1994)

An analysis of the movement of a piston under the action of a constant gravitational field g and of the particle collisions of a gas can explain the difficulty of ascribing a physical meaning to the concept of force. The idea of force very naturally arises out of the anthropomorphic notion of weight. Newton's law f =dp/dt is a tautology as long as we have no definition of f which obviously cannot be defined as being "the product of mass by acceleration or as "the variation of the quantity of movement in order to time". As pointed out by Feynman, "Gorce is the rate of change of position", meaning that any definition is necessarily right, because for such a law to have physical meaning the concept of Gorce should be introduced independently of the variation of position in order to time (Feynman, Leighton and Sands 1976). In fact, the analysis of the previously mentioned movement of a piston shows that the force quantities are introduced independently of the dp/dt of the body considered, although they can be related to this quantity. The "force' due to weight results only from the fact that the acceleration of gravity for all bodies is g, g=d^2x/dt^22, or obviously mg=md^2x/dt^2. The force due to the particle collisions merely results from the global momentum conservation. This latter force is interpreted as the overlapping of an emitted beam and an absorbed beam. Such an interpretation makes it possible to show that for systems of variable mass f as dp/dt is an entity without physical meaning (Sommerfeld 1966), which allows to identify a controversy: the concept of force and the First Principle of Thermodynamics-the notion of "gheat".

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[79] **viXra:1504.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-25 22:10:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey M. Albert

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An experiment is proposed to test a conjectured space-time model

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[78] **viXra:1504.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-12 12:57:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Recent conclusions regarding the behavior of giant black holes obeying quantum-mechanical rules indicate that these rules are not obeyed for the large-universe. For example, the existence of fermibosonic matter in the large-scale universe need not be prohibited as it is using quantum-mechanical rules

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1504.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-13 20:12:10*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Explaining a practical use of the gravitational shield in the deflection of large bodies.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[76] **viXra:1504.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-11 12:28:15*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

S.M. Phillips has described the isomorphic relationships between the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching (and 64 DNA amino acids), the Klein Quartic, Octonions, S.M. Phillips has described the isomorphic relationships between the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching (and 64 DNA amino acids), the Klein Quartic, Octonions, PSL 2/7 and the Sephirot of the Cabala. In so doing, Phillips has described how the stable Satvic 8 x 8 = 64 creates a magnetic field from the Sephirot. This paper explains the work of Phillips from this perspective, and discusses the formation of the DNA helix from Magic Squares, as well as the Tai Xuan Jing as a magnetic field in the form of 9 x 9 = 81 Rajic matter. The paper discusses the Townsend (Electron) Avalanche and Amperian Loop in relationship to the I Ching hexagrams, and the Sephirot of the Cabala. In so doing, Phillips has described how the stable Satvic 8 x 8 = 64 creates a magnetic field from the Sephirot. This paper explains the work of Phillips from this perspective, and discusses the formation of the DNA helix from Magic Squares, as well as the Tai Xuan Jing as a magnetic field in the form of 9 x 9 = 81 Rajic matter. The paper discusses the Townsend (Electron) Avalanche and Amperian Loop in relationship to the I Ching hexagrams.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[75] **viXra:1504.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-11 13:30:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1504.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-11 10:36:34*

**Authors:** Tobias Richter

**Comments:** 4 Pages. It 's just an idea

It is a new view , to the world

**Category:** Classical Physics

[73] **viXra:1504.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-11 08:08:04*

**Authors:** Gopinath.p.g., S. Aruna Mastaniy, V.R. Anithaz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

MEMS based microcantilever is a microfabricated mostly rectangular bar shaped structure,
longer as compared to width, and has a thickness much smaller than its length or width.
Microfabricated silicon cantilever sensor arrays represent a powerful platform for sensing
applications in physics, chemistry, material science, biology and medicine. Microcantielver
senses even a few molecules or atoms. A small change in mass causes a greater displacement.
It is important that due to micron size of cantilever, the cantilevers bend or displacement is
due to small amount of mass but not weight. For application in biomedical diagnostics this
device plays an important role in the identification of disease detection particles. In this paper
we review the cantilever principle, modes of operation, transduction principle and application
of cantilever as sensor. MEMS applications operate the cantilever in either a static mode of
operation or a dynamic mode of operation. The concept of stress concentration region (SCR)
is used to increase stress occurred in the cantilever.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[72] **viXra:1504.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-11 08:32:04*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages. in Russian

It is assumed that the existence of a tornado depends on set internal lightning.
Developed a mathematical model of a tornado, showing the structure of the electromagnetic field and electrocution in a tornado. Next is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a tornado can circulate flow of electromagnetic energy and thus can save energy obtained tornado from electric discharges. Shows the cause of the stability of the shape and the vertical position of a tornado, and the reasons for the motion, vibrations and expansion of a tornado. \\ Предполагается, что существование торнадо обеспечивается множеством внутренних молний. Строится математическая модель торнадо, показывается структура электромагнитного поля и электротоков в торнадо. Далее показывается (как следствие этой модели), что в торнадо может циркулировать поток электромагнитной энергии и таким образом может сохраняться энергия, полученная торнадо при электрических разрядах. Показываются причины устойчивости формы и вертикального положения торнадо, а также причины движения, колебания и расширения торнадо.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[71] **viXra:1504.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-11 08:36:20*

**Authors:** Ajay Kumar Singh, V P Shukla, S R Biradar, Shamik Tiwari

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Classification of multi class images is very enviable for different recognition. This is affected by many factors such as noise, blur, low illumination, complex background, occlusion etc. Noise is one of the major factors causing degradation of the classification performance. This paper proposes an efficient method for classification of multi class object images which are corrupted by Gaussian noise. A wavelet transform based denoising scheme by thresholding the wavelet coefficients namely NeighShrink has been utilized to eliminate too many wavelet coefficients that might contain noise information and selecting useful coefficients. This work shows robustness of proposed method of multiclass object classification over the spatial domain denoising and feature extraction method for classification.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[70] **viXra:1504.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-12 00:44:59*

**Authors:** Vadim V Nazarenko

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As much as 0 is the opposite of प, every number of the Poorna series has it's opposite number from the Shoonya series.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[69] **viXra:1504.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 10:51:29*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 126 Pages. Book. Spanish

Este es un libro de Matemática para físicos. Con ello queremos decir que los conceptos y desarrollos matemáticos que exponemos se hacen con la finalidad de aplicarlos a la Física; o sea, aquí entendemos la Matemática como una herramienta, y como tal herramienta no es importante el grado de rigor con la que se aplique, sino la utilidad que se consiga en el desarrollo de las teorías físicas.
Por esta razón hemos huido de un excesivo rigor, lo que tal vez sea del desagrado del matemático, pero que tenemos la seguridad de que agradará al físico.
Hemos titulado el libro «La conexión afín» para recalcar que este es el concepto básico de la geometría diferencial en cuanto a su aplicación a la teoría clásica de campo.
Los resultados matemáticos que recopilamos en el primer capítulo son aplicados a la formulación de las ecuaciones de la Relatividad General y a teorías unitarias de campo, siempre dentro de la visión clásica.
La generalización de la Relatividad General, ya sea en orden a su unificación con el electromagnetismo o a la búsqueda de nuevas teorías gravitatorias, ha recuperado interés recientemente y esta es la razón principal de que publiquemos este opúsculo.
ISBN: 978-84-606-7167-1

**Category:** Geometry

[68] **viXra:1504.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 11:43:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[67] **viXra:1504.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 06:34:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1504.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 05:16:10*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Electromagnetic waves are emited in individual blinks (flickers) and the kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave in transmission medium (as the energy of the electromagnetic field ) of a single electron during 1 seconde is proportional f

In the article we prove that:
1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
2. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves.
One blink of electron is the basis amount of kinetic energy 6.62606957x10-34 Js.
Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ).
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[65] **viXra:1504.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 05:59:29*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page letter

It is proposed hare that: Just as, a photon, while experiencing the ‘gravitational red-shift’, dose not loose its velocity, and chooses to loose its energy, in the form of frequency, so exactly, the photons emitted from the luminous bodies, like the receding galaxies, may be partly loosing their energy due to ‘gravitational red-shift’; depending upon the ‘cosmic-gravitational-potential’ of a given galaxy. The ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be a combination of ‘gravitational red-shift’ and ‘Doppler-shift’. Thus ‘cosmological red-shift’ may not be wholly representing the ‘recessional-velocity’ of a galaxy. The recessional-velocity may be much lesser than it is currently believed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1504.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 23:02:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I show that many Smarandache concatenated sequences, well known for the common feature that contain very few terms which are primes (I present here The concatenated square sequence, The concatenated cubic sequence, The sequence of triangular numbers, The symmetric numbers sequence, The antisymmetric numbers sequence, The mirror sequence, The “n concatenated n times” sequence) contain (or conduct to, through basic operations between terms) very many numbers which are cm-integers (c-primes, m-primes, c-composites, m-composites).

**Category:** Number Theory

[63] **viXra:1504.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 01:27:42*

**Authors:** Ştefan VLĂDUȚESCU

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The study investigates the current status of literary history; it focuses on the
possibility, the status and the development potential of the literary history. This is seen, on the
one hand, as discursive practice of aesthetic evaluation and as decoding speech,
interpretation, hermeneutics decryption. On the other hand, the literary history is retained as
fundamental concept of the theory of literature.
It starts from the axioms of some of the fixed stars of the domain (George Călinescu, Rene
Wellek, Augustin Warren), taking into account the positions already accredited of some
distinguished contemporary literary critic (Nicolae Manolescu, Eugen Simion, Eugen
Negrici), taking into account the assertions of some critics, historians and committed literary
theorists (Mircea A. Diaconu, Iulian Boldea, Al. Cistelecan, Gheorghe Crăciun) and also are
considered the opinions expressed by personalities in the making of the investigated field
(Nicoleta Ifrim, Gabriel Coșoveanu, Ion Buzera, Ioana Andreea Mircea, Cătălin Ghiță,
Sorina Sorescu).
To clarify the issue, it proceeds to a triangulation, it appeals to a research methodology
consists of three methods convergent used: the meta-analytic method, the historical method
and the comparative method.
The reached conclusion is that literary history is an actuality domain with great evolution
perspectives. There are four arguments in the support of the conclusion, and therewith
constitute factors that ensures the continuity and development potential of literary history: 1)
the infinity of human aesthetic sense, 2) irrepressible improving of the critical spirit, 3)
optimizing of reading standards and 4) functioning need and the canon reviewing.

**Category:** Social Science

[62] **viXra:1504.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 11:50:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 96 Pages. Published by Education Publishing, USA. Copyright 2015 by Marius Coman.

In three of my previous published books, namely “Two hundred conjectures and one hundred and fifty open problems on Fermat pseudoprimes”, “Conjectures on primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, many based on Smarandache function” and “Two hundred and thirteen conjectures on primes”, I showed my passion for conjectures on sequences of integers. In spite the fact that some mathematicians stubbornly understand mathematics as being just the science of solving and proving, my books of conjectures have been well received by many enthusiasts of elementary number theory, which gave me confidence to continue in this direction. Part One of this book brings together papers regarding conjectures on primes, twin primes, squares of primes, semiprimes, different types of pairs or triplets of primes, recurrent sequences, sequences of integers created through concatenation and other sequences of integers related to primes. Part Two of this book brings together several articles which present the notions of c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (c/m-integers), also the notions of g-primes, s-primes, g-composites and s-composites (g/s-integers) and show some of the applications of these notions (because this is not a book structured unitary from the beginning but a book of collected papers, I defined the notions mentioned in various papers, but the best definition of them can be found in Addenda to the paper numbered tweny-nine), in the study of the squares of primes, Fermat pseudoprimes and generally in Diophantine analysis. Part Three of this book presents the notions of “Coman constants” and “Smarandache-Coman constants”, useful to highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of positive integers (sequences of squares, cubes, triangular numbers, polygonal numbers), respectively in the analysis of Smarandache concatenated sequences. Part Four of this book presents the notion of Smarandache-Coman sequences, id est sequences of primes formed through different arithmetical operations on the terms of Smarandache concatenated sequences. Part Five of this book presents the notion of Smarandache-Coman function, a function based on the well known Smarandache function which seems to be particularly interesting: beside other characteristics, it seems to have as values all the prime numbers and, more than that, they seem to appear, leaving aside the non-prime values, in natural order. This book of collected papers seeks to expand the knowledge on some well known classes of numbers and also to define new classes of primes or classes of integers directly related to primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1504.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 12:42:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Physicists have theories about white holes: cosmic monsters that overlap the line between tall tale and actuality. Yet to be seen in the space, white holes might be only mathematical giants. But according to recent research, if a speculative theory known as loop quantum gravity is true, white holes could be not just only real but we might have already observed them. A white whole is, somewhat, the reverse of a black hole. [10]
That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[60] **viXra:1504.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 14:38:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars -- small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:1504.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 14:56:50*

**Authors:** Kolosov Petro

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper presented a method for series expansion for any real positive number x to power n, where n is integer value. Method is based on n-rank differences between nearest indexed numbers to power. When we try to present powers function as numerical series, the difference between start numbers should be constantly for each. Same distribution law is true for every positive real numbers, which as described.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[58] **viXra:1504.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-24 10:54:31*

**Authors:** M. W. Kalinowski

**Comments:** 42 Pages. minor corrections

We consider in the paper an idea of a soliton and heavy fermion catalysis
for a cold fusion similar to a muon catalysis. This catalysis is achieved via quasi-
chemical bonds for heavy fermions and solitons as well. We consider also a soliton
catalysis (for KP-solutions), which is quite different. This kind of catalysis is similar
to enzymatic catalysis. In the paper we construct a model for a cold fusion reactor
based on Onsager–Prigogine irreversible thermodynamics.
We give examples of several compounds with heavy fermions (heavy electrons)
which are hydrogen storages. Samples of those compounds can be (in principle) cold
fusion reactors if filled with a deuter. It is necessary to do several experiments (de-
scribed in the paper) in order to find a proper compound which will be a base for a
battery device. We consider also a case with cold plasma (e.g. in metals) filled with
a deuter. Solitons in a plasma can catalyse a fusion in two regimes: as quasiparticles
and in enzymatic-like regime.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[57] **viXra:1504.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-09 12:56:05*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Couple of typos and a simplification

About a year after Ittay Eyal published two papers claiming vulnerabilities in the bitcoin mining protocol, we have seen that the network is still strong (it has grown in hashpower many times over) and is unaffected by the supposed problems. I show here the biggest reasons the two vulnerability analyses were flawed. The attacks appear to hinder other miners who are competitors. However, both of the attacks harm the attacker's bottom line more than any harm to the competitors can emerge as profits for the attacker.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] **viXra:1504.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 06:38:08*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Photon has beeline kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy. Photons spin axis perpendicular to Photons motion direction. Photon beam frequency is proportional to Photons spin speed. Photons magnetic pole at spin axis both ends. Photons electric charge absolute value is proportional to spin kinetic energy. Depth study Photons characteristics, will be able to crack more universe unsolved mysteries.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[55] **viXra:1504.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 08:12:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[54] **viXra:1504.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 05:47:56*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In two previous papers I presented the notion of “Coman constant” and showed how could highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of integers. In this paper I present the notion of “Smarandache-Coman constant”, useful in Diophantine analysis of Smarandache concatenated sequences.

**Category:** Number Theory

[53] **viXra:1504.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 04:59:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In a previous paper I defined the notion of “Coman constant”, based on the digital root of a number and useful to highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of non-null positive integers. In this paper I present two sequences that, in spite the fact that their terms can have only few values for digital root, don’t seem to have a periodicity, in other words don’t seem to be characterized by a Coman constant.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1504.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 23:27:25*

**Authors:** David E. Rutherford

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The notion is presented that fitting galaxy rotation curves is possible without the invocation of dark matter. Equations of motion similar to those used to describe the internal motions of terrestrial weather systems are applied to the rotation curves of galaxies. However, due to the four-dimensional nature of the equations, additional terms arise. One of these additional terms is particularly useful in matching the rotation curves of galaxies. The extra term presumably describes internal properties of the central galactic black hole. It also determines, in part, the galactic rotation curve, just as the motion of winds in a terrestrial weather system are determined, in part, by the rotation of the Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[51] **viXra:1504.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-08 23:17:22*

**Authors:** George Kirakosyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (Revised version of early publication under: DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4446.0487)

The deadlock in physics is explained due to moral-epistemological aspects of basic principles and adopted methodology. A way out of crisis is suggested. It has shown that the long-term infertility of physical science is not due to technical difficulties (limited opportunities of mathematics, insufficient experimental means, etc.) as it is usually represented. However, the crisis in physics has arisen due to arbitrary, non-critical interpretation of key facts and with imposed speculative-artificial instructions. Building a harmonious and self-consistent physics becomes an implementable task with returning to cause-effect, conceptual representation of phenomena and to naturally analytical methodology

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[50] **viXra:1504.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 02:38:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[49] **viXra:1504.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 04:16:00*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present a notion based on the digital root of a number, namely “Coman constant”, that highlights the periodicity of some infinite sequences of non-null positive integers (sequences of squares, cubes, triangular numbers, polygonal numbers etc).

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1504.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-16 05:45:36*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

Versión preliminar del capítulo que revisa el grado de sostenibilidad del metabolismo de las áreas urbanas, dentro del texto "Un modelo y metodología para incrementar la sostenibilidad mediante los procesos habituales de transformación urbana". La publicación del texto completo se prevé para finales del verano.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[47] **viXra:1504.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-09 04:56:56*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page Letter

As an explanation for the flattening of galaxy rotation curves, it is proposed hare that: the centripetal force experienced by the stars at out-skirts of galaxies may be a combination of gravitational-force and electric-force. Since both, the stars and the central-core of a galaxy are in the plasma state, there is always a possibility of charge-imbalance between the core and the stars at out-skirts; and so there is some electric-force between them, in addition to the gravitational attraction. Therefore the astronomical observation of flattening of galaxies rotation-curve need not shake our faith in Newtonian Dynamics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[46] **viXra:1504.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-08 14:29:05*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

Describes the structure of the flow of electromagnetic energy in the wire with constant current. It is shown that there is a flow directed radially towards the center of the wire; is a flow circulating around the circumference of the wire; is a flow directed along wires in the main current direction. No flow which is directed from the outside to a lateral surface of the wire. // Рассматривается структура потоков электромагнитной энергии в проводе, по которому идет постоянный ток. Показывается, что существует поток, направленный по радиусу к центру провода; поток, циркулирующий по окружности сечения провода; поток, направленный вдоль провода в направлении основного тока. Поток, направленный извне в боковую поверхность провода, отсутствует.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1504.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-08 09:31:39*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I presented a type of numbers which seem to be often m-primes or m-composites (the numbers of the form 1nn...nn1, where n is a digit or a group of digits, repetead by an odd number of times). In this paper I present a type of numbers which seem to be often c-primes or c-composites. These are the numbers of the form 1abc (formed through concatenation, not the product 1*a*b*c), where a, b, c are three primes such that b = a + 6 and c = b + 6.

**Category:** Number Theory

[44] **viXra:1504.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-08 07:59:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[43] **viXra:1504.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-08 04:38:29*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Parallel composition in a static setting introduces algebra, in the form of static process algebra, as a modelling tool at the level of primary school mathematics. Static process algebra may play the role of a prearithmetic algebra. Multi-dimensional counters can be used to measure the number of components in a
static process expression.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[42] **viXra:1504.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-08 04:42:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In previous papers I presented already few types of numbers which conduct through concatenation often to cm-integers. In this paper I present a type of numbers which seem to be often m-primes or m-composites. These are the numbers of the form 1nn...nn1 (in all of my papers I understand through a number abc the number where a, b, c are digits and through the number a*b*c the product of a, b, c), where n is a digit or a group of digits, repetead by an odd number of times.

**Category:** Number Theory

[41] **viXra:1504.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-07 16:03:48*

**Authors:** Jerry Zhompson

**Comments:** 11256 Pages. please excuse poor quality english as natives not speaker

Please excuses the poor english of the quality foreign speaker:
we proves einstein was is wrong about stuff

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1504.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-30 10:20:09*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: shows the most fundamental nature of the nuclear force and
the nuclear overall structure.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[39] **viXra:1504.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-07 05:36:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Whenever human understanding of the size of the universe is at a breakthrough point, a new idea about the nature of gravity introduces itself to the world. For thousands and thousands of years, the magnitude of the cosmos was limited to the stars that could be seen in the night sky (not that people knew what they were looking at). Just over 400 years ago, a tremendous breakthrough came. The telescope arrived, and drastically changed our view of the heavens. A mere 60 years later (a drop in the ocean of historical time), gravity was compared to the fall of an apple and Isaac Newton proposed that the moon traces out the curve of its orbit by constantly "falling" towards Earth.
Things progressed steadily for over 200 years - telescopes grew bigger, planets and stars were discovered, and the universe became as large as the Milky Way galaxy. About the same time that we were starting to wonder if there other galaxies out there (a concept that would vastly increase the universe's size again), another gravitational breakthrough came. Albert Einstein reinterpreted the moon’s being constantly tugged towards Earth by our planet’s gravity. He said the moon is “pushed” towards Earth by the hills and valleys of curved space-time surrounding this world.
Since then, things have – despite the inevitable dead ends science embarks on but sooner or later corrects - steadily progressed once more. Complacency seems to have arisen, because many appear to think real science never means anything except continual slow progress. There’s a new idea in the world, however – that the universe may be infinite. This would drastically increase the size of the universe once more, and herald another breakthrough in comprehension of gravity.
The ideas of Newton and Einstein embrace the entire universe, and the truth in their theories has been repeatedly confirmed. It’s only logical that elements of both Newtonian and relativistic gravity must be present in a new “infinite universe gravity” (IUG). The universe can’t possibly be larger than infinite – even hypothetical multiverses and cyclic universes would be included in its infinity if they existed. So you might think an idea of infinite gravity would be the final breakthrough in understanding gravity. But it would be terrible if learning could reach an end – the infinite nature of gravity implies it might undergo infinite refinements over the eons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1504.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 16:44:13*

**Authors:** J.Salvador Ruiz Fargueta

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The study of the hypothetical fractal structure of the vacuum energy offers evidences that before the Big Bang existed a state where the Universe decided its geometric configuration and the nature of the matter and the quantum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[37] **viXra:1504.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-25 00:20:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Please sent any comments or suggestion to the email address within. I want to improve the content and eliminate factual errors or ambiguities.

This paper presents the proof of the apparent nature of relative simultaneity originally derived from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR). The proof does not challenge the validity of the STR but uncovers fundamental and widespread error in understanding of practical implications of Lorentz transformations. It is demonstrated that more than a century long debates generally miss the point. This results in counterintuitive claims of coexisting multiple time realities by mere equivalence of equal clock indications and simultaneity. Such claims have little empirical significance but they are substantial in education and philosophy which has become utterly confused after universal acceptance of the STR and rejections of Henri Bergson’s challenge. There is nothing more to “relative simultaneity” other than the effect of identical clocks being shifted by an offset which depends on synchronisation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1504.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 08:07:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

147-atom clusters of Palladium colloidal in methanol are suggested as a possible physical realization of the one-component computer simulation icosahedral colloidal quasicrystals described by Engel, Damasceno, Phillips, and Glotzer in Nature Materials 14 (2015) 109-116.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[35] **viXra:1504.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 08:23:54*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Lagrange equations of motion are familiar to anyone who has worked in physics. However, their range of validity is rarely, if ever, a topic for discussion. Following on an earlier examination of the consequences for these equations if the mass is not assumed constant, this note will look carefully at the other assumptions made and consider any further consequences resulting. The form of the equations applicable in electromagnetism will also be reviewed in the light of these discussions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[34] **viXra:1504.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 08:31:58*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The entire notion of kinetic energy seems one well and completely understood. Here, however, the topic will be examined again with special emphasis on considering the physical situation when the mass is not constant. The situation in special relativistic mechanics will also be examined in the light of these discussions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[33] **viXra:1504.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 21:39:34*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho; Alexandre Lyra de Oliveira

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using the concept of absolute time introduced in a previous work \cite{carvalho} we define two coordinate systems for spacetime, the Galilean and the Lorentzian systems. The relation between those systems allows us to develop a tensor
calculus that transfer the Maxwell electrodynamics to the Galilean system. Then, by using a suitable Galilean limit, we show how this transformed Maxwell theory in the Galilei system results in the Galilei electrodynamics formulated by Levy Leblond and Le Bellac.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1504.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 23:47:13*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Results of the critical analysis of the standard foundations of mathematics applied to problems in physics are discussed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the concept of “mathematical quantity” – central concept of mathematics – is meaningless, erroneous, and inadmissible one because it represents the following formal-logical and dialectical-materialistic errors: negation of the existence of the essential sign of a concept (i.e., negation the existence of the essence of the concept) and negation of the existence of measure of material object. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the generally accepted foundations of mathematics should be reconsidered.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[31] **viXra:1504.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 01:05:32*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It was shown recently by the author [1], that a proper study of the Eightfold Way model vis-a-vis the SU(3) model shows, that the
adjoint representation has certain unique features which provides it with a
basic fundamentality which was missed out in the earlier interpretations.
That paper [1] also showed that the Lie Algebra gives a more basic and complete
description of the particle physics reality than the corresponding group does.
In this paper we revisit the Eightfold Way Model and provide further support
to the conclusions arrived in Ref. [1].
This demands that a proper Cartan Subalgebra be used for the description
of the adjoint representation.
This in turn allows us to make non-trivial
statements about as to how nucleus may be understood as made up, not only of
protons and neutrons treated as indistinguishable particles as in the SU(2)-isospin group,
but also as another independent structure where the nucleus behaves as if it is made up of
protons and neutrons wherein they are treated as distinguishable fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:1504.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 08:50:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Astronomers in Germany have developed an artificial intelligence algorithm to help them chart and explain the structure and dynamics of the universe around us with unprecedented accuracy. The team, led by Francisco Kitaura of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics in Potsdam, report their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[29] **viXra:1504.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 05:03:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The LHC already revolutionized physics with the discovery of the Higgs boson. Now the revamped particle smasher is 60% more powerful than before, and it's poised to change what we know about the universe yet again. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[28] **viXra:1504.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-04 20:15:21*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: A very careful count of the different particles and antiparticles in our universe confirms and extends a similar conclusion made on 8-22-2014; namely, the exotic 4-quark tetraquark particle is the sole marker for E8 symmetry in our universe and also marks the existence of the extremely long-lived proton particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1504.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 03:16:39*

**Authors:** Omar A.H. Shabsigh, Pro. Dr.

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Extreme

This article discusses the upper limit imposed on the speed of traveling of any mass as being the speed of light in vacuum. The article shows, based on the results of Special Relativity, that such a limit does not really exist. We shall prove that Special Relativity is theoretically valid under the constraints and assumptions made by Einstein and has no practical applications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1504.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-03 15:28:52*

**Authors:** M. Dubreuil, S. Koliada

**Comments:** 58 Pages. There was no research journal that accepted a mathematical paper about ID for a peer review. The story about our dispute with the ID proponents:ipetitions.com/petition/petition-for-academic-freedom Through lack of interest our research is now discontinued

Prompted by previous research results human decision processes were analysed for unconscious patterns. Like former studies [1, 2] law-like patterns were found that were not consciously created. The residual uncertainty was calculated to 1 : 10^7 and a high correlation ratio for the data basis related to the found pattern was proved through an intra class correlation test. The results are statistically significant with 5,3 sigma. They require an additional information creating process. It is shown that the results are best explained by a bias in chance itself, to create nontrivial structures. The similarities with the circumstances of the origin of first life are tremendous. The results indicate that intelligent design exists at the present time. The found law-like pattern supports a triune God with a residual uncertainty of 1 : 10^3.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[25] **viXra:1504.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-03 18:57:03*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Each finite group is a subgroup of some symmetric group, known as the Cayley theorem.
We find the symmetric group of smallest order which hosts the finite groups
in that sense for
most groups of order less than 37.
For each of these small groups this is made concrete by providing a permutation group
with a minimum number of moved elements in terms of a list of generators
of the permutation group in reduced cycle notation.

**Category:** Algebra

[24] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:55:26*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charge radius (r = 2λ/π) of Fermion closes at ±1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength (λ = h/mc) of Photon (Boson). These ±1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius (0.841 fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent. Closed Yukawa potential at charge radius is going to reduce the linear density in accordance with 1/r potential, and become material density of mass (1.672E-27 kg/m), which is published on the 1 meter scale. How the fermion to acquire the radius and mass pave the way for quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1504.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-03 04:15:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

What if the universe had no beginning, and time stretched back infinitely without a big bang to start things off? That's one possible consequence of an idea called "rainbow gravity," so-named because it posits that gravity's effects on spacetime are felt differently by different wavelengths of light, aka different colors in the rainbow. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22] **viXra:1504.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 15:32:08*

**Authors:** S. Salman Nourazar, Mohsen Soori, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is used to solve the Burgers-Huxley non-linear differential
equations. Three case study problems of Burgers-Huxley are solved using the HPM and the
exact solutions are obtained. The rapid convergence towards the exact solutions of HPM is numerically shown. Results show that the HPM is efficient method with acceptable accuracy to solve
the Burgers-Huxley equation. Also, the results prove that the method is an efficient and powerful
algorithm to construct the exact solution of non-linear differential equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[21] **viXra:1504.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 15:36:11*

**Authors:** S. Salman Nourazar, Mohsen Soori, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the present work, we use the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to solve the Newell-
Whitehead-Segel non-linear differential equations. Four case study problems of Newell-Whitehead- Segel are solved by the HPM and the exact solutions are obtained. The trend of the rapid convergence of the sequences constructed by the method toward the exact solution is shown numerically. As a result the rapid convergence towards the exact solutions of HPM indicates that, using the HPM to solve the Newell-Whitehead-Segel non-linear differential equations, a reasonable less amount of computational work with acceptable accuracy may be sufficient. Moreover the application of the HPM proves that the method is an effective and simple tool for solving the Newell-Whitehead-Segel non-linear differential
equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20] **viXra:1504.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 12:21:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Although the Wu-Yang derivation of the Dirac Quantization condition (DQC) leads mathematically to fractional charge solutions, a careful study of these fractional solutions using Dirac strings on a closed surface in SO(3) shows precisely why these fractional charges cannot occur without giving rise to observable singularities which of course are not permitted, and why only the standard DQC is permitted. However, SO(3) is multivalued and so is not an exact representation of the operative symmetries. When we carefully analyze simply-connected, single-valued covering groups for which the generators are the generalized mth roots of the 2x2 identity matrix I, which covering groups do exactly represent the operative symmetries, we find that there is no such restriction and well-defined fractional charges are topologically permitted without ambiguity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[19] **viXra:1504.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 13:02:08*

**Authors:** Eric Thompson

**Comments:** 79 pages, equations, diagrams, images

A fundamental assumption, that basic electric charge is an inherent property of elementary particles, is overturned. Therefore, if basic charge does not come from within, it could only come from without. Hence we re-introduce the aether and show how it is responsible not only for electromagnetism, but also how its flowing nature is responsible for gravitational effects. Inertia, light propagation, and the large scale structure of the cosmos also fall out simply and naturally from this basic concept. A great deal of pruning is done to current theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1504.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 07:02:27*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages. New supporting references: J. Cosmol. Astropar. P. (2013) doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (2013) doi: 10.1142/S0218271813500120

Throughout the cosmic evolution, currently believed cosmic ‘critical density’ can be shown to be a default result of the ‘positively curved’ light speed rotating black hole universe. As there is no observational or experimental evidence to
Friedmann’s second assumption, the density classification scheme of Friedmann cosmology must be reviewed at fundamental level and possibly can be relinquished. The observed cosmic redshift can be reinterpreted as an index of ‘cosmological’ light emission mechanism. Clearly speaking, during cosmic evolution, as cosmic time increases,
hydrogen atom emits photons with increased quanta of energy. Thus past light quanta emitted from old galaxy will have less energy and show a red shift with reference to our galaxy. Note that in 1947 Edwin Hubble himself thought for a new
mechanism for understanding the observed galactic redshift data. By considering the ‘Planck mass’ as the initial mass of the baby cosmic black hole, initial physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be defined and current
physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be fitted and understood. Uncertainty relation and all other microscopic physical constants play a crucial role in understanding the halt of the present cosmic expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1504.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 08:16:07*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This started out as my latest reply to HarryT in the forum on vixra.org called “Quantum gravitational lensing in proton-proton reaction?” (http://vixra.freeforums.org/post1139.html#p1139). But I found it necessary to try and answer every detail as best I could. Maybe it wasn’t really necessary – but when you’re a bit of a perfectionist, you end up writing too much. The reply seems too long now to post in the forum, so I’ll submit it as a short article and put a link to it in the forum.
Wow, I’m exhausted. Writing all those ideas was a real brain-strain. But I think it finally put together many of the ideas I’ve been slowly developing at http://vixra.org/author/rodney_bartlett for over 3 years.
HarryT’s 4 comments are underlined, and my replies follow.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[16] **viXra:1504.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-07 08:31:33*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** Revised version, 5 pages

In present paper we develop the description of massless neutrino field on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We consider the generalized relativistic first-order wave equation based on sedeonic wave function and space-time operators. The second-order relations for the neutrino potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem and Lorentz invariant relations in electromagnetism are also derived. Four types of neutrinos are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1504.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 04:33:14*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Old comment letter, placed up here to show ongoing struggle by author to understand FTL signaling, if it is at all possible.

The author muses on precursor ideas on a mechanism for superluminal signaling via entanglement correlation and comes to the conclusion that, whatever it is, it would be highly unusual, if superluminal signaling is to be believed. (Date of publication Sept/Oct 2011).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1504.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 18:57:33*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The author has developed a theory on optimal trajectories for air vehicles with variable wing areas and with conventional wings. He applied a new theory of singular optimal solutions and obtained in many cases the optimal flight. The wing drag of a variable area wing does not depend on air speed and air density. At first glance the results may seem strange, however, this is the case and this chapter will show how the new theory may be used. The equations that follow enable computations of the optimal control and optimal trajectories of subsonic aircraft with pistons, jets, and rocket engines, supersonic aircraft, winged bombs with and without engines, hypersonic warheads, and missiles with wings.
The main idea of the research is to use the vehicle’s kinetic energy to increase the range of missiles and projectiles.
The author shows that the range of a ballistic warhead can be increased 3–4 times if an optimal wing is added to it, especially a wing with variable area. If we do not need increased range, the head mass of rockets can be increased. The range of large gun shells can also be increased 3–9 times. The range of an aircraft may be improved by 3–15% or more.
The results can be used for the design of aircraft, space ship, head of rockets, missiles, flying apparatus and shells for large guns.
-------------------------------------------
Key words: Methods of optimization, optimization, optimal control, aviation, space ships.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13] **viXra:1504.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 20:40:25*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

List 5.1 of some Bolonkin’s publications in 2007-2014 (Loading is free):

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12] **viXra:1504.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 01:53:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11] **viXra:1504.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-05 13:27:46*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Using the bijective transformations between the Dirac equation and the special case of the Maxwell-Cassano equations the Dirac equation is expressed as a generalization of Maxwell's equations, via familiar field potentials and field strengths.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1504.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 12:28:39*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

Болонкин А.А. Новые методы оптимизации и их применение.v4. Краткий конспект лекции по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем". — М.: Издание МВТУ им. Баумана, 1972. — 220 стр.
Краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Краткое оглавление:
Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Приложение методов α – , β –функционалов и максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам комбинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9] **viXra:1504.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 14:26:21*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory. Some years ago starting from $2012$ to $2014$ a set of
works appeared in the current scientific literature covering the
Natario warp drive with an equation intended to be the original
Natario equation however this equation do not obeys the original
$3+1$ Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism and hence this
equation cannot be regarded as the original Natario warp drive
equation.However this new equation satisfies the Natario criteria
for a warp drive spacetime and as a matter of fact this equation
must be analyzed under a new and parallel contravariant $3+1$
$ADM$ formalism.In this work we introduce also a second new
Natario equation but using a parallel covariant $3+1$ $ADM$
formalism. We compare both the original and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$
formalisms wether in contravariant or covariant form using the
approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler($MTW$) and Alcubierre and while
in the $3+1$ spacetime the parallel equations differs radically
from the original one when we reduce the equations to a $1+1$
spacetime all the equations becomes equivalent.We discuss the
possibilities in General Relativity for these new equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1504.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 10:26:33*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

UHT make atomic decomposition into photons. Photon slowdown become low speed photon. ULT make micro speed photons aggregated into atom.
Nuclear star make atoms decomposed into photons, jet out distant space. Photon deceleration become low speed photon. Low speed photon deceleration become micro speed photon. Micro speed photons aggregation into atom. Atoms gathered into cosmic dust. Cosmic dust gathered into celestial body. Celestial body eventually integrated into nuclear star.
Photon, low speed photon, micro speed photon, is three different motion speed substance. Atomic=>Photon=>Low speed photon=>Micro speed photon=>Atom. Three motion morphology substance cycles alternating converting, maintain universe density homeostasis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[7] **viXra:1504.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 06:51:00*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 7 equations, 17 references

In our framework for 'realistic non-singular cosmology' we consider a more radical situation where the present photonic temperature of the universe is higher (for instance ~16 K) than that suggested by the microwave background. This leads to a minimal scale of ~0.08, and a maximum temperature of ~192 K, for an oscillating cosmology whose main protagonists are whole galaxies rather that stars, with an age of the current expansion of ~8.9 Gyr. We show
that this scheme is quite compatible with the supernovae data for magnitudes and redshifts, provided that the Hubble fraction is ~0.55.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1504.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-03 07:31:16*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Dirac Equation is a Special Case of the Maxwell-Cassano Equations For vector Phi of D The Klein-Gordon equation may be written (see reference (4)): Whenever Phi of D is a 2 to the M-dimensional vector, via a matrix differential operator factorization, it may be written (in the Dirac representation), as shown here: and, since these matrix operators are commutative: conformability of the matrices requires thatthese matrices are all 2×1 matrices; yielding: For symmetry purposes, let: t=ix^0 then, combining into a single matrix equation, Just as there are a number of representations of the Dirac equation, there is more than one matrix operator factorization of the Maxwell-Cassano equations (3). A matrix operator factorization of the Maxwell-Cassano equations may be compactly written, from references (1) and (3) as follows: For the stationary state the source/sink density term vanishes in the Maxwell-Cassano equations, which allows an equating of the Maxwell-Cassano equation & Dirac equation factorizations. These may imply correlations between the Dirac equation and the Maxwell-Cassano equations as the correspondences/mappings: m⇔|m| and -θ_sub_D_to_the_j = f_to_the_h. The Dirac equation may be expanded with the above notation as shown As reference (1) shows. the component pairs may be organized such that this organization exhibits the mass-generalization of Maxwell's equations, but organizing them while comparing them analogously to the Dirac equations yields the shown And, Continuing the comparison with the Maxwell-Cassano equations in the special case: m_sub_zero = -m , m_sub_1=m_sub_2=m_sub_3 = 0: So, extending the Dirac equation beyond the source/sink free case (so looking beyond just eigenvalues and eigenvectors); and writing in matrix form, and comparing: Then, viewing each matrix as a paired sum: In this form the transformations are easy to see: By the invertible matrix theorem each matrix is invertible. Thus, these transformations are oneto - bijective. From the first matrices on each side of the sum, the rest of the transformations are even more easily seen. The full set of transformations are shown, here This proves that the mass-generalized Maxwell's equations (Maxwell-Cassano equations) is a more general analysis of fundamental-elementary particle phenomena. It further proves that the Lagrangian is far simpler than that consisting of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg + fermion + Higgs + Yukawa kludge. Also, it explains the group structure and architecture of the fermions, as shown in reference (2). It also proves that those with wealth to seek the truth choose not to do so, but with all deceivableness and unrighteousness in them they have not the love of the truth, but rather embrace strong delusion, that they profess a lie. References and further readings (1) Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "Reality is a Mathematical Model", 2010. ISBN: 1468120921 ; http://www.amazon.com/dp/1468120921 ASIN: B0049P1P4C ; http://www.amazon.com/Reality-Mathematical-Modelebook/ dp/B0049P1P4C/ref=tmm(kin(swatch(0?(encoding=UTF8&sr=&qid= (2) Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "A Mathematical Preon Foundation for the Standard Model", 2011. ISBN:1468117734 ; http://www.amazon.com/dp/1468117734 ASIN: B004IZLHI2 ; http://www.amazon.com/ Mathematical-Preon-Foundation-Standardebook/dp/B004IZLHI2/ref=tmm(kin(swatch(0?(encoding=UTF8&sr=&qid= Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "The Standard Model Architecture and Interactions Part 1" ; http://www.dnatube.com/video/6907/ The-Standard-Model-Architecture-and-Interactions-Part-1 http://www.scivee.tv/node/28362 Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "The Standard Model Architecture and Interactions Part 2" ; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mxa2u7-czmk Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "The Standard Model Architecture and Interactions Part 2" ; http://www.dnatube.com/video/6908/ The-Standard-Model-Architecture-and-Interactions-Part-2 (3) Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "A Helmholtzian operator and electromagnetic-nuclear field" ; http://www.dnatube.com/video/6877/ A-Helmholtzian-operator-and-electromagnetic-nuclear-field http://www.scivee.tv/node/27991 (4) Cassano, Claude.Michael ; "A Brief Mathematical Look at the Dirac Equation" ; https://youtu.be/IcWeq6iEwFE http://www.scivee.tv/node/63581

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1504.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-04 08:45:10*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 3 Figs.; Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body.
Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits.
For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-elliptic orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as non-constant elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1504.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 02:09:02*

**Authors:** Benjamin Palan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

What is time ? Which properties are emergent and which are intrinsic ? Time is discussed, with special emphasis on properly discriminating the hypothetical outside perspective from the time of a world itself. This leads to a single, relatively simple model of time which is thought to encompass all others. Applying it to simultaneity, a conjecture is made which could turn out to be of great importance to proper definition and discrimination of relativity of simultaneity and of absolute simultaneity. The author was unable to disprove the conjecture, but found strong indications pointing to it's truth.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[3] **viXra:1504.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-14 04:52:18*

**Authors:** Ștefan VLĂDUȚESCU, Ion CUCUI, Delia Mioara POPESCU, Marius PETRESCU, Ion STEGAROIU, Anisoara DUICA

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The starting assumption is that the man is an accessible being, permeable to persuasion and to negative
journalism. From the point of view of social influence, the communication submits two methods: the convictive
method (the conviction) and the persuasive method (the persuasion). The approach of convictive influence is the
approach of demonstration, of the intense arguments, the approach of the strictly and compelling logical inferences.
But the man is not an entirely rational being. The individuals do not communicate in order to demonstrate. They
communicate to share an experience, to agree on some values, on some actions etc.
Demonstrations focus on the necessary things. But people’s life is not exhausted by the necessary things. The human
has emotions, feelings, passions, needs, wishes. The conviction approach does not cover all that is human. The
persuasion governs the emotion and the passion field. As a main form of persuasion it is individualized the negative
journalism, understood as an informative intervention dragged along by an interest external to the direct, accurate,
honest and balanced information. There can be detached four coordinates of the negative journalism, of the journalism
determined by dishonest commandments: the lie, the seduction, the fiction and the myth. We can see them clearly
articulated in journalistic operations of intoxication, misinformation, propaganda and manipulation.

**Category:** Social Science

[2] **viXra:1504.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 02:48:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper I presented a very interesting characteristic of Poulet numbers, namely the property that, concatenating two of such numbers, is often obtained a semiprime which is either c-prime or m-prime. Because the study of Fermat pseudoprimes is a constant passion for me, I observed that in many cases they have a behaviour which is similar with that of the squares of primes. Therefore, I checked if the property mentioned above applies to these numbers too. Indeed, concatenating two squares of primes, are often obtained semiprimes which are either c-primes, m-primes or cm-primes. Using just the squares of the first 13 primes greater than or equal to 7 are obtained not less then: 6 semiprimes which are c-primes, 31 semiprimes which are m-primes and 15 semiprimes which are cm-primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[1] **viXra:1504.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 03:27:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Is dark energy a cosmic chameleon that can fade into its surroundings? A recent test brings the mysterious anti-gravitational force down to earth. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics