All Submission Categories

1802 Submissions

[395] viXra:1802.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 12:07:01

Einstein/newton Duality: an Ontological-Phase Topological Field Theory

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 17 Pages. Preprint, to appear in IOP (2018) conference proceedings, PIRT, Moscow 2017

Newton claimed instantaneous G-influence; Einstein insisted no influence propagated faster than c . Quantum Mechanics (QM) the so-called basement of reality, posits a Quantum Gravity, for which no a priori science exists. We propose a paradigm shift with duality between a semi-quantum Standard Model (SM) limit and Large-Scale Additional Dimensionality (LSXD) in a modified M-Theoretic Unified Field (UF) brane arena as the regime of integration described by an Ontological-Phase Topological Field Theory (OPTFT) requiring fundamental changes in the concept of dimensionality and matter. OPTFT is developed to formally describe 3rd regime Unified Field Mechanics (UFM) (classical- Quantum-UFM) to relate Newton-Einstein duality by added degrees of freedom in a semiquantum limit enabling topological Dirac-Majorana doublet fusion supervening the uncertainty principle.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[394] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-17 04:16:14

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons and Unification of All the Fundamental Interactions

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction, and that this possibility permits the formulation of a solid approach for the unification of all the fundamental forces of the Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[393] viXra:1802.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 13:05:19

Rydberg Atoms and Polarons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do—but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[392] viXra:1802.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 14:07:14

Spinors, Twistors, Quaternions and Complex Space

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 18 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0011

Utilizing the spinor approach, electromagnetic and gravitational metrics are mapable to the twistor algebra, which corresponds to the complexified Minkowski space. Quaternion transformations relate to spin and rotation corresponding to the twistor analysis.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[391] viXra:1802.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 15:35:56

Neutron Beta Decay and Proton Spin Crisis

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of the A and V variant of the neutron beta decay and the origin of the strong correlation between the spin of proton and the momentum of the electron-antineutrino. The neutron beta decay described within SST solves also the proton spin crisis and leads to the decay of muon consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[390] viXra:1802.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 16:02:08

Relativistic Dirac Quantum Theory in Complex Minkowski Space and Tachyonic Signaling

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 24 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0012

In this paper we develop complex solutions to the Dirac equation and discuss various implications and applications.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[389] viXra:1802.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 16:17:44

Deep Learning for Causal Inference

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the use of deep learning techniques in econometrics, specifically for causal inference and estimating individual as well as average treatment effects. The contribution of this paper is twofold: 1.For generalized neighbor matching to estimate individual and average treatment effects, we analyze the use of autoencoders for dimensionality reduction while maintaining the local neighborhood structure among the data points in the embedding space. This deep learning based technique is shown to perform better than simple k nearest neighbor matching for estimating treatment effects, especially when the data points have several features/covariates but reside in a low dimensional manifold in high dimensional space. We also observe better performance than manifold learning methods for neighbor matching. 2. Propensity score matching is one specific and popular way to perform matching in order to estimate average and individual treatment effects. We propose the use of deep neural networks (DNNs) for propensity score matching, and present a network called PropensityNet for this. This is a generalization of the logistic regression technique traditionally used to estimate propensity scores and we show empirically that DNNs perform better than logistic regression at propensity score matching. Code for both methods will be made available shortly on Github at: https://github.com/vikas84bf
Category: Economics and Finance

[388] viXra:1802.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 16:35:15

Speculation on a Unified Field Theory (UFT), Grand Unification Theories (GUT) and Supersymmetry and Superstring Theories

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 19 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0013

The search for a comprehensive theory of the Universe, i.e. a theory of everything (TOE) has been the desire and attempted fulfillment throughout history. In this chapter, we cannot give a comprehensive description of this unfolding story but will present some of the lights from our perspective and particularly that of (EAR) from her Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory (LBNL) days when she was a graduate student and then a staff member in the Nuclear Science and Department of Theoretical Physics. She was one of the very few staff members, not only interested in particle physics, general relativity, astrophysics and cosmology, but also the nature of consciousness. Both of us have a passion to ken the Universe, which clearly includes conscious sentient beings. Here we address the issues in unified field theories that relate to our work in this volume on multidimensional geometries and their relationship to describing nonlocal, nonlinear, anticipatory phenomena. One of our motivations is to include a domain for the action and participation of the conscious observer and consciousness in general. The process of scientific discovery involves observation, data systemization and theoretical hypothesis and formulation about the observed data. The process of experimental examination and theoretical hypothesis and further tests of these concepts, leads to the development of scientific rules or laws.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[387] viXra:1802.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 20:58:26

On the Computation of Primes & Semi-Primes

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 2 Pages.

Featuring the PF5 Function
Category: Number Theory

[386] viXra:1802.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 23:11:46

The Inner Workings of Reality

Authors: RN Boyd, A Klein
Comments: Pages.

The SubQuantum microscope constructed in Serbia has made images of entities as small as 10e-95cm., well smaller than the Planck length. From the evidence provided by various direct instrumented observations, there is no lower bound to the small. The entire of all the sciences, including all of the physics, are described by and are originating from agglomerations and activities of SubQuantum Infinitesimals. SubQuantum Infinitesimal-based physics unifies all the sciences under one "umbrella", correcting the anomalies and paradoxes of QM and eliminating the mathematical fantasies of Einstein's version of relativity, while restoring Galilean relativity. All matter at all scales, all fields and forces, the life sciences and Consciousness physics are contained by the understandings inherent in the SubQuantum Infinitesimals, which are the smallest unit of matter, and at the same time, the smallest unit of Consciousness. This implies that everything has Consciousness and as well, memories of all that the given entity has ever experienced. That each infinitesimal has a memory, is implied by experimental results which have physically proved that the "vacuum" (actually a SubQuantum plenum)has memory, and by the experimentally observed vast arrays of information which are conveyed by the various vector potentials, which information is conveyed by the groups of infinitesimals which are causing the vector potentials. These experimental results, and others, imply that everything has some form of Experiential Consciousness. In addition, it has been shown that infinitesimals can traverse vast distances with velocities ranging up to an infinite velocity. This is the basis for all experimentally proven behaviors of quantum mechanics, including "non-local" phenomena, such as the quantum information field. The infinitesimals form a bipartite aether, composed of free aether entities traveling with velocities up to infinity and captive aether entities which are constrained to "clouds" surrounding and interpenetrating existing matter and by the local conveyances of the various forces. All existing matter constantly radiates and absorbs information-bearing infinitesimals, which process results in local and non-local experiential and emotional communications between all observables. Empirically, experiential and emotional information forms the entire basis of an undivided and Intelligent Universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[385] viXra:1802.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 23:27:08

Demise of the Big Bang - A Philosophical Conundrum

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 8 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0001

Critics of the Big Bang have said every time the Big bang fails an adjustment to the theory is made or a new parameter added to fix it. While a valid criticism it misses the mark in that this is the business of science, constant tinkering until truth is eventually found. Our complaint is in the quotes above. Others have said that there is no truth in science because a theory can never be proven true only falsified. However, there is another wrinkle in that respect; when a ‘best’ theory is finally found and later falsified what remains is Absolute Truth [3]. Absolute truth in science refers to a finite regime described by a theory that has been falsified. This somewhat rarefied condition is best said about Newton’s theories. They remain absolute truth in reference to the finite classical regimes they describe [4]. The aim of this work is to provide sufficient insight that Big Bang cosmology may finally be falsified.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[384] viXra:1802.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 05:59:52

Quantum Entangled Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A team from the Faculty of Physics, MSU, has developed a method for creating two beams of entangled photons to measure the delay between them. [32] In a new paper, however, physicists Flavio Del Santo at the University of Vienna and Borivoje Dakić at the Austrian Academy of Sciences have shown that, in the quantum world, information can travel in both directions simultaneously—a feature that is forbidden by the laws of classical physics. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[383] viXra:1802.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 06:55:11

Question 427 : Some Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 7 Pages.

This note presents a collection of integral formulas.
Category: General Mathematics

[382] viXra:1802.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 07:01:31

The Dottie Number

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Dottie number.
Category: Number Theory

[381] viXra:1802.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 07:21:50

Question 435 : Pi Formulas

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 9 Pages.

This note presents some formulas involving pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[380] viXra:1802.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 08:41:05

Light-Manipulation Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[379] viXra:1802.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 10:01:12

The Complex Form of Relativistic Maxwell's Equations

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 17 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0007

We outline the relativistic formalism which gives a more comprehensive explanation of the complexification scheme. Such issues as considering the Higgs Boson as a soliton depends on Lorentz invariance and relativistic causality constraints. We relate the complexification of Maxwell's equations to models of nonlocal micro and macro phenomena. In this chapter we relate the electromagnetic fields, F and A , the potentials to the gravitational field, G . We examine, for example, the manner in which advanced potentials may explain the remote connectedness which is indicated by the Clauser test of Bell's theorem. Similar arguments apply to Young's double slit experiment. The collective coherent phenomena of superconductivity is also explainable by considering the relativistic field theoretic approach in which wave equations are solved in the complex Minkowski space.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[378] viXra:1802.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 10:40:02

Real and Complex Amended Maxwell’s Equations for Non-Abelian Gauge Groups

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 8 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0008

In this work we analyze, calculate and extend modification of Maxwell’s equations in a complex Minkowski metric, M4 in a C2 complexified space using the SU2 gauge, SL(2,c) and other gauge groups, such as SUn for n > 2 expanding the U1 gauge theories of Weyl. Weyl identified the U1 gauge group for the standard Maxwell’s equations in its nonrelativistic form in M4 space. We expand the form of the elegant electromagnetic equations and express them in C4 space for the nonrelativistic formalism and for the relativistic formalism of the equations. The advanced and retarded formalisms are also examined. In the case where Maxwell’s equations are solved in C4 space, or the complex 8-space, we can extend the theory to considerations of other gauge groups such as SL(2,c), SUn for n > 2 and SU2 expanding the approach beyond U1 gauge conditions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[377] viXra:1802.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 11:05:16

Sub and Superluminal Transformations of the Complex Vector Potential

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 10 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0009

We consider in this chapter the transformations of an oscillatory form of A mu in a complex 12D Minkowski space. The form of the transformation of A mu or (A , Phi) depends on whether such a transformation is a superluminal Lorentz transformation (SLT) or a subluminal Lorentz transformation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[376] viXra:1802.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 11:43:44

A Casimir Effect-Based Propeller. A Possible Relation with the Cavity Structural Effect.

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 3 Pages.

The paper considers origination of a thrust, basing on the Casimir Effect, by means of developing an angle between the resonator plates.
Category: Classical Physics

[375] viXra:1802.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 11:41:19

See Inside Molecular Structures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery. [29] Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[374] viXra:1802.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 11:55:59

The Schrödinger Equation in Complex Minkowski Space

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 17 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0010

We develop a formalism for the Schrödinger equation in an eight dimensional (8D) complex Minkowski space and discuss its relation to the Dirac equation, properties of nonlocality, remote connectedness, Young’s double slit experiment, Bell’s Theorem, the EPR paradox and anticipatory parameters of spacetime; and also identify an imaginary temporal component as a small nonlinear term and find soliton or solitary wave solutions. These coherent solutions can carry information over long distances, are consistent with Lorentz invariance and appear to provide a fundamental methodology for describing the issue of quantum measurement and a new context for the basis of quantum theory. In the Copenhagen view models of reality are not desirable. However, our new approach may enable the redefinition of concepts of reality from a new nonlocal and anticipatory quantum theory. Certainly, the most desirable consequence of scientific discovery is the ability to refine our concepts of reality.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[373] viXra:1802.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 12:54:15

Quantum Machine for Biology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

This is one of the first documented examples in which a physical quantum processor has been applied to real biological data. The research was conducted on a D-Wave Two X machine at the USC Information Sciences Institute. [13] ETH scientists have been able to prove that a protein structure widespread in nature – the amyloid – is theoretically capable of multiplying itself. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[372] viXra:1802.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 12:59:31

Laser Attosecond Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact - an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[371] viXra:1802.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 15:16:59

Structure, Properties and Implications of Complex Minkowski Spaces

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 26 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0002

We consider the properties and implications of three n > 4 multidimensional geometries. These are Descartes geometry [1], the properties and implications of which are enumerated in [2-6]. Both macroscopic and microscopic implications of these geometries are presented. We also develop several forms of complex Minkowski space in terms of a generalized metric containing terms derived from real and imaginary coordinates. The metric of the space is real and therefore physical [7-17]. This geometry is found to be one-to-one with Kaluza-Klein geometry [18-20] in which there has been much recent interest in developing M-Theory, in particular in the apparent relationship between the gravitational and electromagnetic fields often called Quantum Gravity. We have discussed the properties and implications of complex geometries in a number of works. The basic structure of the geometries is based on the construction of complexified dimensions, consisting of orthogonal real and imaginary parts. We examine the implication of a complex 8-space geometry in which we introduce imaginary components for each real spatial dimension, X = (x,y,z) and temporal dimension, t.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[370] viXra:1802.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 15:22:14

Substantiation Without Substance, A Perspective on the Incredible Intensity of the Inertial Force

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 16 Pages.

The acceleration of an object in response to an external force is opposed by an inertial reaction force of the inertial field that is equal and opposite in direction to the external force. The inertial field applies this reaction force only throughout the volume of the object itself. The resistance to acceleration of a superdense object, such as a neutron star, demands a superdense particle density of the inertial field to support the enormous resistance to acceleration of the superdense object. To illustrate the intensity of the inertial reaction force, a thought experiment is conducted in space, free of gravitational forces, in which the motion of a small sample of neutron star material in response to an applied force is calculated. A sample mass of a neutron star of one cubic centimeter has a mass of 500 million metric tons. Apply a force of one thousand metric tons to this sample and it accelerates at 1 / 500,000 g. The sample appears immoveable. The inertial reaction force of one thousand metric tons is applied by the inertial field in opposition to the acceleration of the sample mass. The space, or rather what’s in the space that pervades the volume of the sample mass itself, is responsible for the resistance of the sample mass to acceleration. This space is not empty, but permeated with particles of the inertial field. Nothing outside the volume of the sample affects the acceleration of the sample mass. One cubic centimeter of what appears to be empty space applies an inertial reaction force of one thousand metric tons! By earthly standards this is colossal; by astronomical standards it’s commonplace. A real life counterpart to the thought experiment exists in a pair of neutron stars in orbit about their barycenter.
Category: Classical Physics

[369] viXra:1802.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 16:05:39

Major Principles of Physics: Poincaré Invariance, Analyticity, Unitarity and Complex Minkowski Space

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 6 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0003

The principles of modern physics can be stated in terms of Poincairé invariance, or the homogeneity of spacetime analyzability or causality and unitarity or the conservation of probability. Essentially all theories of physics must obey these principles.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[368] viXra:1802.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 16:55:59

Nonlocal Interconnectedness as a Fundamental Principle of Reality

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 20 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0004

Two significant principles of the 20th century are the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the nonlocality principles of the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen paradox [1]. Both these elements of quantum theory have major physical and philosophical implicatio like Bell’s Theorem and Space-Like Interconnect-edness and Other Collective Coherent Phenomena Involve nonlocality. We also present a discussion of the EPR paradox and other experiments that may demand a nonlocal explanation of the phenomenon they display.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[367] viXra:1802.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 17:30:47

The Complexification of Maxwell's Equations

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 27 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0005

In this work we demonstrate that complex electric and magnetic fields are consistent with a geometry consisting of complex spacetime. We thus demonstrate that complex spacetime coordinates are not inconsistent with electromagnetic phenomena and may point to a direction for its unification with gravitational phenomena, in the weak Weyl field limit. The particular case we examine in detail is for an electron in a field where we derive Coulomb's equation. We examine this unification using the Weyl geometry in the linear approximation of the gravitational field.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[366] viXra:1802.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 17:57:51

Vector and Scalar Potentials, Advanced and Retarded Waves and Nonlocal Phenomena

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 8 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0006

The issue of whether Bell's theorem and other remote connectedness phenomena, such as Young's double slit experiment, demands superluminal or space-like signals or prior generated luminal signals is an area of hot debate. This also relates to the existence of advanced vs. retarded potentials and annihilation creation operators which are of interest in this regard. Using the complex model of we will examine the issue of the nonlocality of Bell's theorem as quantum mechanical ‘transactions’ providing a microscopic communication path between detectors across space-like intervals, which violate the EPR locality postulate [1]. See Chap. 4. This picture appears consistent with the remote connectedness properties of complex Minkowski space. Also, there are implications for macroscopic communications channels; another area of debate. Detailed discussions of Bell's theorem are given in [2].
Category: Mathematical Physics

[365] viXra:1802.0410 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-03 09:18:34

Non-Inertial Frames in Special Relativity

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 9 Pages. Version 9 in English.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[364] viXra:1802.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 06:27:45

Supercapacitor Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Lithium-ion batteries could be under threat after the development of polymer materials by the Universities of Surrey and Bristol, along with Superdielectrics Ltd, that could challenge the dominance of these traditional batteries. [18] Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[363] viXra:1802.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 07:06:51

Spin Cluster Quantum State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Nuclear techniques at ANSTO have helped to confirm a quantum spin phenomena, a Haldane phase, in a magnetic material, that has potential to be used as a measurement model for quantum computation. [19] Lithium-ion batteries could be under threat after the development of polymer materials by the Universities of Surrey and Bristol, along with Superdielectrics Ltd, that could challenge the dominance of these traditional batteries. [18] Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[362] viXra:1802.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 07:22:32

Field Theory of Quintessence :Derivation of Equation of Motion for Such Scalar Fields

Authors: Amit Kumar Jha
Comments: 5 Pages.

Thevariantofthequintessencetheoryisproposedinordertogetanaccelerated expansionoftheFriedmannianUniverseintheframeworksofrelativistictheoryof gravitation.Thesubstanceofquintessenceisbuiltupthescalarfieldofdarkenergy. Itisshown,thatfunctionV(Φ),whichfactorisingscalarfieldLagrangian(isa scalarfield)hasnoinfluenceontheevolutionoftheUniverse.Somerelations, allowingtofindexplicitdependenceΦontime,werefound,providedgiven function.V(Φ
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[361] viXra:1802.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 07:45:26

Super-Resolution Microscopy in Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact - an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[360] viXra:1802.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 08:09:56

Riemmann-Reechi Local Curvature Hypothesiis of Observable Belestial Objectes

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 3 Pages.

Rules for guideance of natural knowledge should be of guided by EXPERIENCE alone. And not hypotetical thinking whicvh will lead to paths down of dark way, like in current physics research of lie. Most basic observation are of REAL type and thefore should have of REAL theories. Unacceptable idea such as string theory and hyptotetical particle like Albert Higgs “God Particle” is counter to REAL observcation. Much physiscs since time of Einstein is decption! String have NO PROOF. QCD confinement problem is of unreal believe. Amplitude discovereis analysis recent gluposti. Most widespred deception is copernickan hypothis and round celestial body. Here it is to demonstrate how decption is refute by REAL observajion.
Category: Astrophysics

[359] viXra:1802.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 08:54:55

Remarks on Bell's Inequality

Authors: Zhengjun Cao, Lihua Liu
Comments: 10 Pages.

Quantum entanglement is of great importance to quantum cryptography and computation. So far, all experimental demonstrations of entanglement are designed to check Bell's inequality which is based on Bell's formulation for EPR paradox. In this note, we specify the assumptions needed in Bell's mathematical argument. We then show the contradictions among these assumptions. As a result, it becomes very easy to see that Bell's inequality is trivial.
Category: Quantum Physics

[358] viXra:1802.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 09:11:17

Chip-to-Chip Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[357] viXra:1802.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 10:40:08

An Improved Energy Flow Diagram is Shown for an HCE8S Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: An alternate forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[356] viXra:1802.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 17:24:49

Unity of Consciousness Experience, Nature of the Observer and Current Physical Theory

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 58 Pages. Chapter reference: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814324250_0014

He liked watching the glorious stars, thinking “there must be myriads of worlds out there”. Then one night he shifted his awareness toward and into himself. “By God,” he whispered, but only to himself, “there are myriads of worlds there, too!” [1]. We in the western scientific culture have just begun, en masse, to explore our inner cosmos. Inner exploration has been an intellectual activity in the relatively recent past, has been associated with psychotherapy. Now inner exploration is beginning to enter the domain of emotional and spiritual development as well. Certainly, the nature of our inner being, the nature and structure of our consciousness, shapes and determines our concept of reality. This realization is having a vast impact on the world societies and us, as individuals. One manner in which we internally organize the mental, emotional and spiritual information we receive is by mental system of concepts or categories of information and their causal relations. We address the fundamental nature of conscious perception and how we comprehend existence. Techniques such as yoga, meditation, and processes of spiritual awakening have opened the horizons to the consideration of the attributes of the consciousness. There also appear to be clues as to the nature of consciousness in the structure of physical theory. In fact, the co-called internal journey and external validation system of science may be leading us onto a similar path of knowing.
Category: Physics of Biology

[355] viXra:1802.0397 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-13 06:38:40

Platonic Theory of Spacetime

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 46 Pages. Typos corrected.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the German Society of Scientists and Physicians in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: Platonic Theory of Spacetime. It will be posted on YouTube on 21 September 2018 at 10 GMT.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[354] viXra:1802.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 20:37:20

Goldbach's Numbers

Authors: Radomir Majkic
Comments: 15 Pages.

Abstract: Goldbach's conjectures are inseparable and both of them stem from an underlying fundamental structure of the natural numbers.Thus, one of them must consistently imply the other one, and the Goldbach's weak conjecture must imply the Goldbach's strong conjecture. Finally, all natural numbers are the Goldbach's numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[353] viXra:1802.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 00:34:27

On Status Indices of Some Graphs

Authors: Sudhir Jog, Shrinath Patil
Comments: 9 Pages.

Ramane,Yalnaik recently defined some molecular structural descriptors on the lines of Weiner index, Zagreb Index, etc known as status indices, harmonic status indices, status coindices and harmonic status coindices. Here we consider some graphs of fixed diameter and compute the all these parameters.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[352] viXra:1802.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:06:36

NS-Cross Entropy-Based MAGDM under Single-Valued Neutrosophic Set Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Shariful Alam, Florentin Smarandache, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 21 Pages.

A single-valued neutrosophic set has king power to express uncertainty characterized by indeterminacy, inconsistency and incompleteness. Most of the existing single-valued neutrosophic cross entropy bears an asymmetrical behavior and produces an undefined phenomenon in some situations. In order to deal with these disadvantages, we propose a new cross entropy measure under a single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) environment, namely NS-cross entropy, and prove its basic properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[351] viXra:1802.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:07:59

Neutrosophic CommutativeN-Ideals in BCK-Algebras

Authors: Seok-Zun Song, Florentin Smarandache, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 9 Pages.

The notion of a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal in BCK-algebras is introduced, and several properties are investigated. Relations between a neutrosophic N-ideal and a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are discussed. Characterizations of a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are considered.
Category: General Mathematics

[350] viXra:1802.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:09:08

Neutrosophic N-Structures Applied to BCK/BCI-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Hashem Bordbar
Comments: 12 Pages.

Neutrosophic N-structures with applications in BCK/BCI-algebras is discussed. The notions of a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a (closed) neutrosophic N-ideal in a BCK/BCI-algebra are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a neutrosophic N-ideal are considered, and relations between a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a neutrosophic N-ideal are stated. Conditions for a neutrosophic N-ideal to be a closed neutrosophic N-ideal are provided.
Category: General Mathematics

[349] viXra:1802.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:10:35

Neutrosophic Information Theory and Applications

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jun Ye
Comments: 212 Pages.

The concept of Information is to disseminate scientific results achieved via experiments and theoretical results in depth. It is very important to enable researchers and practitioners to learn new technology and findings that enable development in the applied field.
Category: General Mathematics

[348] viXra:1802.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:11:40

Generalized Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Prioritized Aggregation Operators and Their Applications to Multiple Criteria Decision-Making

Authors: Rui Wang, Yanlai Li
Comments: 19 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) is a combination of single-valued neutrosophic set and hesitant fuzzy set, and its aggregation tools play an important role in the multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) process. This paper investigates the MCDM problems in which the criteria under SVNHF environment are in different priority levels.
Category: General Mathematics

[347] viXra:1802.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:12:36

Some New Biparametric Distance Measures on Single-Valued Neutrosophic Sets with Applications to Pattern Recognition and Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Harish Garg, Nancy
Comments: 20 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) handling the uncertainties characterized by truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership degrees, are a more flexible way to capture uncertainty. In this paper, some new types of distance measures, overcoming the shortcomings of the existing measures, for SVNSs with two parameters are proposed along with their proofs.
Category: General Mathematics

[346] viXra:1802.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:13:43

Certain Concepts in Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Graph Structures

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Muzzamal Sitara
Comments: 19 Pages.

A graph structure is a generalization of simple graphs. Graph structures are very useful tools for the study of different domains of computational intelligence and computer science. In this research paper, we introduce certain notions of intuitionistic neutrosophic graph structures. We illustrate these notions by several examples. We investigate some related properties of intuitionistic neutrosophic graph structures. We also present an application of intuitionistic neutrosophic graph structures.
Category: General Mathematics

[345] viXra:1802.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:14:55

NC-TODIM-Based MAGDM under a Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Shariful Alam, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 21 Pages.

A neutrosophic cubic set is the hybridization of the concept of a neutrosophic set and an interval neutrosophic set. A neutrosophic cubic set has the capacity to express the hybrid information of both the interval neutrosophic set and the single valued neutrosophic set simultaneously. As newly defined, little research on the operations and applications of neutrosophic cubic sets has been reported in the current literature.
Category: General Mathematics

[344] viXra:1802.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:15:53

VIKOR Method for Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

Authors: Yu-Han Huang, Gui-WuWei, Cun Wei
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we will extend the VIKOR (VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje) method to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) with interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs). Firstly, the basic concepts of INNs are briefly presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[343] viXra:1802.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:18:00

TODIM Method for Single-Valued Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Dong-Sheng Xu, Cun Wei, Gui-Wu Wei
Comments: 18 Pages.

Recently, the TODIM has been used to solve multiple attribute decision making (MADM) problems. The single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful tools to depict the uncertainty of the MADM. In this paper, we will extend the TODIM method to the MADM with the single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs).
Category: General Mathematics

[342] viXra:1802.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:46:53

Have Begun to Whirl the Head Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. Images on Fields Are the Messages for Aliens from Underground Inhabitants of Earth Created by Means of the Power Transmitter – a Projector.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Images on fields are the messages for aliens from underground inhabitants of Earth created by means of the power transmitter – a projector.
Category: Astrophysics

[341] viXra:1802.0378 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-26 15:52:26

Lifetimes of the Muon, Hyperons and Tau Lepton

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the lifetimes of the muon, hyperons and tau lepton. SST gives the opportunity to show the origin of the time distances between the lifetimes of the hyperons. Theoretical results are very close to experimental ones.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[340] viXra:1802.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-01 13:52:18

Extracting Firmware Using Jtag Based on Hol/scala/lms/jikesrvm/jvm Informatics Framework – an Insight Into Forensic Imaging of Embedded Systems in the Context of Smart Devices & Iot.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Corrected a typo INORMATICS with INFORMATICS in the TITLE of preious submission.

In this technical note the author is interested in exploiting the advantages of Higher Order Logic(HOL),Scala,JVM,JikesRVM & LMS in the IoT scenario.The title is highly self explanatory hence detailed explanation is skipped.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[339] viXra:1802.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-10 17:13:33

Lost in Math ? Try Thinking Like a Physicist

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

If you think that today’s dominant Physics Theory - Superstrings - is All Math and No Connection to Experimental Results (LHC etc) and if that has you feeling Lost in Math then I suggest you go back to Physics 101 and methodically Think Physics: (Note - There is Math in this outline and some of it is Advanced but here Physics Intuition tells you what to do and the Math is just there to carry out the Physics Ideas. Also For Details about this Construction, see viXra 1602.0319 ) Version 2 (v2) modifies CMS 2016 Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l histogram by merging some adjacent 5 GeV bins into 10 GeV bins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[338] viXra:1802.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 00:45:43

Kinetic Energy and Conservation of Momentum

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the history of physics, kinetic energy has been represented by two expressions. One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining the expression of momentum in a projectile motion, the kinetic energy from Issac Newton is found to obey conservation of momentum while the kinetic energy from Special Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[337] viXra:1802.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 01:32:51

A Survey on Smarandache Notions in Number Theory I: Smarandache Function

Authors: Huaning Liu
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we give a survey on recent results on Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[336] viXra:1802.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 01:33:31

A Survey on Smarandache Notions in Number Theory II: Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: Huaning Liu
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we give a survey on recent results on pseudo-Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[335] viXra:1802.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-17 05:56:18

Time as Motion Phenomenon Physics Laws do not Apply to Inertial Systems

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 10 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the quantum time is identical to the elementary motion, traveled by electrically opposite elementary units (in short units) in the interval (click-shift) of the quantum dipole length at the speed of light. The quantum time in the units region is the Natural time, that replaced the conventional time, i.e. the second. Nature understands time, as a crowd of moving units, as a length traveled with click-shifts and as a volume occupied by the units. Therefore, time is reflected in the structures of space by the number of their units. However, motion is a form of space deformation, created by force that is reduced from the dynamic space as motion force, which is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonion (oscillator) per quantum time in the formations region as quantum force, causing harmonic change to the difference of cohesive pressure in proximal space of the particle as a motion wave (wave-like form), the so-called de Broglie's wave-particle. The Physical meaning of Planck's constant is interpreted as the product of three Nature's entities, namely the force talantonion (which is the foundation of motion), the quantum dipole length and the quantum time in the formations region. The "relative" mass has now been proved and the proof is not based on the second postulate of relativity. So, the particle mass does not in fact increase, when it moves, but only the final force (of gravity and motion), which causes the new dynamics of particle motion, increases. This new dynamics appears as a tension of space, which is maintained in a different way for each uniform motion, resulting the change of the Physics Laws in different inertial systems.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[334] viXra:1802.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 04:38:09

Global Atmospheric Circulation in the Light of Liquid Turbulent Earth’s Interior Idea

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages.

Initial thoughts about possibility of Earth’s liquid turbulent interior and its influence to climate affairs are presented
Category: Geophysics

[333] viXra:1802.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 05:30:18

Sri Vidya Srinivasa

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 31 Pages.

Exploring the basic concept of Sri Vidya, one of the most esoteric traditions of the Vedic religion, quickly reveals its universality. Searching for contemporary evidences of such universality takes us to Venkatesha or Srinivasa, the sole refuge of the present Kali Yuga. We see this universality is clearly exhibited in the Lord manifesting as the deities of varied sects and faiths. Furthermore the oneness seen in the universality is further reinforced in the temple of Thirukodikaval where Lalitha manifests as Venkatesha, establishing the concept of Sri Vidya Srinivasa. The various manifestations of Sri Vidya Srinivasa in various sects aate organised into 16 corresponding to the 16 Tithis or lunar days, as also to the 16 letters of the esoteric Sri Vidya Mantra. Finally the core principles of the Sri Vidya Srinivasa tradition are laid out. The cornerstone is Abhedam or non discrimination characterizing a broad perspective embracing all faiths. Ultimately the essence of this tradition is Sharanagathi or Complete Surrender to the Universal Mother and Her Divine Will.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[332] viXra:1802.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 05:56:55

Rydberg Polarons in a Bose Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do—but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[331] viXra:1802.0368 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 05:37:27

An Overview of Black Holes

Authors: Arjun Dahal, Naresh Adhikari
Comments: 7 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Black holes are one of the fascinating objects in the universe with gravitational pull strong enough to capture light within them. Through this article we have attempted to provide an insight to the black holes, on their formation and theoretical developments that made them one of the unsolved mysteries of universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[330] viXra:1802.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 07:27:19

High Speed Distance Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[329] viXra:1802.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 08:26:45

Laser on Water-Repellent Metals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[328] viXra:1802.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 09:22:52

Two-Way Quantum Signaling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

In a new paper, however, physicists Flavio Del Santo at the University of Vienna and Borivoje Dakić at the Austrian Academy of Sciences have shown that, in the quantum world, information can travel in both directions simultaneously—a feature that is forbidden by the laws of classical physics. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[327] viXra:1802.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 10:27:48

AI of Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[326] viXra:1802.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 10:46:52

13-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-13, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7,11,13 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-13 and simple composite number-13 The simple prime numbers-13 are known as the 17-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[325] viXra:1802.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 11:20:06

What is the Relation Between Public Manager Compensation and Government Effectiveness?

Authors: Coccia Mario, Benati Igor
Comments: 41 Pages.

Public managers play a central role in public administration to support the overall efficiency with appropriate public policies. In several countries, the public considers the central government senior managers overpaid. These executive compensations tend to be considered disproportionate and in-equitable in relation to the activity and results of public managers. A growing literature has analysed the possible determinants and consequences of higher levels of compensation in public and private organizations. However, a main question unknown is how the levels of compensation of public managers are related to the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies. The findings of this study, based on OECD and World Bank data, show that the government effectiveness and regulatory quality of nations seem to be negatively associated to high levels of compensation for central government senior manager, standardized with GDP per capita of countries. This study also shows that some possible factors of the findings can be due to low level of freedom of expression, rule of law and corruption control of some countries. These results provide fruitful insights to support best practices in public administration based on salaries in-centive-oriented that may stimulate public managers’ work and enhance the national government effectiveness of countries.
Category: Social Science

[324] viXra:1802.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 11:21:55

The Relation Between Public Manager Compensation and Members of Parliament’s Salary Across Oecd Countries: Explorative Analysis and Possible Determinants with Public Policy Implications

Authors: Benati Igor, Coccia Mario
Comments: 36 Pages.

The compensation for central government senior managers has been the focus of considerable attention from the public, media and academia in recent years. In several countries, the average compensation of public managers, especially top level ones, has risen in a way that public considers disproportionate and inequitable. In this context, there is a hot debate that the government senior managers are overpaid. A growing literature has analysed the possible determinants of com-pensation in public and private organizations. However, some political and institutional factors af-fecting public managers’ compensation are hardly known. Here, we show that the average compen-sation for central government senior managers seems to be positively associated to average salary of members of parliament (MPs), standardized with GDP per capita of countries. In addition, results show that higher levels of compensation for central government senior managers are mainly in countries based on Mixed Executive. We also show that higher public manager compensations are associated to countries with lower freedom of expression, freedom of association, free media, lower quality of contract enforcement, property rights and corruption control. These results can provide fruitful insights to support reforms and best practices that improve the efficiency of public administration, mainly in latecomer countries.
Category: Social Science

[323] viXra:1802.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 12:23:58

The Golden Ratio, the Principle of Construction of Atoms

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 3 pages

Exactly today fifteen years ago, the author arrived at the unique result that the ground state Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom is divided into two parts pertaining to the electron and proton, the ratio of which was amazingly a constant. This constant turned out to be the Golden ratio, a mathematical constant, known from ancient times to appear in many spontaneous creations of Nature, big and small. Further work showed that the interatomic distances in alkali metals and halogens are divided exactly into their cationic and anionic radii by the Golden ratio, the sums of which accounted precisely for the interionic distances in alkali halides. This cascaded over the years into the additivity rule of atomic and or ionic radii in the structures of small as well as large molecules. This is summarized in this short paper.
Category: Chemistry

[322] viXra:1802.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 04:50:31

IBM Optical Receiver

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[321] viXra:1802.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 05:50:52

Fragmenting the Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

The scientists used a vaccination strategy based on 'optimal percolation', which consists of finding the least set of nodes that, when removed from a network, can fragment it into small clusters. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[320] viXra:1802.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 07:56:34

P=NP Resolution, with 3-Sat not Tautologous © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We use the definition of NP as “nondeterministic polynomial time” from Stephen Cook at claymath.org/sites/default/files/pvsnp.pdf. It is not tautologous and is presented in a truth table on 1024-values. An example from the same source for the 3-SAT test as NP-complete for the expression (p∨q∨r)∧(~p∨q∨~r)∧(p∨~q∨s)∧(~p∨~r∨~s), with τ(P)=τ(Q)=Tautologous and τ(R)=τ(S)=contradictory, is not tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[319] viXra:1802.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 08:51:42

Hodograph of the Angular Momentum in Kerr Metric

Authors: Shant Khlghatyan
Comments: 17 Pages.

Studying evolution of angular momentum in Kerr field and obtained some conditions on the parameters of motion for different types of orbits
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[318] viXra:1802.0355 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-25 07:26:12

A Refinement to Nonstandard Ultea-Logic-Systems Applied to the Ggu-Model

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 32 Pages.

The methods of nonstandard analysis are applied to general language logic-systems. This allows the operators for the only known mathematical cosmogony, the General Grand Unification Model (GGUmodel), to more clearly exhibit their hyper-logical properties. All of the GGU-model entities and processes are predicted from certain observable entities, which are physical processes and mental procedures that we use to construct physical objects. It is shown that, for each of the four types of instruction paradigms, there exists an ultra-word-like object such that when an hyper-algorithm is applied to it an ultra-logic-system is *-deduced. Another application of an hyper-algorithm yields a hyperfinite instruction paradigm that is hyper-deduced in the in the required sequential order. It is shown that duplication of these processes yields a set of hyper-instruction paradigms that satisfies the Patten and Wheeler participator universe requirements. In this version, the participator process portion of the GGU-model is significantly altered from the original process presented and a correction is made to an equation and its applications. A specific data-set is generalized and the set of all ultrapropertons is obtained and its properties examined. This set is shown to be sufficient for universe construction. GGU-model schemes are presented in diagram form. A process is introduced that leads, when applied, to the individual developmental of each universe-wide frozen-frame. An operator is shown to exist, which, via a substratum medium and processes, changes hyper-instruction information into substratum info-fields. From these info-fields, all physical-systems are produced. In this refinement, the page 11 statement, in the original version of this paper on quantum theory, is completely modified and the previous statement is now essentially incorrect.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[317] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-08 04:44:34

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 17 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={3+2(n+x_p )├|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p ┤}〗 is true for all integer where n>0 for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of expanding term x_p.
Category: Number Theory

[316] viXra:1802.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 06:45:35

Fizyka Mało Znana – Język I Metodologia Fizyki (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Language and Methodology of Physics (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 92 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Język i metodologia fizyki" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Language and methodology of physics" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[315] viXra:1802.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 06:50:48

Fizyka Mało Znana – Pojęcia, Które Zrobiły Karierę (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Concepts that Made a Career (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 132 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Pojęcia, które zrobiły karierę" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Concepts that made a career" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[314] viXra:1802.0350 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 05:50:29

Fizyka Mało Znana – Modele a Rzeczywistość (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Models and Reality (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 68 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Modele a rzeczywistość" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Models and reality" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[313] viXra:1802.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 05:45:18

Fizyka Mało Znana – Lista Ginzburga (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Ginzburg's List (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 92 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Lista Ginzburga" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Ginzburg's List" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[312] viXra:1802.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 07:06:26

Fizyka Mało Znana – Zapomniane Definicje, Zasady, Hipotezy I Teorie (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Forgotten Definitions, Rules, Hypotheses and Theories (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 40 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Zapomniane definicje, zasady, hipotezy i teorie" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Forgotten definitions, rules, hypotheses and theories" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[311] viXra:1802.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 07:11:01

Fizyka Mało Znana – Doświadczenia Myślowe I Rozstrzygające (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Thought and Crucial Experiments (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 38 Pages

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Doświadczenia myślowe i rozstrzygające" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Thought and crucial experiments" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[310] viXra:1802.0346 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 05:51:57

Fizyka Mało Znana – Zasady Zachowania W Fizyce (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – Conservation Laws in Physics (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 100 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Zasady zachowania w fizyce" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – Conservation laws in physics" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[309] viXra:1802.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 07:20:15

Fizyka Mało Znana – Słynne Paradoksy Fizyki (In Polish); Little-Known Physics – the Famous Paradoxes of Physics (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 38 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Słynne paradoksy fizyki" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. ### The e-book "Little-known physics – The famous paradoxes of physics" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[308] viXra:1802.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 08:33:09

Connection Between Planck’s Relation and Non-Existence of Medium for Light Propagation and Predetermination of Photon and Electron Interference Patterns in Double-Slit Experiments

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 21 Pages.

The puzzles of quantum mechanics are: 1. What is the medium for the photon and for the electron wave? i.e. what is waving? 2. How can a particle have an interference pattern 3. Observer effect. 4. Entanglement. In Quantum Erasure and Double-Slit experiments, how does the emitter know to direct the photon two both slits or only to one slit? And how does the detector know where to detect the photons to form an interference pattern and not a bell-shaped (Gaussian) pattern or vice versa? This paper proposes that the hint in the mystery of light waves without a medium (ether) is contained in the Planck’s relation itself: E = hf. It is shown that Planck’s relation itself hints on the mystery of light waves without medium, and is a consequence or manifestation of non-existence of a medium for light propagation. The subtle law of nature that has eluded physicists so far is that the photon energy density ( amplitude of electric and magnetic fields) at a given point in the spatial dimensions of the photon is directly related to the rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The higher the frequency of the photon, the higher the rate of change of the fields at every point for that photon, compared to a photon of lower frequency. The higher the rate of change of the fields at a given point, the higher the amplitude of oscillation of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. It follows that the higher the frequency of the photon and the higher the amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields, which results in high intensity of vibration of the photon, the more localized it will be. A high frequency photon will spread less in space than a lower frequency photon of equal envelope amplitude because, if the high frequency photon spreads out, there would be high rates of change over a wider region of space, and the total energy would be greater than the finite photon energy. The photon energy will always be concentrated at regions of high rate of change of electric and magnetic fields. This theory explains how electric and magnetic fields can be their own ‘medium’ , 'dragging' of the electromagnetic energy by the wave, hence eliminating the need for any medium. Since the electromagnetic wave (the photon) is a traveling disturbance of electric and magnetic fields, the rate of change of the fields at a point in space will create the intensity (amplitude) of the fields at that point. Likewise, the electron wave is a travelling disturbance of the electron mass density wave on the electron ‘sea’. The higher the frequency of mass density variation of the electron at a given point of space, the higher the mass density of the electron at that point. This will make the electron ( the electron ‘sea’) its own medium of propagation. i.e. the electron ‘sea’ is the medium of propagation for the electron wave. This means that the electron wave 'drags' the electron with itself. The other theory proposed in this paper is the predetermination of interference fringes in double-slit experiments and predetermination of which slit the photon takes in which-way or quantum erasure experiments. We propose a fundamental law of nature that an electron, an atom or any source of electromagnetic waves will always emit a weak, continuous electromagnetic energy even when not excited, which implies that electrons and atoms are always in continuous, fundamental, weak vibrations (accelerations). Therefore, in double-slit experiments and in quantum erasure or which-way experiments, the atom (electron) of the light source is always emitting weak, continuous electromagnetic waves, even before the atom is excited. Therefore, even before the atom/the electron of the light source starts emitting a photon, a weak electromagnetic (light) wave exists as an entity, extending all the way from the light source (the atom) to the slits and to the detecting screen. This ‘precursor’ wave serves as the 'highway' for the propagation of the main photon energy packet, both of which are coherent and exist as an entity. When the atom is excited, it will just emit a photon that is coherent with the weak wave it had already been emitting continuously. Therefore, even before the atom is excited, a weak wave interference pattern already exists on the screen. The photon emitted after excitation simply follows the path already created by the weak ‘precursor’ wave and will land on the screen according to the predetermined interference pattern, collapsing to the point of detection at the instant of detection. The path to be taken by the photon is predetermined in which-way or quantum erasure experiments. The same theory explains quantum entanglement: the polarization of two entangled photons is predetermined even before the excitation of the atoms emitting the photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[307] viXra:1802.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 08:53:04

Turn Light Upside Down

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[306] viXra:1802.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 09:33:31

Walking Crystal Robotics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Along with previous research that has demonstrated crystal motion in other types of crystals, the new results suggest that crystals appear to be promising candidates for robotics. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[305] viXra:1802.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-25 23:43:58

Genetic Groups and the Feasibility of Reference Sire Schemes

Authors: Stephen P. Smith, Robert D. Scarth, Bruce Tier
Comments: 8 Pages.

A method of measuring linkage in sire reference schemes is described. The method consists of determining estimability and prediction error variance for linear contrasts when the assumed animal model includes genetic groups. Base animals in a herd are assigned a common genetic group and different herds correspond to different genetic groups. The set of linear contrasts used to determine linkage is the set of group differences. Groups differences can be scrutinized using a simplified lease-squares analysis.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[304] viXra:1802.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-25 10:04:48

The Electron as a Composition of Two Vacuum Polarization Confined Photons

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 22 Pages. The electron as two vacuum polarization bound photons

In a previous paper “A Physical Electron-Positron Model”[1] an electron model was developed in a geometrical algebra (GA) construct developed by Doran et.al. [2] The model shows the mathematical structure, and the physical description required for the existence of an electron as a composition of two photons bound by the self-induced vacuum polarization gradient of the index of refraction. This paper will develop the mechanics of a vacuum polarization induced index of refraction, binding photons in orbit around a common center of momentum creating a net electric charge. The concept of charge has heretofore not had a theoretical explanation, accept for some unknown substance associated with mass. This model offers the physical concept of charge created from QFT mechanics. The combined particle is a boson with a fixed angular momentum of ½ . This angular momentum and the index of refraction discontinuity, provide the containment mechanisms that bind the photons together.
Category: Quantum Physics

[303] viXra:1802.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 23:19:18

Speed Limit Correction Step to the Great Unification of Theories.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 8 Pages. -

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example. And the example itself and subsequent conclusions can be exactly the step to a great unification of interactions. ул. Софьи Ковалевской дом 14, корпус 1, квартира 70
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[302] viXra:1802.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 00:46:28

On the Atomic Carcinogenic Mechanism and Cure for Cancer: Ferrochemistry for Cause of Warburg Effect

Authors: Reginald B. Little
Comments: 124 Pages.

A cure for cancer is formulated by a new theory for cancer genesis by Ferrochemistry (Little Effect) and Laws of Ferrochemistry for disrupting the Kreb Cycle and accelerating the glycolysis due to enzymatic substitutions of primordial 12C, 14N, 16O, 24Mg, 31P, and 32S nuclides by less healthy nonprimordial 13C, 15N, 17O, 25Mg, 30P, 32P, and 33S nuclides. The nonprimordial nuclides fractionally fission to produce different QF and L continua for different enzymatic activity and biochemistry on the substrates for nuclear spins altering the chemical machinery and chemical operation of the cellular physicochemical chemistry for the origin of cancer. A theoretical cure for cancer (with few side effects) is discovered for killing these malfunctioning cancer cells of high nonprimordial isotopic concentrations by selectively energize these isotopes in strong static magnetic fields and many dynamic magnetic fields so as to selectively kill the cancer cells with minimal effects on normal cells.
Category: Biochemistry

[301] viXra:1802.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-02 02:39:44

Proof that P ≠ NP

Authors: Robert DiGregorio
Comments: 3 Pages.

A problem exists that’s hard to solve but easy to verify a solution for.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[300] viXra:1802.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-24 03:08:38

A Proof the P != NP

Authors: Nicolas Bourbaki, Jr
Comments: 1 Page.

We prove that P != NP using a simple and elegant method.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[299] viXra:1802.0335 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-09 19:49:16

An Explanation of the Interactions Between Waves and Electrons - Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Weiye Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[298] viXra:1802.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 07:40:52

Fluctuation Theorems Validation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[297] viXra:1802.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 08:12:14

Isolated Quantum Many-Body System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do—but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[296] viXra:1802.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 08:30:30

Reliable Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[295] viXra:1802.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 10:24:19

Methods of Inquiry in Social Sciences: an Introduction

Authors: Coccia Mario
Comments: 18 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is an introduction to scientific methods that are organized and systematic scientific approaches used by scholars for controlled investigations and experiments to efficiently solve theoretical and practical problems, generate discoveries and/or advance scientific fields. The paper presents, briefly, the development of methods of inquiry in the philosophy of science. After that it will be discussed general methods of inquiry (deduction, induction, abduction and hypothetical-deductive) and specific models of scientific inquiry in social sciences. In general, modern research fields are multifaceted, requiring diverse processes for generating new concepts, for creating new hypothesis and performing controlled experiments. Different methods of inquiry are never contradictory, often they are complementary tools that facilitate problem solving and knowledge creation within and between research fields.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[294] viXra:1802.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 10:46:53

AlphaZero Just Playing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[293] viXra:1802.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 14:00:52

Refutation of the ef-Axiom © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The EF-axiom describes the Efremovifč proximity δ by V.A. Efremovič from 1934 and published in Russian in 1951. We interpret the operator δ to mean "nearby" or "in proximity". The size of an antecedent or consequent is not stated for the operator, so we determine that the operator applies to unrelated literals as as ((A∈ B) Nor (B∈ A)). The proof result is for 256-values because four theorems are evaluated as variables. We find the EF-axiom is not tautologous. The implications to topology are legion.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[292] viXra:1802.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 14:33:20

Theory of Sustentation

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 4 Pages.

atoms, have the same requirement, and receive this energy isotropically through space in the form of extremely small electromagnetic energy quanta, so far detected (no upper or lower magnitude limits
Category: Classical Physics

[291] viXra:1802.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 14:35:33

Equivalence, Locality, Torsion, and ΛCDM

Authors: Michael R. Feyereisen
Comments: 24 Pages.

A model of a quantum cosmology motivated from fundamental physical principles is proposed, in which the intrinsic spin of both matter and the vacuum explains the existence of a cosmological scale factor a with a constant H0, the existence and magnitude of the cosmological constant Λ, the thermal history of the Universe, and the nature of the Dark Matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[290] viXra:1802.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-23 00:22:26

Conservation of Momentum vs Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of gravitational force between two identical particles is chosen to manifest the physics law, conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation. In this random reference frame, the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and is expected to remain constant as gravitational force accelerate both particles toward each other. The calculation shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[289] viXra:1802.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 05:46:14

Interaction Mechanism of Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[288] viXra:1802.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 05:52:49

A Study on the Selecting Optimum Condition and Evaporation Temperatures for Four Geothermal Power Generation Systems Under Different Geofluid’s Conditions

Authors: Ri Un-Chol, * Kim Yong-Song, ,Kim Yong-Bae, Ri Chang Il, Ri Hye-Won, Yun Su-Bom
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, the optimum flash and evaporation temperatures have been selected for the following four geothermal power generation systems: single-flash system (SF), double-flash system (DF), flash-ORC system (FORC), and double-flash-ORC system (DFORC). The maximum net electricity generated is regarded as an objective function, with the pump and fan consumptions being taken into account. Under the given geofluid’s condition (T= 170℃; x= 0.2), the optimum flash temperature of SF, the optimum 2nd-stage flash temperature of DF, the optimum evaporation temperatures of FORC and DFORC are found to be 150℃, 100℃, 100℃, and 70℃, respectively. More geofluid’s conditions (T= 80~260 ℃ ; x= 0, 0.2, 0.4) have also been considered for the temperature optimization of each system. The optimization results are shown in Fig.4 which can be useful for engineering application.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[287] viXra:1802.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 06:17:00

Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of Geothermal and Solar Energy Medium - low Temperature Combined Power Generation System

Authors: Ri Un-Chol, * Kim Yong-Song ,Kim Yong-Bae, Ri Chang Il, Ri Hye-Won, Kim Won-Zhu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Taking the capacity expanded geothermal and trough type solar power combined generation system as the research object, the temperature at outlet of the solar energy collection was estimated to obtain the optimum outlet temperature. Evaluation models for such indexes as generation efficiency, the increasing ration of power generation capacity and solar energy utilization fraction were set up to analyze the thermal performance of this system. By applying the Aspen Plus software, the geothermal-solar energy combine power generation system model for the geothermal power station in DPR of Korea was established. Moreover sensitivity analysis and optimization tool were used to calculate major parameters of this system, to obtain the best capacity expansion temperature, which is helpful to the system’s capacity expansion. The results show that, after the optimization, the generation power of the system was 4 044.5KW, the generation efficiency was 13.1% the hot water consumption was 94Kg/(KW•h), the steam consumption rate was 9.2Kg/(KW•h), the solar energy utilization percentage was 58.1% and the power generation increment ratio was 30.0%. Each performance index of the system enhanced significantly.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[286] viXra:1802.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 07:29:28

A Combinatorial Approach to the Last Theorem of Fermat

Authors: Andrea Prunotto
Comments: 2 Pages.

The condition of equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to coincide with Fermat's Diophantine equation. The problem of the division of the stakes, related to the events, is also discussed
Category: Number Theory

[285] viXra:1802.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 08:05:02

Objective Fundamental Reality Structure by the Unreduced Complexity Development

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 7 pages, 3 eqs, 16 refs; paper presented at the FQXi essay contest 2017-2018 "What Is “Fundamental”", https://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/3052

We explain why exactly the simplified abstract scheme of reality within the standard science paradigm cannot provide the consistent picture of “truly fundamental” reality and how the unreduced, causally complete description of the latter is regained within the extended, provably complete solution to arbitrary interaction problem and the ensuing concept of universal dynamic complexity. We emphasize the practical importance of this extension for both particular problem solution and further, now basically unlimited fundamental science development (otherwise dangerously stagnating within its traditional paradigm).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[284] viXra:1802.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 08:12:12

Protein Self-Replicates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

ETH scientists have been able to prove that a protein structure widespread in nature – the amyloid – is theoretically capable of multiplying itself. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[283] viXra:1802.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 09:48:18

Quantum Memory for Hours

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[282] viXra:1802.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 09:58:16

The Manifold of Life: the Math Subtending Living BEINGS’ Dynamics

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 6 Pages.

The dynamics of biological activities, such as cellular metabolic pathways, protein folding and brain activity, can be described in terms of curved trajectories in hyperbolic spaces, constrained by energetic requirements. Here we, starting from the theorems recently-developed by a deceased Field Medal young mathematician, show how it is feasible to find and quantify the shortest, energy-sparing functional trajectories taking place in biological systems’ concave phase spaces. This allows researchers to focus their studies on the few, most prominent paths and loops able to explain, elucidate and experimentally assess rather elusive biological functions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[281] viXra:1802.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 10:27:34

Zero Gravity Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[280] viXra:1802.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 11:47:04

Neutrino Interact with Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[279] viXra:1802.0314 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-24 08:14:18

What Went Wrong with the Atomic Mass Unit

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages. Version 2 and 3 show that the definition of the amu is wrong, not its application, as presented in version 1.

The atomic mass unit has already been applied for more than 200 years. The problem is that the amu now-a-days has been defined in two different ways: the Newtonian one and the one based on present physics by applying the magic energy mc2 and the magic atomic nuclear forces, interpreted as nuclear binding energy. This energy is posited as equal to mc2, without any motivation and as such violating the law of mass conservation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[278] viXra:1802.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 18:02:04

Monte Carlo Simulation Study on Magnetic Hysteresis Loop of co Nanowires

Authors: Ryang Se-Hun, O Pong-Sik, Sin Gum-Chol, Hwang Guk-Nam, Hong Yong-Son
Comments: 7 Pages.

The influence of temperature on the magnetic hysteresis and coercivity of Co magnetic nanowires was investigated by Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo simulation results of hysteresis loop indicated that both its tendency and the coercivity were consistent with experimental results within a given error. The coercivity was calculated with the temperature and the angle between nanowires and magnetic field applied, varying the temperature from 50K to 300K for Co nanowires with a diameter of 30nm. The coercivity decreased monotonically at all values of angle with the increase of temperature T, following the parabolic curve of T-γ. The power exponent γ, determined corresponding to angle between nanowires and magnetic field, was 0.03~0.06 and was consistent with the previous experimental results.
Category: Condensed Matter

[277] viXra:1802.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 18:32:44

Influence of 3D Multi-layer Welding on Residual Stress of Super-big Diameter Welded Hollow Sphere Joint

Authors: Ri Namhyok, Chen Zhihua1, Ri Yongsop
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper the influence of 3 dimension multi-layer welding procedure on the welding residual stress of super-big diameter WHSJ(welded hollow sphere joint) in the large-span structure has been evaluated by finite element method. First, a conception of equivalent state change time in the analysis of welding was newly defined, which is the virtual time of state change, representing the absorbing or abstracting heat during state change process between solid and fluid of welding material. By considering of equivalent state change time in real welding and cooling time, the correctness of the thermal analysis was increased. Next, the simulation of three welding methods including single-layer symmetric welding, multi-layer sequential welding and multi-layer symmetric welding was carried out, which shows that multi-layer symmetric welding not only increases the balance of supporting ability of structure but also decreases the maximum tensile residual stress so that it is better than the other two methods.
Category: Condensed Matter

[276] viXra:1802.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 18:41:06

Cause and Countermeasure of Crack Initiation in a 50Mw Steam Turbine Rotor

Authors: Yongsop Ri, Namhyok Ri, Jonggwang Pak, Iljin Kim, Zhihua Chen –Department of Mechanics Enineering, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea - School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR of Chi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper, the cause of crack initiation in 50Mw steam turbine rotors of “S” power station and a countermeasure for preventing it were studied. Many years ago, “S” power station restructured pipe paths to supply steam to turbines. The aim of the restructure was to save the heavy oil burning for startup. Since the restructure upto now, the turbines were started in a startup method different from standard. That is, the restructure made the current startup method different from the standard. Unfortunately, after having restructured them, cracks initiated in the rotors of the turbines in the case of starting in current startup method every certain period. The present study has been conducted to explain why the cracks initiated, and to establish a countermeasure for it. In the cases of starting the turbines in accordance with both the current and the standard startup methods, the change of convection heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) and transient temperature and thermal stress were analyzed. Through these analyses, the cause of crack initiation in the case of current startup method was explained. And the low-cycle fatigue life until the cracks initiated was calculated and compared with experimental data. A new reasonable startup method was suggested as a countermeasure of a crack initiation. The new method not only could prevent crack initiation in the steam turbine rotors but also gave economic benefit. Keywords: steam turbine; thermal stress; low-cycle fatigue life; startup; rotor
Category: Condensed Matter

[275] viXra:1802.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 18:46:48

Structural Optimization by Using the Stiffness Homogenization

Authors: Yongsop Ri, Namhyok Ri, Jonggwang Pak, Iljin Kim, Zhihua Chen –Department of Mechanics Enineering, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea - School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR of Chi
Comments: 21 Pages.

The topology optimization using the homogenization method is to find optimal layout of microstructures which satisfies design demand in the neighborhood of an arbitrary point in a given design domain. The homogenization approach is to compute proper mechanical properties of those microstructures in terms of integral averaging by accepting the periodicity assumption and characteristic function. In this paper, we described a stiffness homogenization theory that is able to avoid the complication of the homogenization approach and reduce the computation cost by considering the topology optimization process in consistence with the finite element analysis. The method can be applied more flexibly to individual or simultaneous optimization of the topology, shape, size and material layout. We discussed a stiffness homogenization during meshing the space structure with different kinds of elements in detail. An optimal criterion for the minimum weight design problem, as one of typical optimization design problems, was derived and the computational algorithm was presented. Numerical results of an example were compared with previous methods, which show the validation of the method.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[274] viXra:1802.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-22 14:33:51

Solution of Brocard`s Problem

Authors: David Stacha
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article I will provide the solution of Brocard`s problem n!+1=x^2 and I will prove the existence of the finite amount of Brown numbers, where the largest Brown number is (7,71), which represents the equation 7!+1=71^2. Brocard`s problem represents one of the open problem in mathematics from the field of number theory, which has been formulated by Henri Brocard in 1876 and represents the solutions of the following Diophantine equation n!+1=x^2.
Category: Number Theory

[273] viXra:1802.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 19:39:11

Evaluation of Activation Energies on As(v) Sorption Onto Magnetic Separable Poly P-Phenylenediamine-Thiourea-Formaldehyde Polymer [J. Hazard. Mater. 342 (2018) 335–346]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Sok-Bong Pak, Yong-Uk Ryu, Sok-Jin Ri, Jong-Sob Kim, Jong-Hyok Yang
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work, the As(V) sorption onto magnetic separable poly p-phenylenediamine-thiourea-formaldehyde polymer (MpPDTF) published by Elwakeel and Al-Bogami was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[272] viXra:1802.0307 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-30 21:28:58

Gravity and Cosmic Wavelength Graviton Action Densities

Authors: Julian Williams
Comments: 65 Pages.

Einstein's Field Equations can be derived from a Lagrangian using Action Principles. At a different level, this paper explores the possibility of gravity being connected to what we define as an "Invariant Spherically Symmetric Four Volume Action Density of Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons". Infinitesimal changes (at least locally) to the Energy Momentum Tensor are required, but with profound effect at cosmic scale: Flatness without Inflation and Exponentially increasing expansion with no need for Dark Energy. This may also relate with the present tension in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[271] viXra:1802.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 22:19:21

Refutation of Higher-Order Logic as Bivalent © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate higher-order logic based on the principle of mathematical induction. Meth8/VŁ4 treats sets and variables as variables. The quantification over quantification is not bivalent. We alleviate this constraining condition by distributing the quantified expression over nested expressions. At each nested level, the quantification is explicitly distributed for clarity. We conclude that higher-order logic is not bivalent and that nested quantification is better expressed as explicitly distributed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[270] viXra:1802.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 22:20:41

Using “Enhanced Quantization” to Bound the Cosmological Constant, (For a Bound-on Graviton Mass), by Comparing Two Action Integrals(one Being from General Relativity) at the Start of Inflation

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages. For possible inclusion into FFP 15, pending acceptance by Jesus Cancier, of Alicante, Spain, and the FFP 15 committee

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[269] viXra:1802.0304 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-11 19:47:18

The Lorentz Transformation from Light-Speed Invariance Alone

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in light-speed invariance, immediately implies reciprocal time dilation, and it has been demonstrated that reciprocal time dilation implies length contraction. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are the pivotal consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed apparently already uniquely produces the Lorentz transformation. We show that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of the light-cone space-time locus uniquely produces the x-direction Lorentz transformation, and also that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of light speed itself has the same consequence; in the latter case the velocity, instead of the space-time, version of the general x-direction inertial transformation must be used. The x-direction Lorentz transformation is also uniquely produced by the reciprocal time dilation and length contraction implications of light clocks.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[268] viXra:1802.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 00:31:26

Analysis of the Matrix Xjk=[x(j,k)] ∈C Where X(j,k)=δ+ω(α+βj)^φk

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 56 Pages.

The function x(j,k)=δ+ω(α+βj)^φk in C→C is a generalization of the power function y(α)=α^k in R→R and the exponential function y(k)=α^k in R→R. In this paper we are going to calculate the values of infinite and partial sums and products involving elements of the matrix Xjk=[x(j,k)]∈C As a result, several new representations will be made for some infinite series, including the Riemann Zeta Function in C.
Category: Number Theory

[267] viXra:1802.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 07:40:14

Black Holes Erase Your Past

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[266] viXra:1802.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-06 05:03:22

The Standard Model Within a Cosmological Setting?

Authors: Jack Wenger
Comments: 131 Pages. Added Appendix A with further discussion of spatial systems viewed as interfaces.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface. This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above. The pattern suggested is: When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This interface has three or more sides. This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities. If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion. Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions. When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2pi times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2pi the change in circumference size. If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source. The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below. Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other. Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other. These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass. Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view. These would be matter and anti matter. Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion. Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity) and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves. The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions. In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy. If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment. 5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D 5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered. Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "heavier quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash . The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "lighter quark". The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter. SDU baryons would have swarms within all three partitions (three quarks). SDU mesons would have two swarms, one each on two sides of the 3D interface (one quark and one antiquark). SDU lepton swarms would occupy only one partition and would not be perceived as quarks. It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependant upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces. The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[265] viXra:1802.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 08:41:24

Ultrafast Processes Within Attosecond

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

To clarify these processes, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now developed a methodology with a resolution of quintillionths of a second. [30] A team of researchers at Pfizer, the pharmaceutical giant, has developed an automated flow chemistry system that is capable of carrying out 1500 reactions over a 24-hour Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[264] viXra:1802.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 09:44:01

Dark Matter Detector Success

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[263] viXra:1802.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 10:28:32

Hidden Parameters in the Universal Gravitational Constant

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 35 Pages.

The acceleration profile about a gravitational body (GB) defines the acceleration of an object (comprising matter particles) toward the GB vs the distance of the object from the GB. The acceleration profile is not prescribed solely by the strength of the gravitational field, but depends on how an object reacts to that field. In the Newtonian model of gravity, two distinct properties of mass of the object define this reaction. It is shown that, without exception, these two properties of mass are not represented explicitly in equations defining the acceleration profile about a GB, but are sequestered within the universal gravitational constant G itself. The acceleration profile about a GB is proportional to the active gravitational mass of the GB and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the GB. The universal gravitational constant G is a constant of proportionality in the profile. The acceleration profile is also proportional to the ratio of passive gravitational mass to inertial mass of objects in the gravitational field. However, this ratio is conspicuously absent in the equation for the acceleration profile about a GB. The reason for this omission might be the belief that the ratio is unity; that the passive gravitational mass and inertial mass of matter objects are numerically equal, regardless of the composition of the objects. The actual ratio may be sequestered in the gravitational constant G itself, provided that the ratio is the same for all matter particles and objects comprising matter particles. This identity has been confirmed in numerous experiments, but an alternative model offers a compelling explanation for this identity.
Category: Classical Physics

[262] viXra:1802.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 10:36:43

Black Hole Mystery Deepened

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[261] viXra:1802.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 10:54:53

Solution of a High-School Algebra Problem to Illustrate the Use of Elementary Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 5 Pages.

This document is the first in what is intended to be a collection of solutions of high-school-level problems via Geometric Algebra (GA). GA is very much "overpowered" for such problems, but students at that level who plan to go into more-advanced math and science courses will benefit from seeing how to "translate" basic problems into GA terms, and to then solve them using GA identities and common techniques.
Category: Algebra

[260] viXra:1802.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 12:58:44

Quantum Cryptography Cloning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Cloning of quantum states is used for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. [34] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[259] viXra:1802.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 13:57:08

Writing Data at Terahertz Frequency

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[258] viXra:1802.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 14:41:29

A Weird Urine Sample

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 2 Pages.

A 5-year female, who had suffered from a very mild strangury in the last few days, brought to the primary care pediatrician a urine sample in a winter morning, in order to perform a urine test strip for the rapid determination of ten parameters. When the mother opened the disposable urine container in front of the pediatrician, they realized that three ivory-white, half-round objects, unnoticed during the sampling, floated on the urine surface. They displayed a diameter of approximately 1 centimeters. In order to appreciate their size, notice that, in the Figure, the total diameter of the 150 ml cylinder is 5,8 cm. The three cupola-shaped structures were hard to the touch. Despite their hard plastic consistency, they cracked in 4-5 smaller pieces after a strong pressure between two fingers. The test strip did not show urinary pathological findings. Physical examination did not reveal alterations in child’s perineal and genital areas. The young female did not suffer from systemic diseases, such as hyperoxaluria or metabolic alterations. She was taking levetiracetam (oral solution), because of a recent diagnosis of early onset occipital epilepsy The mother was fully reliable and trustworthy and did not suffer from any psychiatric or psycological diseases. Note that the well mixed, non-centrifuged, protected from light, not older than two hours urine was collected in a clean, well rinsed container, free of detergents and preservatives. No one manipulated the container after the sampling.
Category: Biochemistry

[257] viXra:1802.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 14:59:35

Refutation of Control by Quantum Observation © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The following is not confirmed as tautologous. "A quantum observer has zero entropy flow. Examining the entropy flow due to the local observation shows that the quantum observer does not add a new entropy flow to the system in contrast to a standard thermodynamic heat bath. Inserting [Eq. (10)] into Eq. (9) shows that the entropy flux due to the quantum observer is zero. This means that a quantum observer changes the energy flow in the system directly, without having an entropy flow connected with it."
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[256] viXra:1802.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 17:06:35

On the Nature of Matter Wave

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the nature of matter wave of quantum particles whose dynamics are described by Dirac equation. Since we have shown that both Dirac equation and Maxwell field equations can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations, it is reasonable to suggest that matter wave may have similar physical formation to that of the electromagnetic field in the sense that matter wave is also the result of a coupling of two physical fields, such as the electric field and the magnetic field in electromagnetism. In particular, we show that when Dirac equation is reformulated as a system of real equations, like Maxwell field equations, then Dirac equation describes a quantum particle as a string-like object whose cross-section vibrates as a membrane.
Category: Quantum Physics

[255] viXra:1802.0288 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-23 01:14:55

Efficient Implementation of Gaussian Elimination in Derivative-Free REML, or How not to Apply the QR Algorithm

Authors: Stephen P. Smith, Karin Meyer, Bruce Tier
Comments: 19 Pages.

A QR algorithm was designed using sparse matrix techniques for likelihood evaluation in REML. The efficiency of the algorithm depends on how the order of columns in the mixed model array are arranged. Three heuristic orderings were considered. The QR algorithm was tested successfully in likelihood evaluation, but vector processing was needed to finish the procedure because of excess fill-ins. The improvements made for the QR algorithm also applied to the competing absorption approach, and hence absorption was found to be more competitive than the QR algorithm in terms of computing time and memory requirements. Absorption was made 52 times faster than a first generation absorption algorithm.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[254] viXra:1802.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-04 07:30:39

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Benzothiophene Sulfone Over Clay Mineral Adsorbents in the Frame of Oxidative Desulfurization

Authors: Hong-Chol Jin, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this communication, the adsorption of benzothiophene sulfone (BTO) over clay mineral adsorbents [Fuel 205 (2017) 153–160] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling
Category: Chemistry

[253] viXra:1802.0286 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-25 00:36:31

Is Mass Real?

Authors: Robert Spoljaric
Comments: 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which is considered to be a nonclassical theory. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned, and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[252] viXra:1802.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 01:37:23

To See Through Dust! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. at Change of a Condition of Power Space of Mars Gas and Power Streams Escape on His Surface And, Thereby, Cause Dust Storms.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

At change of a condition of power space of Mars gas and power streams escape on his surface and, thereby, cause dust storms.
Category: Astrophysics

[251] viXra:1802.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 01:54:24

And Them Has to be Seven! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. in Solar System there Have to be Seven Planets Because it Has Been so Conceived and Created by God.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In Solar system there have to be seven planets because it has been so conceived and created by God.
Category: Astrophysics

[250] viXra:1802.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 02:03:03

They Muddle Something Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Border of the Universe Has the Maximum Density of Dark Matter.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The border of the Universe has the maximum density of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[249] viXra:1802.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 02:19:27

Hypothesis of Relationship of Souls Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. the Structure and the Nature of Emergence and Evolution of Jupiter and Live Stones Are Similar.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 1 Page.

The structure and the nature of emergence and evolution of Jupiter and live stones are similar.
Category: Astrophysics

[248] viXra:1802.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 03:28:12

On the Physical Nature of Light-Pulse Atom Interference.

Authors: V. A. Kuz'menko
Comments: 1 Page.

It is proposed to use the light-pulse atom interferometry for experimental study of some properties of quantum memory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[247] viXra:1802.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 04:09:12

Black Holes do not Exist

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 2 Pages.

The body can not contract to infinite density due to the existence of repulsive force. It is proved that the escape velocity of the maximum contracted body is equal to the free space velocity of light. Therefore the black holes do not exist.
Category: Astrophysics

[246] viXra:1802.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 06:18:10

A Paper on Union Closed Families

Authors: Ero Sukna
Comments: 7 Pages.

Timestamp : 20/Feb/2018
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[245] viXra:1802.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 06:57:50

Refutation of Majorana's 'root' © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Eq 3.1.1 of Majorana was the basis for the angel particle named a chiral Majorana fermion. From Eq 3.1.2 Meth8 refutes that as a tautology because of the one value F in the truth table TFTT TTTT TTTT TTTT. These results from mathematical logic make the experimental discovery of such a particle suspicious.
Category: Quantum Physics

[244] viXra:1802.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 08:09:31

Molecule Chirality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[243] viXra:1802.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 08:37:55

The Brain Wrinkles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[242] viXra:1802.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 09:06:23

Laser Plasma Density Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.” This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[241] viXra:1802.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 13:20:01

Thermoelectric Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[240] viXra:1802.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 13:32:02

Majorana Topological Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[239] viXra:1802.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 17:14:55

Riemann's Analytic Continuation of Zeta(s) Contradicts the Law of the Excluded Middle, and is Derived by Using Cauchy's Integral Theorem While Contradicting the Theorem's Prerequisites

Authors: Ayal Sharon
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Law of the Excluded Middle holds that either a statement "X" or its opposite "not X" is true. In Boolean algebra form, Y = X XOR (not X). Riemann's analytic continuation of Zeta(s) contradicts the Law of the Excluded Middle, because the Dirichlet series Zeta(s) is proven divergent in the half-plane Re(s)<=1. Further inspection of the derivation of Riemann's analytic continuation of $\zeta(s)$ shows that it is wrongly based on the Cauchy integral theorem, and thus false.
Category: Number Theory

[238] viXra:1802.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 17:56:17

Abel's Lemma and Dirichlet's Test Incorrectly Determine that a Trigonometric Version of the Dirichlet Series $\zeta(s)=\sum N^{-S}$ is Convergent Throughout the Critical Strip at $t\ne0$

Authors: Ayal Sharon
Comments: 18 Pages.

Euler's formula is used to derive a trigonometric version of the Dirichlet series $\zeta(s)=\sum n^{-s}$, which is divergent in the half-plane $\sigma \le 1$, wherein $s \in \mathbb{C}$ and $s=\sigma +it$. Abel's lemma and Dirichlet's test incorrectly hold that trigonometric $\zeta(s)$ is convergent in the critical strip $0<\sigma \le 1$ at $t\ne0$, because they fail to consider a divergent monotonically decreasing series (e.g. the harmonic series) in combination with a bounded oscillating function having an increasing period duration (e.g. $f(t, n) = \sin(t \cdot \ln(n))$).
Category: Functions and Analysis

[237] viXra:1802.0263 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-21 13:51:46

Elastic Collision Between Charged Particles

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged particles is chosen to manifest the physics law, conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation. In this random reference frame, the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and is expected to remain constant. The calculation shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[236] viXra:1802.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 23:24:29

Using Klauder’s Enhanced Quantization for a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, to Obtain a Nonzero Graviton Mass, in the Early Universe, and Generation of (Heavy) Gravity Which is Consistent from Cycle to Cycle.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 7 Pages. for possible submission to Marcel Grossman 15, as an entry

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a re do of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to ascertain how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[235] viXra:1802.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:36:57

A Derivation of the Kerr Metric by Ellipsoid Coordinate Transformation

Authors: Yu-Ching, Chou
Comments: Pages.

Einstein's general relativistic eld equation is a nonlinear partial dierential equation that lacks an easy way to obtain exact solutions. The most famous examples are Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole solutions. The Kerr metric has astrophysical meaning because most of cosmic celestial bodies are rotating. The Kerr metric is even more diffcult to derive than the Schwarzschild metric specically due to off-diagonal term of metric tensor. In this paper, a derivation of Kerr metric was obtained by ellipsoid coordinate transformation, which causes elimination a large amount of tedious derivation. This derivation is not only physics enlightening, but also further deducing some characteristics of the rotating black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[234] viXra:1802.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:48:17

Inertial Force

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 14 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Formulas and Properties of Inertial force, law of required force for change in state of rest, state of motion with uniform velocity, state of motion with uniform angular velocity and law of required force for change in direction in straight line.
Category: Classical Physics

[233] viXra:1802.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:51:57

Air Pressure Differential Force

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Formula and hypothesis of Air pressure differential Force.
Category: Classical Physics

[232] viXra:1802.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:54:13

Temperature Differential Force

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Hypothesis and formulas of Temperature Differential Force and law of increase or loss.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[231] viXra:1802.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:57:16

Cohesive And Adhesive Force Equation

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Formula of Cohesive and Adhesive force.
Category: Condensed Matter

[230] viXra:1802.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 00:59:53

Arun And Arun Temperature

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given hypothesis of Arun and Arun temperature and formula of Arun Temperature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[229] viXra:1802.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 01:11:09

Gravitational Field Equation

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given formula of gravitational field and hypothesis of gravitational volume. I have not given hypothesis of field of gravitational. I have given new hypothesis of gravitational boundary.
Category: Astrophysics

[228] viXra:1802.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 02:09:09

Law of Equality and Increase or Loss

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Law of Equality and 2nd law of Law of Increase or Lass. I have given Equation of Law of Equality and 2nd law of Law of Increase or Loss.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[227] viXra:1802.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 02:12:39

Field of Buoyancy Force

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given hypothesis of field of buoyancy or buoyancy foce and its equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[226] viXra:1802.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 02:14:39

Intensity of Buoyancy Force

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given hypothesis and formula of intensity of buoyancy force or buoyancy.
Category: Classical Physics

[225] viXra:1802.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18

A Theoretical Framework of Absolute/Relative Motion and the Speed of Light

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[224] viXra:1802.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 06:55:39

Question 431 : A Definite Integral for Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral for pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[223] viXra:1802.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 06:58:12

Question 433 : Some Integration Questions

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents some integrals involving pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[222] viXra:1802.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 07:03:38

Ramanujan's Roots

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 8 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[221] viXra:1802.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 06:06:55

Platonic Solids and Elementary Particles

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[220] viXra:1802.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 07:27:20

Light-Emitting Nanoantennas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[219] viXra:1802.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-26 07:29:06

Dark Energy Decoded

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that large-scale structures will attain a constant recessional velocity in distant future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[218] viXra:1802.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 08:20:52

Single-Dot Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Physicists Bart van Dam and Katerina Newell (Dohnalova) from the UvA Institute of Physics, in collaboration with Emanuele Marino and Peter Schall as well as colleagues from the University of Twente and Jiljin University in China, have shown that a single nanoparticle can be used to emit different colours of light. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[217] viXra:1802.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 10:37:06

Pragmatic Proof of God

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 33 Pages. Scientific GOD Journal, August 2017, Volume 8 | Issue 7 pp 700-733

Under the panoply that natural science and theology are not mutually exclusive, but opposite ends of a broad spectrum of human epistemology; what constitutes a pragmatic proof of God? The most primitive tool of epistemology, Myth and Superstition, which guided civilization for thousands of years, still exists to a surprising degree in modern cultures. The second tool, Logic and Reason can produce egregiously valid arguments both for and against the existence of God. The third tool of epistemology, empiricism, since Galileo has been the basis of modern experimental science; but the challenge of repeatability remains between objective and subjective modes of measurement and some experiments are deemed impossible to perform. The fourth tool, completing epistemology, transcendence, perhaps had secular origin in the noetic writings of ancient Greek philosopher Plato. It has always been possible to demonstrate the existence of God utilizing this fourth tool of epistemology, but because transcendence is generally subjective; it has not been acceptable by current definitions of pragmatic science or to nonbelievers unwilling/unable to achieve the required state-of-mind. Because of the lack of a rigorous model for a Physics of the Observer, and limitations imposed by the quantum uncertainty principle; the currently available tools of physical science have not allowed an objectively oriented empirical proof of God. This however, changes to an arguable degree with the addition of the 3rd regime of Natural Science - Unified Field Mechanics (Classical-Quantum-UFM). The Perennial Philosophy promotes the idea that all world religions are based on a single universal truth that promotes spiritual union with God. Stated another way, the Perennial Philosophy says: If there is a God he has provided a way for Man to find him. In this work, we review logical and metaphysical methods of fulfilling this premise; but most saliently provide an empirical protocol that for the first time in history is able to demonstrate the existence of a Life Principle tantamount to the Spirit of God as a physically real noumenon, hidden until now behind the uncertainty principle. Although this represents a major step forward, there remains ineffable properties of the Spirit of God unknowable to a temporal mind; and the subtleties of a new physical UFM noetic action principle will remain engendered with concomitant bias of interpretation in what is demonstrated depending on whether one is inclined or disinclined to believe in the existence of God. Ultimately mystical experience provides the only proof of God.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[216] viXra:1802.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 11:17:43

The Noetic Origin of Sexual Preference; An Integrative Cartesian, Jungian and Unified Field Mechanical Parameter Approach

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 53 Pages. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research, August 2017, Volume 8 Issue 7 pp. 537-554

The climate surrounding sexual preference is politically charged, and before the introduction of Noetic Field Theory; contemporary science has been unable to describe the complex framework for the origin of sexual preference, because science has not had either a comprehensive model of living systems or consciousness able to delineate the correspondence between biophysics and the noetic effect of the 3rd regime of unified field mechanics (UFM). This work begins reviewing aspects of psychology, biology and cognitive science, then develops an anthropic telergic teleology of mind-body interaction (physically real Cartesian interactive dualism) as the context for developing a pragmatic scientific model for the fundamental origin of sexual preference. The model utilizes archetypes originating in Jung’s concept of a collective unconscious which are also presumed to be physically real elements of mind. This so-called Noetic Theory (relying on spirit (chi, prana) as an inherent self-organized aspect of a vital field, as a physically real action principle predicts a prenatal stressor acting during a key stage of embryonic development typically under a panoply of one or both parents exhibiting a threshold (gradient of severity) personality disorder(s). The resultant action of this noetic effect orients the anima and animus archetypes as they are coupled into the biophysical substrate of the psyche (soul) and reverses, for the case of sexual preference, the normal orientation hierarchy of the noetic field within the individuals psychosphere. Initially, because of conceptual similarity, the periodic reversal of the Earth’s geomagnetic field by the force of solar wind on the dynamo at the Earth’s core is utilized as a metaphor to axiomatically illustrate the prenatal inversion of the Jungian anima and animus. This scenario is followed by a more technical and experimentally testable scientific description utilizing pertinent new principles related to the UFM domain discovery of physics of awareness.
Category: Physics of Biology

[215] viXra:1802.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 13:58:51

Angular Moments (Spins) of Wave Vortices (Loks). Refinements.

Authors: Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru http://universe100.narod.ru/ http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html (English)

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The spins of the loks (0,0), (1,0) and (1,1) are calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. Further conclusions were drawn on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[214] viXra:1802.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-19 20:25:56

Evidence of Gravity at the Most Basic Universe Level

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper is related to MC Physics theories and prior papers.

Four simple examples of the most basic mass particles known in the Universe are shown interacting with both external charges and neutral matter and causing attraction gravity forces. Each example shows that the cause of the net attraction force of gravity, even at this most basic level of the Universe, is due to: required separation distance between postulated mono-charges/ monocharges; charge induction caused differential distances for repel and attraction forces (Rr>Ra causing Fr<Fa); and dispersion of weaker charges of the subject neutral mass particle.
Category: Classical Physics

[213] viXra:1802.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26

Anomaly in the Equation of E=mc^2 © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s: If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2) If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3) If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4) The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[212] viXra:1802.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 17:27:55

11-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-11 (1 to 11), the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the Inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7 and 11 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. The simple prime numbers-11 are known as the 13-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[211] viXra:1802.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 17:39:12

Multidimensional Image Processing & Analysis in R/ripa/magick in the Context of Cryo-Em/tem/sem Images – an Insight Into 'R' Based Electron Microscopy(em) Image Processing Based on Mva.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Simple Technical Note on cryo-EM Image Processing using R Language

Researchers believe that an open-source programming language for statistical analysis “called R”,could certainly pave the way for solving demanding scientific applications like Cryo-EM image processing.As we see today, thousands of international scientists are participating in the R development community programs contributing towards the development of new tools and libraries.It is in this context,that the author intends to reap the benefits of R/RIPA/Magick Tools & Multivariate Analysis concept(MVA) to process Cryo-EM/TEM/SEM images.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[210] viXra:1802.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 18:53:04

The Theory of the Chain Reaction

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 6 Pages.

The “theory of the chain reaction” is a new theory, for the creation of the Universe, the Universes, the Antiuniverses and the whole Cosmos, from the elementary particles to infinity
Category: Astrophysics

[209] viXra:1802.0232 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-19 10:37:51

The General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis Linked To Biology

Authors: Mell Lenz, Baz Taylor
Comments: 7 Pages.

Using findings from the Lenz/Taylor Prediction Map, it is shown how the plot points of human development can be applied to star evolution. While durations may differ wildly, the basic principles and characteristics of evolution of both organisms share similar characteristics. From this, we can emphasize a quote from Mr. Jeffrey Wolynski (founder of The General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis); “We are connected to a stars evolution.” Further to that and on an individual level, we find that we as humans also mirror a stars evolution...
Category: Biochemistry

[208] viXra:1802.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 00:43:55

Electrostatics, Gravity, and Galactic Force

Authors: Jack Bidnik
Comments: 6 Pages.

Electrostatics, Gravity, and Galactic Force © US 2015 by Jack Bidnik This paper is a continuation of my paper entitled Gravitational Forces Revisited (GFR), http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0128 and may be considered as Chapter 2 of the concepts developed in that paper. Two corollaries of the derivation of Gs in GFR are elaborated here to show that the formula can be extended to include both the smallest and the largest masses and spaces. The same formula can give both the electrostatic force of the Hydrogen atom and also the force which counteracts the centrifugal force of large galaxies. I believe this development nullifies the most basic motive for postulating dark matter, which is that the gravitational force at such high speeds could not hold the galaxy together. Examples are given for galaxies of various size. The paper starts with continuing analysis of the mathematical conclusion in GFR that the derived force Ft is equivalent to the centripetal force of the orbit vo2/r. This analysis is perhaps superfluous since there is no other acceleration present radially than the one derived for Ft , but I present various looks at the math to dispel any nagging doubts. Another set of doubts to be dispelled involves the idea of frames of motion. It suffices to point out that when one uses the reduced mass, it is the equivalent of the motion of either mass in the frame of the other, since it is the equivalent of one mass being stationary.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[207] viXra:1802.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-08 05:56:37

New Concept of Space

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 7 Pages.

The perception of space in which objects and perhaps events have relative position and direction is one of first things people learn in their lives. Ultimately the space have always been important part of majority of physics theories, conceived as three linear infinite dimensions in classical mechanics or as four dimensional Einsteinian spacetime. If there is a force acting onto some object in space it would indicate presence of some force field as ultimate cause of the force itself. The contemporary physics would consider that all force fields found in the space are contained by that space. According to current main understanding in physics the space itself does not require any force field to be present. However there is no true evidence for existence of space without any force field(s) as well as there is no pure evidence for infinity of the space. It is only presumption. In contradiction to this very basic principle of contemporary physics, we here propose new concept that space and physical force field are mutually dependent entities of the same phenomena. If force field does not exist, then the corresponding space does not exist as well. And vice versa, if space does not exist, there is no force field present. As result of such principle it is possible to describe each specific force field with universal space equation, which has significant consequences.
Category: Classical Physics

[206] viXra:1802.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-15 08:32:33

Analysis of Corruption in Our Society

Authors: Arjun Dahal, Sujan Bista
Comments: 4 Pages.

Corruption is one of the major problems of present day world, that is intangible in itself, but, plays a major role in our daily life, which either, directly or indirectly, is effecting our lives. Through this paper, we have tried to classify the types of corruption under five major headings.
Category: Social Science

[205] viXra:1802.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 04:54:39

Computing Operational Matrices in Neutrosophic Environments: A Matlab Toolbox

Authors: Said Broumi, Le Hoang Son, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Ganeshsree Selvachandran
Comments: 9 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a generalization of classical set, fuzzy set, and intuitionistic fuzzy set by employing a degree of truth (T), a degree of indeterminacy (I), and a degree of falsehood (F) associated with an element of the dataset. One of the most essential problems is studying set-theoretic operators in order to be applied to practical applications.
Category: General Mathematics

[204] viXra:1802.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 04:56:17

IN-cross Entropy Based MAGDM Strategy under Interval Neutrosophic Set Environment

Authors: Shyamal Dalapati, Surapati Pramanik, Shariful Alam, Florentin Smarandache, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 15 Pages.

Cross entropy measure is one of the best way to calculate the divergence of any variable from the priori one variable. We define a new cross entropy measure under interval neutrosophic set (INS) environment, which we call IN-cross entropy measure and prove its basic properties. We also develop weighted IN-cross entropy measure and investigats its basic properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[203] viXra:1802.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 04:58:01

Interval Neutrosophic Sets Applied to Ideals in Bck/bci-Algebras

Authors: Seok-Zun Song, Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, we apply the notion of interval neutrosophic sets to ideal theory in BCK/BCI-algebras.
Category: General Mathematics

[202] viXra:1802.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 04:59:36

On Neutrosophic Semi Alpha Open Sets

Authors: Qays Hatem Imran, F. Smarandache, Riad K. Al-Hamido, R. Dhavaseelan
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we presented another concept of neutrosophic open sets called neutrosophic semi-alfa-open sets and studied their fundamental properties in neutrosophic topological spaces. We also present neutrosophic semi-alfa-interior and neutrosophic semi-alfa-closure and study some of their fundamental properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[201] viXra:1802.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-19 04:36:12

An Application of Single-Valued Neutrosophic Sets in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Gulfam Shahzadi, Muhammad Akram, Arsham Borumand Saeid
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we present the use of single-valued neutrosophic sets in medical diagnosis by using distance measures and similarity measures. Using interconnection between single-valued neutrosophic sets and symptoms of patient, we determine the type of disease. We define new distance formulas for single valued neutrosophic sets. We develop two new medical diagnosis algorithms under neutrosophic environment. We also solve a numerical example to illustrate the proposed algorithms and finally, we compare the obtained results.
Category: General Mathematics

[200] viXra:1802.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 05:02:31

Neutrosophic Soft Matrix and Its Application to Decision Making

Authors: Tuhin Bera, Nirmal Kumar Mahapatra
Comments: 13 Pages.

The motivation of this paper is to extend the concept of Neutrosophic soft matrix (NSM) theory. Some basic definitions of classical matrix theory in the parlance of neutrosophic soft set theory have been presented with proper examples. Then, a theoretical studies of some traditional operations of NSM have been developed. Finally, a decision making theory has been proposed by developing an appropriate solution algorithm, namely, score function algorithm and it has been illustrated by suitable examples.
Category: General Mathematics

[199] viXra:1802.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 05:03:51

On Separation Axioms in an Ordered Neutrosophic Bitopological Space

Authors: R. Narmada Devi, R. Dhavaseelan, S. Jafari
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of a new class of an ordered neutrosophic bitopological spaces. Besides giving some interesting properties of these spaces. We also prove analogues of Uryshon’s lemma and Tietze extension theorem in an ordered neutrosophic bitopological spaces.
Category: General Mathematics

[198] viXra:1802.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 05:05:48

Selection of Transportation Companies and Their Mode of Transportation for Interval Valued Data

Authors: Dalbinder Kour, Kajla Basu
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper presents selection of transportation companies and their mode of transportation for interval valued neutrosophic data. The paper focuses on the application of distance measures to select mode of transportation for transportation companies. The paper also presents the application of multi-criteria decision making method using weighted correlation coefficient and extended TOPSIS for transportation companies.
Category: General Mathematics

[197] viXra:1802.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 07:17:31

On the Energy Commutators in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

The solving the tasks of QM.
Category: Quantum Physics

[196] viXra:1802.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01

E=mc2 Dilemma

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[195] viXra:1802.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 19:52:27

S_theory (Electromagnetic Model of Universe)

Authors: Viktor Chibisov, Ivan Chibisov
Comments: 393 Pages.

S_theory belongs to the class of preon models of the structure of elementary particles from first-particles (the first brick). The basic idea of S_theory lies in the model for the formation of irst-particles of matter (simples) by stretching the electric vortices of virtual photons with a powerful magnetic field (PMF) of a bursting singularity into electromagnetic vortex-helixes. After the "shutdown" of the PMF, the vortex-spirals are shortened to resonance lengths (5 pcs.) and the longer ones (2 pcs.) fold into toroidal vortex-bagels, such as Zeldovich's anapoles. From Zel'dovich's anapoles, they are distinguished by the presence of an azimuthal electric vortex, which gives them a magnetic moment and an electric charge. From the formed spectrum of 2 standard sizes of simples-bagels and 3 standard sizes of simples-spirales S_models of formation of basic elementary particles, relic neutron, nucleosynthesis of isotope clouds, main nuclear reactions, neutron stars, black holes, particles of Dark matter are offered, and also to give an explanation reasons for the dispersal of galaxies (dark energy) and the dilemma of the imbalance of matter and antimatter in our Universe. The proposed S-models of these objects and the processes of their formation made it possible to establish the deterministic regularities of these processes, covering the era of the formation and evolution of the universe after the Big Bang. The proposed S-models of objects and the processes of their formation and transformation have an exclusively electromagnetic character, based on the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices. It was found that the theory of the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices (TEMV) is currently not fully developed, we had to postulate a number of TEMV provisions. In this paper, schemes for experimental verification of this postulates and consequences stemming from S-theory, such as the difference of masses of protons, neutrons and alpha particles in different isotopes, and the need to correct the reference masses of individual isotopes (in particular tritium) are proposed. An analysis of the appearance of virtual photons and the singularity at the time of the Big Bang led us to the assumption of a two-component space structure consisting of corpuscles containing related components K1 and K2, genealogically related to electric and magnetic vortices. The models of formation of virtual photons and the first singularity are given.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[194] viXra:1802.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56

Expansion of the Universe and Red Shift Theory.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[193] viXra:1802.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 10:12:33

The Cult of Mountains, Exact Geostructures, and Cybernetic Aspects of Physics

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 14 pages, Russian. Consciousness and Physical Reality, 2003, v. 8, N 5, pp. 40-51.

The main ideas of "Theory of Hyperobjects" (viXra:1207.0079) and new results. Mathematical (topological) modelling in mythology, with applications to geology. Some new classes of physical objects are described. Cybernetic level of geology (planetology) is demonstrated. The existence of the ideal preimage of the Earth is demonstrated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[192] viXra:1802.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 10:38:14

Existence Of Prime Numbers In Subsets Of The Oppermann's Intervals

Authors: ANIRILASY Méleste
Comments: 2 Pages.

We suggest that there exists, at least, one prime number in four intervals between n² and (n+1)² for any integer n 2 such that : all intervals are half-open; the excluded endpoints are multiples of n; the number of elements in each interval is equal to the least even upper bound for the biggest prime number strictly less than n. This conjecture is a strong form of Oppermann’s one.
Category: Number Theory

[191] viXra:1802.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 10:35:06

Why Renormalize if You Don’t Have To?

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 1 Page.

While the notion that it is better to avoid renormalization if one possibly can is an easy sell, the possibility that a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant quantum model has come over the horizon turns out to be a surprisingly hard sell.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[190] viXra:1802.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23

Theory of Everything=Philosophy of Everything+Physics of Everything Part 3 Final

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last, before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018. Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans, created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory, which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into a unified one. 2 Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926, suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others, would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe. This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the origin and the meaning of existence. What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In 3 entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism, such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[189] viXra:1802.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 01:25:45

Controlling Quantum States of Single Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[188] viXra:1802.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 01:50:17

Improving Quantum Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[187] viXra:1802.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 06:19:14

The Energy of Wave Vortices (Loks).

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 7 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru http://universe100.narod.ru/ http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html (English)

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The energy of the loks (0,0), (1,0) and (1,1) are calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. The first conclusions on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks are made.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[186] viXra:1802.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 08:45:30

Collective Spins Relax

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[185] viXra:1802.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 09:06:29

Hidden Superconducting State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[184] viXra:1802.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 10:12:18

Gaps in van der Waals Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Gaps in van der Waals Theory However, experimental support for theoretical modelling of the van der Waals interactions that hold these materials' layers together has been wanting. [15] The detection of handedness of electrons in a Weyl semimetal opens new experimental possibilities for studying and controlling these elusive massless particles and their quantum weirdness. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[183] viXra:1802.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 10:16:11

Limited Universe

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 2 Pages.

this world has limited applications
Category: Classical Physics

[182] viXra:1802.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 10:33:58

Laminine: the Water pH-Induction Phenomenon

Authors: Mark Krinker, Galina Pana
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper deals with an ability of Laminine to induce pH-variation in isolated water.The acidic shift was measured in the isolated container with water in spite of that routine mixing Laminine in water causes the alkaline-shift. The phenomenon is explained due to a reduction of the potential barrier between hydronium ions caused by local spinning fields produced by Laminine.
Category: Physics of Biology

[181] viXra:1802.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 12:14:36

5-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-5, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3,5 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-5 and simple composite number-5 The simple prime numbers-5 are known as the 7-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[180] viXra:1802.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 13:28:11

Three Photons Interacting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[179] viXra:1802.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-23 15:44:27

Test of General Relativity Theory by Investigating the Conservation of Energy in a Relativistic Free Fall in the Uniform Gravitational Field

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 6 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the accelerated motion simulating the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in an accelerated motion obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss. The energy loss for a true free fall in a uniform gravitational field of a curved space-time is also investigated. The energy conservation law is satisfied only for the MTG.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[178] viXra:1802.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-18 15:46:04

Solving Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures as Incompletely Predictable Problems

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 45 Pages. This research paper contains proposed proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

Riemann hypothesis refers to the proposal on Riemann zeta function whereby all of its nontrivial zeros are (mathematically) conjectured to lie on the critical line or [equivalently stated in this research paper] all of its nontrivial zeros are (geometrically) conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts. This proposal will also culminate in allowing us to secondarily explain the closely related Gram points of this function. Involving proposals on infinity magnitude of both prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[177] viXra:1802.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 22:01:15

La Cosmologie Moderne :Une Déviation Intellectuelle Majeure

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 32 Pages. published by CEP (Center of Prospective study) n° 78-79 (March-June 2017), and Bulletin de l'académie Internationale Concorde (2018) review (2018).

The basic Cosmos concept is wiped out in our epoch, contrary to old traditions. The main cosmic phenomena, the galactic recession shows up a length, not a time as widely professed, which is related, via a canonical factor 2, to three main fundamental constants, the light celerity being excluded : three minutes of a mandatory elementary calculation leads to this Observable Universe radius 13.812 milliards light-years. Now the official cosmology says that the Universe age is precisely 13.8 milliards years. The two approaches are concordant, but, as fundamental constants are time-invariant, this excludes the Primordial Big Bang, replacing it by a Permanent Bang, a matter-antimatter oscillation at frequency 10^104 Hz. Modern mathematics have not recognized the Eddington's number as fundamental, while ancient Egypt has represented its decomposition 137 = 3 + 7 + 127, the Catalan-Mersenne series, in the Hypostyle Room of the Amon temple in Karnak. The following term 2^127 gives back the above Universe radius, with the unity for which the Bohr radius is about 137 : the electron wavelength. The couple electron-positron is so the basis of all, as predicted by the forgotten Eddington's statistical Fundamental Theory.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[176] viXra:1802.0196 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-16 15:58:29

A Note on a Problem Invoving a Square in a Curvilinear Triangle

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 3 Pages. The paper is considering a problem in Wasan geometry.

A problem involving a square in the curvilinear triangle made by two touching congruent circles and their common tangent is generalized.
Category: Geometry

[175] viXra:1802.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-17 22:02:20

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》 4. General Asymmetric Fields of Ontology and Cosmology

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: Pages. This article is replaced by http://vixra.org/abs/1810.0016

Abstract: By discovering Asymmetric World Equations, this manuscript formulates astonishing results: the Third Universal Field Equations, which produce a consequence of the laws of asymmetric conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of Ontology and Cosmology as the following remarks:

  1. Asymmetric Flux Commutations and General Relativity - Interpret the asymmetric entangling commutation and General Relativity
  2. Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology - Reveal the law of asymmetric conservation of scalar entangling commutation of the physical supremacy.
  3. Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology - Decipher the law of asymmetric conservation of scalar entangling commutation of the virtual supremacy. 
  4. Motion Dynamics of Cosmology - Reveal the law of asymmetric conservation of vector entangling commutation of the physical supremacy.
  5. Field Equations of Cosmology - Decipher the law of asymmetric conservation of vector entangling commutation of the virtual supremacy. 

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “Universal and Unified Field Theory”.


Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[174] viXra:1802.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 02:05:51

Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. Отчего покраснели планеты Красная почва внутренних планет Солнечной системы является кометной пылью. Спутник Юпитера Европа является остатком кометы.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Красная почва внутренних планет Солнечной системы является кометной пылью. Спутник Юпитера Европа является остатком кометы.
Category: Astrophysics

[173] viXra:1802.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 02:16:09

Nikitin I.v., Nikitin V.N. and Then Already Egg! at the Beginning there Was Information, and Then Already Her Materialization!

Authors: Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V.N.
Comments: 1 Page.

At the beginning there was information, and then already her materialization!
Category: Astrophysics

[172] viXra:1802.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-16 14:52:45

Rank Regression with Normal Residuals using the Gibbs Sampler

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

Yu (2000) described the use of the Gibbs sampler to estimate regression parameters where the information available in the form of depended variables is limited to rank information, and where the linear model applies to the underlying variation beneath the ranks. The approach uses an imputation step, which constitute nested draws from truncated normal distributions where the underlying variation is simulated as part of a broader Bayesian simulation. The method is general enough to treat rank information that represents ties or partial orderings.
Category: Statistics

[171] viXra:1802.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 21:46:19

Evolution Linked to String Theory

Authors: Mell Lenz, Baz Taylor
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Lenz/Taylor theory is a prediction model derived from human development and suggests that the unification of several sciences including String Theory may be undeniable when placed into a cohesive context. For the purpose of this paper, String Theory was used comparatively for the overall concept and provides for it a more meaningful context. 5 stages of space and 5 stages of awareness... together they equal 10 stages of life and 2 stages of birth and death creating 12 stages (with 1 and 12 representing life and death respectively, in the broader sense of the Universe recycling matter) happening simultaneously. “We looked inside Pandora’s Box and found hope.” Mell Lenz
Category: Mind Science

[170] viXra:1802.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 00:28:31

The Quantum as Backwards Time, and How This Permits a First-Ever Working Algebraic Quantum Gravity

Authors: Jonathan Deutsch
Comments: 9 Pages.

ABSTRACT THE QUANTUM AS BACKWARDS TIME, AND HOW THIS PERMITS A FIRST-EVER WORKING ALGEBRAIC QUANTUM GRAVITY By Jonathan Deutsch Backwards time is inferred to exist from the superluminal implications of the universe’s proven non-locality. It exists as well in the standard quantum-mechanical formalism as an “advanced solution” to the Schrodinger wave equation. Regrettably, backwards time is ignored by most physicists, students, and by the general public. Very, very recently, however, careful experiments performed in Europe have confirmed the existence of backwards time in certain quantum situations. But nature makes absolutely no distinction at all between the quantum and the classical realms! Therefore, it won’t be long before backwards time is experimentally confirmed for you and I. We begin by creating and then using three original postulates: 1)The deBroglie wavelength (in centimeters) associated with the proton is really equal to –1. 2)The mass of the proton (in grams) is really equal to +1. 3)The time (In seconds) it takes light to travel the deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton is really equal to i, the square root of –1. With these three postulates, we demonstrate that the quantum, h, could really be a unit of backwards time. The inscrutability of quantum mechanics would then be seen as entirely due to the inscrutability of backwards time. We then combine Newton’s equation for universal gravity with the three postulates to create the first algebraic equation for quantum gravity that works for planets, quanta and everything in-between. The new gravity equation contains four elements: 1)The tiny quantum, h 2)The minute deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton 3)The miniscule time it takes light to travel that distance 4)A variable - - a coefficient for h - - that’s actually composite “quantum Newton”! We then demonstrate that this new equation magically reproduces, exactly, Newton’s classical gravity results! We begin to realize that the quantum, h, lies hidden in EVERY classical equation - - gravity, electromagnetism, etc. Therefore, classical physics becomes fully quantized too, uniting for the first time the very large - - classical physics, including gravity - - with the very small - - quantum physics - - into one essentially indivisible whole. We conclude by seeing that spacetime is the universe’s prime mover. Though invisible, it is physically real and powerful enough to create all the matter and all the gravity in the entire universe. What’s thought of as the geometric backdrop for matter is really the creator of it as well. Matter affects (warps) spacetime causatively in the forwards time-direction in Einstein’s General Relativity. And spacetime affects (creates) matter in the backwards time-direction equally significantly. Thus, a completely new window to understanding matter and gravity is opened up to us. But the outstanding feature of all this is backwards time - - a healing backwards time. Does the omnipresent existence of backwards time hold out any hope that we can get younger as we age? We strongly believe that such is the case, both quantumly and at the human, macro level. Older and younger simultaneously IS very quantum-like, after all. Could they somehow be EQUIVALENT? Again, we strongly believe that the answer is in the affirmative, and is mathematically provable! I encourage readers to respond in the Disqus comment section on the Abstract page. Or contact me personally at spqrwin@outlook.com. I will reply to all. My next article, to be published in March or April, intends to remove quantum contradictions by proving that supposed opposites are really identical. KEYWORDS Advanced solution: a backwards-time solution Backwards time: time running in reverse, from present to past; future to present; or future to past. This can be continuously, or discontinuously - - i.e., JUMPING to a much earlier time. c: the speed of light Classical physics: the science and mathematics of relatively large entities - - e.g., apples, people and planets. It also includes electromagnetism (See Entry.) Coefficient: the number (amount) of something, e.g., for 5 quanta (5h), the number “5”. A coefficient needn’t be a whole number, but it is, or should be, a positive number. deBroglie wavelength: the wavelength associated with every particle, according to Prince Louis deBroglie, famous 20th-century theoretical quantum physicist. Whether or not this deBroglie wavelength is physically real or not is a matter of some dispute, but the consensus leans toward the negative. Electromagnetism: the classical science of visible light and of invisible rays such as X-rays, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetism has a quantum counterpart. General Relativity: Einstein’s theory of gravity (See the Entry for Gravity.) Its two essential ideas are: 1)Gravity is acceleration, not a force. 2)Gravity is matter warping (curving) spacetime, rather than “spooky action at a distance” - - one piece of matter affecting another without touching it. Gravity: for Newton, the attractive force between any two pieces of matter. For Einstein, it’s the warping (curving) of spacetime, caused by the presence of matter. h: the quantum of action, also known as Planck’s constant. It is absolutely central to all of quantum physics. Newton’s equation for universal gravity: the product of the two masses involved, divided by the square of the distance between them, multiplied by the strength of gravity. Non-locality: the proven fact that our world is supported by an invisible reality which links all points in space, making extremely large distances seem “on top of each other” - - i.e., very small. This means that SOME form of communication faster than light-speed exists, implying that backwards time exists for our whole universe. Non-locality does not diminish with distance. Postulate: an assumption, at least initially unproven. Our theory contains just four - - all eventually proven true. Quantized: measured in quanta - - i.e., in units of h (See Entry for h.) - - measured discontinuously, in little “chunks” or “packets”. Quantum gravity: the as-yet unaccomplished union of Einstein’s theory of gravity - - General Relativity - - and quantum mechanics. We firmly believe that our theory takes a huge first step in this direction. Quantum mechanics: that area of quantum physics which deals with the motion of extremely small subatomic particles. Quantum physics: the science and mathematics of very small subatomic particles - - e.g., protons, electrons, neutrons and neutrinos - - and their antiparticles. Schrodinger’s wave equation: the quantum mechanics equation that many physicists consider to be the only physical reality in the universe. Some physicists even believe that THIS is not physically real either. Superluminal: faster than light-speed. Unitless: a “pure” number - - e.g., 20.5 - - as opposed to 20.5 CENTIMETERS, in units Universal G: the strength of gravity - - a universal constant Variable: an entity with two or more possible values, as opposed to a constant which has one value. Variables are heavily used in algebra.
Category: Quantum Physics

[169] viXra:1802.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 03:22:43

Electron. New Information on the Material World Structure - New Issues

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Discovery of electron and neutron structures resulted in obtaining more information on the material world’s structure and at the same time revealed that the electrical charge of electron might be not a global constant.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[168] viXra:1802.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 04:06:59

Energy to Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 38 Pages.

'Energy to Matter' (E2M) evolved from an energy-centric interpretation of electromagnetism into a descriptive explanation of the nature and structure of matter. It proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure and bonding, and to provide an explanation for Beta Decay, Electron Capture, Positron-Electron annihilation, Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and the phenomena of Gravity. The E2M models for atom structure challenge the view that the nucleus is an amorphous spherical grouping of nucleons surrounded by electrons moving at close to the speed of light in mathematically defined 'spdf' orbitals around the nucleus, and thus requires a rethink of many basic concepts. E2M is a structured, bottom-up, explanation-focused approach with an emphasis on providing a detailed visual presentation (it contains more than 40 explanatory diagrams within its 38 pages). It doesn’t claim to have all the answers or to be 100% correct – no model can claim that. It does, however, provide a logically consistent intuitive theory which, as far as can be ascertained, is not contradicted by any scientific observations regarding the nature of normal matter. It is difficult for any new theory to gain traction, particularly if it challenges the status quo. But it is hoped that everyone, regardless of academic background and science disposition, will give it a fair and impartial hearing, and that dissenters and supporters alike will see fit to provide the reasons for their opinions relating to E2M.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[167] viXra:1802.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-10 14:58:58

Structuur in de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 17 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1802.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 06:33:28

Unification of Gravitation and Electrostatics

Authors: Misheck Kirimi
Comments: 13 Pages.

Unification of Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is explored. The similarities and the differences in these laws have remained unexplained since 1784 when Coulomb published the latter law. It is noted here that no past research has paid attention to the fact that ‘gravitational mass’ (M1M2) and ‘electric charge’ (Q1Q2) are the only physical parameters that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws do not share. The observation reduces ‘unification of gravity and electricity’ to ‘unification of mass and electric charge’. Despite the simplicity of this observation, physics literature is silent about the relation of mass to electric charge. Little effort has been devoted to this subject because the meaning of charge is ambiguous – charge has never been explained in terms of known physical parameters. An intelligible explanation of charge is suggested here. Based on the explanation, it is demonstrated that mass and charge are different aspects of the electron. Consequently, it is shown that gravitation and electrostatics are different facets of a common phenomenon. It is concluded that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary units of matter, i.e. matter is nothing but equal positive and negative grains of electricity. The results solve a major problem in physics, namely the unification of gravitation and electrostatics, and also provide a theoretical foundation for attempts to manipulate gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[165] viXra:1802.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 07:36:33

Axions have Fewer Places to Hide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[164] viXra:1802.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 07:40:11

Electromagnetic-Power-based Modal Classification, Modal Expansion, and Modal Decomposition for Perfect Electric Conductors

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 5 Pages.

Traditionally, all working modes of a perfect electric conductor are classified into resonant modes, inductive modes, and capacitive modes, and the resonant modes are further classified into internal resonant modes and external resonant modes. In this paper, the resonant modes are alternatively classified into intrinsically resonant modes and non-intrinsically resonant modes, and the intrinsically resonant modes are further classified into non-radiative intrinsically resonant modes and radiative intrinsically resonant modes. Based on the modal expansion corresponding to this new modal classification, an alternative modal decomposition method is proposed. In addition, it is also proved that: all intrinsically resonant modes and all non-radiative intrinsically resonant modes constitute linear spaces respectively, but all resonant modes and all radiative intrinsically resonant modes cannot constitute spaces respectively.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[163] viXra:1802.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 08:47:12

Electrons Elusive Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The detection of handedness of electrons in a Weyl semimetal opens new experimental possibilities for studying and controlling these elusive massless particles and their quantum weirdness. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[162] viXra:1802.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56

The Contribution of the Energy-Momentum Pseudotensors to the Total Mass is Positive

Authors: R. I. Khrapko
Comments: 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[161] viXra:1802.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 09:49:17

Quantum Entanglement Fingerprints

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Aleksandra Dimić from the University of Belgrade and Borivoje Dakić from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna have developed a novel method for which even a single experimental run suffices to prove the presence of entanglement. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[160] viXra:1802.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-24 07:51:43

Lifetime of the Neutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[159] viXra:1802.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-03 10:14:52

A Practical Perspective It's About Time

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 16 Pages. I welcome feedback at stjohntheodore@gmail.com

The purpose of this essay is to present a perspective on the meaning of “time”– a perspective that was once considered obvious but now has become a subject of debate. If time is something that was created along with the rest of the universe in the big bang, then it is fair to ask the question, “what happened before the beginning of time”. In this paper, by treating time as a measure of motion, relations in quantum physics and relativistic physics can be integrated into a single model that makes practical sense of the particle-wave duality, the transformation of future into past, the reason that the speed of light is not relative to its source, and the Schrodinger wave equation. Finally, it provides a practical basis for studying the holographic nature of physical reality and the field of consciousness.
Category: Quantum Physics

[158] viXra:1802.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 10:10:56

Diophantine Quintuples over Quadratic Rings

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 11 Pages.

A Diophantine m-tuple is a set of m distinct non-zero integers such that the product of any two elements of the set is one less than a square. The definition can be generalised to any commutative ring. A computational search is undertaken to find Diophantine 5-tuples (quintuples) over the ring of quadratic integers Z[√D] for small positive and negative D. Examples are found for all positive square-free D up to 22, but none are found for the complex rings including the Gaussian integers.
Category: Number Theory

[157] viXra:1802.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 11:48:27

SCÉNARIO Pour L'origine DE la MATIÈRE

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 pages. «SCÉNARIO POUR L'ORIGINE DE LA MATIÈRE» is the French version of «SCENARIO FOR THE ORIGIN OF MATTER» on viXra.org/abs/1802.0171

Comment est apparue la matière ? D’où vient la masse de la matière ? Les physiciens des particules ont fait appel aux connaissances acquises sur la matière et l’espace pour imaginer un scénario standard afin de fournir des réponses satisfaisantes à ces grandes interrogations. La pensée dominante pour expliquer l’absence d’antimatière dans la nature est qu’on avait un univers initialement symétrique fait de matière et d’antimatière et qu’une dissymétrie aurait suffi pour qu’il reste plus de matière ayant constitué notre monde que d’antimatière. Cette dissymétrie serait issue d’une anomalie dans le nombre de neutrinos provenant de réactions nucléaires qui laissent supposer l’existence d’un nouveau type de neutrino titanesque qui dépasserait les possibilités du modèle standard et justifierait l’absence d’antimatière dans le macrocosme. Nous pensons qu’un autre scénario pourrait mieux expliquer pour quelle raison on observe que de la matière. Il implique la validation de la solution d’énergie négative de l’équation de Dirac, issue elle-même de l’équation de l’énergie d’Einstein. La théorie de la Relation décrit un océan d’énergie négative avec création de paires particule/antiparticule réelles. L’origine des masses des particules proviendrait de cet océan. Un mécanisme physique permettrait leur séparation en sens inverse, d’où il résulterait un enrichissement de la matière au détriment de l’océan. La matière serait favorisée sans avoir recours à la négation ou l’annihilation de l’énergie négative, sans avoir besoin d’une violation de CP (différence de comportement entre particule et antiparticule) qui serait responsable de l’asymétrie matière/antimatière dans l’univers. Et sans l’apport salvateur d’un neutrino obèse indétectable : sa recherche nous apparaît plus un acte désespéré vers une « catastrophe ultramassive » qu’un effort véritable pour essayer de découvrir ce qui s’est vraiment passé.
Category: Quantum Physics

[156] viXra:1802.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 12:21:45

History of the paper "Towards a More Well-Founded Cosmology"

Authors: Hartmut Traunmüller
Comments: 12 Pages.

Scientific journals do not normally publish any paper that directly discredits the currently accepted doctrine within their field, no matter how wrong it is. This is because referees can easily identify deviations from current doctrine and established practice, while it requires a higher intellectual effort to assimilate a new point of view and to follow a non-traditional path of reasoning. Referees naturally tend to avoid this extra effort. Students, researchers and editors are aware of this and so are likely to choose a mode of action that does not threaten their own carrier. Thus, they prefer to follow the mainstream. These circumstances are apt to preclude fundamental progress in science for long periods of time. This is merely a case study about the history of a paper that illustrates this problem.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[155] viXra:1802.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 13:03:54

Silicon Spin Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[154] viXra:1802.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 06:16:03

Refutation of Tarski's Undefinability of Truth Theorem © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

This refutes Tarski's theorem for the undefinability of truth as: "no definable and sound extension of Peano Arithmetic can be complete"; or in abstract terms, "the proof of a system cannot be demonstrated by itself". Tarski's theorem is an arguable equivalent to Godel's incompleteness theorem, as based on the liar's paradox. [Remark added later: Tarski's theorem as used since about 1936 is an underpinning of quantum theory and a universal justification for atheism.]
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[153] viXra:1802.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 06:19:46

Scenario for the Origin of Matter

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 Pages.

Where did matter in the universe come from? Where does the mass of matter come from? Particle physicists have used the knowledge acquired in matter and space to imagine a standard scenario to provide satisfactory answers to these major questions. The dominant thought to explain the absence of antimatter in nature is that we had an initially symmetrical universe made of matter and antimatter and that a dissymmetry would have sufficed for more matter having constituted our world than antimatter. This dissymmetry would arise from an anomaly in the number of neutrinos resulting from nuclear reactions which suggest the existence of a new type of titanic neutrino who would exceed the possibilities of the standard model and would justify the absence of antimatter in the macrocosm. We believe that another scenario could better explain why we observe only matter. It involves the validation of the negative energy solution of the Dirac equation, itself derived from the Einstein energy equation. The theory of Relation describes a negative energy ocean with the creation of real particle/antiparticle pairs. The origin of the masses of the particles would come from this ocean. A physical mechanism would allow their separation in the opposite direction and, therefore, the matter would be enriched at the expense of the ocean. The matter would be favored without resorting to negation or annihilation of negative energy, without the need for a CP (the behavioral difference between particle and antiparticle) violation that would be responsible for matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. And without the savior contribution of an undetectable obese neutrino: his search appears to us more a desperate act towards an "ultra-massive catastrophe" than a real effort to try to discover what really happened.
Category: Quantum Physics

[152] viXra:1802.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 06:25:55

Earth Interior Theory Could be Wrong Completely

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Alternative explanation for differences of propagation of seismic waves in Earth interior is presented in short.
Category: Geophysics

[151] viXra:1802.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-27 08:26:59

A Simple Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory That Predicts the Same Light Bending as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein’s theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron and proton beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton’s theory. This quantum gravity theory also seems to predict that for masses below the Planck mass, we are dealing with quantum probabilities and gravity force expectations. This may explain the difference between the strong and weak force – the difference is simply related to a probability factor at the Planck time scale. We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive ob jects.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] viXra:1802.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 08:39:29

Theory of Everything, Ultimate Reality and the End of Humanity: Extended Sustainability by the Universal Science of Complexity

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 5 pages, abstract and extended abstract of a book, https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/theory-of-everything,-ultimate-reality-and-the-end-of-humanity/isbn/978-3-659-31673-9

Instead of postulated fixed structures and abstract principles of usual positivistic science, the unreduced diversity of living world reality is consistently derived as dynamically emerging results of unreduced interaction process development, starting from its simplest configuration of two coupled homogeneous protofields. The dynamically multivalued, or complex and intrinsically chaotic, nature of these real interaction results extends dramatically the artificially reduced, dynamically single-valued projection of standard theory and solves its stagnating old and accumulating new problems, “mysteries” and “paradoxes” within the unified and causally complete picture of intrinsically evolving, dynamically complex reality. The permanently unfolding complexity progress thus revealed is fundamentally unlimited and does not need to stop at the directly observed diversity of usual matter complexity. The exciting, but rigorously substantiated and objectively inevitable prospects of further civilisation complexity development towards its superior levels of genuine sustainability and global Noosphere are outlined, with practically important conclusions for today’s critical problem solution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[149] viXra:1802.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 08:46:18

Cosmology Without a Cosmological Constant.

Authors: John Hunter
Comments: 5 pages + references and appendices, total 14 pages.

In order to deal with the coincidence problem a new scalefactor-redshift relation is considered. With the new relation a constant rate of expansion with no cosmological constant matches observations well. There is thus the possibility that the dark energy phenomenon is an illusion caused by the use of an incorrect relation. The new relation arises naturally in a cosmological model which expands - yet appears static, incorporating the perfect cosmological principle. It is found that the new relation also leads to a natural resolution of the tension between Hubble constant values from the distance ladder and Cosmic Background Radiation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[148] viXra:1802.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 08:55:50

Stock Market Quantum Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Traditionally, a quantum harmonic oscillator model is used to describe the tiny vibrations in a diatomic molecule, but the description is also universal in the sense that it can be extended to a variety of other situations in physics and beyond. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[147] viXra:1802.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-28 06:03:01

|00>+|11>=|01>+|10>?

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 2 Pages.

Consider a four-dimensional Hilbert space H over C in which quantum states consisting of two binary quantum states are represented as |00> = (1, 0, 1, 0), |01> = (1, 0, 0, 1), |10> = (0, 1, 1, 0) and |11> = (0, 1, 0, 1). Then, |00> + |11> = |01> + |10> = (1, 1, 1, 1), which is a quantum mechanical proof that there is no such thing as quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[146] viXra:1802.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 05:27:36

An Amplified Standard Model

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) consists of 16 matter and force particles: six quark matter particles (up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top); six lepton matter particles (electron, muon, tau, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, and tau-neutrino); and four force particles (photon, W/Z’s, gluon, and Higgs). Although the SM is the gold standard of particle physics, it is inadequate because it: does not emphasize Higgs particles’ supremacy; does not differentiate between more important permanent and less important transient particles; defines only a single Higgs force; does not include the graviton; and does not include dark matter, dark energy, supersymmetry, and super supersymmetry of Higgs particles. Via amplification of four independent theories (superstring, particle creation, Higgs forces or bosons, and spontaneous symmetry breaking), the SM was amplified to Fig. 6 Fundamental SM/supersymmetric/super supersymmetric matter and force particles containing 64 matter and force particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[145] viXra:1802.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 05:17:20

Solving the Dark Energy Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Forty-five years ago this month, a telescope tucked inside a 14-story, 500-ton dome atop a mile-high peak in Arizona took in the night sky for the first time and recorded its observations in glass photographic plates. [23] The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[144] viXra:1802.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-23 01:10:09

Tunguska Explosion Revisited

Authors: Mikhail Kovalyov
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we discuss the previously unnoticed connection of the Tunguska explosion to natural events decades or even centuries long: 1) the third geomagnetic maximum appeared not too far from the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion in the 19th century and has been moving towards the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion along a straight line since 1908; 2) the magnetic North Pole is moving along the path leading to the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion, 3) all magnitude > or = 7.6 earthquakes sufficiently far from the ocean form an arrow pointing towards the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion; 4) the Tunguska explosion occurred at the end of the twisted portion in the path of the magnetic North Pole and at the time when magnitude > or =8.2 earthquakes and VEI > or = 5 volcanic eruptions recovered correlation with syzygies.
Category: Geophysics

[143] viXra:1802.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 08:13:39

Path for Quantum Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[142] viXra:1802.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 09:01:28

Thermodynamics in Quantum Territory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[141] viXra:1802.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 10:14:35

Computer Simulation of Bell Test Experiment Based on a Classical Wave Model

Authors: Alvydas Jakeliunas
Comments: 10 Pages.

Here we present computer simulation of Bell test experiment based on classical wave model of light.
Category: Classical Physics

[140] viXra:1802.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 13:37:08

A Brief Note on Why there is Something Rather Than Nothing

Authors: H.Q. Armstrong
Comments: 1 Page.

Existence supersedes non-existence
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[139] viXra:1802.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 14:05:08

Laminine: Spiritual-Related Physical Manifestation

Authors: Mark Krinker, Galina Pana
Comments: 5 Pages.

A similarity between the records of the remote spiritual, mental-induction experiments and inducing actions of Laminine, for the same type of detectors, has been revealed during the experiments in 2017.
Category: Physics of Biology

[138] viXra:1802.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-14 09:08:19

Generalized Conjecture on the Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Réjean Labrie
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract: Let N, n and k be integers larger than 1. Then for all N there exists a minimum threshold k such that for n>=N, if we cut the sequence of consecutive integers from 1 to n*(n+k) into n+k slices of length n, we always find at least a prime number in each slice. It follows that π(n*(n+k)) > π(n*(n+k-1)) > π(n*(n+k-2)) > π(n*(n+k-3))> ...> π(2n)> π(n) where π(n) is the quantity of prime numbers smaller than or equal to n.
Category: Number Theory

[137] viXra:1802.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 01:34:32

New Synthesis of the Special Theory of Relativity a. Einstein

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: 58 Pages.

The estimation obtained in this work convincingly confirms that, due to the errors previously committed in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, the resulting mathematical transformation is erroneous and the two physical systems described in the special theory of relativity are not inertial systems.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[136] viXra:1802.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 02:52:00

Back to the Moon and on to the Stars

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

This is a copy of a comment I sent to ABC TV about their "Catalyst" program on 13/02/2018. That comment was limited to 1,500 words but readers get a bonus here: the comment's been expanded to 1,900 words. Professor Duffy's comment in "Catalyst" about using the Moon as a launching pad to Mars, then the stars, is a great dream for our future. But our present slow rockets aren't very convenient for travel to the stars. I can see 3 better ways - each is faster than the previous one. (1) is the controversial EmDrive which, through future application of Maxwell's and Einstein's theories as well as the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, may not only see huge benefits for spaceflight but also huge benefits to many areas of life for the average person who never journeys to space. (2) is the combining of a 2009 electrical-engineering experiment at America's Yale University with the ideas of Albert Einstein to produce a type of wormhole, or shortcut through space-time. (3) is mathematical – the use of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem in future space-time travel (there's no cause for concern if you're not trained in maths – it's explained in English).
Category: Astrophysics

[135] viXra:1802.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 06:33:34

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 9 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden technische Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[134] viXra:1802.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 07:47:03

Elements of Geostatistics

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 47 Pages. In French.

It is a short lectures of Geostatistics giving some elements of this field for third-year students of the Geomatics license of the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis.
Category: Statistics

[133] viXra:1802.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 09:04:38

Quantum Effects for Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Researchers drawing on work conducted as part of the PAPETS project, explain in the journal Physical Review Letters how they recently managed to exploit temporality for quantum computation tasks performed on dynamic random networks. [36] An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35] A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[132] viXra:1802.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 09:09:34

YouTube University

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

YouTube University By Ricardo.gil@sbcglobal.net 2015-2017 The objective of this paper is to share some of the Videos I have viewed that has quenched my thirst for knowledge. This is dedicated to @Phil Gibbs who published my papers on ViXra after Dr. Bjorn Poonen from MIT suggest me to do so but Dr. Poonen told me to clean them up but I was to lazy to clean them up and published anyway. The problem I had was that I tried in vein to publish on arxiv and could no get sponsored. I grant permission to any body for the thirst for knowledge to view my watch past or current watch later list and or history. Google Login:Ricardo.gil@sbcglobal.net PW: r2751275g5! https://www.youtube.com/feed/history https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=WL https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=LLuxJdpHodkbF9x_4CNk-tNw References http://vixra.org/author/ricardo_gil Note: Off with their heads.
Category: Education and Didactics

[131] viXra:1802.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 10:10:47

Topological Photonic Routing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[130] viXra:1802.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 10:40:02

Mass of the W Boson

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[129] viXra:1802.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 11:26:07

Magnetic Materials in Power Transformation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[128] viXra:1802.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 13:59:40

Electrons Excite Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The NEEC effect occurs when a charged atom captures an electron, giving the atom's nucleus enough energy to jump to a higher excited state. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] viXra:1802.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 14:37:55

Observations on Poulet Numbers Having Only Odd Digits Based on Their Reversals

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

The set of Poulet numbers having only odd digits is: 1333333, 1993537, 3911197, 5351537, 5977153, 7759937, 11777599...(22 from the first 7196 Poulet numbers belong to this set). Question: is this sequence infinite? Observations: the numbers n*P + R(P) – n respectively P + n*R(P) - n, where R(P) is the reversal of P and n positive integer, are often primes. Examples: for P = 1333333, the number 1333333 + 3333331 – 1 = 4666663, prime; also 3*1333333 + 3333331 – 3 = 7333327, prime; also 5*1333333 + 3333331 – 5 = 9999991, prime. For the same P, the number 1333333 + 2*3333331 - 2 = 7999993, prime; also the number 1333333 + 4*3333331 - 4 = 14666653, prime.
Category: Number Theory

[126] viXra:1802.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 01:15:44

Vselenochka of the Abnormal Help Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. Everything is Simple, How in the Fairy Tale About Doctor Aybolit! Vselenochka of the Abnormal Help of Annunak – a Prototype of the First-Aid Kit of Doctor Aybolit of People of Earth!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Everything is simple, how in the fairy tale about doctor Aybolit! Vselenochka of the abnormal help of annunak – a prototype of the first-aid kit of doctor Aybolit of people of Earth!
Category: Astrophysics

[125] viXra:1802.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 02:22:05

Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and Unified Field Theory (Second Version)

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 15 Pages. In 2000 I published in Russian a brochure "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and a Unified Field Theory": http://viXra.org/abs/1801.0305. Now I present the English translation of version II of the brochure with minor differences from the version 2000 (

Lorentz transformations in their originally more general form, i.e. with the scale factor are considered. It is shown, that H. Lorenz, A. Poincare, and A. Einstein put this factor equal to one without proper foundations. It is clarified the physical sense of this factor – he describes the Doppler effect. As the result the paradoxes of the special theory of relativity are removed, grandiose simplifications occur in GR and the natural path to the construction of unified field theory is opening.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[124] viXra:1802.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 02:20:28

Primes of the Form N∙P+R(P)-N Where P Primes Having Only Odd Digits and R(P) Their Reversals

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I noticed that the numbers n*P + R(P) – n respectively P + n*R(P) - n, where P are Poulet numbers having only odd digits, R(P) the reversals of P and n positive integer, are often primes. In this paper I notice that the same is true for primes having only odd digits (see A030096 in OEIS for a list of such primes). Taken thirteen randomly chosen consecutive primes P having nine (odd) digits (from 971111137 to 971111993) I see that for all of them there exist at least a value of n smaller than 15 for which the number n*P + R(P) – n is prime (for 971111591, for instance, there exist four such values of n: 9, 11, 14, 15; for 971111137 three: 2, 4, 7; for 971111551 also three: 1, 2, 6; for 971111959 also three: 1, 9, 10; for 971111993 also three: 5, 6, 14).
Category: Number Theory

[123] viXra:1802.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 06:47:29

Bexar County Detention Paper Number Theory Topological Equation

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page. There are alot of collected papers at Bexar County which I submitted to the Government.

Bexar County Detention Papers (Topological Number Theory Formula/Equation/Algorithm) By Ricard.gil@sbcglobal.net January 9,2017 to Pretrail (Court February 26,2018 CCC4) The objective of this paper is to show how one can take Gigori Pereleman complex arXiv 39 page paper and make it into a simple topological formula. I am revealing the ide I had in Bexar County Detention on viXra. I want to dedicate the Bexar County Detention papers to my Ex-Wife, Eddie Gil and Ashleigh Gil. (See attached Photo) & I can always be found at 3607 Ticonderoga, San Antonio Texas, where I am a permanent guest/resident. I. The Topological Formula/Equation/Algorithm 1D=2D=3D/1=1/1D=2D=3D
Category: Number Theory

[122] viXra:1802.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 07:39:57

Experimental Support for a Debroglie-Bohm-Post Interpretation of Microphysics from the Evidence of Quantum Interference in the Femtometer Scale.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 4 Pages.

This short note supplements a recent paper by the author (http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0236). In that paper it is shown from detailed data analysis that rest energies and magnetic moments for baryons can be related in terms of the existence of coherent or incoherent currents in the femtometer scale. We argue that such evidence brings support to the kind of microphysics proposed by Louis de Broglie, David Bohm and Evert Post. Rest energy is concentrated in a core. In particular all results in the cited reference can be obtained from Post´s proposal of the determination of dynamical quantities of the core through period integrals involving essentially the phases of “wavefunctions”.
Category: Quantum Physics

[121] viXra:1802.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 13:12:49

A Defense of Local Realism

Authors: Cristian Dumitrescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Bell’s inequalities (and the CHSH inequalities) were used in order to rule out certain hidden variable theories (or interpretations of quantum mechanics). In this short note, I will prove that Bell’s results represent a strong argument in favor of a deeper, nonlinear underlying reality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1802.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 13:38:42

Phase Transitions in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the threshold (centre-of-mass) energies and corresponding to them values of the rho parameter. The qualitative description is very detailed and in the quantitative description there are incorporated the coupling constants calculated within SST.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[119] viXra:1802.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 20:35:42

A Conversation with the Vacuum

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract The creation of the universe is described in a form of conversation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[118] viXra:1802.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-13 18:41:37

Measurement Quantization and a Quantum Model of Gravity with Quantum Expressions For Special and General Relativity

Authors: Jody A. Geiger
Comments: 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Notably, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle when quantized demonstrates the physical significance of fundamental measure. With this, a quantum model of gravitation and quantized dilation expressions for both special and general relativity are presented, each shown to be modified forms of the Pythagorean Theorem and applicable (i.e. defined for all values) to the entire measurement domain. The expressions provide a novel calculation for the gravitational constant and reveal new measurable characteristics regarding the perceived curvature of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[117] viXra:1802.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 01:09:49

A Small Correction to the Limiting Speed

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 5 Pages.

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[116] viXra:1802.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-12 23:41:44

A Note on the Possibility of Icomplete Theory

Authors: Han Geurdes, Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the paper it is demonstrated that Bells theorem is an unprovable theorem. This inconsistency is similar to concrete mathematical incompleteness. The inconsistency is purely mathematical. Nevertheless the basic physics requirements of a local model are fulfilled.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[115] viXra:1802.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 08:28:00

Cross Section and Rho Parameter Versus the Centre-of-Mass Energy for Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Due to the properties of the superluminal quantum entanglement, theory of proton is classical and statistical. Quantum Physics is a result of neglecting the superluminal entanglement which is a classical phenomenon. Here, within the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated and showed the origin of the inelastic and elastic cross-section and the rho parameter versus the centre-of-mass energy for the proton-proton collisions. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[114] viXra:1802.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-11 07:54:18

A Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis Version 2.1

Authors: Andrew Alexander Logan
Comments: 14 Pages, 19 Figures - Additional Argument for no additional real zeros when imaginary component varied from zero (based on relative sizes of continued fraction and other components). I think it's all there now!

This paper investigates the characteristics of the Riemann xi function. A detailed investigation of two integration approaches to Riemann's original equation (firstly as a series including incomplete gamma functions and secondly as a power series), focussing firstly on the characteristics of the expressions including incomplete gamma functions (highlighting the properties of the continued fraction components as the components are varied and the characteristics of the series terms as they reduce rapidly in magnitude) and secondly on the implications of the power series representation in the case where the imaginary component is zero leads to the conclusion that the Riemann xi function only has real zeros.
Category: General Mathematics

[113] viXra:1802.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 09:10:18

Extension of Proposition 23 from Euclid’s Elements

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

Proposition 23 states that two parallel lines in a plane never intersect. We use this definition with first and second postulate of Euclid to prove that two distinct lines through a single point cannot be parallel.
Category: Geometry

[112] viXra:1802.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 09:17:00

The Project of the Quantum Relativity

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 16 Pages.

The intrinsic unification of the quantum theory and relativity has been discussed here in the light of the last developments. Such development is possible only on the way of the serious deviation from traditional assumptions about a priori spacetime structure and the Yang-Mills generalization of the well known $U(1)$ Abelian gauge symmetry of the classical electrodynamics. In fact, more general gauge theory should be constructed. Formally we deal with the quantum version of the gauge theory of the deformable bodies - the gauge theory of the deformable quantum state. More physically this means that the distance between quantum states is strictly defined value whereas the distance between bodies (particle) is an approximate value, at best. Thereby, all well known solid frames and clocks even with corrections of special relativity should be replaced by the flexible and anholonomic quantum setup. Then Yang-Mills arguments about the spacetime coordinate dependence of the gauge unitary rotations should be reversed on the dependence of the spacetime structure on the gauge transformations of the flexible quantum setup. One needs to build ``inverse representation" of the unitary transformations by the intrinsic dynamical spacetime transformations. In order to achieve such generalization one needs the general footing for gauge fields and for ``matter fields". Only fundamental pure quantum degrees of freedom like spin, charge, hyper-charges, etc., obey this requirement. One may assume that they correspond some fundamental quantum motions in the manifold of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's). Then ``elementary particles" will be represented as a dynamical process keeping non-linear coherent superposition of these fundamental quantum motions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[111] viXra:1802.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 11:37:30

Why there Are no Black Holes. Deadlock Hypotheses of Modern Physics.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 9 Pages. 2005

The error of mathematical fantasies in the region of large densities inside stars is shown. The impossibility of infinite density growth is shown. An alternative description of the processes in the masses of massive stars is proposed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[110] viXra:1802.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 14:44:28

Analyticity and Function Satisfying :$\displaystyle \ F'=e^{{f}^{-1}}$

Authors: Zeraoulia Rafik
Comments: 23 Pages. I wish my results w'd be considerable for any futur refeered journal

In this note we present some new results about the analyticity of the functional-differential equation $ f'=e^{{f}^{-1}}$ at $ 0$ with $f^{-1}$ is a compositional inverse of $f$ , and the growth rate of $f_-(x)$ and $f_+(x)$ as $x\to \infty$ , and we will check the analyticity of some functional equations which they were studied before and had a relashionship with the titled functional-differential and we will conclude our work with a conjecture related to Borel- summability and some interesting applications of some divergents generating function with radius of convergent equal $0$ in number theory
Category: Functions and Analysis

[109] viXra:1802.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 15:53:02

Crecimiento ECONÓMICO DE Colombia Durante el Keynesianismo Y el Neoliberalismo Monetarista, 1960-2016

Authors: Alfonso León Guillén Gómez
Comments: 48 Pages.

Se examina el crecimiento económico de largo plazo, ocurrido en los últimos 56 años, en Colombia, durante los períodos keynesiano y neoliberal, bajo la consideración de constituir una estructura económica capitalista dependiente. Por lo tanto, relacionando su crecimiento con el de los Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido que conforman el principal eje de dominación mundial. Con tal objetivo primero se construye un modelo conceptual de tal historia para en segundo lugar analizarla e interpretarla utilizando herramientas estadísticas del análisis de series de tiempo.
Category: Economics and Finance

[108] viXra:1802.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 16:11:01

R-Sport, czyli System Rozgrywek Sportowych (in Polish)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 24 Pages. New system (algorithm) settlement of sports competitions called R-Sport (in Polish).

Celem rozgrywek sportowych jest wyłonienie spośród grupy drużyn, bądź zawodników, drużyny najlepszej, czyli mistrza. Dlatego pomiędzy poszczególnymi drużynami muszą zostać rozegrane mecze. O tym, kto zostanie mistrzem decydują wyniki wszystkich spotkań. Zasady obowiązujące w trakcie sezonu tworzą System Rozgrywek Sportowych. W dokumencie tym został opisany nowy System Rozgrywek Sportowych. System ten pozwala na sprawiedliwe i efektywne wyłonienie zwycięzcy całego sezonu. Posiada on zalety, których nie posiadają inne, znane i stosowane obecnie Systemy Rozgrywek Sportowych. R-Sport jest Systemem Rozgrywek Sportowych, który pozwala przeprowadzić rozgrywki ligowe na wiele sposobów.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[107] viXra:1802.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 16:41:03

Using Klauder’s Enhanced Quantization to Set a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, in Pre Planckian Space to Obtain a Bound on the Graviton Mass , in the Early Universe, and Generation of (Heavy) Gravity

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion).. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation.. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[106] viXra:1802.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-13 19:44:20

Method and Application of Endogenous Neurotransmitter Regulation Theory

Authors: Zuodong Sun, Bing Lu, Yuting Sun, Aili Wang, Aobo Dong, Wenhua Wang, Wuyi Sun
Comments: 14 Pages.

[Objective] Verification and application of the theory of brain cell activation. [Methods] Applying Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument to the treatment of Neurodegenerative disease. including but not limited to: Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. [Results] Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument,its double - center, randomized, double - blind clinical trial has been carried out at the national clinical trial base,it proves that the instrument is safe and effective. This instrument is especially suitable for the treatment of the following diseases: 1. It is suitable for the treatment of mild to moderate Parkinson's disease and can significantly improve resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease and other symptoms. 2. It is suitable for the treatment of mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia and can improve the mental state, cognitive behavior and self-care ability of daily life. 3. It is suitable for the treatment of mild to moderate depression and can obviously improve the main symptoms of depression, sleep disorder, anxiety and so on. 4. It is suitable for the treatment of cerebral apoplexy sequelae, cerebrovascular dementia and brain atrophy, it can activate the brain cells in the state of inhibition and mobilize the potential energy of the brain. [Conclusions] The theory of brain cell activation,It is applicable to encephalopathy and not limited to encephalopathy,according to this theory, the subject of "physical disease science" can be created.
Category: Physics of Biology

[105] viXra:1802.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 12:45:45

Quantum Leap in Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[104] viXra:1802.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 13:33:31

Calculations Within Unified Field

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

Analysis of two-body four-force systems of celestial bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[103] viXra:1802.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-13 23:03:04

Investigation of Relativistic Free Fall in the Uniform Gravitational Field

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 6 Pages. none

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might perhaps be possible to distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by experimental means which theory is actually correct.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[102] viXra:1802.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 11:00:13

The KdV Equations over Manifolds

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 3 pages, written in french

The KdV equations are defined over manifolds. The system is integrable and we show that it is reduced to usual KdV equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[101] viXra:1802.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 06:26:11

Question 430 : A Definite Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral for pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[100] viXra:1802.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 06:31:18

Lemniscate Constants

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some integrals for lemniscate constants.
Category: General Mathematics

[99] viXra:1802.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 07:08:20

Interference Cooling Quantum Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[98] viXra:1802.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 08:07:56

Silicon Quantum Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[97] viXra:1802.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-09 21:53:37

Experimental Report: Torsion Field Communication Attempts in 5 km

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Torsion field communication (TFC) is a very important research direction in torsion field research. A.E.Akimov conducted the first TFC experiment [1]. David. G. Yurth also made great contribution for the TFC, it’s said his group has made one prototype of torsion field transmitter and receiver for communication [2]. In 2010, Dr. M. Krinker conducted successful TFC experiments with colleagues in Moscow [3]. Author began to pay attention to this topic all because a book called “Torsion Field and Interstellar Communication [4]” by V. Shkatov and V. Zamsha. This book introduces some kinds of torsion field generators and sensors, and mainly the “Shkatov- Zamsha” approach – using the photo as the addressing component. They transmitted obvious signal in 2011 with this approach. After that, Dr. M. Krinker in New York also did successful TFC tests with Mr. Shkatov. And further, Dr. M. Krinker developed the “Cross-Photo” approach for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Cybertronica Research led by Dr. S. Kernbach developed many kinds of detectors, which can detect weak and super-weak signals – especially the torsion field non-local signals. Besides them, 1k replication experiments with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy have been finished nonlocally [5].
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1802.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 09:50:37

Lattice QCD for Nuclear Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are using the nation's most powerful supercomputer, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to study particle interactions important to energy production in the sun and stars and to propel the search for new physics discoveries. [12] A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[95] viXra:1802.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 19:14:03

A Unified Theory of All Fields and All Kinds of Matter. Easily. Handsomely. Available. Scientifically.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 14 Pages. 2005

A long-awaited unified theory of all fields was received, for which the giants of world physics fought so hard. In addition, it is shown that not only all fields, but all matter, are solutions of the same equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[94] viXra:1802.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 01:51:43

A Groupoid for Commutative and Noncommutative Operations: a Step Towards Quantum/relativity Unification

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 6 Pages.

The unexploited unification of general relativity and quantum physics is a painstaking issue that prevents physicists to properly understanding the whole of Nature. Here we propose a pure mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. Indeed, we build a cyclic groupoid (a nonemptyset with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses both the theories as subsets, making it possible to join together two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., the commutativity detectable in our macroscopic relativistic world and the non-commutativity detectable in the quantum, microscopic world. Further, we provide a feasible physical counterpart able to throw a bridge between relativity and quantum mechanics, namely, the gravitational force. The latter stands for an operator able to reduce the countless orthonormal bases required by quantum mechanics to just one, i.e., the relativistic basis of an observer located in a single cosmic area.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[93] viXra:1802.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 02:26:11

Lorentz Transformation and Elastic Collision

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical objects is chosen to manifest the physics law, conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame, the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold when both objects move together at the same velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[92] viXra:1802.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 04:14:25

Dark Matter Nuggets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[91] viXra:1802.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:40:23

Boundedness of a Function of Fibonacci Numbers in Generic Form and Its Limit at Infinity.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 3 Pages. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 34.

In this paper is proved an inequality involving a function of Fibonacci numbers in generic form and its limit at infinity is calculated using the asymptotic relationship given by Barr and Schooling in "The Field" (December 14, 1912).
Category: Number Theory

[90] viXra:1802.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:48:35

Solution to the Problem Pmo33.5. Problema Del Duelo Matemático 08 (Olomouc – Chorzow Graz).

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 3 Pages. Spanish.

Solution to the problem PMO33.5. Problema del Duelo Matemático 08 (Olomouc – Chorzow - Graz). Let a, b, c in ℝ. Prove that V = 4(a² + b² + c² ) - (a + b)² - (b + c)² - (c + a)² >= 0, and determine all values of a, b, c for which V = 0.
Category: Algebra

[89] viXra:1802.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:59:49

PMO33.2. Problema del Duelo Matemático 08 (Olomouc, Chorzow, Graz).

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish.

Solution to the problem PMO33.2. Problem of Mathematical Duel 08 (Olomouc, Chorzow, Graz). Determine all triples (x, y, z) of positive integers verifying the following equation: 3 + x + y + z = xyz
Category: Number Theory

[88] viXra:1802.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 07:08:19

Upper Bound for the Product of the Sum of the Reciprocals of N Real Numbers Greater Than or Equal to 1 by the Product of These Incremented by 1.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 2 Pages. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 22. Spanish.

Upper bound for the product of the sum of the reciprocals of n real numbers greater than or equal to 1 by the product of those increased by 1, and some variants. Se establece una cota superior para el producto del sumatorio de los recíprocos de n números reales mayores o iguales que 1 por el producto de éstos incrementados en 1, y para algunas variantes.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[87] viXra:1802.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 07:18:35

Lobo's Theorem for Heronian Triangles (Problem Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Bangalore, India)

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 1 Page. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 21. Spanish.

Lobo's theorem for heronian triangles: "Exists at least one heronian triangle such that two sides are consecutive natural numbers and its area is equal to n times the perimeter, for n = 1, 2, 3". Teorema de Lobo para triángulos heronianos: Existe al menos un triángulo heroniano tal que dos de sus lados son números naturales consecutivos y su área es igual a n veces su perímetro, para n = 1, 2, 3.
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1802.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 07:24:07

A Relationship Between a Cevian, Two Perpendicular Bisectors and a Median in an Isosceles Triangle.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 1 Page. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 18. Spanish.

A very simple solution to a geometric problem (proposed by Alex Sierra Cardenas, Medellin, Colombia) that involves a cevian, two perpendicular bisectors and a median in an isosceles triangle.
Category: Geometry

[85] viXra:1802.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 07:47:03

Geometry Beyond Algebra. the Theorem of Overlapped Polynomials (Top) Andits Application to the Sawa Masayoshi\'s Sangaku Problem. the Adventure Ofsolving a Mathematical Challenge Stated in 1821.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 47 Pages. https://arxiv.org/abs/1110.1299

This work presents for the first time a solution to the 1821 unsolved Sawa Masayoshi's problem, giving an explicit and algebraically exact solution for the symmetric case (particular case b = c, i.e., for ABC isosceles right-angled triangle), see (1.60) and (1.61). Despite the isosceles triangle restriction is not necessary, in view of the complexity of the explicit algebraic solution for the symmetric case, one can guessing the impossibility of achieving an explicit relationship for the asymmetric case (the more general case: ABC right-angled scalene triangle). For this case is given a proof of existence and uniqueness of solution and a proof of the impossibility of getting such a relationship, even implicitly, if the sextic equation (2.54) it isn't solvable. Nevertheless, in (2.56) - (2.58) it is shown the way to solve the asymmetric case under the condition that (2.54) be solvable. Furthermore, it is proved that with a slight modification in the final set of variables (F), it is still possible to establish a relation between them, see (2.59) and (2.61), which provides a bridge that connects the primitive relationship by means of numerical methods, for every given right-angled triangle ABC. And as the attempt to solve Fermat's conjecture (or Fermat's last theorem), culminated more than three centuries later by Andrew Wiles, led to the development of powerful theories of more general scope, the attempt to solve the Masayoshi's problem has led to the development of the Theory of Overlapping Polynomials (TOP), whose application to this problem reveals a great potential that might be extrapolated to other frameworks.
Category: Geometry

[84] viXra:1802.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 08:08:36

Bethe String Observed Experimentally

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

An international team of researchers has experimentally observed Bethe strings for the first time. [21] Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[83] viXra:1802.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 09:24:00

A Demonstration of an Analytical Method Development and Validation Process Using the Identification and Assay of Ondansetron Hydrochloride Dihydrate in Ondansetron Hydrochloride 4mg/5ml Syrup (Nausetron) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

Authors: Sulaiman Mujoobe
Comments: 36 Pages. CC-BY LICENCE: Anyone can share, reuse, remix, or adapt this material for any purpose, providing the original authors are credited and cited.

ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this paper is to attempt to give a detailed step by step explanation of how data is collected and statistically treated during an analytical method development and validation protocol for Quality Control of Pharmaceutics. In most cases, modification to a given manufacturing process, formulation or synthetic pathway during a drug development program may necessitate changes to existing analytic methods. As a consequence, this change may require additional transfer and or validation studies. Effective method development in a pharmaceutical industry is aimed at ensuring that analytical methods meet the objectives required at each stage of drug development using the least resources available of which developmental time and cost are the main targets. Method validation involves demonstrating that these methods are suitable for their intended use as required by regulatory agencies. Method transfer is the formal process of assessing the suitability of methods in another laboratory. These studies involve numerous steps taken, according to a given Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) to collect data. Data analysis usually encompasses confusing mathematical manipulations that may require extensive knowledge of statistics. Although most papers and articles on method development and validation indicate how data is collected, very few give the final acceptance result and show how it was calculated. This paper therefore fills this gap by illustrating, following a hypothetical Standard Operating Procedure: MUJ-256-B dated 16th July 2015 from a hypothetical JBXY Pharmaceuticals, how to develop and validate a method to identify and quantitatively determine the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient; (±) 1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3-[(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) methyl]-4H-carbazol-4 one, monohydrochloride, dihydrate (Ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate) in Ondansetron hydrochloride 4mg/5ml Syrup (Nausetron) by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Keywords: Acceptance Criteria, Hypothesis Testing, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use; Method Transfer; Ondansetron; Pharmaceutical; Statistics; Reversed-Phase; Biostatistics; Statistical Treatment; Quality Assurance; Quality Control.
Category: Chemistry

[82] viXra:1802.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 09:31:54

Annihilation of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[81] viXra:1802.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 09:33:09

A Forecasting Scheme

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a given Sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[80] viXra:1802.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-10 15:01:07

Structure in Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 15 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has structure, and this structure has one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that is like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravitation and the fine structure of photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[79] viXra:1802.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 10:54:28

Light can Stop Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[78] viXra:1802.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 11:25:00

Resist Layer Electric Charge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Leiden physicists found a surprising interaction between electrons and a resist layer. The resist appears to charge and discharge due to incoming electrons. [19] By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[77] viXra:1802.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 17:01:07

The Unified Theory of Physics

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 17 Pages. Published in International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews, 2018; 2:6.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[76] viXra:1802.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 00:07:53

Antimatter. Hasty Name and Recognition.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Paved Churlyaev.
Comments: 15 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Two versions have been advanced, which explain "antimatter" as a rare quantum state of ordinary matter. Confirmatory arguments are given.
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1802.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 03:40:15

Theorem of not Independence of Any Technological Innovation

Authors: Coccia Mario
Comments: 11 Pages.

The theorem of not independence of any technological innovation states that in the long run, the behavior and evolution of any technological innovation is not independent from the behavior and evolution of the other technological innovations. The philosophical foundations of this theory are concepts from systems science and architecture of complexity. The theoretical implications of this theorem is that technological innovations form systems of inter-related technologies with fundamental interactions of physical and social factors. In particular, any technological innovation does not function as an independent system per se, but each innovation depends on the other technological innovations to form a complex system of parts that interact and coevolve in a non-simple way. The theorem of not independence of any technological innovation can explain and generalize, whenever possible, one of the characteristics of the evolution of technology that generates technological and economic change in human society.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[74] viXra:1802.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:08:45

A Geometric-Probabilistic Problem About the Lengths of the Segments Intersected in Straights that Randomly Cut a Triangle.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 6 Pages. Journal Citation: arXiv:1602.03005v1

If a line cuts randomly two sides of a triangle, the length of the segment determined by the points of intersection is also random. The object of this study, applied to a particular case, is to calculate the probability that the length of such segment is greater than a certain value.
Category: Statistics

[73] viXra:1802.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:28:49

Wasan Geometry: 3-Isoincircles Problem. Trigonometric Analysis of a Hard Sangaku Challenge.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sacred Mathematics: Japanese Temple Geometry. Fukagawa Hidetoshi - Tony Rothman. Still Harder Temple Geometry Problems: Chapter 6 - Problem 3.
Category: Geometry

[72] viXra:1802.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-12 00:40:53

The Quantum Theory of a Closed String.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] viXra:1802.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-01 04:36:18

Cycle One

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cycle One is a concept that identifies a universal method to identify the frequency of electromagnetic waves without creating a starting point of 1 Hz. The Cycle One concept starts at a numeric value where the velocity of light has the same numeric value as a frequency. The interest in a Cycle One concept started when a geometric relationship was identified between wavelength and frequency. The frequency value is not arbitrary. The frequency value was mathematically predicted in 1944 and in 1951 it was detected coming from space. The triangle pair wavelength-frequency relationship would not have been recognized until after the 1951 radio astronomy discovery. The triangle pair relationship establishes a universal unit of length, a time duration, and allows a unit of energy to be defined.
Category: Classical Physics

[70] viXra:1802.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 19:34:58

The Cosmological Constant Problem as Transitioning Multi-Space

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 10 Pages. Quantum gravity, theory of everything

Resolution of the Cosmological Constant Λ must maintain the mathematics of wavefunction, as well as Einsteins field equations. However, a fundamental break from convention is justified, in order to cancel the mathematical discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in General Relativity (GR) and the much greater zero-point energy value, as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT). This article does maintain conventional models. The paradigm shift is from the conventional idea of a constant R 4 spacetime at every scale (from microspace to macrospace). Instead, proposing that dimensions approaching quantum scales increase to a higher dimensional R 5 space, and that dimensions approaching the cosmic event horizon decrease to a lower dimensional R 3 space (R 4 spacetime is just one phase of this transitioning multispace). This is only suppositional, yet it explains so many mysteries of cosmology in the simplest and most parsimonious format (in fact in one single sentence). In wavefunction, superposition can be alternatively interpreted as a transition (or divergence) of R n , as observed from a R 4 spacetime onto a higher dimensional R 5 space at scales approaching QFT. Time, position, energy and momentum become plural, and a range of R 5 space is viewed as a single instant until " collapsed " (mapped) onto our familiar classic R 4 space. In GR, R 4 spacetime transitions (or converges) to a point at the cosmic event horizon, to a diminished R 3 space. This converging affect appears equivalent to acceleration, as units of time in velocity are decreasing with larger scales. Thus, Λ in GR is only illusional and therefore cancelled.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] viXra:1802.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 21:31:50

Solar Group General Description

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 62 Pages.

1.The Main Hypothesis: The Matter Is Created From The Light 2.The produced matter is created in motion, that means the solar planets are created in motions (regardless the motion reason) 3.The solar group are a group of motions conveyors, So the motions of all solar planets are depended on each other 4.The solar group motions aim to create a difference in motion velocity = C between 2 points in the group. 5.i.e. The Solar Planets work as gears or conveyors group, transfer the motion from point to another point, aiming to create a difference in motion velocity = C velocity. And that's happening where the solar group motions create a difference in velocities between the Earth and Sun motions = C velocity (for that reason the sun is our source of light) 6.The solar group is A Dipole System has 2 heads (the sun and the Earth) 7.The light Production by the planets motions (i.e. by transferring of the mechanical waves into light waves), the original source of light beams energy, from which the solar planets were created, will be conserved. 8.Because there's a difference in velocity = C between 2 points in the solar group (the sun and the Earth), we may conclude easily that, there's more than one frame in the solar group. 9.To create a difference of velocity = C, all solar planets should revolve around the dipole line (The Sun-Earth Line) in the same direction, enabling the velocities addition process to gather all motions in the same point… 10.The Produced Solar Planets should have relationships between their Geometrical structures (if they were created from the light), so the planets are not created independent but related to each other geometrically.
Category: Astrophysics

[68] viXra:1802.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 22:18:07

Biological Life is a Purely Quantum Phenomenon.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Paved Churlyaev.
Comments: 5 Pages. It is very impotent discovery 2002 year.

The primary quantum basis of biological life is found. The process of the origin of life is restored.
Category: Physics of Biology

[67] viXra:1802.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 02:30:55

A New Model for Quantum Mechanics and the Invalidity of no-go Theorems

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 57 Pages.

In this paper we define and study the new model for quantum mechanics (QM) – the hybrid epistemic model. We describe in detail its axiomatic definition and its properties. The new feature of this model consists in the fact that it does not contain the formal definition of the measurement process (as it is standard in other models) but the measurement process is one of possible processes inside of QM. The hybrid-epistemic model of QM is based on two concepts: the quantum state of an ensemble and the properties of individual systems. It is assumed that the quantum state (i.e. the wave function) can be attributed only to ensembles (with some exceptions) and not to individual systems. On the other hand, the properties of individual systems can be described by properties which are collected into classifications. Properties are assumed to be exclusive, i.e. a given individual system having certain property cannot have another property. We shall describe the internal measurement process in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. This description substitutes the formal definition of the measurement process in the standard QM. We show the local nature of EPR correlations in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. We show that the anti-correlations between measurements at the Alice’s part and the Bob’s part is completely analogical to the standard classical local anti-correlations originated in the correlation in the past. We define precisely the epistemic and the ontic models of QM for the goal to prove that these three models give the same empirical predictions, i.e. that they are empirically equivalent. This theorem on the empirical equivalence is proved in all details. We show that the no-go theorems (Bell’s theorem, the Leggett-Garg’s theorem and others theorems) cannot be proved in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM. This is one of the main results of this paper. We interpret this as the invalidity of no-go theorems in QM. This interpretation is sound since the true consequences of QM must be provable in all models of QM. We shall consider the possible inconsistences of the ontic model of QM. We show that there are many consequences of the ontic model of QM which are dubious or controversial. There are many such controversial consequences. In the next part we consider the internal inconsistency of the ontic model which is more serious and we consider this argument against the ontic model as the most serious. We introduce the property-epistemic model of QM which is the special case of the hybrid-epistemic model. We describe this model in all details and we show that this model of QM is the most suitable and most elegant model of QM. In this model many proofs are extremely simplified and almost trivial. Then we discussed possible arguments in this field and our answers to these arguments. We summarize our conclusions. At the end there are three appendices. In the first appendix we give proofs of all theorems. In the second appendix we give our conjectures, opinions and suggestions. In the third appendix we describe the ontic model for the Brownian motion. We think that this model shows clearly (by analogy) the absurdity of the ontic model of QM.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1802.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 03:12:18

Terahertz Wireless Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Electrical and optical engineers in Australia have designed a novel platform that could tailor telecommunication and optical transmissions. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[65] viXra:1802.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 07:09:05

La Représentation de Bonne

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 13 Pages. In French.

This paper gives the elements of definition of the Bonne's map projection. It was used for the ancient cartography at 1/50000 scale in Tunisia and Algeria.
Category: Geometry

[64] viXra:1802.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 07:34:13

Deep Space Atomic Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In deep space, accurate timekeeping is vital to navigation, but many spacecraft lack precise timepieces on board. [5] Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Donald Chang from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, attempts to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[63] viXra:1802.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 08:50:16

Ionic Wind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1802.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 09:37:09

Spectra of Economic Inflation

Authors: Anindya Kumar Biswas
Comments: 19 Pages. It's an application of a model of economics developed in analogy with theory of electrodynamics of physics

In this article, we derive relations between inflation and rate of unemployment for a set of economic systems, using a theoretical model developed under the spell of Maxwell’s electrodynamics. Inflation in a place, in the model, is proportional to the frequency of economic power flow to the place from outside. Rate of unemployment in that place is a power law function of the frequency. Relations are of power law types i.e. inflation varies inversely as a power of rate of unemployment. Consequently, we get a spectrum of inflationary exponents. Exponents obtained are 2/5, 2, 2/(5+4l), 6.7; 1/6, 1/4, 1/(2l+6), 0.26; 1/4, 1/2, 1/(2l+4), 0.61; -2/3, -2/7, 2/(4l-3), -0.2; 1, -1, 1/(2l+1), -0.4 respectively; where, l is a positive integer. We draw few representative Phillips curves i.e. graphs of inflation vs rate of unemployment, discuss about the consequences of the spectra and surmise about the relevance of CPI over WPI from the model.
Category: Economics and Finance

[61] viXra:1802.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 09:46:19

Two-Atom Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists around Professor Gerhard Rempe, director at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and head of the Quantum Dynamics Division, has demonstrated the feasibility a new concept for a quantum gate. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[60] viXra:1802.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 05:41:09

a Computational Approach to Estimation of Crowding in Natural Images

Authors: Lauri Ahonen
Comments: 83 Pages. Master's thesis

Crowding is a phenomenon where the identification of objects in peripheral vision is deteriorated by the presence of nearby targets. Crowding therefore reduces the extent of visual span, i.e. information intake during a single eye fixation. It is, thus, a limiting factor of many everyday tasks, such as reading. The phenomenon is due to wide area feature integration in the higher levels of visual processing. Despite the critical role of the phenomenon, complex natural images have so far not been used in the research of crowding. The purpose of the present study was to determine how the crowding effect affects object recognition in complex natural images, and whether the magnitude of the crowding could be modelled using methods introduced below. The actual magnitude of the crowding effect was determined experimentally by measuring contrast thresholds for letter targets of different sizes on various natural image backgrounds. The results of the experiments were analyzed to evaluate the developed methods. The methods are based on image statistics and clutter modelling. Clutter models assess the complexity in the image. The image statistics and the clutter models were combined with basic knowledge of the crowding effect. In addition, an early visual system model was incorporated to assess the role of the visual acuity across the visual field. The developed models predicted the induced crowding effect in an arbitrary natural image. The model of the visual system contributed to the results, as well. The differences between the methods for assessing the image properties were, however, negligible. Contrast energy, the simplest measure, can be regarded as the most efficient. Natural images can cause very strong crowding effects. The conclusion is that predicting quantitative dimensions of the crowding effect in an arbitrary image is viable. However further research of the subject is necessary for developing the models. Computational assessment of the crowding effect potentially can be applied to e.g. user interface design, assessing information visualization techniques, and the development of augmented reality applications.
Category: Mind Science

[59] viXra:1802.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 06:31:00

Gravitons kill Aliens

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 117 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitons kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than: E = 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV “Gravitational radiation is gravitons” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating” Adrian Ferent The number of civilizations in our galaxy, Drake equation. Drake equation is wrong because Drake concluded that N ≈ L, this means N is between 1000 and 100,000,000 civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way is estimated to contain 100–400 billion stars. This means the majority of stars do not have at least a planet with intelligent life. The Milky Way is home to more than 100 million black holes. “Black holes are Ferent matter” Adrian Ferent “There are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy” Adrian Ferent “Around each Black hole there is a volume where can not exist civilizations, because of deadly gravitons emitted by Black hole” Adrian Ferent We have to look for extraterrestrial civilizations, only in the volume Vl, not in the entire Milky Way galaxy, like Drake equation and other equations do or how Asimov calculated. The Fermi paradox is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations. There are billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy that are similar to the Sun and no evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations. “Why there is no evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations? Because gravitons emitted by black holes kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent “I found the answer to this question: why the Universe is so quiet and why we do not see UFOs? There are only a small number of extraterrestrial civilizations in a galaxy; there are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of the galaxy where is the highest density of stars, there are not extraterrestrial civilizations around Black Holes” Adrian Ferent
Category: Astrophysics

[58] viXra:1802.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 10:33:24

Phase-Change Memory Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[57] viXra:1802.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-20 06:09:01

Frequency Decrease of Light

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 9 Pages. The phenomenon replaces the Big-Bang Theory/Model/Scenario.

The phenomenon is so slow that its effect is undetectable in light emitted at distances as in our galaxy, but is significant in light coming from cosmological distances, hence the alias ”Cosmological Degeneration/Decay of Light”. An unprecedented case in physics is that the law governing the phenomenon results uniquely, through mathematical reasoning. As main consequences, it: solves Digges-Olbers’ paradox, thus making possible cosmology with infinite universe; explains Hubble’s redshift (or cosmological redshift), in agreement with Hubble’s constant’s inconstancy; explains the Penzias & Wilosn CMB; explains the unexplained non-uniformity in CMB; replaces the Big-Bang theory/model/scenario. Two new predictions are made.
Category: Classical Physics

[56] viXra:1802.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 11:57:40

Speaking Quantum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[55] viXra:1802.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 11:55:28

Controlling Quantum Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[54] viXra:1802.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 12:02:49

Atomic and Ionic Radii in the Structures of Inorganic, Organic and Biological Molecules: Reference Papers with Data and Figures

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 15 pages

Presented here is a collection of papers by the author with reference data on atomic and ionic radii which account for the chemical bonds in inorganic, organic and biological molecules, and relevant figures.
Category: Chemistry

[53] viXra:1802.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 12:54:23

Scaling Quantum Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1802.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 13:32:20

LIGO – Gravity Waves or Disturbed Aether?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ever since the Laser Interferometer Gravitational–Wave Observatory (LIGO), one each at Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, allegedly detected gravity waves from merging binary black holes on September 14, 2015, there have been numerous challenges to the claim (and to subsequent claims for further detections, including even gravity waves from merging binary neutron stars on August 17, 2017). These challenges range from denying the very existence of black holes to “liberties” taken with the interpretation of the signals received at the different sites, especially the fact that these signals were pre-simulated to align with the theory of gravitational waves themselves, such that their “detection” was no more than a self-fulfilling prophecy. One particularly astute challenge stems from the claim that, if a gravity wave were to distort space-time, then not only light waves, but also the physical dimensions of LIGO itself, would be distorted, such that any alleged “perturbation” claimed to be a gravity wave due to generation of an interference pattern from the LIGO lasers could not be due to gravity waves. This possibility is examined here, with an alternative as aether disturbances included as what LIGO actually has detected.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:1802.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 14:52:22

Estimating Genetic Parameters in a Dominance Model that Includes Inbreeding

Authors: Stephen P. Smith, Asko Mäki-Tanila
Comments: 21 Pages.

A dominance model is described coming with inbreeding, and five genetic parameter plus the environmental variance. The linear model is specified by the phenotypic equations and the mid-parent equations. They are placed in an indefinite system that is highly sparse, not the mixed model equations. From this system the augmented matrix K is built that is symmetric and indefinite, leading to restricted maximum likelihood. Likelihood evaluation follows from the factorization of K, and various sparse matrix tools are described for maximizing the likelihood. The method is used to estimate the six parameters for 2706 egg-laying hens that were part of a selection experiment.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[50] viXra:1802.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 20:46:50

Formulation of Maxwell Field Equations from a General System of Linear First Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this work we show that, as in the case of Dirac equation, it is possible to formulate Maxwell field equations of electromagnetism from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations. A prominent feature that emerges from formulating Dirac and Maxwell field equations from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations is that the field equations must be formed in such a way that the functions that represent the system also obey a wave equation. This type of mathematical duality may be related to the wave-particle duality in quantum physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[49] viXra:1802.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-09 14:53:24

Lorentz Transformation in Inelastic Collision

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical objects is chosen to manifest the physics law, conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame, the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one object is at rest before collision. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold when both objects move together at the same velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1802.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 22:52:46

Proof of Existence of the Horizontal Component of Gravitation Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v.the Horizontal Component of Gravitation Exerts Impact on Change of the Direction of Atmospheric Streams on Objects of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The horizontal component of gravitation exerts impact on change of the direction of atmospheric streams on objects of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1802.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 23:22:27

Yes so that Even the Comet Has no Place to Fall! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. When Falling to Earth of a Comet Seek to Move Along a Surface and Blow Up, and Asteroids Burn and Fall.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

When falling to Earth of a comet seek to move along a surface and blow up, and asteroids burn and fall.
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1802.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 01:52:44

Deviates Somehow Strange Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Ray of Light Deviates in Different Directions Under the Influence of Gravitational Field of a Body.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The ray of light deviates in different directions under the influence of gravitational field of a body.
Category: Astrophysics

[45] viXra:1802.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 04:31:33

Higher Order Logic (HOL) Based Analysis of Cryo-EM Images Using Multivariate Analysis,Automatic Data Refinement Libraries Involving Vector Spaces for the HOL-Scala-ImageJ-JikesRVM(JVM) Environment to Probe Nano-Bio Systems – A Technical Note.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Technical Note on cryo-EM Image Processing using HOL-SCALA/IMAGEJ/JIKESRVM

Cryo-Electron Microscopy(cryo-EM/Cryo-EM) : is a promising method for the imaging of macromolecules in the electron microscope, especially “single-particle” techniques are powerful and popular.As the title of this technical notes indicates it was proposed to probe the frontiers of “Nano-Bio” Systems by using HOL Platform and its associated mathematical concepts,algorithms and libraries to process Cryo-EM Images.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[44] viXra:1802.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-16 03:09:03

Is Dark Matter and Black-Hole Cosmology an Effect of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory ?

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 29 Pages. Many more references are added related to MOND and f(R) gravity.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' in galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[43] viXra:1802.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 06:58:27

On pi :A Definite Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral for pi
Category: General Mathematics

[42] viXra:1802.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 08:51:37

Calculating the Angle Between Projections of Vectors Via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 14 Pages.

We express a problem from visual astronomy in terms of Geometric (Clifford) Algebra, then solve the problem by deriving expressions for the sine and cosine of the angle between projections of two vectors upon a plane. Geometric Algebra enables us to do so without deriving expressions for the projections themselves.
Category: Geometry

[41] viXra:1802.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 10:28:42

Universe Without the Weak Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[40] viXra:1802.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-04 12:01:59

A Solution to P vs NP

Authors: Bebereche Bogdan-Ionut
Comments: 1 Page.

.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] viXra:1802.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:31:47

Not to Rush on Space in Vain Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Universe is Ordered and Limited. Everything is Simple, How in the Textbook by Physics: Solar Wind Moves with Acceleration from the Center to Borders of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is ordered and limited. Everything is simple, how in the textbook by physics: solar wind moves with acceleration from the center to borders of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1802.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:40:24

Materialization of God's Love Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Convergence of Fertile Fire is a Process of a Materialization of the Universal Phantom of Boundless God's Love to Us.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The convergence of Fertile fire is a process of a materialization of the Universal phantom of boundless God's love to us.
Category: Astrophysics

[37] viXra:1802.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:49:04

Our Fire in Fog Shines Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. People Can Infinitely Look at a Fire. Because See in Him the Life and All in the Universe!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

People can infinitely look at a fire. because see in him the life and all in the Universe!
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1802.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:57:50

To Slightly Open the Blanket of Mars Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Catastrophic Condition of Mars is Caused by Influence of Comets.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The catastrophic condition of Mars is caused by influence of comets.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1802.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 02:02:59

Principle of Relativity of All Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Any Limited and Closed System Has Own Energy Which Depends on the Speed of Her Movement and Situation Concerning Space of Nothing.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Any limited and closed system has own energy which depends on the speed of her movement and situation concerning Space of Nothing.
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1802.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 04:50:15

A Diophantine Equation as a Condition of Equiprobability

Authors: Andrea Prunotto
Comments: 5 Pages.

The condition of equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to be related to the solutions of a Diophantine equation.
Category: Number Theory

[33] viXra:1802.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 05:01:24

Quantum Algorithm Help AI

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35] A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32] viXra:1802.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 12:50:42

A Parametric Form of the Fermat Equation ?

Authors: Jean BENICHOU
Comments: 1 Page.

The curves of x^n + y^n = z^n seem to be identical to a trig parametric form which for n>2 would exclude integer solutions.
Category: General Mathematics

[31] viXra:1802.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 13:17:15

The Flow of HyperKaehler-Ricci

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

Studying the flow of Kaehler-Ricci, a flow is defined for a manifold which is HyperKaehler.
Category: Geometry

[30] viXra:1802.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-10 10:52:52

Translation of Some Star Catalogs to the XEphem Format

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 30 Pages. Version 2 includes handling of three more cataloges.

The text lists Java programs which convert star catalogs to the format of the XEphem visualiser. The currently supported input catalog formats are (i) the data base of the orbital elements of the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), (ii) the data base of the Hipparcos main catalog or the variants of the Tycho-1 or Tycho-2 catalogs, (iii) the systems in the Washington Double Star catalog, (iv) the Proper Motions North and South catalogs, (v) the SKY2000 catalog, (vi) the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3), (vii) the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS v. 5).
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1802.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 18:17:07

Response to the FQXi RFP: Agency in the Physical World

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 2 Pages.

To bring scientific rigor to FQXi challenges[1] is the greatest challenge. Given the diverse community and vexing manner in which our organizers delight in framing issues, prevalent absence of rigor follows. Yet a substantial subset of the community is comprised of physicists, with no obvious tightening there of reason’s web. We have two immediate interests. First is to make our work accessible to larger communities, to focus on the theoretical minimum, on quantum interpretations as applied to the geometric wavefunction, to express geometric wavefunction physics in languages of most closely related disciplines. To function as interpreters[11]. Second is quantum impedance matching in nanoelectonics, beyond scale invariant quantum Hall impedance of vector Lorentz forces to those associated with all forces and their potentials. It appears the present status in that community is black art. Nobody knows what they’re doing. Impedance governs amplitude and phase of energy flow. One has to quantum impedance match if one wants to quantum compute effectively. This is just common sense.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[28] viXra:1802.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-04 06:33:10

Time Runs Only in the Elementary Particles and in Black Holes

Authors: Janko Kokosar
Comments: 7 Pages.

The author shows examples where his opinion about fundamentality is different as opinion of the majority of physicists. He claims that special relativity alone gives that time runs only in rest matter. He claims that absolutely empty spacetime without rest matter cannot exist; one reason is also because time runs only in rest matter. Existence of dimensionless masses of the elementary particles also tells us about coupling between rest matter and spacetime. Dimensionless masses of the elementary particles are obtained when the masses of the elementary particles are combined with the gravitational constant, Planck's constant and the speed of light. The author insists that the principle of equivalence remains also in quantum physics, and that gravitational uncertainty principle is simple. Consciousness is still more fundamental than the elementary particles, but consciousness does not exist outside of elementary particles. The author advocates quantum consciousness, free-will, and suggests how to verify this experimentally.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] viXra:1802.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 05:25:39

A Feasible Path to a Machine that Can Pass the Turing Test.

Authors: Tofara Moyo
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we will outline a NLP system that is based largely in graph theory, and together with techniques found in linear algebra we will be able to model the rules of logic. Inference from given data in natural language format will then be done by creating a mapping between the premises and the conclusion. During training the vector that is responsible for taking us from the space that the premise occupies to the space that the conclusion occupies will represent the particular logical rule used.Also training involves determining a particular vector for the job.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[26] viXra:1802.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 06:18:34

Changing the Logic of Science; a Bayesian Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John Hemp
Comments: 497pages

Abstract In the 1950s and 1960s it was causing interest among physicists that in the formalism of quantum mechanics (complex-valued) ‘probability amplitudes’ obeyed laws similar to the laws obeyed by probabilities in the ordinary probability calculus. But this did not then lead decisively to the claim that probabilities should be represented by complex numbers. It became fashionable instead to regard probability amplitudes as an abstract concept from which actual probabilities could be derived by taking the squared moduli of the amplitudes. In this monograph, however, we make another attempt to show how probability amplitudes might after all be identified with actual probabilities. To do this, probability itself is interpreted in a rational Bayesian manner (i.e. as an extension of logic) and a new (complex-valued) probability theory is formulated that incorporates the uncertainty principle (i.e. that takes account of the fact that acquisition of knowledge of a quantum mechanical process generally interferes with it). Taking this probability theory as the new logic of science, and assuming certain physical laws and properties of matter, an interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is built up. It is consistent with the usual quantum mechanical formalism but allows a clear distinction to be made between the physical world and our knowledge of it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1802.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 07:53:34

Chiral Phonons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[24] viXra:1802.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 09:09:50

Quantum Turbulence in Superfluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1802.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 10:20:48

New Way to Bend Light Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1802.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 14:06:37

Cloud Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[21] viXra:1802.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 14:08:54

Long-Distance Big Quantum Data Transmission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20] viXra:1802.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 14:18:23

Secure Quantum Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers at Laboratoire Kastler Brossel (LKB) in Paris have broken through a key barrier in quantum memory performance. Their work has enabled the first secure storage and retrieval of quantum bits. [17] Antiferromagnets have generated significant interest for future computing technologies due to their fast dynamics, their ability to generate and detect spin-polarized electric currents, and their robustness against external magnetic fields. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1802.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-02 19:27:47

The Misleading Acceleration of the Universe, the Galactic Potential Wells and the Duration of the Universal Expansion

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 7 Pages. Accepted for publication in Frontiers in Science

It is shown that galaxies close to galactic sheets are attracted towards them with an approximate Hooke’s law force. Thus, as they get closer to the sheets, the more their velocities increase, and the more the magnitude of their accelerations decrease. Therefore, the so-called acceleration of the Universe is completely misleading. It is concluded that galaxies are subject to potential wells close to voids walls. It is suggested that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. For the first time it is estimated that the universal expansion is of the order of one trillion years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1802.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 16:54:13

Discarding Algorithm for Rational Roots of Integer Polynomials (DARRIP).

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 20 Pages.

The algorithm presented here is to be applied to polynomials whose independent term has many divisors. This type of polynomials can be hostile to the search for their integer roots, either because they do not have them, or because the first tests performed have not been fortunate. This algorithm was first published in Revista Escolar de la Olimpíada Iberoamericana de Matemática, Number 19 (July - August 2005). ISSN – 1698-277X, in Spanish, with the title ALGORITMO DE DESCARTE DE RAÍCES ENTERAS DE POLINOMIOS. When making this English translation 12 years later, some erratum has been corrected and when observing from the perspective of time that some passages were somewhat obscure, they have been rewritten trying to make them more intelligible. The algorithm is based on three properties of divisibility of integer polynomials, which, astutely implemented, define a very compact systematic that can simplify significantly the exhaustive search of integer roots and rational roots. Although there are many other methods for discarding roots, for example, those based on bounding rules, which sometimes drastically reduce the search interval, for the sake of simplicity, they will not be considered here. The study presented here could be useful to almost all the young people of the planet, since at some stage of their academic training they will have to solve polynomial equations with integer coefficients, looking for rational solutions, integer or fractional. The author thinks that DARRIP's algorithm should be incorporated into the curricula of all the elementary study centers over the world.
Category: Algebra

[17] viXra:1802.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 16:57:10

The Signum Function of the Second Derivative and Its Application to the Determination of Relative Extremes of Fractional Functions (SF2D).

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 10 Pages.

Usually, the complexity of a fractional function increases significantly in its second derivative, so the calculation of the second derivative can be tedious and difficult to simplify and evaluate its value at a point, especially if the abscise isn't an integer. However, to determine whether a point at which cancels the first derivative of a function is a relative extremum (maximum or minimum) of it, is not necessary to know the value of the second derivative at the point but only its sign. Motivated by these facts, we define a signum function for the second derivative of fractional functions in the domain of the roots of the first derivative of the function. The method can dramatically simplify the search for maximum and minimum points in fractional functions and can be implemented by means of a simple algorithm.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[16] viXra:1802.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 17:32:51

Human Development Paralleled with World History Epochs

Authors: Mell Lenz, Baz J Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages.

“HEY MORONS!! YOU MISSED SOMETHING!!”
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1802.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 19:10:58

The Conservation of Mass and Stars in the General Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The meaning of conservation of mass is given and applied to stars. This paper completely destroys all past theories of stellar evolution except for the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1802.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 20:54:46

Cl(16) Bulk and E8 Boundary Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physical Spacetime is the Shilov Boundary of a Complex Domain Bulk Space. Bulk Domain is made up of Cells carrying 65,536 Cl(16) Quantum Information Elements. Physical Spacetime contains an Indra’s Net of Schwinger Source Particles which form Atoms which in turn form Tubulin Dimers and Microtubules carrying 65,000 Quantum Information Elements. The Spacetime Microtubules and Bulk Domain Cells have Resonant Connection by Bohm Quantum Potential, thus connecting Consciousness of Human Body with Universal Spiritual Consciousness. The Complex Domain Buik and Shilov Boundary are also related by Poisson and Bergman Kernels. Bergman Kernel for a Bounded Region of Spacetime is the Green’s Function for that Region as a Schwinger Source carrying Charge of Symmetry of its Spacetime Region. Schwinger Sources act as Jewels of a Universal Indra’s Net with Quantum Blockchain Structure. For each Schwinger Source to carry Information of Indra’s Net it must have Fractal Structure. Geometry of Schwinger Sources their Green’s Functions allows calculation of Force Strengths and Particle Masses. For details see viXra 1701.0496 , 1701.0495 , 1602.0319 , 1711.0476 , 1801.0086
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1802.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 23:39:32

Big Bounce and a Chanced Tuning .

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 7 Pages. A paper for CERN .

The meaning of fine tuning and emergent gravitation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12] viXra:1802.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 12:43:03

Metasurface Converts Colors of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1802.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 13:20:41

Laser Beam Billiard

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1802.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 14:14:36

Cool Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1802.0012 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-18 04:25:56

Fale Grawitacyjne W Grawitacji Newtona Oraz Krytyka Fal Grawitacyjnych Wynikających Z Ogólnej Teorii Względności (Ligo) (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil
Comments: 20 Pages. From the General Theory of Relativity do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies (in Polish).

Najważniejszym wnioskiem z tego artykułu jest to, że z Ogólnej Teorii Względności nie wynikają żadne fale grawitacyjne tylko zwyczajna modulacja natężenia pola grawitacyjnego spowodowana wirowaniem ciał. Jeżeli zespół LIGO cokolwiek zmierzył, to tylko tą modulację, a nie falę grawitacyjną rozumianą jako nośnik grawitacji. Dyskusja ta pokazuje, że posługiwanie się w fizyce zbyt skomplikowaną matematyką prowadzi do błędnej interpretacji wyników (w tym przypadku być może winny jest rachunek tensorowy). Formalnie można obliczać różne rzeczy, ale nie wiedząc, co takie rachunki oznaczają przypisywać im błędną interpretacje. Ponieważ modulację natężenia pola grawitacyjnego nazwano we współczesnej fizyce falą grawitacyjną, dlatego my także postąpiliśmy w ten sposób, chociaż takie nazewnictwo jest mylące. W artykule wykazane zostało, że z prawa ciążenia Newtona wynika istnienie fal grawitacyjnych bardzo podobnych do tych, które wynikają z Ogólnej Teorii Względności. W artykule pokazane zostały różnice pomiędzy przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z grawitacji Newtona oraz przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z Ogólnej Teorii Względności, których pomiar został ogłoszony przez zespół LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory). Według obu teorii fale grawitacyjne są cyklicznymi zmianami natężenia pola grawitacyjnego. W artykule zaproponowana została metoda testowania interferometru laserowego do pomiaru fali grawitacyjnej używanego w obserwatorium LIGO. Przedstawiona została także krytyka wyników opublikowanych przez zespół LIGO.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1802.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 22:17:09

The Twin Paradox is not a Paradox by Mathematical Logic © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We define the twin paradox without resort to stopping because we assume that instant velocity commences and terminates at an instant state of rest. Twins occupy the same fiducial point from which one twin obtains an instant velocity to a non-fiducial point, then obtains another instant velocity back to the fiducial point. The question is are the twins the same at the fiducial point before and after the separation and travel of the one twin. This is the state of affairs without special relativity. We also test the above as the counter example for the state of affairs with special relativity. [T]he twin paradox is not a paradox, but rather something else, namely, a state of affairs that is not tautologous and not contradictory. What follows is that special relativity is suspicious.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1802.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 01:36:32

Mass Transformation Between Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical objects is chosen to manifest the conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame, the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one object is at rest. The second frame is created by a temporary acceleration from the first frame. By applying both velocity transformation and conservation of momentum to this isolated system, mass transformation is derived precisely. The result shows that the mass of an object is independent of its motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1802.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 07:33:06

Quantum-Cryptographic Protocols

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1802.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 08:14:50

High-Momentum Top Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Studies of high-momentum top-quark pairs are challenging, as it is a channel with significant background. The new ATLAS measurement uses a pioneering method taking advantage of a relativistic effect known as a Lorentz boost. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1802.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 09:06:36

Quantum Hardy's Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1802.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 10:30:32

Quantum Computing 'Hack'

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Sydney have found a 'quantum hack' that should allow for enormous efficiency gains in quantum computing technologies. [36] An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1802.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 11:45:52

The BioDARPA Concept

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 12 Pages.

The dramatic development of biomedical technologies inevitably raises a question of the increasing “gap” between basic biomedical discoveries and their use in clinical practice. Created in 1958 with the same purpose, DARPA has had to bridging the gap in defense technologies (mostly in rocket and radar sciences). Today we can talk about the relevance of the idea of “biomedical DARPA” (BioDARPA) as a concept of organizational design for priority research and development of emerging biotechnologies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1802.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 00:52:03

Predicting Day of New Year’s Day

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of predicting the day of New Year’s Day for any given year in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of five algebraic 2 for Julian expression, three of which are integer function by substituting the year. This formula will calculate the modulo 7 which gives a number from 0 to 6, i.e., 0Saturday, 1Sunday, and so on, that determines the exact day of New Year This algorithm has no condition even during leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.
Category: General Mathematics