[204] **viXra:1802.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 08:54:29*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Euclid’s fifth postulate states that two lines that intersect with a third line and makes internal angles on the same side summing up to less than two right angles must intersect on that side. In this paper we show that if the two internal angles are each right angles so that the sum is 180 degrees and then the two lines each making right angles with the third line cannot intersect with one another. We make an assumption that along a straight line, three points make an angle of 180 degrees around the point that lies in the middle.

**Category:** Number Theory

[203] **viXra:1802.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Yu. N. Bratkov

**Comments:** 14 pages, Russian. Consciousness and Physical Reality, 2003, v. 8, N 5, pp. 40-51.

The main ideas of "Theory of Hyperobjects" (viXra:1207.0079) and new results. Mathematical (topological) modelling in mythology, with applications to geology. Some new classes of physical objects are described. Cybernetic level of geology (planetology) is demonstrated. The existence of the ideal preimage of the Earth is demonstrated.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[202] **viXra:1802.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:38:14*

**Authors:** ANIRILASY Méleste

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We suggest that there exists, at least, one prime number in four intervals between n² and (n+1)² for any integer n 2 such that :
all intervals are half-open;
the excluded endpoints are multiples of n;
the number of elements in each interval is equal to the least even upper bound for the biggest prime number strictly less than n.
This conjecture is a strong form of Oppermann’s one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[201] **viXra:1802.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:35:06*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 1 Page.

While the notion that it is better to avoid renormalization if one possibly can is an easy sell, the possibility that a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant quantum model has come over the horizon turns out to be a surprisingly hard sell.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[200] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[199] **viXra:1802.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 01:25:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[198] **viXra:1802.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 01:50:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[197] **viXra:1802.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 06:19:14*

**Authors:** Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru http://universe100.narod.ru/ http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html (English)

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The energy of the loks (0,0), (1,0) and (1,1) are calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. The first conclusions on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks are made.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[196] **viXra:1802.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 08:45:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[195] **viXra:1802.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 09:06:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[194] **viXra:1802.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 10:12:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Gaps in van der Waals Theory However, experimental support for theoretical modelling of the van der Waals interactions that hold these materials' layers together has been wanting. [15] The detection of handedness of electrons in a Weyl semimetal opens new experimental possibilities for studying and controlling these elusive massless particles and their quantum weirdness. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[193] **viXra:1802.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 10:16:11*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

this world has limited applications

**Category:** Classical Physics

[192] **viXra:1802.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 10:33:58*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Galina Pana

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper deals with an ability of Laminine to induce pH-variation in isolated water.The acidic shift was measured in the isolated container with water in spite of that routine mixing Laminine in water causes the alkaline-shift. The phenomenon is explained due to a reduction of the potential barrier between hydronium ions caused by local spinning fields produced by Laminine.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[191] **viXra:1802.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 12:14:36*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-5, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3,5 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-5 and simple composite number-5
The simple prime numbers-5 are known as the 7-rough numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[190] **viXra:1802.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 13:28:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[189] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[188] **viXra:1802.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 19:15:04*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 66 Pages. This research paper contains rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[187] **viXra:1802.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 22:01:15*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 32 Pages. published by CEP (Center of Prospective study) n° 78-79 (March-June 2017), and Bulletin de l'académie Internationale Concorde (2018) review (2018).

The basic Cosmos concept is wiped out in our epoch, contrary to old traditions. The main cosmic phenomena, the galactic recession shows up a length, not a time as widely professed, which is related, via a canonical factor 2, to three main fundamental constants, the light celerity being excluded : three minutes of a mandatory elementary calculation leads to this Observable Universe radius 13.812 milliards light-years. Now the official cosmology says that the Universe age is precisely 13.8 milliards years. The two approaches are concordant, but, as fundamental constants are time-invariant, this excludes the Primordial Big Bang, replacing it by a Permanent Bang, a matter-antimatter oscillation at frequency 10^104 Hz. Modern mathematics have not recognized the Eddington's number as fundamental, while ancient Egypt has represented its decomposition 137 = 3 + 7 + 127, the Catalan-Mersenne series, in the Hypostyle Room of the Amon temple in Karnak. The following term 2^127 gives back the above Universe radius, with the unity for which the Bohr radius is about 137 : the electron wavelength. The couple electron-positron is so the basis of all, as predicted by the forgotten Eddington's statistical Fundamental Theory.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[186] **viXra:1802.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 15:58:29*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The paper is considering a problem in Wasan geometry.

A problem involving a square in the curvilinear triangle made by two touching congruent circles and their common tangent is generalized.

**Category:** Geometry

[185] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 01:01:27*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The related articles are available at http://vixra.org/author/wei_xu

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[184] **viXra:1802.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 02:05:51*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Красная почва внутренних планет Солнечной системы является кометной пылью. Спутник Юпитера Европа является остатком кометы.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[183] **viXra:1802.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 02:16:09*

**Authors:** Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V.N.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At the beginning there was information, and then already her materialization!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[182] **viXra:1802.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 14:52:45*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Yu (2000) described the use of the Gibbs sampler to estimate regression parameters where the information available in the form of depended variables is limited to rank information, and where the linear model applies to the underlying variation beneath the ranks. The approach uses an imputation step, which constitute nested draws from truncated normal distributions where the underlying variation is simulated as part of a broader Bayesian simulation. The method is general enough to treat rank information that represents ties or partial orderings.

**Category:** Statistics

[181] **viXra:1802.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 18:58:19*

**Authors:** Zeraoulia Rafik

**Comments:** 06 Pages. Thank's to the special function

In this note we present a new special function such that behaves
more like error function and since we arn’t able to express it as elementary
function using previous standard functions ,we only give it’s simple expression
in some range values using numerical approximation . and we will show how
it helps to get values of complicated integral which they arn’t available at
wolfram alpha and in the same time we will show it’s relationship with error
function and cumulative distribution function .

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[180] **viXra:1802.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 21:46:19*

**Authors:** Mell Lenz, Baz Taylor

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Lenz/Taylor theory is a prediction model derived from human development and suggests that the unification of several sciences including String Theory may be undeniable when placed into a cohesive context. For the purpose of this paper, String Theory was used comparatively for the overall concept and provides for it a more meaningful context.
5 stages of space and 5 stages of awareness... together they equal 10 stages of life and 2 stages of birth and death creating 12 stages (with 1 and 12 representing life and death respectively, in the broader sense of the Universe recycling matter) happening simultaneously.
“We looked inside Pandora’s Box and found hope.”
Mell Lenz

**Category:** Mind Science

[179] **viXra:1802.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 00:28:31*

**Authors:** Jonathan Deutsch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

ABSTRACT
THE QUANTUM AS BACKWARDS TIME, AND HOW THIS PERMITS A FIRST-EVER WORKING ALGEBRAIC QUANTUM GRAVITY
By Jonathan Deutsch
Backwards time is inferred to exist from the superluminal implications of the universe’s proven non-locality. It exists as well in the standard quantum-mechanical formalism as an “advanced solution” to the Schrodinger wave equation. Regrettably, backwards time is ignored by most physicists, students, and by the general public. Very, very recently, however, careful experiments performed in Europe have confirmed the existence of backwards time in certain quantum situations. But nature makes absolutely no distinction at all between the quantum and the classical realms! Therefore, it won’t be long before backwards time is experimentally confirmed for you and I.
We begin by creating and then using three original postulates:
1)The deBroglie wavelength (in centimeters) associated with the proton is really equal to –1.
2)The mass of the proton (in grams) is really equal to +1.
3)The time (In seconds) it takes light to travel the deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton is really equal to i, the square root of –1.
With these three postulates, we demonstrate that the quantum, h, could really be a unit of backwards time. The inscrutability of quantum mechanics would then be seen as entirely due to the inscrutability of backwards time. We then combine Newton’s equation for universal gravity with the three postulates to create the first algebraic equation for quantum gravity that works for planets, quanta and everything in-between. The new gravity equation contains four elements:
1)The tiny quantum, h
2)The minute deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton
3)The miniscule time it takes light to travel that distance
4)A variable - - a coefficient for h - - that’s actually composite “quantum Newton”!
We then demonstrate that this new equation magically reproduces, exactly, Newton’s classical gravity results! We begin to realize that the quantum, h, lies hidden in EVERY classical equation - - gravity, electromagnetism, etc. Therefore, classical physics becomes fully quantized too, uniting for the first time the very large - - classical physics, including gravity - - with the very small - - quantum physics - - into one essentially indivisible whole.
We conclude by seeing that spacetime is the universe’s prime mover. Though invisible, it is physically real and powerful enough to create all the matter and all the gravity in the entire universe. What’s thought of as the geometric backdrop for matter is really the creator of it as well. Matter affects (warps) spacetime causatively in the forwards time-direction in Einstein’s General Relativity. And spacetime affects (creates) matter in the backwards time-direction equally significantly. Thus, a completely new window to understanding matter and gravity is opened up to us.
But the outstanding feature of all this is backwards time - - a healing backwards time. Does the omnipresent existence of backwards time hold out any hope that we can get younger as we age? We strongly believe that such is the case, both quantumly and at the human, macro level. Older and younger simultaneously IS very quantum-like, after all. Could they somehow be EQUIVALENT? Again, we strongly believe that the answer is in the affirmative, and is mathematically provable!
I encourage readers to respond in the Disqus comment section on the Abstract page. Or contact me personally at spqrwin@outlook.com. I will reply to all. My next article, to be published in March or April, intends to remove quantum contradictions by proving that supposed opposites are really identical.
KEYWORDS
Advanced solution: a backwards-time solution
Backwards time: time running in reverse, from present to past; future to present; or future to past. This can be continuously, or discontinuously - - i.e., JUMPING to a much earlier time.
c: the speed of light
Classical physics: the science and mathematics of relatively large entities - - e.g., apples, people and planets. It also includes electromagnetism (See Entry.)
Coefficient: the number (amount) of something, e.g., for 5 quanta (5h), the number “5”. A coefficient needn’t be a whole number, but it is, or should be, a positive number.
deBroglie wavelength: the wavelength associated with every particle, according to Prince Louis deBroglie, famous 20th-century theoretical quantum physicist. Whether or not this deBroglie wavelength is physically real or not is a matter of some dispute, but the consensus leans toward the negative.
Electromagnetism: the classical science of visible light and of invisible rays such as X-rays, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetism has a quantum counterpart.
General Relativity: Einstein’s theory of gravity (See the Entry for Gravity.) Its two essential ideas are:
1)Gravity is acceleration, not a force.
2)Gravity is matter warping (curving) spacetime, rather than “spooky action at a distance” - - one piece of matter affecting another without touching it.
Gravity: for Newton, the attractive force between any two pieces of matter. For Einstein, it’s the warping (curving) of spacetime, caused by the presence of matter.
h: the quantum of action, also known as Planck’s constant. It is absolutely central to all of quantum physics.
Newton’s equation for universal gravity: the product of the two masses involved, divided by the square of the distance between them, multiplied by the strength of gravity.
Non-locality: the proven fact that our world is supported by an invisible reality which links all points in space, making extremely large distances seem “on top of each other” - - i.e., very small. This means that SOME form of communication faster than light-speed exists, implying that backwards time exists for our whole universe. Non-locality does not diminish with distance.
Postulate: an assumption, at least initially unproven. Our theory contains just four - - all eventually proven true.
Quantized: measured in quanta - - i.e., in units of h (See Entry for h.) - - measured discontinuously, in little “chunks” or “packets”.
Quantum gravity: the as-yet unaccomplished union of Einstein’s theory of gravity - - General Relativity - - and quantum mechanics. We firmly believe that our theory takes a huge first step in this direction.
Quantum mechanics: that area of quantum physics which deals with the motion of extremely small subatomic particles.
Quantum physics: the science and mathematics of very small subatomic particles - - e.g., protons, electrons, neutrons and neutrinos - - and their antiparticles.
Schrodinger’s wave equation: the quantum mechanics equation that many physicists consider to be the only physical reality in the universe. Some physicists even believe that THIS is not physically real either.
Superluminal: faster than light-speed.
Unitless: a “pure” number - - e.g., 20.5 - - as opposed to 20.5 CENTIMETERS, in units
Universal G: the strength of gravity - - a universal constant
Variable: an entity with two or more possible values, as opposed to a constant which has one value. Variables are heavily used in algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[178] **viXra:1802.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 03:22:43*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Discovery of electron and neutron structures resulted in obtaining more information on the material world’s structure and at the same time revealed that the electrical charge of electron might be not a global constant.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[177] **viXra:1802.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 04:06:59*

**Authors:** David Johnson

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

'Energy to Matter' (E2M) evolved from an energy-centric interpretation of electromagnetism into a descriptive explanation of the nature and structure of matter. It proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure and bonding, and to provide an explanation for Beta Decay, Electron Capture, Positron-Electron annihilation, Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and the phenomena of Gravity.
The E2M models for atom structure challenge the view that the nucleus is an amorphous spherical grouping of nucleons surrounded by electrons moving at close to the speed of light in mathematically defined 'spdf' orbitals around the nucleus, and thus requires a rethink of many basic concepts.
E2M is a structured, bottom-up, explanation-focused approach with an emphasis on providing a detailed visual presentation (it contains more than 40 explanatory diagrams within its 38 pages). It doesn’t claim to have all the answers or to be 100% correct – no model can claim that. It does, however, provide a logically consistent intuitive theory which, as far as can be ascertained, is not contradicted by any scientific observations regarding the nature of normal matter.
It is difficult for any new theory to gain traction, particularly if it challenges the status quo. But it is hoped that everyone, regardless of academic background and science disposition, will give it a fair and impartial hearing, and that dissenters and supporters alike will see fit to provide the reasons for their opinions relating to E2M.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[176] **viXra:1802.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 16:01:47*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[175] **viXra:1802.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 06:33:28*

**Authors:** Misheck Kirimi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unification of Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is explored. The similarities and the differences in these laws have remained unexplained since 1784 when Coulomb published the latter law. It is noted here that no past research has paid attention to the fact that ‘gravitational mass’ (M1M2) and ‘electric charge’ (Q1Q2) are the only physical parameters that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws do not share. The observation reduces ‘unification of gravity and electricity’ to ‘unification of mass and electric charge’. Despite the simplicity of this observation, physics literature is silent about the relation of mass to electric charge. Little effort has been devoted to this subject because the meaning of charge is ambiguous – charge has never been explained in terms of known physical parameters. An intelligible explanation of charge is suggested here. Based on the explanation, it is demonstrated that mass and charge are different aspects of the electron. Consequently, it is shown that gravitation and electrostatics are different facets of a common phenomenon. It is concluded that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary units of matter, i.e. matter is nothing but equal positive and negative grains of electricity. The results solve a major problem in physics, namely the unification of gravitation and electrostatics, and also provide a theoretical foundation for attempts to manipulate gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[174] **viXra:1802.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 07:36:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16]
But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15]
Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14]
"The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[173] **viXra:1802.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 07:40:11*

**Authors:** Renzun Lian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Traditionally, all working modes of a perfect electric conductor are classified into resonant modes, inductive modes, and capacitive modes, and the resonant modes are further classified into internal resonant modes and external resonant modes. In this paper, the resonant modes are alternatively classified into intrinsically resonant modes and non-intrinsically resonant modes, and the intrinsically resonant modes are further classified into non-radiative intrinsically resonant modes and radiative intrinsically resonant modes. Based on the modal expansion corresponding to this new modal classification, an alternative modal decomposition method is proposed. In addition, it is also proved that: all intrinsically resonant modes and all non-radiative intrinsically resonant modes constitute linear spaces respectively, but all resonant modes and all radiative intrinsically resonant modes cannot constitute spaces respectively.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[172] **viXra:1802.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 08:26:17*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate prenex normal form of quantifier presentation on rules for the connectives of conjunction, disjunction, implication, and for negation. The format is not tautologous, not bivalent, and hence refuted. What follows is that many theorems produced with prenex for computer science, mathematics, and physics are now suspicious. A notable example is the satisfiability algorithms produced by Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam which are now mistaken.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[171] **viXra:1802.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 08:47:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The detection of handedness of electrons in a Weyl semimetal opens new experimental possibilities for studying and controlling these elusive massless particles and their quantum weirdness. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[170] **viXra:1802.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[169] **viXra:1802.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:49:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Aleksandra Dimić from the University of Belgrade and Borivoje Dakić from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna have developed a novel method for which even a single experimental run suffices to prove the presence of entanglement. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1802.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 10:16:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[167] **viXra:1802.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 11:11:56*

**Authors:** Theodore J. St. John

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physics, to some, is the study of motion. To others, it is about the underlying essence of reality. But to many practical minded (and some outraged) scientists, contemporary theoretical physics has become an uncontrolled haven for speculative theorizing giving rise to fairytale physics. It seems to have “crossed an important threshold of a kind that cannot be tested, that cannot be verified or falsified, a kind that is not subject to the mercilessness of the scientific method. The discipline has retreated into its own small, self-referential world. Its product is traded by its advocates as mainstream science within the scientific community, and peddled (or even missold) as such to the wider public.” (Baggott, 2013)
The purpose of this essay is to present a practical perspective of what is meant by “time”– a perspective that opens a window to a better understanding of that “weird” world of quantum mechanics. The error of treating time as a real, absolute, independent, one-dimensional entity (that was created along with the rest of the universe in the big bang) is the source of the unanswerable question, “what happened before the beginning of time”. In this paper, by treating time as a measure of motion, quantum theory and relativity theory are integrated into a single model that makes practical sense of the particle-wave duality, the transformation of future into past, hidden variables, the constant that is perceived to be the speed of light, and the Schrodinger wave equation. Finally, it provides a practical basis for studying the holographic nature of physical reality and the field of consciousness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[166] **viXra:1802.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 10:10:56*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A Diophantine m-tuple is a set of m distinct non-zero integers such that the product of any two elements of the set is one less than a square. The definition can be generalised to any commutative ring. A computational search is undertaken to find Diophantine 5-tuples (quintuples) over the ring of quadratic integers Z[√D] for small positive and negative D. Examples are found for all positive square-free D up to 22, but none are found for the complex rings including the Gaussian integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[165] **viXra:1802.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 11:48:27*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 13 pages. «SCÉNARIO POUR L'ORIGINE DE LA MATIÈRE» is the French version of «SCENARIO FOR THE ORIGIN OF MATTER» on viXra.org/abs/1802.0171

Comment est apparue la matière ? D’où vient la masse de la matière ? Les physiciens des particules ont fait appel aux connaissances acquises sur la matière et l’espace pour imaginer un scénario standard afin de fournir des réponses satisfaisantes à ces grandes interrogations. La pensée dominante pour expliquer l’absence d’antimatière dans la nature est qu’on avait un univers initialement symétrique fait de matière et d’antimatière et qu’une dissymétrie aurait suffi pour qu’il reste plus de matière ayant constitué notre monde que d’antimatière. Cette dissymétrie serait issue d’une anomalie dans le nombre de neutrinos provenant de réactions nucléaires qui laissent supposer l’existence d’un nouveau type de neutrino titanesque qui dépasserait les possibilités du modèle standard et justifierait l’absence d’antimatière dans le macrocosme. Nous pensons qu’un autre scénario pourrait mieux expliquer pour quelle raison on observe que de la matière. Il implique la validation de la solution d’énergie négative de l’équation de Dirac, issue elle-même de l’équation de l’énergie d’Einstein. La théorie de la Relation décrit un océan d’énergie négative avec création de paires particule/antiparticule réelles. L’origine des masses des particules proviendrait de cet océan. Un mécanisme physique permettrait leur séparation en sens inverse, d’où il résulterait un enrichissement de la matière au détriment de l’océan. La matière serait favorisée sans avoir recours à la négation ou l’annihilation de l’énergie négative, sans avoir besoin d’une violation de CP (différence de comportement entre particule et antiparticule) qui serait responsable de l’asymétrie matière/antimatière dans l’univers. Et sans l’apport salvateur d’un neutrino obèse indétectable : sa recherche nous apparaît plus un acte désespéré vers une « catastrophe ultramassive » qu’un effort véritable pour essayer de découvrir ce qui s’est vraiment passé.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[164] **viXra:1802.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 12:21:45*

**Authors:** Hartmut Traunmüller

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Scientific journals do not normally publish any paper that directly discredits the currently accepted doctrine within their field, no matter how wrong it is. This is because referees can easily identify deviations from current doctrine and established practice, while it requires a higher intellectual effort to assimilate a new point of view and to follow a non-traditional path of reasoning. Referees naturally tend to avoid this extra effort. Students, researchers and editors are aware of this and so are likely to choose a mode of action that does not threaten their own carrier. Thus, they prefer to follow the mainstream. These circumstances are apt to preclude fundamental progress in science for long periods of time. This is merely a case study about the history of a paper that illustrates this problem.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[163] **viXra:1802.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 13:03:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[162] **viXra:1802.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 06:16:03*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

This refutes Tarski's theorem for the undefinability of truth as:
"no definable and sound extension of Peano Arithmetic can be complete"; or in abstract terms,
"the proof of a system cannot be demonstrated by itself".
Tarski's theorem is an arguable equivalent to Godel's incompleteness theorem, as based on the liar's paradox.
[Remark added later:
Tarski's theorem as used since about 1936 is an underpinning of quantum theory and a universal justification for atheism.]

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[161] **viXra:1802.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 06:19:46*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Where did matter in the universe come from? Where does the mass of matter come from?
Particle physicists have used the knowledge acquired in matter and space to imagine a standard scenario to provide satisfactory answers to these major questions. The dominant thought to explain the absence of antimatter in nature is that we had an initially symmetrical universe made of matter and antimatter and that a dissymmetry would have sufficed for more matter having constituted our world than antimatter. This dissymmetry would arise from an anomaly in the number of neutrinos resulting from nuclear reactions which suggest the existence of a new type of titanic neutrino who would exceed the possibilities of the standard model and would justify the absence of antimatter in the macrocosm. We believe that another scenario could better explain why we observe only matter. It involves the validation of the negative energy solution of the Dirac equation, itself derived from the Einstein energy equation. The theory of Relation describes a negative energy ocean with the creation of real particle/antiparticle pairs. The origin of the masses of the particles would come from this ocean. A physical mechanism would allow their separation in the opposite direction and, therefore, the matter would be enriched at the expense of the ocean. The matter would be favored without resorting to negation or annihilation of negative energy, without the need for a CP (the behavioral difference between particle and antiparticle) violation that would be responsible for matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. And without the savior contribution of an undetectable obese neutrino: his search appears to us more a desperate act towards an "ultra-massive catastrophe" than a real effort to try to discover what really happened.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[160] **viXra:1802.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 06:25:55*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Alternative explanation for differences of propagation of seismic waves in Earth interior is presented in short.

**Category:** Geophysics

[159] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 17:42:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton's theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force will be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[158] **viXra:1802.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:39:29*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 5 pages, abstract and extended abstract of a book, https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/theory-of-everything,-ultimate-reality-and-the-end-of-humanity/isbn/978-3-659-31673-9

Instead of postulated fixed structures and abstract principles of usual positivistic science, the unreduced diversity of living world reality is consistently derived as dynamically emerging results of unreduced interaction process development, starting from its simplest configuration of two coupled homogeneous protofields. The dynamically multivalued, or complex and intrinsically chaotic, nature of these real interaction results extends dramatically the artificially reduced, dynamically single-valued projection of standard theory and solves its stagnating old and accumulating new problems, “mysteries” and “paradoxes” within the unified and causally complete picture of intrinsically evolving, dynamically complex reality. The permanently unfolding complexity progress thus revealed is fundamentally unlimited and does not need to stop at the directly observed diversity of usual matter complexity. The exciting, but rigorously substantiated and objectively inevitable prospects of further civilisation complexity development towards its superior levels of genuine sustainability and global Noosphere are outlined, with practically important conclusions for today’s critical problem solution.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[157] **viXra:1802.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:46:18*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 5 pages + references and appendices, total 14 pages.

In order to deal with the coincidence problem a new scalefactor-redshift relation is considered. With the new relation a constant rate of expansion with no cosmological constant matches observations well. There is thus the possibility that the dark energy phenomenon is an illusion caused by the use of an incorrect relation.
The new relation arises naturally in a cosmological model which expands - yet appears static, incorporating the perfect cosmological principle. It is found that the new relation also leads to a natural resolution of the tension between Hubble constant values from the distance ladder and Cosmic Background Radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[156] **viXra:1802.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:55:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Traditionally, a quantum harmonic oscillator model is used to describe the tiny vibrations in a diatomic molecule, but the description is also universal in the sense that it can be extended to a variety of other situations in physics and beyond. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[155] **viXra:1802.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 09:11:03*

**Authors:** Masataka Ohta

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Consider four-dimensional Hilbert space H over ℂ as a direct product of two two-dimensional Hilbert
spaces over ℂ, in which two binary quantum states are represented, respectively, that is, |00 = (1, 0,
1, 0), |10> = (0, 1, 1, 0), |01> = (1, 0, 0, 1) and |11> = (0, 1, 0, 1). Then, |00>+|11> = |01> + |10> =
(1, 1, 1, 1). Existence of such linear dependency is obvious considering three binary quantum states in
six dimensional Hilbert space, because there are eight combinations of 0 and 1 in a six dimensional
space. Moreover, though it may be surprising that basis set {|00>. |10>, |01>. |11>} is not enough to
cover H, considering degree of freedom of quantum state spaces represented in four and two
dimensional Hilbert spaces over ℂ counted by ℝ are 7 and 3, respectively, and 7-3*2=1, it is also
obvious. The natural basis set of H is {(1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1)}. Considering
practical communication with two binary quantum channels, (1, 0, 0, 0), which is a valid quantum
state even traditionally, should mean that the first two-dimensional Hilbert space represent |0> is sent
and the second one represent no photons sent, that is, vacuum . Moreover, (0, 0, 0, 0) should also
represent a valid quantum state that no photons are sent in either channel, that is, total vacuum.
Violation of Bell’s inequality not by quantum entanglement is discussed in a separate paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[154] **viXra:1802.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 05:27:36*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) consists of 16 matter and force particles: six quark matter particles (up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top); six lepton matter particles (electron, muon, tau, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, and tau-neutrino); and four force particles (photon, W/Z’s, gluon, and Higgs). Although the SM is the gold standard of particle physics, it is inadequate because it: does not emphasize Higgs particles’ supremacy; does not differentiate between more important permanent and less important transient particles; defines only a single Higgs force; does not include the graviton; and does not include dark matter, dark energy, supersymmetry, and super supersymmetry of Higgs particles. Via amplification of four independent theories (superstring, particle creation, Higgs forces or bosons, and spontaneous symmetry breaking), the SM was amplified to Fig. 6 Fundamental SM/supersymmetric/super supersymmetric matter and force particles containing 64 matter and force particles.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[153] **viXra:1802.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 05:17:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Forty-five years ago this month, a telescope tucked inside a 14-story, 500-ton dome atop a mile-high peak in Arizona took in the night sky for the first time and recorded its observations in glass photographic plates. [23]
The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21]
A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20]
Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19]
A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18]
CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16]
But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15]
Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14]
"The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[152] **viXra:1802.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 06:55:10*

**Authors:** M. Kovalyov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A few aspects of the Tunguska explosion unnoticed until now are reviewed

**Category:** Geophysics

[151] **viXra:1802.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 08:13:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[150] **viXra:1802.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 09:01:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17]
In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16]
Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12]
Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10]
Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9]
Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[149] **viXra:1802.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 10:14:35*

**Authors:** Alvydas Jakeliunas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here we present computer simulation of Bell test experiment based on classical wave model of light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[148] **viXra:1802.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 13:37:08*

**Authors:** H.Q. Armstrong

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Existence supersedes non-existence

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[147] **viXra:1802.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 14:05:08*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Galina Pana

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A similarity between the records of the remote spiritual, mental-induction experiments and inducing actions of Laminine, for the same type of detectors, has been revealed during the experiments in 2017.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[146] **viXra:1802.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 15:15:22*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles Brenden

**Comments:** 95 Pages. Final Rendition

The covariant formalism has determinantly differed in context with that of the provisions as physics as a science has developed; as the general inquiry into science has shifted in purpose to the needs of a placable necessity of moder explanation of the world that surrounds us; the given inquiry of which details the meaning of symbolic rather than purely logical and mathematical language and understanding; the pinacle of which is the new synthesis of explanation to be found in the belief of an interweaving of at the least two factors; that of determinancy and finality in comprehensiveness of phenomenology.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[145] **viXra:1802.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 09:08:19*

**Authors:** Réjean Labrie

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract: Let N, n and k be integers larger than 1. Then for all N there exists a minimum threshold k such that for n>=N, if we cut the sequence of consecutive integers from 1 to n*(n+k) into n+k slices of length n, we always find at least a prime number in each slice.
It follows that π(n*(n+k)) > π(n*(n+k-1)) > π(n*(n+k-2)) > π(n*(n+k-3))> ...> π(2n)> π(n) where π(n) is the quantity of prime numbers smaller than or equal to n.

**Category:** Number Theory

[144] **viXra:1802.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 01:34:32*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

The estimation obtained in this work convincingly confirms that, due to the errors previously committed in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, the resulting mathematical transformation is erroneous and the two physical systems described in the special theory of relativity are not inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1802.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 02:52:00*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a copy of a comment I sent to ABC TV about their "Catalyst" program on 13/02/2018. That comment was limited to 1,500 words but readers get a bonus here: the comment's been expanded to 1,900 words. Professor Duffy's comment in "Catalyst" about using the Moon as a launching pad to Mars, then the stars, is a great dream for our future. But our present slow rockets aren't very convenient for travel to the stars. I can see 3 better ways - each is faster than the previous one. (1) is the controversial EmDrive which, through future application of Maxwell's and Einstein's theories as well as the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, may not only see huge benefits for spaceflight but also huge benefits to many areas of life for the average person who never journeys to space. (2) is the combining of a 2009 electrical-engineering experiment at America's Yale University with the ideas of Albert Einstein to produce a type of wormhole, or shortcut through space-time. (3) is mathematical – the use of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem in future space-time travel (there's no cause for concern if you're not trained in maths – it's explained in English).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[142] **viXra:1802.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 06:33:34*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden technische Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[141] **viXra:1802.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 07:47:03*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 47 Pages. In French.

It is a short lectures of Geostatistics giving some elements of this field for third-year students of the Geomatics license of the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis.

**Category:** Statistics

[140] **viXra:1802.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 09:04:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Researchers drawing on work conducted as part of the PAPETS project, explain in the journal Physical Review Letters how they recently managed to exploit temporality for quantum computation tasks performed on dynamic random networks. [36]
An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35]
A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34]
Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33]
A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32]
In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31]
Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30]
Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28]
To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]
Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[139] **viXra:1802.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 09:09:34*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

YouTube University
By Ricardo.gil@sbcglobal.net
2015-2017
The objective of this paper is to share some of the Videos I have viewed that has quenched my thirst for knowledge.
This is dedicated to @Phil Gibbs who published my papers on ViXra after Dr. Bjorn Poonen from MIT suggest me to do so but Dr. Poonen told me to clean them up but I was to lazy to clean them up and published anyway. The problem I had was that I tried in vein to publish on arxiv and could no get sponsored.
I grant permission to any body for the thirst for knowledge to view my watch past or current watch later list and or history.
Google Login:Ricardo.gil@sbcglobal.net
PW: r2751275g5!
https://www.youtube.com/feed/history
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=WL
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=LLuxJdpHodkbF9x_4CNk-tNw
References
http://vixra.org/author/ricardo_gil
Note: Off with their heads.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[138] **viXra:1802.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 10:10:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[137] **viXra:1802.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 10:40:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14]
The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[136] **viXra:1802.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 11:26:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[135] **viXra:1802.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 13:59:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The NEEC effect occurs when a charged atom captures an electron, giving the atom's nucleus enough energy to jump to a higher excited state. [23]
In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22]
Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[134] **viXra:1802.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 14:37:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The set of Poulet numbers having only odd digits is: 1333333, 1993537, 3911197, 5351537, 5977153, 7759937, 11777599...(22 from the first 7196 Poulet numbers belong to this set). Question: is this sequence infinite? Observations: the numbers n*P + R(P) – n respectively P + n*R(P) - n, where R(P) is the reversal of P and n positive integer, are often primes. Examples: for P = 1333333, the number 1333333 + 3333331 – 1 = 4666663, prime; also 3*1333333 + 3333331 – 3 = 7333327, prime; also 5*1333333 + 3333331 – 5 = 9999991, prime. For the same P, the number 1333333 + 2*3333331 - 2 = 7999993, prime; also the number 1333333 + 4*3333331 - 4 = 14666653, prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[133] **viXra:1802.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 19:53:37*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 64 Pages. Feedback is welcome

This paper builds on an earlier paper that built the Standard Model Particles from Infinite Superpositions, borrowing action quanta from a receding horizon. It connects an infinitesimally modified General Relativity at cosmic scale, with an "Invariant Four Action Density for Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons". There are more significant effects near black holes, with a chance that they could change the build rate of Supermassive black holes. Only the last few cycles of mergers would be effected, possibly only showing up as a small increase in their apparent mass. A continuous exponential expansion is predicted, that may relate with the differing Hubble parameters predicted from early universe expansion measurements, and measurements of more recent local expansion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[132] **viXra:1802.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 19:15:12*

**Authors:** Jayson R. Abalos

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The proposition of a catalog for comparing diverse astropause and astrosphere modeling equations and methods is outlined and examined.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[131] **viXra:1802.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 01:15:44*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Everything is simple, how in the fairy tale about doctor Aybolit! Vselenochka of the abnormal help of annunak – a prototype of the first-aid kit of doctor Aybolit of people of Earth!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[130] **viXra:1802.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 02:22:05*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In 2000 I published in Russian a brochure "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and a Unified Field Theory": http://viXra.org/abs/1801.0305. Now I present the English translation of version II of the brochure with minor differences from the version 2000 (

Lorentz transformations in their originally more general form, i.e. with the scale factor are considered. It is shown, that H. Lorenz, A. Poincare, and A. Einstein put this factor equal to one without proper foundations. It is clarified the physical sense of this factor – he describes the Doppler effect. As the result the paradoxes of the special theory of relativity are removed, grandiose simplifications occur in GR and the natural path to the construction of unified field theory is opening.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1802.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 02:20:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I noticed that the numbers n*P + R(P) – n respectively P + n*R(P) - n, where P are Poulet numbers having only odd digits, R(P) the reversals of P and n positive integer, are often primes. In this paper I notice that the same is true for primes having only odd digits (see A030096 in OEIS for a list of such primes). Taken thirteen randomly chosen consecutive primes P having nine (odd) digits (from 971111137 to 971111993) I see that for all of them there exist at least a value of n smaller than 15 for which the number n*P + R(P) – n is prime (for 971111591, for instance, there exist four such values of n: 9, 11, 14, 15; for 971111137 three: 2, 4, 7; for 971111551 also three: 1, 2, 6; for 971111959 also three: 1, 9, 10; for 971111993 also three: 5, 6, 14).

**Category:** Number Theory

[128] **viXra:1802.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 06:47:29*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page. There are alot of collected papers at Bexar County which I submitted to the Government.

Bexar County Detention Papers
(Topological Number Theory Formula/Equation/Algorithm)
By Ricard.gil@sbcglobal.net
January 9,2017 to Pretrail (Court February 26,2018 CCC4)
The objective of this paper is to show how one can take Gigori Pereleman complex arXiv 39 page paper and make it into a simple topological formula. I am revealing the ide I had in Bexar County Detention on viXra. I want to dedicate the Bexar County Detention papers to my Ex-Wife, Eddie Gil and Ashleigh Gil. (See attached Photo) & I can always be found at 3607 Ticonderoga, San Antonio Texas, where I am a permanent guest/resident.
I. The Topological Formula/Equation/Algorithm
1D=2D=3D/1=1/1D=2D=3D

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1802.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 07:39:57*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This short note supplements a recent paper by the author (http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0236). In that paper it is shown from detailed data analysis that rest energies and magnetic moments for baryons can be related in terms of the existence of coherent or incoherent currents in the femtometer scale. We argue that such evidence brings support to the kind of microphysics proposed by Louis de Broglie, David Bohm and Evert Post. Rest energy is concentrated in a core. In particular all results in the cited reference can be obtained from Post´s proposal of the determination of dynamical quantities of the core through period integrals involving essentially the phases of “wavefunctions”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[126] **viXra:1802.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 13:12:49*

**Authors:** Cristian Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bell’s inequalities (and the CHSH inequalities) were used in order to rule out certain hidden variable theories (or interpretations of quantum mechanics). In this short note, I will prove that Bell’s results represent a strong argument in favor of a deeper, nonlinear underlying reality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1802.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 13:38:42*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the threshold (centre-of-mass) energies and corresponding to them values of the rho parameter. The qualitative description is very detailed and in the quantitative description there are incorporated the coupling constants calculated within SST.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[124] **viXra:1802.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 20:35:42*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract
The creation of the universe is described in a form of conversation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1802.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 22:29:30*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented in a set of postulates by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Conversions of well-known expressions specific to gravitation, special and general relativity exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulated integer counts of fundamental measures changes our understanding of length and allows a straight-forward application of the principles of relativity to a gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[122] **viXra:1802.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 01:09:49*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1802.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-12 23:41:44*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes, Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the paper it is demonstrated that Bells theorem is an unprovable theorem. This inconsistency is similar to concrete mathematical incompleteness. The inconsistency is purely mathematical. Nevertheless the basic physics requirements of a local model are fulfilled.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[120] **viXra:1802.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 08:28:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Due to the properties of the superluminal quantum entanglement, theory of proton is classical and statistical. Quantum Physics is a result of neglecting the superluminal entanglement which is a classical phenomenon. Here, within the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated and showed the origin of the inelastic and elastic cross-section and the rho parameter versus the centre-of-mass energy for the proton-proton collisions. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[119] **viXra:1802.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 08:53:59*

**Authors:** A. A. Logan

**Comments:** 7 pages, 15 figures, 1 table, preprint for IET Journal of Engineering Submission.

This paper investigates the characteristics of the power series representation of the Riemann Xi function. A detailed investigation of the behaviour of the zeros of the real part of the power series and the behaviour of the curve, combined with a substitution of polar coordinates in the power series and in the definition of the critical strip (leading to a critical area), and the relationship with the zeros of the imaginary part of the power series leads to the conclusion that the Riemann Xi function only has real zeros.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[118] **viXra:1802.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 09:10:18*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Proposition 23 states that two parallel lines in a plane never intersect. We use this definition with first and second postulate of Euclid to prove that two distinct lines through a single point cannot be parallel.

**Category:** Geometry

[117] **viXra:1802.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 09:17:00*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The intrinsic unification of the quantum theory and relativity has been discussed here in the light of the last developments. Such development is possible only on the way of the serious deviation from traditional assumptions about a priori spacetime structure and the Yang-Mills generalization of the well known $U(1)$ Abelian gauge symmetry of the classical electrodynamics. In fact, more general gauge theory should be constructed.
Formally we deal with the quantum version of the gauge theory of the deformable bodies - the gauge theory of the deformable quantum state. More physically this means that the distance between quantum states is strictly defined value whereas the distance between bodies (particle) is an approximate value, at best. Thereby, all well known solid frames and clocks even with corrections of special relativity should be replaced by the flexible and anholonomic quantum setup. Then Yang-Mills arguments about the spacetime coordinate dependence of the gauge unitary rotations should be reversed on the dependence of the spacetime structure on the gauge transformations of the flexible quantum setup. One needs to build ``inverse representation" of the unitary transformations by the intrinsic dynamical spacetime transformations.
In order to achieve such generalization one needs the general footing for gauge fields and for ``matter fields". Only fundamental pure quantum degrees of freedom like spin, charge, hyper-charges, etc., obey this requirement. One may assume that they correspond some fundamental quantum motions in the manifold of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's). Then ``elementary particles" will be represented as a dynamical process keeping non-linear coherent superposition of these fundamental quantum motions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[116] **viXra:1802.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 11:37:30*

**Authors:** Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. 2005

The error of mathematical fantasies in the region of large densities inside stars is shown. The impossibility of infinite density growth is shown. An alternative description of the processes in the masses of massive stars is proposed.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[115] **viXra:1802.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 14:44:28*

**Authors:** Zeraoulia Rafik

**Comments:** 23 Pages. I wish my results w'd be considerable for any futur refeered journal

In this note we present some new results about the analyticity of the functional-differential equation $ f'=e^{{f}^{-1}}$ at $ 0$ with $f^{-1}$ is a compositional inverse of $f$ , and the growth rate of $f_-(x)$ and $f_+(x)$ as $x\to \infty$ , and we will check the analyticity of some functional equations which they were studied before and had a relashionship with the titled functional-differential and we will conclude our work with a conjecture related to Borel- summability and some interesting applications of some divergents generating function with radius of convergent equal $0$ in number theory

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[114] **viXra:1802.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 15:53:02*

**Authors:** Alfonso León Guillén Gómez

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

Se examina el crecimiento económico de largo plazo, ocurrido en los últimos 56 años, en
Colombia, durante los períodos keynesiano y neoliberal, bajo la consideración de constituir una estructura económica capitalista dependiente. Por lo tanto, relacionando su crecimiento con el de los Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido que conforman el principal eje de dominación mundial. Con tal objetivo primero se construye un modelo conceptual de tal historia para en segundo lugar analizarla e interpretarla utilizando herramientas estadísticas del análisis de series de
tiempo.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[113] **viXra:1802.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 16:11:01*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. New system (algorithm) settlement of sports competitions called R-Sport (in Polish).

Celem rozgrywek sportowych jest wyłonienie spośród grupy drużyn, bądź zawodników, drużyny najlepszej, czyli mistrza. Dlatego pomiędzy poszczególnymi drużynami muszą zostać rozegrane mecze. O tym, kto zostanie mistrzem decydują wyniki wszystkich spotkań. Zasady obowiązujące w trakcie sezonu tworzą System Rozgrywek Sportowych.
W dokumencie tym został opisany nowy System Rozgrywek Sportowych. System ten pozwala na sprawiedliwe i efektywne wyłonienie zwycięzcy całego sezonu. Posiada on zalety, których nie posiadają inne, znane i stosowane obecnie Systemy Rozgrywek Sportowych.
R-Sport jest Systemem Rozgrywek Sportowych, który pozwala przeprowadzić rozgrywki ligowe na wiele sposobów.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[112] **viXra:1802.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 16:41:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion).. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation.. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton.
“Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[111] **viXra:1802.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 23:36:04*

**Authors:** Zuodong Sun, Bing Lu, Yuting Sun, Aili Wang, Aobo Dong, Wenhua Wang, Wuyi Sun

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

[Objective] Verification and application of the theory of brain cell activation.
[Methods] Applying Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument to the treatment of Neurodegenerative disease. including but not limited to: Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
[Results] Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument，its double - center, randomized, double - blind clinical trial has been carried out at the national clinical trial base，it proves that the instrument is safe and effective. This instrument is especially suitable for the treatment of the following diseases: 1. It is suitable for the treatment of mild to moderate Parkinson's disease and can significantly improve resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease and other symptoms. 2. It is suitable for the treatment of mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia and can improve the mental state, cognitive behavior and self-care ability of daily life. 3. It is suitable for the treatment of mild to moderate depression and can obviously improve the main symptoms of depression, sleep disorder, anxiety and so on. 4. It is suitable for the treatment of cerebral apoplexy sequelae, cerebrovascular dementia and brain atrophy,it can activate the brain cells in the state of inhibition and mobilize the potential energy of the brain.
[Conclusions] The theory of brain cell activation，It is applicable to encephalopathy and not limited to encephalopathy,according to this theory, the subject of "physical disease science" can be created.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[110] **viXra:1802.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 01:51:57*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A no-brainer.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[109] **viXra:1802.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 12:45:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31]
Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[108] **viXra:1802.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 13:33:31*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Analysis of two-body four-force systems of celestial bodies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[107] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 09:14:50*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. non

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by
studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant
improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new
possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian
physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might be possible to
distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by
experimental methods which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[106] **viXra:1802.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 15:02:46*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Personal conflict and desperation.

**Category:** Social Science

[105] **viXra:1802.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 02:51:25*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

The KdV equations are generalized over differentiable manifolds. The equations are integrable.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[104] **viXra:1802.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 06:26:11*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[103] **viXra:1802.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 06:31:18*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note presents some integrals for lemniscate constants.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[102] **viXra:1802.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 07:08:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1802.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 08:07:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[100] **viXra:1802.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 21:53:37*

**Authors:** Gao Peng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Torsion field communication (TFC) is a very important research direction in torsion field research. A.E.Akimov
conducted the first TFC experiment [1]. David. G. Yurth also made great contribution for the TFC, it’s said his
group has made one prototype of torsion field transmitter and receiver for communication [2]. In 2010, Dr. M.
Krinker conducted successful TFC experiments with colleagues in Moscow [3]. Author began to pay attention to
this topic all because a book called “Torsion Field and Interstellar Communication [4]” by V. Shkatov and V.
Zamsha. This book introduces some kinds of torsion field generators and sensors, and mainly the “Shkatov-
Zamsha” approach – using the photo as the addressing component. They transmitted obvious signal in 2011 with
this approach. After that, Dr. M. Krinker in New York also did successful TFC tests with Mr. Shkatov. And further,
Dr. M. Krinker developed the “Cross-Photo” approach for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Cybertronica
Research led by Dr. S. Kernbach developed many kinds of detectors, which can detect weak and super-weak
signals – especially the torsion field non-local signals. Besides them, 1k replication experiments with
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy have been finished nonlocally [5].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[99] **viXra:1802.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 09:50:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are using the nation's most powerful supercomputer, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to study particle interactions important to energy production in the sun and stars and to propel the search for new physics discoveries. [12] A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[98] **viXra:1802.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 19:14:03*

**Authors:** Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 2005

A long-awaited unified theory of all fields was received, for which the giants of world physics fought so hard. In addition, it is shown that not only all fields, but all matter, are solutions of the same equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[97] **viXra:1802.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 01:51:43*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The unexploited unification of general relativity and quantum physics is a painstaking issue that prevents physicists to properly understanding the whole of Nature. Here we propose a pure mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. Indeed, we build a cyclic groupoid (a nonemptyset with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses both the theories as subsets, making it possible to join together two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., the commutativity detectable in our macroscopic relativistic world and the non-commutativity detectable in the quantum, microscopic world. Further, we provide a feasible physical counterpart able to throw a bridge between relativity and quantum mechanics, namely, the gravitational force. The latter stands for an operator able to reduce the countless orthonormal bases required by quantum mechanics to just one, i.e., the relativistic basis of an observer located in a single cosmic area.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] **viXra:1802.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 02:26:11*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1802.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 04:14:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[94] **viXra:1802.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 06:40:23*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 34.

In this paper is proved an inequality involving a function of Fibonacci numbers in generic form and its limit at infinity is calculated using the asymptotic relationship given by Barr and Schooling in "The Field" (December 14, 1912).

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1802.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 06:48:35*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Spanish.

Solution to the problem PMO33.5. Problema del Duelo Matemático 08 (Olomouc – Chorzow - Graz).
Let a, b, c in ℝ. Prove that V = 4(a² + b² + c² ) - (a + b)² - (b + c)² - (c + a)² >= 0, and determine all values of a, b, c for which V = 0.

**Category:** Algebra

[92] **viXra:1802.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 06:59:49*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Spanish.

Solution to the problem PMO33.2. Problem of Mathematical Duel 08 (Olomouc, Chorzow, Graz).
Determine all triples (x, y, z) of positive integers verifying the following equation:
3 + x + y + z = xyz

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1802.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 07:08:19*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 22. Spanish.

Upper bound for the product of the sum of the reciprocals of n real numbers greater than or equal to 1 by the product of those increased by 1, and some variants.
Se establece una cota superior para el producto del sumatorio de los recíprocos de n números reales mayores o iguales que 1 por el producto de éstos incrementados en 1, y para algunas variantes.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[90] **viXra:1802.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 07:18:35*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 1 Page. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 21. Spanish.

Lobo's theorem for heronian triangles:
"Exists at least one heronian triangle such that two sides are consecutive natural numbers and its area is equal to n times the perimeter, for n = 1, 2, 3".
Teorema de Lobo para triángulos heronianos: Existe al menos un triángulo heroniano tal que dos de sus lados son números naturales consecutivos y su área es igual a n veces su perímetro, para n = 1, 2, 3.

**Category:** Number Theory

[89] **viXra:1802.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 07:24:07*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 1 Page. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 18. Spanish.

A very simple solution to a geometric problem (proposed by Alex Sierra Cardenas, Medellin, Colombia) that involves a cevian, two perpendicular bisectors and a median in an isosceles triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[88] **viXra:1802.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 07:47:03*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 47 Pages. https://arxiv.org/abs/1110.1299

This work presents for the first time a solution to the 1821 unsolved Sawa
Masayoshi's problem, giving an explicit and algebraically exact solution for
the symmetric case (particular case b = c, i.e., for ABC isosceles right-angled triangle), see (1.60) and (1.61).
Despite the isosceles triangle restriction is not necessary, in view of the complexity of the explicit algebraic solution for the symmetric case, one can guessing the impossibility of achieving an explicit relationship for the
asymmetric case (the more general case: ABC right-angled scalene triangle). For this case is given a proof of existence and uniqueness of
solution and a proof of the impossibility of getting such a relationship, even
implicitly, if the sextic equation (2.54) it isn't solvable.
Nevertheless, in (2.56) - (2.58) it is shown the way to solve the asymmetric case under the condition that (2.54) be solvable.
Furthermore, it is proved that with a slight
modification in the final set of variables (F), it is still possible to establish a relation between them, see (2.59) and (2.61), which provides a bridge that connects the primitive relationship by means of numerical methods,
for every given right-angled triangle ABC.
And as the attempt to solve Fermat's conjecture (or Fermat's last theorem), culminated more than three centuries later by Andrew Wiles, led to the development of powerful theories of more general scope, the attempt to solve
the Masayoshi's problem has led to the development of the Theory of Overlapping
Polynomials (TOP), whose application to this problem reveals a great potential
that might be extrapolated to other frameworks.

**Category:** Geometry

[87] **viXra:1802.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 08:08:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

An international team of researchers has experimentally observed Bethe strings for the first time. [21] Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[86] **viXra:1802.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 09:24:00*

**Authors:** Sulaiman Mujoobe

**Comments:** 36 Pages. CC-BY LICENCE: Anyone can share, reuse, remix, or adapt this material for any purpose, providing the original authors are credited and cited.

ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this paper is to attempt to give a detailed step by step explanation of how data is collected and statistically treated during an analytical method development and validation protocol for Quality Control of Pharmaceutics. In most cases, modification to a given manufacturing process, formulation or synthetic pathway during a drug development program may necessitate changes to existing analytic methods. As a consequence, this change may require additional transfer and or validation studies. Effective method development in a pharmaceutical industry is aimed at ensuring that analytical methods meet the objectives required at each stage of drug development using the least resources available of which developmental time and cost are the main targets. Method validation involves demonstrating that these methods are suitable for their intended use as required by regulatory agencies. Method transfer is the formal process of assessing the suitability of methods in another laboratory. These studies involve numerous steps taken, according to a given Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) to collect data. Data analysis usually encompasses confusing mathematical manipulations that may require extensive knowledge of statistics. Although most papers and articles on method development and validation indicate how data is collected, very few give the final acceptance result and show how it was calculated. This paper therefore fills this gap by illustrating, following a hypothetical Standard Operating Procedure: MUJ-256-B dated 16th July 2015 from a hypothetical JBXY Pharmaceuticals, how to develop and validate a method to identify and quantitatively determine the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient; (±) 1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3-[(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) methyl]-4H-carbazol-4 one, monohydrochloride, dihydrate (Ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate) in Ondansetron hydrochloride 4mg/5ml Syrup (Nausetron) by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
Keywords: Acceptance Criteria, Hypothesis Testing, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use; Method Transfer; Ondansetron; Pharmaceutical; Statistics; Reversed-Phase; Biostatistics; Statistical Treatment; Quality Assurance; Quality Control.

**Category:** Chemistry

[85] **viXra:1802.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 09:31:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[84] **viXra:1802.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 09:33:09*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a given Sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[83] **viXra:1802.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 04:50:04*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has structure, and this structure has one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that is like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravitation and the fine structure of photons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[82] **viXra:1802.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 10:54:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18]
The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17]
A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16]
Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15]
Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14]
A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11]
Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10]
The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1802.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 11:25:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Leiden physicists found a surprising interaction between electrons and a resist layer. The resist appears to charge and discharge due to incoming electrons. [19] By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[80] **viXra:1802.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 17:01:07*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Published in International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews, 2018; 2:6.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[79] **viXra:1802.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 00:07:53*

**Authors:** Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Paved Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Two versions have been advanced, which explain "antimatter" as a rare quantum state of ordinary matter. Confirmatory arguments are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[78] **viXra:1802.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 03:40:15*

**Authors:** Coccia Mario

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The theorem of not independence of any technological innovation states that in the long run, the behavior and
evolution of any technological innovation is not independent from the behavior and evolution of the other
technological innovations. The philosophical foundations of this theory are concepts from systems science and
architecture of complexity. The theoretical implications of this theorem is that technological innovations form
systems of inter-related technologies with fundamental interactions of physical and social factors. In particular,
any technological innovation does not function as an independent system per se, but each innovation depends on
the other technological innovations to form a complex system of parts that interact and coevolve in a non-simple
way. The theorem of not independence of any technological innovation can explain and generalize, whenever
possible, one of the characteristics of the evolution of technology that generates technological and economic
change in human society.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[77] **viXra:1802.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 06:08:45*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Journal Citation: arXiv:1602.03005v1

If a line cuts randomly two sides of a triangle, the length of the segment determined by the points of intersection is also random. The object of this study, applied to a particular case, is to calculate the probability that the length of such segment is greater than a certain value.

**Category:** Statistics

[76] **viXra:1802.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-08 06:28:49*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Sacred Mathematics: Japanese Temple Geometry. Fukagawa Hidetoshi - Tony Rothman.
Still Harder Temple Geometry Problems:
Chapter 6 - Problem 3.

**Category:** Geometry

[75] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-12 00:40:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[74] **viXra:1802.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 14:32:39*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Cycle One identifies the spectrum position of an electromagnetic wave where the velocity has the same numeric value as the frequency. The interest in a Cycle One concept started when a geometric relationship was identified between wavelength and frequency. The frequency value is not arbitrary. The frequency value was mathematically predicted in 1944 and in 1951 it was detected coming from space. The triangle pair wavelength-frequency relationship would not have been recognized until after the 1951 radio astronomy discovery. The triangle pair relationship establishes a universal unit of length, a time duration, and allows a unit of energy to be defined.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[73] **viXra:1802.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 19:34:58*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Quantum gravity, theory of everything

Resolution of the Cosmological Constant Λ must maintain the mathematics of wavefunction, as well as Einsteins field equations. However, a fundamental break from convention is justified, in order to cancel the mathematical discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in General Relativity (GR) and the much greater zero-point energy value, as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT). This article does maintain conventional models. The paradigm shift is from the conventional idea of a constant R 4 spacetime at every scale (from microspace to macrospace). Instead, proposing that dimensions approaching quantum scales increase to a higher dimensional R 5 space, and that dimensions approaching the cosmic event horizon decrease to a lower dimensional R 3 space (R 4 spacetime is just one phase of this transitioning multispace). This is only suppositional, yet it explains so many mysteries of cosmology in the simplest and most parsimonious format (in fact in one single sentence). In wavefunction, superposition can be alternatively interpreted as a transition (or divergence) of R n , as observed from a R 4 spacetime onto a higher dimensional R 5 space at scales approaching QFT. Time, position, energy and momentum become plural, and a range of R 5 space is viewed as a single instant until " collapsed " (mapped) onto our familiar classic R 4 space. In GR, R 4 spacetime transitions (or converges) to a point at the cosmic event horizon, to a diminished R 3 space. This converging affect appears equivalent to acceleration, as units of time in velocity are decreasing with larger scales. Thus, Λ in GR is only illusional and therefore cancelled.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] **viXra:1802.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 21:31:50*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

1.The Main Hypothesis: The Matter Is Created From The Light
2.The produced matter is created in motion, that means the solar planets are created in motions (regardless the motion reason)
3.The solar group are a group of motions conveyors, So the motions of all solar planets are depended on each other
4.The solar group motions aim to create a difference in motion velocity = C between 2 points in the group.
5.i.e. The Solar Planets work as gears or conveyors group, transfer the motion from point to another point, aiming to create a difference in motion velocity = C velocity. And that's happening where the solar group motions create a difference in velocities between the Earth and Sun motions = C velocity (for that reason the sun is our source of light)
6.The solar group is A Dipole System has 2 heads (the sun and the Earth)
7.The light Production by the planets motions (i.e. by transferring of the mechanical waves into light waves), the original source of light beams energy, from which the solar planets were created, will be conserved.
8.Because there's a difference in velocity = C between 2 points in the solar group (the sun and the Earth), we may conclude easily that, there's more than one frame in the solar group.
9.To create a difference of velocity = C, all solar planets should revolve around the dipole line (The Sun-Earth Line) in the same direction, enabling the velocities addition process to gather all motions in the same point…
10.The Produced Solar Planets should have relationships between their Geometrical structures (if they were created from the light), so the planets are not created independent but related to each other geometrically.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[71] **viXra:1802.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 22:18:07*

**Authors:** Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Paved Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. It is very impotent discovery 2002 year.

The primary quantum basis of biological life is found. The process of the origin of life is restored.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[70] **viXra:1802.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 02:30:55*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

In this paper we define and study the new model for quantum mechanics (QM) – the hybrid epistemic model. We describe in detail its axiomatic definition and its properties. The new feature of this model consists in the fact that it does not contain the formal definition of the measurement process (as it is standard in other models) but the measurement process is one of possible processes inside of QM.
The hybrid-epistemic model of QM is based on two concepts: the quantum state of an ensemble and the properties of individual systems. It is assumed that the quantum state (i.e. the wave function) can be attributed only to ensembles (with some exceptions) and not to individual systems. On the other hand, the properties of individual systems can be described by properties which are collected into classifications. Properties are assumed to be exclusive, i.e. a given individual system having certain property cannot have another property.
We shall describe the internal measurement process in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. This description substitutes the formal definition of the measurement process in the standard QM.
We show the local nature of EPR correlations in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. We show that the anti-correlations between measurements at the Alice’s part and the Bob’s part is completely analogical to the standard classical local anti-correlations originated in the correlation in the past.
We define precisely the epistemic and the ontic models of QM for the goal to prove that these three models give the same empirical predictions, i.e. that they are empirically equivalent. This theorem on the empirical equivalence is proved in all details.
We show that the no-go theorems (Bell’s theorem, the Leggett-Garg’s theorem and others theorems) cannot be proved in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM. This is one of the main results of this paper. We interpret this as the invalidity of no-go theorems in QM. This interpretation is sound since the true consequences of QM must be provable in all models of QM.
We shall consider the possible inconsistences of the ontic model of QM. We show that there are many consequences of the ontic model of QM which are dubious or controversial. There are many such controversial consequences. In the next part we consider the internal inconsistency of the ontic model which is more serious and we consider this argument against the ontic model as the most serious.
We introduce the property-epistemic model of QM which is the special case of the hybrid-epistemic model. We describe this model in all details and we show that this model of QM is the most suitable and most elegant model of QM. In this model many proofs are extremely simplified and almost trivial.
Then we discussed possible arguments in this field and our answers to these arguments. We summarize our conclusions.
At the end there are three appendices. In the first appendix we give proofs of all theorems. In the second appendix we give our conjectures, opinions and suggestions. In the third appendix we describe the ontic model for the Brownian motion. We think that this model shows clearly (by analogy) the absurdity of the ontic model of QM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1802.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 03:12:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Electrical and optical engineers in Australia have designed a novel platform that could tailor telecommunication and optical transmissions. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[68] **viXra:1802.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 07:09:05*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 13 Pages. In French.

This paper gives the elements of definition of the Bonne's map projection. It was used for the ancient cartography at 1/50000 scale in Tunisia and Algeria.

**Category:** Geometry

[67] **viXra:1802.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 07:34:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In deep space, accurate timekeeping is vital to navigation, but many spacecraft lack precise timepieces on board. [5] Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Donald Chang from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, attempts to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1802.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 08:50:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[65] **viXra:1802.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 09:37:09*

**Authors:** Anindya Kumar Biswas

**Comments:** 19 Pages. It's an application of a model of economics developed in analogy with theory of electrodynamics of physics

In this article, we derive relations between inflation and rate of unemployment for a set of economic systems, using a theoretical model developed under the spell of Maxwell’s electrodynamics.
Inflation in a place, in the model, is proportional to the frequency of economic power flow to the place
from outside. Rate of unemployment in that place is a power law function of the frequency. Relations are
of power law types i.e. inflation varies inversely as a power of rate of unemployment. Consequently, we
get a spectrum of inflationary exponents. Exponents obtained are 2/5, 2, 2/(5+4l), 6.7; 1/6, 1/4, 1/(2l+6),
0.26; 1/4, 1/2, 1/(2l+4), 0.61; -2/3, -2/7, 2/(4l-3), -0.2; 1, -1, 1/(2l+1), -0.4 respectively; where, l is a
positive integer. We draw few representative Phillips curves i.e. graphs of inflation vs rate of
unemployment, discuss about the consequences of the spectra and surmise about the relevance of CPI
over WPI from the model.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[64] **viXra:1802.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 09:46:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists around Professor Gerhard Rempe, director at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and head of the Quantum Dynamics Division, has demonstrated the feasibility a new concept for a quantum gate. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[63] **viXra:1802.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 05:41:09*

**Authors:** Lauri Ahonen

**Comments:** 83 Pages. Master's thesis

Crowding is a phenomenon where the identification of objects in peripheral vision is deteriorated by the presence of nearby targets. Crowding therefore reduces the extent of visual span, i.e. information intake during a single eye fixation. It is, thus, a limiting factor of many everyday tasks, such as reading. The phenomenon is due to wide area feature integration in the higher levels of visual processing. Despite the critical role of the phenomenon, complex natural images have so far not been used in the research of crowding. The purpose of the present study was to determine how the crowding effect affects object recognition in complex natural images, and whether the magnitude of the crowding could be modelled using methods introduced below. The actual magnitude of the crowding effect was determined experimentally by measuring contrast thresholds for letter targets of different sizes on various natural image backgrounds. The results of the experiments were analyzed to evaluate the developed methods. The methods are based on image statistics and clutter modelling. Clutter models assess the complexity in the image. The image statistics and the clutter models were combined with basic knowledge of the crowding effect. In addition, an early visual system model was incorporated to assess the role of the visual acuity across the visual field. The developed models predicted the induced crowding effect in an arbitrary natural image. The model of the visual system contributed to the results, as well. The differences between the methods for assessing the image properties were, however, negligible. Contrast energy, the simplest measure, can be regarded as the most efficient. Natural images can cause very strong crowding effects. The conclusion is that predicting quantitative dimensions of the crowding effect in an arbitrary image is viable. However further research of the subject is necessary for developing the models. Computational assessment of the crowding effect potentially can be applied to e.g. user interface design, assessing information visualization techniques, and the development of augmented reality applications.

**Category:** Mind Science

[62] **viXra:1802.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 06:31:00*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 117 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitons kill Aliens”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill Aliens”
Adrian Ferent
I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than:
E = 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV
“Gravitational radiation is gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating”
Adrian Ferent
The number of civilizations in our galaxy, Drake equation.
Drake equation is wrong because Drake concluded that N ≈ L, this means N is between 1000 and 100,000,000 civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.
The Milky Way is estimated to contain 100–400 billion stars.
This means the majority of stars do not have at least a planet with intelligent life.
The Milky Way is home to more than 100 million black holes.
“Black holes are Ferent matter”
Adrian Ferent
“There are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy”
Adrian Ferent
“Around each Black hole there is a volume where can not exist civilizations, because of deadly gravitons emitted by Black hole”
Adrian Ferent
We have to look for extraterrestrial civilizations, only in the volume Vl, not in the entire Milky Way galaxy, like Drake equation and other equations do or how Asimov calculated.
The Fermi paradox is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
There are billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy that are similar to the Sun and no evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
“Why there is no evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations? Because gravitons emitted by black holes kill Aliens”
Adrian Ferent
“I found the answer to this question: why the Universe is so quiet and why we do not see UFOs?
There are only a small number of extraterrestrial civilizations in a galaxy; there are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of the galaxy where is the highest density of stars, there are not extraterrestrial civilizations around Black Holes”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Astrophysics

[61] **viXra:1802.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 10:33:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[60] **viXra:1802.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 11:17:41*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This electromagnetic phenomenon replaces the Big-Bang theory/model/scenario.

This is a so slow phenomenon that its effect is undetectable in light emitted at distances as in our galaxy, but is significant in light coming
from cosmological distances, hence the alias ”Cosmological Degeneration/Decay of Light”. On postulating the phenomenon’s existence, its law comes uniquely—an unprecedented case in physics. As main consequences, it: solves Digges-Olbers’ paradox, thus making possible cosmology with infinite universe; explains Hubble-Humason’s red-
shift (or cosmological redshift), in agreement with Hubble’s constant’s inconstancy; explains Penzias and Wilosn’s CMB; explains the unexplained non-uniformity in CMB; replaces the Big-Bang theory/model/scenario. Two new predictions are made.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[59] **viXra:1802.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 11:57:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[58] **viXra:1802.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 11:55:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[57] **viXra:1802.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 12:02:49*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 15 pages

Presented here is a collection of papers by the author with reference data on atomic and ionic radii which account for the chemical bonds in inorganic, organic and biological molecules, and relevant figures.

**Category:** Chemistry

[56] **viXra:1802.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 12:54:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:1802.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 13:32:20*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the Laser Interferometer Gravitational–Wave Observatory (LIGO), one each at Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, allegedly detected gravity waves from merging binary black holes on September 14, 2015, there have been numerous challenges to the claim (and to subsequent claims for further detections, including even gravity waves from merging binary neutron stars on August 17, 2017). These challenges range from denying the very existence of black holes to “liberties” taken with the interpretation of the signals received at the different sites, especially the fact that these signals were pre-simulated to align with the theory of gravitational waves themselves, such that their “detection” was no more than a self-fulfilling prophecy. One particularly astute challenge stems from the claim that, if a gravity wave were to distort space-time, then not only light waves, but also the physical dimensions of LIGO itself, would be distorted, such that any alleged “perturbation” claimed to be a gravity wave due to generation of an interference pattern from the LIGO lasers could not be due to gravity waves. This possibility is examined here, with an alternative as aether disturbances included as what LIGO actually has detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1802.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 14:52:22*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith, Asko Mäki-Tanila

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A dominance model is described coming with inbreeding, and five genetic parameter plus the environmental variance. The linear model is specified by the phenotypic equations and the mid-parent equations. They are placed in an indefinite system that is highly sparse, not the mixed model equations. From this system the augmented matrix K is built that is symmetric and indefinite, leading to restricted maximum likelihood. Likelihood evaluation follows from the factorization of K, and various sparse matrix tools are described for maximizing the likelihood. The method is used to estimate the six parameters for 2706 egg-laying hens that were part of a selection experiment.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[53] **viXra:1802.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 15:45:25*

**Authors:** Igor Hrnčić

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper disproves the Riemann hypothesis by analyzing the integral representation of the Riemann zeta function that converges absolutely in the root-free region.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1802.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 20:46:50*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this work we show that, as in the case of Dirac equation, it is possible to formulate Maxwell field equations of electromagnetism from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations. A prominent feature that emerges from formulating Dirac and Maxwell field equations from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations is that the field equations must be formed in such a way that the functions that represent the system also obey a wave equation. This type of mathematical duality may be related to the wave-particle duality in quantum physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[51] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 14:53:24*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1802.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 22:52:46*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The horizontal component of gravitation exerts impact on change of the direction of atmospheric streams on objects of Solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[49] **viXra:1802.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 23:22:27*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

When falling to Earth of a comet seek to move along a surface and blow up, and asteroids burn and fall.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1802.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 01:52:44*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The ray of light deviates in different directions under the influence of gravitational field of a body.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[47] **viXra:1802.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 04:31:33*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Technical Note on cryo-EM Image Processing using HOL-SCALA/IMAGEJ/JIKESRVM

Cryo-Electron Microscopy(cryo-EM/Cryo-EM) : is a promising method for the imaging of macromolecules in the electron microscope, especially “single-particle” techniques are powerful and popular.As the title of this technical notes indicates it was proposed to probe the frontiers of “Nano-Bio” Systems by using HOL Platform and its associated mathematical concepts,algorithms and libraries
to process Cryo-EM Images.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[46] **viXra:1802.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-08 22:55:15*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail.
Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:1802.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 06:58:27*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral for pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1802.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 08:51:37*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We express a problem from visual astronomy in terms of Geometric (Clifford) Algebra, then solve the problem by deriving expressions for the sine and cosine of the angle between projections of two vectors upon a plane. Geometric Algebra enables us to do so without deriving expressions for the projections themselves.

**Category:** Geometry

[43] **viXra:1802.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 10:28:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14]
The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1802.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Bebereche Bogdan-Ionut

**Comments:** 1 Page.

.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[41] **viXra:1802.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 01:31:47*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Universe is ordered and limited. Everything is simple, how in the textbook by physics: solar wind moves with acceleration from the center to borders of Solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:1802.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 01:40:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The convergence of Fertile fire is a process of a materialization of the Universal phantom of boundless God's love to us.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[39] **viXra:1802.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 01:49:04*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

People can infinitely look at a fire. because see in him the life and all in the Universe!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[38] **viXra:1802.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 01:57:50*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The catastrophic condition of Mars is caused by influence of comets.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[37] **viXra:1802.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 02:02:59*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Any limited and closed system has own energy which depends on the speed of her movement and situation concerning Space of Nothing.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[36] **viXra:1802.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 04:50:15*

**Authors:** Andrea Prunotto

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The condition of equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to be related to the solutions of a Diophantine equation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1802.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 05:01:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35]
A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34]
Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33]
A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32]
In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31]
Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30]

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[34] **viXra:1802.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 12:50:42*

**Authors:** Jean BENICHOU

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The curves of x^n + y^n = z^n seem to be identical to a trig parametric form which for n>2 would exclude integer solutions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1802.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 13:17:15*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

Studying the flow of Kaehler-Ricci, a flow is defined for a manifold which is HyperKaehler.

**Category:** Geometry

[32] **viXra:1802.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 15:02:16*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Contains mostly the Java source code, licensed under the LGPL-v3.

The text lists Java programs which convert star catalogs to the format
of the XEphem visualiser.
The currently supported input catalog formats are
(i) the data base of the orbital elements
of the Minor Planet Center (MPC)
of the International Astronomical Union (IAU),
(ii) the data base of the Hipparcos main catalog
or the variants of the Tycho-1 or Tycho-2 catalogs,
(iii) the systems in the Washington Double Star catalog,
(iv) the Proper Motions North and South catalogs.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[31] **viXra:1802.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 18:17:07*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

To bring scientific rigor to FQXi challenges[1] is the greatest challenge. Given the diverse community and vexing manner in which our organizers delight in framing issues, prevalent absence of rigor follows. Yet a substantial subset of the community is comprised of physicists, with no obvious tightening there of reason’s web.
We have two immediate interests.
First is to make our work accessible to larger communities, to focus on the theoretical minimum, on quantum interpretations as applied to the geometric wavefunction, to express geometric wavefunction physics in languages of most closely related disciplines. To function as interpreters[11].
Second is quantum impedance matching in nanoelectonics, beyond scale invariant quantum Hall impedance of vector Lorentz forces to those associated with all forces and their potentials. It appears the present status in that community is black art. Nobody knows what they’re doing. Impedance governs amplitude and phase of energy flow. One has to quantum impedance match if one wants to quantum compute effectively. This is just common sense.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[30] **viXra:1802.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 06:33:10*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The author shows examples where his opinion about fundamentality is different as opinion of the majority of physicists. He claims that special relativity alone gives that time runs only in rest matter. He claims that absolutely empty spacetime without rest matter cannot exist; one reason is also because time runs only in rest matter. Existence of dimensionless masses of the elementary particles also tells us about coupling between rest matter and spacetime. Dimensionless masses of the elementary particles are obtained when the masses of the elementary particles are combined with the gravitational constant, Planck's constant and the speed of light. The author insists that the principle of equivalence remains also in quantum physics, and that gravitational uncertainty principle is simple. Consciousness is still more fundamental than the elementary particles, but consciousness does not exist outside of elementary particles. The author advocates quantum consciousness, free-will, and suggests how to verify this experimentally.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29] **viXra:1802.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 09:41:39*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages. © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Section 1. We ask: "Can we validate Bayes rule as defined in the captioned textbook link?"
Result: Not validated.
Section 2. We ask: "Can the argument from the text be resuscitated in the process of continuing to evaluate it?"
Result: The textbook definitions of Bayes rule are not validated as tautologous and cannot be resuscitated from the textbook.
Section 3. As an experiment, we ask: "Are the definitions of Bayes rule derivable from Eq 3, the only expression tautologous, from Section 1; in other words, can Meth8 produce a correct Bayes rule because Section 1 failed to do so?"
Result: No.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1802.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 05:25:39*

**Authors:** Tofara Moyo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we will outline a NLP system that is based largely in graph theory, and together with
techniques found in linear algebra we will be able to model the rules of logic. Inference from given data
in natural language format will then be done by creating a mapping between the premises and the
conclusion. During training the vector that is responsible for taking us from the space that the premise
occupies to the space that the conclusion occupies will represent the particular logical rule used.Also
training involves determining a particular vector for the job.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[27] **viXra:1802.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 06:18:34*

**Authors:** John Hemp

**Comments:** Pages. ERRATA available on request.

Abstract
In the 1950s and 1960s it was causing interest among physicists that in the formalism of quantum mechanics (complex-valued) ‘probability amplitudes’ obeyed laws similar to the laws obeyed by probabilities in the ordinary probability calculus. But this did not then lead decisively to the claim that probabilities should be represented by complex numbers. It became fashionable instead to regard probability amplitudes as an abstract concept from which actual probabilities could be derived by taking the squared moduli of the amplitudes. In this monograph, however, we make another attempt to show how probability amplitudes might after all be identified with actual probabilities. To do this, probability itself is interpreted in a rational Bayesian manner (i.e. as an extension of logic) and a new (complex-valued) probability theory is formulated that incorporates the uncertainty principle (i.e. that takes account of the fact that acquisition of knowledge of a quantum mechanical process generally interferes with it). Taking this probability theory as the new logic of science, and assuming certain physical laws and properties of matter, an interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is built up. It is consistent with the usual quantum mechanical formalism but allows a clear distinction to be made between the physical world and our knowledge of it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1802.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 07:53:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of
Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[25] **viXra:1802.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 09:09:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1802.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-03 10:20:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1802.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 14:06:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34]
Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33]
A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32]
In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31]
Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30]
Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28]
To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[22] **viXra:1802.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 14:08:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33]
A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32]
In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31]
Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30]
Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28]
To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[21] **viXra:1802.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 14:18:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Researchers at Laboratoire Kastler Brossel (LKB) in Paris have broken through a key barrier in quantum memory performance. Their work has enabled the first secure storage and retrieval of quantum bits. [17]
Antiferromagnets have generated significant interest for future computing technologies due to their fast dynamics, their ability to generate and detect spin-polarized electric currents, and their robustness against external magnetic fields. [16]
Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15]
A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14]
The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13]
In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1802.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:17:51*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Paper submitted to Frontiers in Science

It is shown that galaxies close to galactic sheets are attracted towards them with an approximate Hooke’s law force. Thus, as they get closer to the sheets, the more their velocities increase, and the more the magnitude of their accelerations decrease. Therefore, the so-called acceleration of the Universe is completely misleading. A sort of molecular potential exists for galaxies inside voids. It is suggested that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. For the first time it is estimated that the universal expansion is of the order of one trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1802.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:54:13*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The algorithm presented here is to be applied to polynomials whose independent term has many divisors. This type of polynomials can be hostile to the search for their integer roots, either because they do not
have them, or because the first tests performed have not been fortunate.
This algorithm was first published in Revista Escolar de la Olimpíada Iberoamericana de Matemática,
Number 19 (July - August 2005). ISSN – 1698-277X, in Spanish, with the title ALGORITMO DE DESCARTE DE RAÍCES ENTERAS DE POLINOMIOS.
When making this English translation 12 years later, some erratum has been corrected and when observing from the perspective of time that some passages were somewhat obscure, they have been rewritten trying to make them more intelligible.
The algorithm is based on three properties of divisibility of integer polynomials, which, astutely implemented, define a very compact systematic that can simplify significantly the exhaustive search of integer roots and rational roots.
Although there are many other methods for discarding roots, for example, those based on bounding rules, which sometimes drastically reduce the search interval, for the sake of simplicity, they will not be considered here.
The study presented here could be useful to almost all the young people of the planet, since at some stage of their academic training they will have to solve polynomial equations with integer coefficients, looking
for rational solutions, integer or fractional.
The author thinks that DARRIP's algorithm should be incorporated into the curricula of all the elementary study centers over the world.

**Category:** Algebra

[18] **viXra:1802.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:57:10*

**Authors:** Jesús Álvarez Lobo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Usually, the complexity of a fractional function increases significantly in its second derivative, so the calculation of the second derivative can be tedious and difficult to simplify and evaluate its value at a point, especially if the abscise isn't an integer.
However, to determine whether a point at which cancels the first derivative of a function is a relative extremum (maximum or minimum) of it, is not necessary to know the value of the second derivative at the point but only its sign.
Motivated by these facts, we define a signum function for the second derivative of fractional functions in the domain of the roots of the first derivative of the function.
The method can dramatically simplify the search for maximum and minimum points in fractional functions and can be implemented by means of a simple algorithm.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[17] **viXra:1802.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 17:32:51*

**Authors:** Mell Lenz, Baz J Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

“HEY MORONS!! YOU MISSED SOMETHING!!”

**Category:** Biochemistry

[16] **viXra:1802.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 19:10:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The meaning of conservation of mass is given and applied to stars. This paper completely destroys all past theories of stellar evolution except for the general theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[15] **viXra:1802.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 20:54:46*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Physical Spacetime is the Shilov Boundary of a Complex Domain Bulk Space. Bulk Domain is made up of Cells carrying 65,536 Cl(16) Quantum Information Elements. Physical Spacetime contains an Indra’s Net of Schwinger Source Particles which form Atoms which in turn form Tubulin Dimers and Microtubules carrying 65,000 Quantum Information Elements. The Spacetime Microtubules and Bulk Domain Cells have Resonant Connection by Bohm Quantum Potential, thus connecting Consciousness of Human Body with Universal Spiritual Consciousness. The Complex Domain Buik and Shilov Boundary are also related by Poisson and Bergman Kernels. Bergman Kernel for a Bounded Region of Spacetime is the Green’s Function for that Region as a Schwinger Source carrying Charge of Symmetry of its Spacetime Region. Schwinger Sources act as Jewels of a Universal Indra’s Net with Quantum Blockchain Structure. For each Schwinger Source to carry Information of Indra’s Net it must have Fractal Structure. Geometry of Schwinger Sources their Green’s Functions allows calculation of Force Strengths and Particle Masses. For details see viXra 1701.0496 , 1701.0495 , 1602.0319 , 1711.0476 , 1801.0086

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1802.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 21:54:57*

**Authors:** Clive Jones

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Featuring the PF5 Prime-Generating Function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13] **viXra:1802.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 23:39:32*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A paper for CERN .

The meaning of fine tuning and emergent gravitation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12] **viXra:1802.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 12:43:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1802.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 13:20:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11]
Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10]
The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1802.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 14:14:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1802.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 15:43:26*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravity waves in Newton's gravitation and test proposition of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave (LIGO) (in Polish)

W artykule wykazane zostało, że z prawa ciążenia Newtona wynika istnienie fal grawitacyjnych.
W artykule pokazane zostały różnice pomiędzy przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z grawitacji Newtona oraz przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z Ogólnej Teorii Względności, których pomiar został ogłoszony przez zespół LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory).
Według obu teorii fale grawitacyjne są cyklicznymi zmianami natężenia pola grawitacyjnego.
W artykule zaproponowana została metoda testowania interferometru laserowego do pomiaru fali grawitacyjnej używanego w obserwatorium LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1802.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 22:17:09*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We define the twin paradox without resort to stopping because we assume that instant velocity commences and terminates at an instant state of rest.
Twins occupy the same fiducial point from which one twin obtains an instant velocity to a non-fiducial point, then obtains another instant velocity back to the fiducial point. The question is are the twins the same at the fiducial point before and after the separation and travel of the one twin. This is the state of affairs without special relativity.
We also test the above as the counter example for the state of affairs with special relativity.
[T]he twin paradox is not a paradox, but rather something else, namely, a state of affairs that is not tautologous and not contradictory.
What follows is that special relativity is suspicious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1802.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 01:36:32*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest.
The second frame is created by a temporary
acceleration from the first frame. By applying both
velocity transformation and
conservation of momentum to this isolated system, mass transformation
is derived precisely.
The result shows that the mass of an object is independent of its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1802.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 07:33:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1802.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 08:14:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Studies of high-momentum top-quark pairs are challenging, as it is a channel with significant background. The new ATLAS measurement uses a pioneering method taking advantage of a relativistic effect known as a Lorentz boost. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1802.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 09:06:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1802.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 10:30:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Sydney have found a 'quantum hack' that should allow for enormous efficiency gains in quantum computing technologies. [36] An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1802.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 11:45:52*

**Authors:** Ilya Klabukov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The dramatic development of biomedical technologies inevitably raises a question of the increasing “gap” between basic biomedical discoveries and their use in clinical practice. Created in 1958 with the same purpose, DARPA has had to bridging the gap in defense technologies (mostly in rocket and radar sciences). Today we can talk about the relevance of the idea of “biomedical DARPA” (BioDARPA) as a concept of organizational design for priority research and development of emerging biotechnologies.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[1] **viXra:1802.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 00:52:03*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of predicting the day of New Year’s Day for any given year
in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of five algebraic 2 for
Julian expression, three of which are integer function by substituting the year. This formula
will calculate the modulo 7 which gives a number from 0 to 6, i.e., 0Saturday, 1Sunday, and
so on, that determines the exact day of New Year This algorithm has no condition even during
leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics