[61] **viXra:1106.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 pages.

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured
one as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which
is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all
equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates
the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the third galaxy
NGC 6782 that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples
of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[60] **viXra:1106.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 pages.

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured one
as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which is
based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all equiangular
spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates the
spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the fourth galaxy
NGC 4665 that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples
of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:1106.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Martin Alpert

**Comments:** 23 pages.

In this paper we define information as any observable difference which exists
only at boundaries. We hypothesize, based on this, that matter (particle) is composed of
many small interfaces (differences) in space and energy becomes a function of the
distribution of differences (distinguishability) and no differences (indistinguishability).
Based on this definition of information, superposition in quantum mechanics will be
shown to be analogous to statistical thermodynamics. An observable consists of two
processes: the observation which is limited by the uncertainty equation, ΔE Δt ≥ h and
the entropy change in the observer. When combined, these are shown to result in a
modified Heisenberg Uncertainty.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[58] **viXra:1106.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-09 21:07:35*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Product of metric coefficient and radius of round line is constant in spherical orthogonal coordinate system. Coordinates and so forth are constant in the coordinate transformation from orthogonal coordinates into spherical orthogonal coordinates if the value is special.

**Category:** Geometry

[57] **viXra:1106.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 pages.

In the special relativity theory, study the gauge theory in the Electro-magnetic field theory.Using that the
Electro-magnetic potential is 4-vector, treat invariant potential. And the Electro-Magnetic field theory's
the gauge theory expand.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[56] **viXra:1106.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mircea Selariu

**Comments:** 20 pages.

TEOREMA S A BISECTOARELOR UNUI PATRULATER INSCRIPTIBIL SI TEOREMELE S ALE TRIUNGHIULUI

**Category:** Geometry

[55] **viXra:1106.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mircea Selariu

**Comments:** 13 pages.

NOI LINII CONCURENTE SI UN NOU PUNCT DE INTERSECTIE
INTR-UN TRIUNGHI

**Category:** Geometry

[54] **viXra:1106.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mircea Selariu

**Comments:** 10 pages.

The article define a mathematic entity called twist, which generates, in this way, notion of straight line.
Straight line becom thus a twist of eccentricity e = 0, and broken line (zigzag line) is a twist of s = ± 1.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[53] **viXra:1106.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 27 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mircea Selariu

**Comments:** 10 pages. v1 in Romanian, v2 in English.

These papers show a calculus relation ( 50 ) of complete elliptic integral K(k) with minimum 9
precise decimals and the possibility to obtain a more precisely relation.. It results by application
Landen's method, of geometrical-arithmetical average, not for obtain a numerical value but to
obtain a compute algebraically relation after 5 steps of a geometrical transformation, called
"CENTERED PROCESS".

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[52] **viXra:1106.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Paul A. Titze

**Comments:** 18 pages, 19 figures.

fix a ship's position in charted interstellar space with the assistance of
a three dimensional computer based stellar chart and star camera spectrometers
capable of measuring angular separations between three sets of
pair stars. The method offers another tool for the navigator to rely on if
alternative position fixing methods are not available or if the navigator
wishes to verify the validity of one's position given by other means.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[51] **viXra:1106.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Every time when I read an article about the phenomena, which occur far from us in the universe, I'm surprised
about the attention that this Farawayistan gets compared to the phenomena in the world of the smallest.
Everything that happens there is dismissed with collective names such as "quantum mechanics" and "field theory".
Rarely or never the treatise goes deeper. In this sub-nano-world spectacular images, such as appear in stories
about the cosmos are not available.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1106.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 27 Sept 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 16 pages, 12 Figures, 5 Tables.

Although counter-intuitive, many published papers have proved that scientific
experiments are affected by the act of observation, as well as the mind being affected
by local astronomical forces and factors, such as gravity, electromagnetism, spin, and
orientation. This paper details the ability of the mind to filter out all of these local
factors, and visualise experiments as if they were being undertaken in intergalactic
space. In order to undertake this research both the mind and quantitative observation
are required. As dowsing involves both it was adopted. The physical dimensions of
simple geometric shapes were measured to compare to the dimensions of the same
geometric shapes perceived "mentally" by the body's senses. Global scaling has been
demonstrated in these laboratory conditions with simple equations obeying power
laws that involve the universal constant phi (f) and no arbitrary constants. Examples
are d = 0.5 * L ^ φ /2, S_{max} = 2 . r ^ φ, and a = φ * r ^ √φ. These formulae
cannot be random results. The implications are (1) that phi forms part of the structure
of space-time, (2) the important quantified discovery that the mind can interface with
the fundamentals of space-time and the cosmos. The latter concept supports ancient
Eastern philosophy, although it is alien to traditional western science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1106.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 210 pages.

Authors in this book construct interval bistructures using only
interval groups, interval loops, interval semigroups and interval
groupoids.

**Category:** Algebra

[48] **viXra:1106.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 2 pages.

In my paper [3], I obtain a Cold Big Bang Cosmology, fitting the cosmological data,
with an absolute zero primordial temperature, a natural cutoff for the cosmological data
to a vanishingly small entropy at a singular microstate of a comoving domain of the cosmological
fluid. This solution resides on a negative pressure solution from the general
relativity field equation and on a postulate regarding a Heisenberg indeterminacy mechanism
related to the energy fluctuation obtained from the solution of the field equations
under the Robertson-Walker comoving elementar line element context in virtue of the
adoption of the Cosmological Principle. In this paper, we see the, positive, differential
energy fluctuation, purely obtained from the general relativity cosmological solution
in [3], leads to the quantum mechanical argument of the postulate in [3], provided this
energy fluctuation is quantized, strongly supporting the postulate in [3]. I discuss the
postulate in [3], showing the result for the energy fluctuation follows from a discreteness
hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1106.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** H. Ron Harrison

**Comments:** 5 pages.

In reference [1] the basics of the new approach are outlined but in this
paper more details are given where the method is applied to rotating
bodies. Application to single bodies is often referred to as the de Sitter
effect and when applied to rotating bodies it is known as the
Lense-Thirring effect. This new approach gives the same form of result as the
generally accepted equations but with a different factor for the
Lense-Thirring effect. This variation is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1106.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 5 pages.

In a previous preprint, [1], reproduced here within the appendix in its revised version, we were
confronted, to reach the validity of the second law of thermodynamics for an unique collapse of
an unique quantum object, to the necessity of an ensemble of measures to be accomplished within
copies of identical isolated systems. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within the
context of the wave function collapse was sustained by the large number of microstates related
to a given collapsed state. Now, we will consider just one pure initial state containing just one
initial state of the quantum subsystem, not an ensemble of identically prepared initial quantum
subsystems, e.g., just one photon from a very low intensity beam prepared with an equiprobable
eigenset containing two elements, an unique observation raising two likelihood outcomes. Again, we
will show the statistical interpretation must prevail, albeit the quantum subsystem being a singular,
unique, pure state element within its unitary quantum subsystem ensemble set. This feature leads
to an inherent probabilistic character, even for a pure one-element quantum subsystem object.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[45] **viXra:1106.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Raffaele Cogoni

**Comments:** 4 pages. In Italian

Ho scoperto la formula per la ricerca di numeri primi in data 03-11-2010, ho verificato che
i primi quattro numeri sono primi, per i successivi bisogna fare la verifica.

**Category:** Number Theory

[44] **viXra:1106.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 pages.

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured one
as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which is
based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all equiangular
spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates the
spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the second galaxy
NGC 4548 that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples
of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[43] **viXra:1106.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 2 pages.

In this paper, I discuss the postulate in [1], showing the result for the energy fluctuation follows
from a discreteness hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1106.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 5 pages.

For over a century, the elusive nature of the outcome of the M/M experiment has
baffled generations of physicists from all around the world. Indeed, the analysis
has revealed some subtleties. I have already, for some time, had, intuitively, all
the pieces of the puzzle in my mind but didn't know how to correctly join them.
I tried twice without success but now, everything leads me to believe I could
finally assemble the whole picture. So, I go back to the subject in a detailed way
that seems to me absolutely clear and unambiguous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1106.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** Details of material in the paper can be found on my web site and in my long E8 physics paper. The paper contains links to both. There is also a link to a cartoon (click on the hat on the last page).

The 8-dimensional Kaluza-Klein spacetime of my E8 physics model, with the Higgs as a Tquark condensate, produces a Higgs-Tquark system with 3 states: low mass (Tquark mass consistent with the 120-160 GeV/c2 CDF Wjj 2011 bump) mid mass (Tquark mass consistent with conventional Tquark mass) high mass (Tquark mass around 218 GeV/c2) The three predicted Higgs mass states (around 146, 182 and 239 GeV/c2) should be verified or refuted by LHC by the end of 2012, if not earlier. Some implications for the future of large-collaboration physics beyond 2012 are briefly discussed, inevitably intermeshed with the future of the global financial/ political system.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[40] **viXra:1106.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-14 09:42:54*

**Authors:** Hontas Freeman Farmer

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper will be presented at the April 2014 APS conference http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR14/Session/U15.7

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile observations of dark matter effects on the galactic and cosmological scales with the null results of astroparticle physics observations such as CDMS and ANTARES. This paper will also provide a candidate unified and simpler mathematical formulation for the Lambda CDM model. Unification is achieved by a combination of the f(R) approach, with the standard LCDM approach and inflationary models. It is postulated that dark matter-energy fields depend on the Ricci curvature R. Standard methods of classical and quantum field theory on curved space time are applied. When this model is treated as a quantum field theory in curved space-time, the dark matter-dark matter fermion annihilation cross section grows as the square of the Ricci scalar. It is proposed and mathematically demonstrated that in this model dark matter particles could have shorter lifetimes in regions of relatively strong gravity such as near the sun, near the Earth, or any other large mass. The unexpected difficulties in directly observing fermionic particles of dark matter in Earth based observatories are explained by this theory. The gravitational field of the Sun and Earth may effect them in ways the standard WIMP models would never predict.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1106.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 24 pages. (the final 12 pages are c++ program source file)

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured
one as earth-bound materials always do. This led to the concept of rational structure which
is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all
equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates
the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the galaxy NGC
3275 that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples of
barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[38] **viXra:1106.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 pages. In Chinese

Fermat's last theorem, Goldbach's Conjecture and Riemann Hypothesis

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1106.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Bryant Bishop

**Comments:** 10 pages.

I am not currently associated with any institution. My work is a result of private correspondence
with Dr. Marie Louise von Franz, former director of the Jungian Institute in Zurich before her
death in 1999. You see a problem is that a large bulk of the subjects of my studies are not taught
in our traditional educational systems. My work is a result of independent study related to
materials, the basis of which lies outside our standard curricula. The following document addresses
the basis of what I had hoped to share and which I have been working on since 1988.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[36] **viXra:1106.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Making use of the laws of physical transactions, we study symmetrical many-points systems. Relation of
group-theory to physical transactions in such symmetrical systems is dealt with. Studying perturbations
in the stability states in the attractor-maps for transactions, approximate values of the observables are
to be predicted for such systems. Further, Abstraction Theory is typified with respect to studying the
properties of irreducible representations, if any, inside a given such group.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1106.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** James Gunasekera

**Comments:** 11 pages.

We discuss the seven-object criterion and the Quaoar Criterion, and test the hypothesis proposed
during discussion on the web forum: the percentage of persons satisfying the Quaoar Criterion must be
significantly lower than the expected value for the military men. We discuss the difference between
single-bit criteria and summing criteria and then introduce the improved summing seven-object criterion.
The Quaoar Criterion, the ISSO Criterion, and 54 similar criteria are applied to all four Gauquelin data
sets; we test the hypothesis which is quite similar to Gauquelin's own findings: every planet introduces
a unique influence (or correlation), therefore similar criteria containing different planets can be
used to distinguish between professional groups (three groups in this study: sportsmen, military men,
scientists plus medical doctors). We try to explore thoroughly all cases with deviation outside the
range [-3, +3] standard deviations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1106.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-19 00:18:17*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Abstract: Observed locations of pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts, after they left solar system, are displaced from their predicted positions in space and the discrepancy, which could not be explained by current physical laws, is termed as ‘pioneer anomaly’. This article attempts to show that noticed discrepancy is an apparent phenomenon, produced by faulty geometry used in contemporary laws of planetary motion. In reality, spacecrafts and external efforts on them behave normally. There is no cause for assumption of strange ‘forces’ or mysterious effects on these spacecrafts.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1106.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** A Beckwith

**Comments:** 22 pages, accepted for publication by JMP for August to October, i.e. it is in
their pool of to be published papers. 1 table.

We introduce a criterion as to the range of HFGW generated by early universe conditions. The 1 to 10
Giga Hertz range is constructed initially starting with what Grupen writes as far as what to expect of GW
frequencies which can be detected assuming a sensitivity of h ~ 10^{-27} . From there we examine the
implications of an earlier Hubble parameter at the start of inflation, and a phase transition treatment of
pre to post Planckian inflation physics via use of inflatons.. We close with an analysis of how gravitational
constant G may vary with time, the tie in with the NEC condition and how to select a range of relic GW
frequencies. The gravitational frequencies in turn may enable resolving a mis match between the datum
that the entropy of the center of the galaxy black hole is greater than the entropy of the present four
dimensional universe as we can infer and measure.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1106.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes to use a group theoretical model for the optimization
of algorithms. We first investigate some of the fundamental properties that are required
in order to allow the optimization of parallelism and communication. Next,
we explore how a group theoretical model of computations can satisfy these requirements.
As an application example, we demonstrate how this group theoretical
model can uncover new optimization possibilities in the polyhedral model.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[31] **viXra:1106.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the theory of belief functions, many measures
of uncertainty have been introduced. However, it is not always
easy to understand what these measures really try to represent.
In this paper, we re-interpret some measures of uncertainty in
the theory of belief functions. We present some interests and
drawbacks of the existing measures. On these observations, we
introduce a measure of contradiction. Therefore, we present some
degrees of non-specificity and Bayesianity of a mass. We propose
a degree of specificity based on the distance between a mass and
its most specific associated mass. We also show how to use the
degree of specificity to measure the specificity of a fusion rule.
Illustrations on simple examples are given.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[30] **viXra:1106.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A theory of gravitation based upon a spinor connection and solder
form with a nonvanishing torsion tensor is constructed and a mapping to
Einstein Cartan theory is made. As applications, the
at Friedmann and
Schwarzschild solutions are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1106.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this letter we study two different aspects of general covariance,
first we quantize a reparametrization invariant theory, the free particle in
Minkowski spacetime and point out in detail where this theory fails
(notably these comments appear to be missing in the literature). Second we
study the covariance of quantum field theory and show how it connects
to causality, the outcome of this study is that QFT is what we shall call
ultra weakly covariant with respect to the background spacetime. Third,
we treat the question of whether evolution in quantum theory (apart from
the measurement act) needs to be unitary, it is easily shown that a
perfectly satisfying probabilistic interpretation exists which does not require
unitary evolution. Fourth, we speculate on some modifications quantum
theory should undergo in order for it to be generally covariant. This paper
is primarily written for the student who wishes to study quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1106.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-19 11:27:51*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 243 Pages.

This adventure started out as a paper, but soon it grew considerably in size
and there was no choice left anymore but to present it as a full blown book
written in a style which is intermediate between that of an original research
paper and that of a book. More precisely, I opted for a style which is somewhat
between the historical and axiomatic approach and this manuscript can
therefore be read from different perspectives depending upon the knowledge and
skills of the reader. Since quantum gravity is more than a technical problem,
the mandatory sections constitute the introduction as well as the technical and
axiomatic framework of sections seven till eleven. However, the reader who is
also interested in the philosophical aspects as well as a general overview of the
problem is advised to study sections two and three as well. The critical reader
who is not willing to take any statement for granted should include also sections
four till six, since these are somewhat of a transitional nature closing the gap
between the conservative initial point of view and the new theory developed
later on. Lecturing about this work made me aware that there is also a more
direct way to arrive in Rome and for that very reason, this introduction is also
split into two parts. The first one takes the conservative point of view as it is
done by the very large majority of researchers which necessitates a careful and
precise way of phrasing the content; the second approach however is more bold
and direct but goes, in my humble opinion, much more economic to the heart
of the matter. I believe that the variety of presenting the same material in this
introduction will allow the reader to choose which way he prefers to follow.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] **viXra:1106.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-03 05:45:51*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In quantum gravity, one looks for alternative structures to spacetime
physics than ordinary real manifolds. In this first part, we propose an
alternative universal construction containing the latter as an equilibrium
state under the action of the universal diffeomorphism group. Our theory
contains many other previous proposals in the literature as special cases.
However, the crucial point we make is that those have to be appreciated
in the universal context developed here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1106.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-20 17:20:36*

**Authors:** DJ Pons, AD Pons, AM Pons, AJ Pons

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Pre-print, DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.13

There are several integration problems of fundamental physics that still lack coherent solutions, the case in point being wave-particle duality. While empiricism and mathematical modelling have served physics well, they have not yet been able to achieve integrated causal models. Conventional theories and approaches have only provided partial solutions, and it is possible that a more radical reconceptualisation of fundamental physics may be required. This work comes at the issue from a totally different approach: it applies design thinking to the problem. The result is the cordus conjecture, which proposes that the photon, and indeed every matter ‘particle’, has an internal structure comprising a 'cordus': two reactive ends that each behave like a particle, with a fibril joining them. The reactive ends are proposed to be a small finite distance apart, and energised [typically in turn] at a frequency. When energised they emit a transient force pulse along a line called a hyperfine fibril [hyff], and this makes up the field. This concept is used to explain the path dilemmas of the single photon in the double-slit device, and the wave behaviour of light including the formation of fringes by single photons and beams of light. In addition it provides a tangible explanation for frequency. It also yields new quantitative derivations for several basic optical effects: critical angle, Snell’s law, and Brewster’s angle. Thus the cordus structure offers an alternative conceptual explanation for wave-particle duality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1106.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli, Dusan Klinar, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the 20th century, physics has understood space and time as being coupled into a "spacetime"
manifold, a fundamental arena in which everything takes place. Space-time was considered to have
three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension. Out of the mathematical formalism for the fourth
space-time component X4 = ict one can conclude that time t is only a numerical order of material change,
i.e., the motion that we obtain with clocks. Time is not a 4th dimension of space. For the description of the
Special Theory of Relativity it is here proposed an Minkowski 4D space whilst time t is merely a numerical
order of a photon motion in a 4D space. This view opens new perspectives on the understanding of the
quantum entanglement, where the 4D space becomes an immediate medium for quantum
communication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1106.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Mercury precesses 5600 seconds of arc per century.
Newtonian celestial mechanics accounts for only 5557
arc seconds, leaving a discrepancy of 43". In 1859,
Urbain Le Verrier, considering all the perturbations
in the solar system, wrestled only 35 arc seconds
more beyond the 1557". Had he thought about the
effect of a spinning sun on Mercury's orbit, he would
have gained another 6 arc seconds, for a total of 41",
only 2.3% shy of General Relativity's calculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1106.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-29 12:32:03*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In the weak-field approximation of covariant theory of gravitation the problem of 4/3 is formulated for internal and external gravitational fields of a body in the form of a ball. The dependence of the energy and the mass of the moving substance on the energy of field accompanying the substance, as well as the dependence on the characteristic size of the volume occupied by the substance are described. Additives in the energy and the momentum of the body, defined by energy and momentum of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields associated with the body are explicitly calculated. The conclusion is made that the energy and the mass of the body can be described by the energy of ordinary and strong gravitation, and through the energies of electromagnetic fields of particles that compose the body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1106.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 12 pages. This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was
submitted to ParCo 2011 and is very preliminary. Since I do not have the resources to complete
this paper by increasing its clarity, extending the experimental evaluation and adding a
section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper describes a unified model for the optimization of communication
in parallel algorithms and architectures. Based on a property that provides a
unified view of locality in space and time, an algorithm is constructed that generates
a parallel architecture that is optimized for communication for a given computation.
The optimization algorithm is constructed using the lattice algebraic properties
of congruence relations and is therefor applicable in a general context. An
application to a bio-informatics algorithm demonstrates the value of the model and
optimization algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[21] **viXra:1106.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sven de Smet

**Comments:** 16 pages, This paper is a slightly modified version of a draft paper that was submitted to ParCo 2011 (with added proofs) and is very preliminary.
Since I do not have the resources to complete this paper by increasing its clarity, adding examples, adding an experimental evaluation and adding a section on related work, I'm making it available so that it may be useful to others.

This paper describes a new technique for automatic parallelisation in the
Z-polyhedral model. The presented technique is applicable to arbitrarily nested
loopnests with iteration spaces that can be represented as unions of Z-polyhedra
and affine modular data-access functions. The technique partitions both iteration
and data spaces of the computation. The maximal amount of parallelism that can
be represented using grid partitions is extracted.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[20] **viXra:1106.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 118 pages, In Romanian

De la inceputul anului 1988 am purtat o corespondenta
"inversunata" - as indrazni sa afirm, experimentala, avangardista cu
prof. univ. dr. Ion Rotaru (n. 11 septembrie 1924, Valea lui Ion,
Bacau - d. 18 decembrie 2006, Bucuresti), seful Catedrei de Limba
si Literatura Romana de la Facultatea de Litere, Universitatea din
Bucuresti.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[19] **viXra:1106.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Niculescu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 106 pages

This volume of experimental literature, based on paradoxism, is structured in the following
chapters: Outlined Sketches, Proverbial Distiches, Paradoxist Poetry, Comical Dialogues, Paradoxist
Dictionary.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[18] **viXra:1106.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 172 pages

In this book the authors introduce a new class of intervals called the natural class of intervals.
Using these intervals, algebraic structures are defined.
Over 200 problems are given, of which some of them are at the research level.

**Category:** Algebra

[17] **viXra:1106.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 9 pages

Here is presented a new exact solution of Ice dynamics in Glaciers in terms of viscousplastic
theory of movements, for 2-dimensional case: x (t) = y (t). In general case, 2-D
solution of Ice dynamics could be classified as Riccati's type. Due to a very special
character of Riccati's type equation, it's general solution is proved to have a proper gap
of components of such a solution.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[16] **viXra:1106.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 12 pages, License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In this work a new dynamics is developed, which is valid for all observers, and which establishes,
among other things, the existence of a new universal force of interaction, called kinetic
force, which balances the remaining forces acting on a body. In this new dynamics, the motion
of a body is not determined by the forces acting on it; instead, the body itself determines its
own motion, since as a result of such motion it exerts over all other bodies the kinetic force
which is necessary to keep the system of forces acting on each of them always in equilibrium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1106.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 2 pages

In Article 1 I concluded that there is an elementary mass particle EMP, comprising a
GG which is no less and no more than a mechanism capable of receiving a particular
input from its environment and of returning a particular output to the environment,
within a particular time frame[1]. In the present article, I deduce that said time frame
is divisible into three non overlapping time intervals: T_{1} stands for the time interval
during which the particle receives the input; T_{2} stands for the time interval during
which the input is processed by the particle; and T_{3} stands for the time interval during
which an output is returned from the particle to the environment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1106.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 10 pages, 10 Figures

This paper is a simplified model to explain how dowsing works, based on a plethora
of experimental evidence. Although not yet totally accepted by main stream science,
the mind is a conceptual entity existing in a quantum physics world between the brain
and the structure of the universe. The mind and its interaction with the cosmos are
paramount to understanding dowsing and associated phenomena. Coupled with this
concept is that local and astronomical forces significantly affect the mind-cosmos
relationship resulting in what is being perceived. This model of how dowsing works
explains, in principle, most forms of dowsing and associated techniques.

**Category:** Mind Science

[13] **viXra:1106.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 4 pages

Sometimes in physics we end up with a function that resembles
f(x)=0^{0}, where for example we have a radius that goes to zero and
an exponent goes to zero in k/r n , where k is a constant. Is 0^{0} in
such cases equal to unity?

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[12] **viXra:1106.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson

**Comments:** 6 pages

It may seem that we have no more natural intuition about Relativity than we have about quantum mechanics
(QM) yet nature has revealed far more than we yet understand, including in the elements on Earth. Einstein
said; "we don't yet understand 1,000th of 1% of what nature has revealed to us." But with mathematics
being considered the only language of physics we suggest we are missing and failing to translate important
parts of the language of nature. Intuition can only come with good knowledge and experience, and
assumption is the enemy of knowledge and destroyer of logic. We give an example of a better approach to
empiricism, one of conceptual logic informed by both experience of nature and knowledge of physics theory.
The results support the discrete field model (DFM) of mutually exclusive reference frames, which unifies
Relativity and QM on a united field basis, explaining the constant speed of light for all emitters and observer
frames, removing all the paradox from physics and many of the anomalies from astrophysics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1106.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 6 pages

An argument consisting of a list of definitions and hypotheses is given in an attempt to prove the untenability of the Loop
Quantum Gravity research program. Prior knowledge of both fundamental quantum gravity theory and fundamental graph
theory is recommended.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1106.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** F. Winterberg

**Comments:** 10 pages

The non-observation of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry in the most recent high energy
physics data, suggests to consider the conjectured Planck mass plasma as a potential
alternative. In it supersymmetry is replaced by the assumption that the vacuum of space
is densely filled in equal numbers with positive and negative Planck mass particles,
and the Higgs field by the gravitational field of interacting large positive with likewise
large negative mass quasiparticles of the Planck mass plasma, giving these positive-negative
mass configurations a small positive gravitational field mass. From this configuration
the Dirac equation can be derived, with the fermions of the standard model composed of
large positive and negative masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1106.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** F. Winterberg

**Comments:** 17 pages

In DT fusion 80% of the energy is released in 14 MeV neutrons. To utilize this energy the
neutrons must in all proposed DT fusion concepts (including the ITER) be slowed down in a
medium, heating the medium up to a temperature not exceeding a few thousand degrees, from
which this energy is converted into mechanical energy, and ultimately into electric energy.
While the conversion from mechanical into electric energy goes at a high efficiency (90%),
the conversion of the thermal energy into mechanical energy is limited by the Carnot process
to about 30%. To overcome this limitation, I propose to slow down the neutrons in the
combustion products of a convergent spherical detonation wave in HMX, for example, which
ignites a magnetized DT target which is placed in the center of convergence, prior to the
ignition of the high explosive from its surface. The thermonuclear ignition is achieved by
the high implosion velocity of 50km/sec reached in the center, compressing and igniting the
preheated magnetized target. Even though the thermonuclear gain of a magnetized target is
modest, it can become large if it is used to ignite unburnt DT by propagating burn. There
the gain can conceivably be made 1000 times larger, substantially exceeding the yield of the
high explosive. And if the spherical high explosive has a radius of about 30cm, the 14 MeV
DT fusion reaction neutrons are slowed down in its dense combustion products, raising the
temperature in it to 100000 K. At this temperature the kinetic energy of the expanding fire
ball can be converted at a high (almost 100%) efficiency directly into electric energy by an
MHD Faraday generator. In this way most of the 80% neutron energy can be converted into
electric energy, about three times more than in magnetic (ITER) or inertial (ICF) DT fusion
concepts.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] **viXra:1106.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 4 pages

This is the first in a series of short
articles disclosing MCS Physics. Here
I present the logic leading to conclude
that (i) there is an elementary mass
eM, which is the smallest mass in
existence (thus also the smallest
bundle of reciprocal mass - energy
conversion according to E=MC2),
from a plurality of which any greater
mass is composed; (ii) a fundamental
mass particle (hereinafter abbreviated
EMP for Elementary Mass Particle)
exists, which caries the elementary
mass eM; (iii) what we use to name
elementary particles are actually
composed constructions comprising
multitudes of EMP; and (iv) Each
EMP comprises a mechanism capable
of receiving a particular input from its
environment and of returning a
particular output to the environment,
within a particular time frame. The
mechanism results in both: acquiring
mass and generating gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1106.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-29 08:09:37*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Weight of a macro body is its acceleration due to gravity, in gravitational units, towards another larger macro body. During variations in temperature, a macro body changes quantity of matter (mass), it contains. Since mass is a factor in equations, to determine gravitational attraction and acceleration, macro body’s acceleration due to gravity does not change by variation in its mass. Concept, presented in ‘Matter (Re-examined)’, consider mass as mathematical relation and matter-content as quantity of matter, a macro body contains. It advocates a mechanism, which causes additional changes in magnitude of gravitational attraction over and above changes caused by variation in macro body’s mass. Thus, it is logical to find that a macro body weighs less, when hot compared to its weight in cooler state.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1106.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mark A. Newstead, Stephen C. Newstead

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this paper we investigate the connection between electrons and
electromagnetic waves. We then propose how electrons could consist of
electromagnetic waves. From this proposal we explain why electron-positron
annihilation results in only gamma rays being formed, as well as how gamma
rays can form electron-positron pairs.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] **viXra:1106.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mark A. Newstead, Stephen C. Newstead

**Comments:** 5 pages

In previous papers we have proposed that the mass of an electromagnetic wave
is dependent upon its speed. This relationship is such that when the wave is
travelling at the speed of light it has no mass, but its mass monotonically
increases as the wave slows down (i.e. the wave has mass when it is passing
through a medium). In this paper we propose an experiment that would be able
to determine whether electromagnetic waves have mass when they are not
travelling at the speed of light. Also the experiment would be able to determine
whether the wave's frequency affects the wave's mass for a given speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1106.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 3 pages

Academically, among students, an apparent paradox may arise when one tries to interpret the
second law of thermodynamics within the context of the quantum mechanical wave function collapse.
This is so because a quantum mechanical system suddenly seems to undergo, from a less restrictive
state constructed from a superposition of eigenstates of a given operator, to a more restrictive state:
the collapsed state. This paper is intended to show how this picture turns out to be a misconception
and, albeit brie
y, furtherly discuss the scope of Max Born's probabilistic interpretation within the
second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1106.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Diego Lucio Rapoport

**Comments:** 16 pages

We reintroduce logophysics based on self-referential torsion fields and the Klein
bottle (KB) logic, which unifies the objective and subjective realms. We apply it to biology,
particularly allosterics and the genetic code. We reveal several topologies of the genetic
code and its bioinformatics codification, in particular the hyper Klein bottle (HKB) surface.
We relate it to the Universal Rewrite System, the Code of Nature, and Dirac algebra.We
find that the double helix is unnecessary in this setting, and elaborate the ontology of 3D
with regards to time, multistable perception, and a topological (lawless) form of Newton's
Third Law. We present the key ideas for a logophysical theory for contextual evolution.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[2] **viXra:1106.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Giorgio Fabretti, Giuseppe Mascioli

**Comments:** 5 pages, In Italian

since his seminars in 1972, at the Departmente
of Sociology of the University of Rome1, professor Giorgio
Fabretti has been developing a new conception of physical
dimensions as derived from an originary time dimension,
conceived as the operational expression of a mathematically
conceived multiversal logic field, as a by-product of the
relation between the cognitive genetic evolution and the so
called empirical objective reality, also called transcendental
realityof. The neo-copernican revolution of Fabretti is at the
present mostly a philosophical and logical construction
aimed at stimulating the evolution of mathematical and
physical scientifical methods toward more efficient cognitive
tecniques, beyond the present physical conceptions of
predominant space and matter: which have to be replaced by
a neo-copernican vision based respectively on time and
logic. Only this replacement, according to prof. Fabretti, is
methodologically compatible with the extraordinary
efficaciousness of mathematics in contemporary computer
and genetic science. The title "TheTime and the All" is with
reference to the many attempts to unify physical theories,
that, according to prof.Fabretti, cannot succeed if they do
not hold in account a new conception of space, energy and
matter, in terms of dimensions derived from Time, and
finally from Logic.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1106.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 5 pages, Prespacetime Journal 2(5), pp.733-736 (May 2011)

In my recent paper [1] published by Prespacetime Journal I discussed
certain consequences of the entropy formula presented by A.W. Beckwith
and his coauthors [2]. The main result of the deductions were bonons and the
inflaton constant. However, I now consider the Beckwith entropy formula
to be wrong, and deductions based on this relation can therefore be at most
half-true. In this brief paper the right way to deduce the entropy formula is
concisely discussed, the results obtained previously are revised, and certain
new results are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology