[392] **viXra:1711.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 10:42:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28]
Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like
Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[391] **viXra:1711.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 11:00:58*

**Authors:** Arsen A. Movsesyan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article provides a solution to the problem of classification of the Sciences. This long-standing and important problem is solved on the basis of a new theory of cognition, which is built proceeding from some general physical representations and heuristic glance at the basics of General Psychology. The criteria for completeness of the foundation of any cognitive system and any research, which are critical for classification of the Sciences is also formulated and justified. Relevant disciplines of the physical, psychical and informational levels, as well as the Social Sciences in relation of society are represented in tabular form.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[390] **viXra:1711.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 18:22:54*

**Authors:** H Qadrawxu-Korbau, D Smith, K Beryllium

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Google Scholar provides a number of metrics often used as proxies for scientific productivity. It is, however, possible to consciously manipulate Scholar metrics, for instance via copious self-citation or upload of fake papers to indexed websites. Here, we post a paper on vixra, a preprint forum, and arbitrarily cite a completely random study to evaluate whether Scholar will count this submission toward the overall citation count of that study. We publish no results, as the publication of the paper is, in this case, the experiment.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[389] **viXra:1711.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 21:36:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All Universes obey the same Laws of Physics and have the same Particle Masses, Force Strengths, and Spacetime Structure because they all begin with Void and evolve according to the Quantum Process of David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras. Our Universe began with a Big Bang Planck-Scale Compact Fluctuation in its Parent Universe, followed by an Octonionic Inflation of its Spacetime, and then its present state of Quaternionic Conformal Gravity + Dark Energy Expansion. This paper is only a sketch-overview of the History of Our Universe. For details and references, see viXra 1602.0319 , 1701.0495 , 1701.0496 , 11709.0265 , 1208.0145 Table of Contents From Void to Algebraic Quantum Field Theory via David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras ... page 2, Initial Planck Cell Big Bang ... page 4, Octonionic Inflation ... page 6, 26D String Theory and Bohm Quantum Consciouness ... page 8, Quaternionic Conformal Expansion ... page 10, Low Entropy of Our Universe after Inflation ... page 10, Quaternionic Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy Lagrangian ... page 11, Particle Masses, Force Strengths, K-M parameters ... page 12, History of Our Universe Timetable ... page 13, Human - Universe Consciousness Resonant Connection ... page 14

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[388] **viXra:1711.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 11:26:42*

**Authors:** Sergio Conte, Fang Wang, Elio Conte

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

we define the basic foundations of a method for frequency domain analysis of time series for R-R signal but it may be used also in other bio-signals of physiological interest in medicine and biology

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[387] **viXra:1711.0474 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-31 12:04:06*

**Authors:** richard L hudson

**Comments:** 3 Pages. this is a revision, removal of some sections,addition of a new section

This analysis shows Cantor's diagonal argument cannot form a new sequence that is not
a member of a complete list. This is a revised version, with focus on the pairing of
complementary sequences.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[386] **viXra:1711.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 13:25:59*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate the two axioms with attendant rules which define neutrosophic logic. Both produce the same proof table which is not tautologous.
What follows is that neutrosophic logic is not bivalent, but a vector space, and cannot unify other logics in a tautology.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[385] **viXra:1711.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 02:12:34*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently, in the measurement of the current of the quantum interference device made of metal in the normal state, the current value oscillates according to the intensity of the magnetic field, and there is a period, and the numerical value is (hc/2e).
In this paper, we show theoretically why the period is (hc/2e) without charge pair.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[384] **viXra:1711.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 02:13:24*

**Authors:** Martin Dudziak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Multi-agent control systems have demonstrated effectiveness in a variety of physical applications including cooperative robot networks and multi-target tracking in high-noise network and group environments. We introduce the use of multi-scalar models that extend cellular automaton regional neighborhood comparisons and local voting measures based upon stochastic approximation in order to provide more efficient and time-sensitive solutions to non-deterministic problems. The scaling factors may be spatial, temporal or in other semantic values. The exercising of both cooperative and competitive functions by the devices in such networks offers a method for optimizing system parameters to reduce search, sorting, ranking and anomaly evaluation tasks. Applications are illustration for a group of robots assigned different tasks in remote operating environments with highly constrained communications and critical fail-safe conditions.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[383] **viXra:1711.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 02:28:42*

**Authors:** Antoine Acke

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Taking into account the kinematics of the gravitating objects, gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) is a consistent classical field theory about the gravitational phenomena in which context the principle of relativity and the principle of equivalence are valid. In this article it is shown that, in the framework of GEM, Newton’s law of universal gravitation perfectly can be deduced and that it can be extended to the case of moving point masses.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[382] **viXra:1711.0468 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 12:24:15*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso, Peter Rowlands, Louis H Kauffman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Paper from VIII international symposium honoring mathematical physicist Jean-Pierre Vigier

We make a preliminary exploratory study of higher dimensional (HD) orthogonal forms of the quaternion algebra in order to explore
putative novel Nilpotent/Idempotent/Dirac symmetry properties. Stage-1 transforms the dual quaternion algebra in a manner that
extends the standard anticommutative 3-form, i, j, k into a 5D/6D triplet. Each is a copy of the others and each is self-commutative
and believed to represent spin or different orientations of a 3-cube. The triplet represents a copy of the original that contains no new
information other than rotational perspective and maps back to the original quaternion vertex or to a second point in a line element. In
Stage-2 we attempt to break the inherent quaternionic property of algebraic closure by stereographic projection of the Argand plane
onto rotating Riemann 4-spheres. Finally, we explore the properties of various topological symmetries in order to study
anticommutative - commutative cycles in the periodic rotational motions of the quaternion algebra in additional HD dualities.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[381] **viXra:1711.0467 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-18 06:19:26*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** 41 pages. v1 - in Polish, v2 - in English, part I - http://viXra.org/abs/1603.0220

In the first part: “Report of simulation investigations, a base of statement that life evolves in half-chaos” networks have constant structure. Deviations from their randomness are found in correlations of states and functions of nodes, the change initiating the damage consists of a small change in the node function. Here we also come from the point attractor, but the initiation change is a random addition or removing the node. The networks grow and in them also half-chaos occurs, which is an important complement to the arguments found in the part I. Now structure is changed and the evolution with the condition of a small change keeping the half-chaos creates structural tendencies such as the greater conservativeness of the older nodes. The classic modularity, its source and its connection to ro-modularity are also found.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[380] **viXra:1711.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 18:02:48*

**Authors:** Mohammad Yahia Zakaria

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Mohammad Yahia Zakaria is currently a student in STEM High School for Boys, 6th of October city, Egypt. For Further Information, E-mail: 15094@stemegypt.edu.eg

Energy crisis is a great challenge in our world. The usage of non-renewable resources causes pollution and hazardous effects on public health. The consumption and demand for energy is currently growing far greater than the amount of energy produced. To solve this serious problem, microbial integrated cell (MIC) is used. M.I.C is a plant microbial fuel cell (P-MFC). It harvests energy from bacteria, which is used as a catalyst to oxidize organic matters, through anaerobic fermentation. With the developing of traditional MFCs, there will be clean, available and suitable energy sources. Besides achieving our requirements of being efficient, eco-friendly and cheaper than the other resources, it can utilize the wastewater to generate green & renewable energy and produce clean drinkable water. MIC can also use byproducts of these reactions to produce not only electric current, but also hydrogen and methane gas. As a practical step, a prototype with locally available materials has been constructed for the project. Through tests conducted on the prototype to ensure that it meets our previously mentioned requirements, the results were positive in all these requirements. In conclusion, results' analysis represents the project's ability to provide sustainability and be applicable and centralized - can be implemented on large scales - in the future. The centralization process is regulated with an Arduino system.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[379] **viXra:1711.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 21:22:54*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple proof of the generalized Poincare conjecture is presented.

**Category:** Topology

[378] **viXra:1711.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 22:35:43*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple proof is given that for Morse cobordisms the Betti numbers are exactly equal to the number of critical Morsre points with corresponding index.

**Category:** Topology

[377] **viXra:1711.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 22:51:13*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The formal definition of the zero-knowledge proof as rendered is not tautologous.
What follows is the assumption that in NP all problems and all languages have zero-knowledge proofs is mistaken. What also follows is that one-way functions do not exist.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[376] **viXra:1711.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 23:31:47*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We formulate a considerable extension of the usual Morse theorem.

**Category:** Topology

[375] **viXra:1711.0460 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 16:00:34*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We prove that the Betti numbers provide for a full topological classification.

**Category:** Topology

[374] **viXra:1711.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 03:16:37*

**Authors:** Christopher Goddard

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

I sketch roughly how an Alcubierre drive could work, by examining exotic geometries consisting of soliton solutions to the dynamics of space filling curves. I also briefly consider how remote sensing might work for obstacle avoidance concerning a craft travelling through space via a 'wormhole wave'. Finally I look into how one might adopt remote sensing ideas to build intrasolar wormhole networks, as well as extrasolar jump gates.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[373] **viXra:1711.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 03:32:30*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Critical thinking and common sense.

Modern physics based on relativity theory requires re look . Some ideas can save time for all of us instead of harping on the same string.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[372] **viXra:1711.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 05:53:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “Evidence for Granular Space-time”(1), Sphere Theory was proposed as a hypothesis by the author that the universe is a sphere made of spheres that again are made of smaller spheres. The levels of spheres, that were studied, are as follows; the Hubble sphere, which is of the order of 13.8 billion light years in radius; the Planck Sphere, which is the order of the Comptom wavelength of the neutron; and Kaluza sphere, which has Planck dimensions. The value N=6.57920*10^40 was determined to be the amount of Kaluza spheres on the outside of three Planck spheres. If we assign mass to be equivalent to a number of spheres we can show that Planck Mass is the number of Kaluza spheres in the volume of 3 Planck Spheres and The mass of the Neutron is layer of Kaluza spheres on the surface of 3 Planck Spheres. It was discussed in “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (2), that active part of the Planck Sphere and Hubble Sphere is due to imperfections in the packing of spheres with spheres, that turns out to be almost exactly equivalent to the outer surface of the sphere. Although these imperfections of packing are throughout the sphere, they are equivalent to outer packing surface of the sphere. It is these imperfections that are the only pieces of information in the sphere, the rest is perfectly packed and offer no information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[371] **viXra:1711.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 09:00:14*

**Authors:** Vicent Sanchis-Jurado, Álvaro Pons, Santiago García-Lázaro

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this pilot study we analyse the pupil fluctuations of the right eye of two subjects during forty-five seconds while keeping constant the viewing distance and the room illumination. Measurements were taken with an infrared eye-tracker working at 250 Hz. The results were for subject A a median diameter of 2.913 mm with a maximum diameter of 3.313 mm and a minimum diameter of 2.66 mm, for subject B the median diameter was 4.39 mm with a maximum of 5.23 mm and a minimum of 3.26 mm. For both subjects the distribution of the pupil diameter did not follow a normal distribution, this was determined with the Lilliefors test, the p-values were 0.0251 for subject A and 0.001 for subject B. In conclusion, even in constant conditions of illumination and viewing distance the pupil cannot be considered to remain constant and its diameter varies not following a normal distribution.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[370] **viXra:1711.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 10:20:15*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: There are at least two recent publications indicating that spinless tau leptonic matter-antimatter pairs can exist and are Nature's way of removing redundant H dark matter and top quark annihilation dark energy particles via spin-less neutrinos of several masses that are also dark and thus unobservable

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[369] **viXra:1711.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 13:28:19*

**Authors:** Mostafa Shalaby

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The manuscript by Giorgianni et al [1], and co-authored by myself, claims and concludes on a purely electronic insulator to
metal transition (IMT) in VO2 using ultra-intense THz fields without any lattice interaction. The underlying mechanism behind
IMT in VO2 is a highly debatable subject with the “electron-only” IMT concept being increasingly resisted in the field especially
under intense excitations. If Giorgianni/Hauri’s claim were sustained, it would be an important step towards fundamental
understanding of complex systems such as the model VO2 [2-4] and may have implications on low power ultrafast switching
applications. The experiment was enabled by the uniquely-intense THz source I previously developed at the SwissFEL [5, 6] and
is thus not possible to reproduce elsewhere under similar excitation conditions. However, some of the measurements under the
reported experimental settings showed clear phonon oscillations on the short time scale, and sample damage using the maximum
reported field intensities, which may be contradicting the purely electronic/non-phonon paper claims/conclusions. These
measurements were known to all PSI authors (Feb./March 2017) before the paper was drafted. However, the principal authors
(Giorgianni, Vicario, and Hauri) 1 decided to exclude these measurements from the paper, disapproved the call to further repeat
and verify the paper measurements, and submitted it. They then publically published the text on the arXiv without the consent of
all the authors.
The external co-authors (from U.C. Berkeley, USA, and Tsinghua U., China) requested the addition of the note “We (Kai Liu,
Junqiao Wu and Kevin Wang) were unaware of the situation, of the hidden data, and of the PSI disagreements, and we have never
been contacted or informed of any of these issues. We merely provided the samples.”†
The experiment was performed at a SwissFEL laboratory, but not the experimental user laboratories. This comment should not
lay responsibility on the SwissFEL facility. PSI attempted to withdraw the submission, but the arXiv is non-retractable.2

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[368] **viXra:1711.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 14:55:00*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Unlocking a psychological study.

**Category:** Social Science

[367] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-22 15:22:05*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Abstract. We specify a ‘time vector’ for any event in the theory of special relativity (TSR). This vector is well suited to specify various types of simultaneity. (Imagined) moving clocks, being synchronized at a common ‘point of initiation’ play a crucial role. We may present the time vector as a complex variable, and there is a relation to the Minkowski distance. We exemplify the approach by including a short discussion of the ‘travelling twin’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[366] **viXra:1711.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 16:42:40*

**Authors:** Alexandre

**Comments:** 59 Pages. This version is work under way.

A fifth force, the Cohesion Force, becomes necessary when building a toy universe based on a fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. The four forces of nature plus the new one are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode first version implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[365] **viXra:1711.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 18:51:15*

**Authors:** NS Fugato

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

1. The Gerges Francis equation states:
D = A R^2 Pi^n
2. Clearly this equation follows from the basic planetary chart and the seminal work of Gerges Francis.
3. If the read is not familiar with this basic equation, we refer to [1-5].
4. This paper discusses multilinear extensions.
5. Much future research needs to be done.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[364] **viXra:1711.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 01:48:14*

**Authors:** C.M. Choy, M. Varman, H.H. Masjuki

**Comments:** 44 pages. Paper presented at the 10 th AUN/SEED-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering (RCEneE2017), Yangon, Myanmar.

Similar properties of biodiesel to conventional diesel have made biodiesel as a promising fuel. However, its NOx emission was reported higher by most researchers in the world. In this study, antioxidants are used in the effort of improving the oxidation stability of biodiesel and reducing the NOx emission while maintaining the engine performance. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and N,N’-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) are added in 0.025 wt% and 0.15 wt% concentrations, respectively into palm oil methyl ester-diesel blend. The performance characteristics of biodiesel
blends are tested on a single cylinder engine with an attached emission analyser. The addition of
the PPD and DPPD antioxidants improved the oxidation stability of biodiesel without affecting much in the density and kinematic viscosity. For B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% Euro 5 diesel), the addition of DPPD showed the best results by reducing NO (0.8% lower on average), CO (10.8% lower on average) and HC emission (32.9% lower on average), as compared to B7 blend. However in terms of engine performance, B20+DPPD showed higher BSFC and lower brake power when
compared to B7 blend.

**Category:** Chemistry

[363] **viXra:1711.0446 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-29 23:58:35*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this work, we will investigate possible spacetime structures of massless particles by formulating Dirac equation in a six-dimensional spatial-temporal continuum in both pseudo-Euclidean and Euclidean metrics. We show that the state of a massless particle flows as an irrotational and incompressible fluid in steady fluid dynamics in the sense that all spatial and temporal components of the wavefunction of a massless particle can be described by Laplace equation. Furthermore, we also show that the six components of the wavefunction are coupled in pairs to form two-dimensional subspaces and this result may suggest why quantum particles possess an intrinsic spin angular momentum that takes half-integral values.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[362] **viXra:1711.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 11:34:58*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A new simple proof is given for the Brouwer fix point theorem.

**Category:** Topology

[361] **viXra:1711.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 07:34:24*

**Authors:** Vicent Sanchis-Jurado, Sophie Triantaphillidou, Edward Fry, Álvaro Pons

**Comments:** 12 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

Purpose
To determine the influence on the contrast sensitivity when the stimulus contains a fixation target in two retinal locations, foveal and parafoveal.
Methods
Four young adults with 0.0 logMar acuity participated in this study. The stimulus was based on vertical sinusoidal gratings masked by a circular (for foveal area) or a ring (for parafoveal area). To increase the luminance resolution of the display a bit-stealing technique was used. Four different sets of stimuli were generated, two for exploring the foveal sensitivity and two for the parafoveal area. The difference between the sets designed for the same area was the presence, or absence, of a fixation target (a white cross) in the centre of the stimulus. A modified staircase method was implemented.
Results
The results show a drop in the contrast sensitivity when the fixation target was present on the stimulus for frequencies smaller than 4 cycles per degree.
Conclusions
The presence of fixation targets diminishes the contrast sensitivity for low to mid frequencies over different concentric areas of the retina. This could be due to the fixational eye movements, different patterns of eye movements were found using an eyetracker. The relationship between the sensitivity in the foveal area and the parafoveal agrees with those reported by other authors using different designs confirming that the new stimulus design is suitable to measure the contrast sensitivity outside the foveal area.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[360] **viXra:1711.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-09 03:13:10*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and transformation processes of real but different shaped symmetric sub quantum rigid stringy particles.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[359] **viXra:1711.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 08:54:38*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Although virus is widely known to significantly affect many biological form of life, its physical model is quite rare. In this paper, we present a mathematical model of virus as an elastic sphere in a Newtonian fluid, i.e. via 3D Non-Stationary Navier-Stokes equations. We also obtain a numerical solution by the help of Mathematica 11.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[358] **viXra:1711.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 10:21:52*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We consider two charged spheres of the same charge freely moving along a fixed line. We use the energy momentum tensor to construct a moving surface through which there is no energy flow and show conservation of energy does not hold.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[357] **viXra:1711.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 06:46:39*

**Authors:** Prashanth Alluvada

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Key words: dream, conscious, subconscious, unconscious

We suggest a method for collecting data about dreams. We propose that the data may be used for studying sleep states versus dream states. Also that the data could be useful for identifying the boundaries between conscious, subconscious and unconscious states of the mind.

**Category:** Mind Science

[356] **viXra:1711.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 08:58:37*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 57 pages. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Horandstrasse, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: A series of different studies detected Human papillomavirus (HPV) in malignant and nonmalignant prostate tissues. However, the results of studies on the relationship between HPV infections and prostate cancer (PCa) remain controversial.
Methods: A systematic review and re-analysis of some polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) based case-control studies was performed aimed to answer the following question: Is there a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and prostatic cancer? The method of the conditio per quam relationship was used to proof the hypothesis: if presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in human prostate tissues then presence of prostate carcinoma. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and prostate cancer. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.
Result: Only one of the studies analyzed failed to provide evidence that there is a cause-effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and prostate cancer. Two studies were highly significant on this point. The majority of the studies analyzed support the hypothesis that human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sufficient condition of prostate cancer. In other words, if presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in human prostate tissues then presence of prostate cancer.
Conclusion: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of prostate cancer.

**Category:** Statistics

[355] **viXra:1711.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 11:25:07*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The mirror neutrino hypothesis for quantum gravity has been used to resolve known cosmological problems using quantised inertia. In this note we clarify the theoretical principles, describe the true electroweak vacuum, and explain where conventional holographic scenarios go wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[354] **viXra:1711.0435 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-10 17:42:53*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article breaks with the inviolability of the quantum-unit. It ‘crumbles’ (or cuts up, or refines) the quantum-vacuum. That also crumbles the constant vacuum-energy-density, or dark energy. It offers a new definition for dark energy. New dark energy does no longer belong to the Big Bang-universe: New dark energy is part of a rotating-hologram universe. Such a universe has the shape of a Double Torus, which has an inner-torus that rotates while an outer-torus represents the ‘crumble of the vacuum’ with time below the Planck-scale. The ‘vacuum-crumbling’ implies a ‘new ‘building-stone’ for vacuum: Tdan. This is a new (rotating) energy-tensor, which has two states , one for above and one for below the Planck-scale. The ‘beauty’ is the dimension of the tensor remains unchanged in those two states! Hence, the quantum-Planck-unit is transparent for migration. That makes the Big Bang-universe no longer a fundamental universe. The Big Bang-universe is emerged (or induced) by rotation of the hologram-universe. This means the Big Bang-universe will exist in every place of the rotating hologram-universe implying: parallel universes ‘outside’ a Big Bang-universe are a nonissue. Parallel universes exist embedded in the rotating hologram-universe. Thereby the origin of the ‘old Big Bang-universe’ is no longer relevant. A new definition of age of the universe lies in the cycle-duration of one cycle, although rotation goes on eternally. Continuously the origin is recalculated. Seemingly the Big Bang-universe is materialized above the Planck-scale and dé-materializes below the Planck-scale, however, such a perspective is reciprocal facing the transparent frontier. Against all expectations my formulas show that one can migrate from one to the other parallel-universe. Locally that is interpreted as ‘change’, but on larger scales it is called traveling through time without space. Because there is extra time (or refined time in the crumble of vacuum), which affects relativistic time that can make traveling faster than traveling through space with the speed of light. There is no horizon between the physics of the ‘soul’ and the physics of ‘materialization’ including the other way around. At last two physics-problems are solved: firstly a more fundamental cause for the origin of hurricanes wherein the building stone of vacuum is involved and secondly the hierarchy problem, the explanation why there is a large emptiness between the Planck-scale and the scale-existence of the smallest particles.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[353] **viXra:1711.0434 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-30 02:19:06*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[352] **viXra:1711.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 23:19:36*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given time series type sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[351] **viXra:1711.0432 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 13:19:20*

**Authors:** Arsen A. Movsesyan

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In the article, the Gauss’s problem on the number of integer points for a circle and a ball in the framework of an integer lattice is reformulated in an equivalent way and reduces to solving two combinatorial tasks for a circular and spherical "layer" in the framework of Quantum Discrete Space. These tasks are solved using trigonometric functions defined on a set of integers whose range of values is also integers, and other new mathematical tools. It comes not about evaluative solutions, but about exact solutions, which, if necessary, can be transferred to a circle and a ball. In doing so not only specific formulas for determine the exact number of solutions are presented, but also the formulas for enumerating the corresponding pairs and triples of integers. The importance of obtained solutions lies in the fact that they determine the analytical likenesses of not only the circumference and the sphere in the Quantum Discrete Space, but also point to the possibility of constructing of the likenesses of ellipse, cone, hyperboloid and other figures.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[350] **viXra:1711.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 03:51:16*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Food advice is provided for a healthy spiritual and physical lifestyle.

**Category:** Social Science

[349] **viXra:1711.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 04:44:38*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The point is to define the limiting continuum field theory. In principle, this might even be done without taking limits. The Hamiltonian, the operator on the quantum Hilbert space which generates time translations, has a square root called the supercharge. Here we use the Moon model and Parfait logic. Furthermore, although one has changed the problem, one still has a fairly close relation to the original problem using the ideology of the renormalization group. We can start with a supersymmetric theory, and add supersymmetry breaking terms to the action which only become important at long distances as many lattice spacings, to obtain a theory with the better renormalization properties of the supersymmetric theory at short distances, but which reduces to conventional Yang-Mills theory at longer distances. Thus, a solution to the problem in a sufficiently general class of supersymmetric theories, would in fact imply the solution of the original problem. We propose a Cacace tetraoxygen universe relative to a Poincaré Dodecahedral Space. This is called an oxozone.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[348] **viXra:1711.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 05:14:34*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[347] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-11 10:56:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and also revisit the energy-momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[346] **viXra:1711.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 07:23:30*

**Authors:** Gaurav Biraris

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

New approach to study economies is adopted in the paper. The change in prices is assumed solely by variation in demands or supplies. Cause of such variations is quantified. Efforts behind changes in demand, supply and prices are characterized as ‘potential’. The potential stems from different kind of resources and is utilized for trade or production; quantification of such utilization is done. We also have explored rules about flow of potential in economy. The laws can be used to study evolution of economies. A set of goods & services, population and initial prices can be considered as the economy for study. In addition to conventional parameters, we get a new state determining parameter for economy defined as ecomperature. Ecomperature mimics temperature from physics. Resources flow from sections of higher ecomperature to that of lower ecomperature to attain uniformity in ecomperatures. Some aspects of possible applications of the theory are discussed. The paper isn’t about interdisciplinary analogies or similarities, but it is about the foundative reasoning behind the scientific mechanisms.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[345] **viXra:1711.0426 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-18 08:38:55*

**Authors:** Gaurav Biraris

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Results in Physics, 7 (2017) 1650–1673

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[344] **viXra:1711.0425 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 08:56:58*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We found that the following are not tautologous: Epistemic Church's Thesis; EZF induction schema; and Scedrov's modal foundation.
We did not test subsequent axioms.
What follows is that Flagg's construction, Goodman's intensional set theory, and epistemic logic are suspicious.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[343] **viXra:1711.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 13:42:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this study, it was hypothesized that speed cannot be indefinite, and must be bounded by a universal limit. This hypothesis was rigorously analyzed using thought experiment and mathematical deduction. A time and space transformation was deemed necessary for the hypothesis to seem viable. However, the transformation turned out to be inconsistent when obtained using different derivation approaches. Furthermore, the obtained transformation equations resulted in critical contradiction. Hence, the universal speed limit hypothesis was deemed false and rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[342] **viXra:1711.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 17:01:32*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 1 Page. It is a research step in investigation of a nonlinear electrical circuit.

It is a derivation of an equation for a circuit whose engineering purpose is very well, known but the circuit and the derived equation are nonlinear -- which is the point for future research.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[341] **viXra:1711.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 23:14:27*

**Authors:** Garen Karapetian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article reports a relation between Heliocentric velocities of galaxies vʘ and Luminosity distances dL: dL≈vʘ/H0+dL*vʘ/c.
Data of 3655 Ia type Supernovas from Open Supernova Catalog (https://sne.space/) with Heliocentric velocities v☉ between 240 and 142100 km/sec was utilized and shows accuracy about 3%.
The relation utilized for developing the distance calculation formula: dV=vʘ/(H0*(1-vʘ/c)).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[340] **viXra:1711.0421 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 22:07:18*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[339] **viXra:1711.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 01:39:24*

**Authors:** Frank Schröder

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Not only “robots need language”, but sometimes a human-operator too. To interact with complex domains, he needs a vocabulary to init the robot, let him walk and grasping objects. Natural language interfaces can support semi-autonomous and fully-autonomous systems on both sides. Instead of using neural networks, the language grounding problem can be solved with object-oriented programming. In the following paper a simulation of micro-manipulation under a microscope is given which is controlled with a C++ script. The small vocabulary consists of init, pregrasp, grasp and place.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[338] **viXra:1711.0419 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-20 19:03:26*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this development upon four previous papers [1][2][3][4], we shall finally explain the link between the idea of “time” and “energy”, in bringing the idea of parity between time and energy while explaining why quantum entanglement [5] as a concept is “immediate” (seeming to break the confines of time itself). First, we shall integrate the idea of time as energy into all the references made regarding energy in the four preceding papers, to demonstrate the consistency and greater detail available to the theory via this method of time-energy regard. Then, we shall derive the temperature of the background microwave radiation [6] in expanding upon paper 4, implementing the idea of “enthalpy” to a general entropic background manifold of energy congress. Finally, we will then be able to propose the nature of the appearance of the universe of stars in this new context, through this new filter of time-energy regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[337] **viXra:1711.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 05:33:37*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An explanation is provided for why different observers can see the same shape as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[336] **viXra:1711.0417 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-25 21:37:21*

**Authors:** Liu Ran

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A new way to prove prime number distribution being no law.

**Category:** Number Theory

[335] **viXra:1711.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 11:03:31*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Injection of a binary relation does not support it as symmetric and irreflexive.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[334] **viXra:1711.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 11:08:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 illustration

A short parallel is drawn up between Darwin's Origin of Species and stellar metamorphosis in relation to the absence or rarity of transitional varieties. It is made clear in this paper that both are quite similar in their trouble, but can both be explained in light of their own progresses.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[333] **viXra:1711.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 10:29:12*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show there are two colliding gravitational plane wave pulses that result in signals that travel faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[332] **viXra:1711.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 13:01:57*

**Authors:** Konstantin M. Golubev

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

It is a try to present a view on intellectual evolution using systems analysis. Intellect is considered as a system of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes. The author started research on intellect modeling in 1986, realized several applied projects and published papers on theory and practice of intellect modeling in Russia (1), Italy (2), Great Britain (3), France and Germany (4). The hypothesis is in no way connected with any religion, because it does not presume existence of entities not belonging to our world. The assumption is that intellectual evolution could appear on much more wider scale than it was supposed previously. As a prediction for Humankind the role it plays could be much bigger than only resources wasting. The facts used are widely known and some references are included to show that it is not a pure speculation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[331] **viXra:1711.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 21:11:36*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluated two parts of the proof of Lemma 2 (Folklore).
The equations as rendered are not tautologous.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[330] **viXra:1711.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 02:31:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Many previous attempts have been undertaken to produce a singularity-free solution to the black hole problem. This effort included many “Bardeen black hole” models, as well as quantum mechanical, and string theory models. The present paper describes a new solution based on a relativistic extension of Newton-Galileo physics, termed Information Relativity theory. For a purely gravitational, spherical black hole, the theory yields a black hole radius that equals the Schwarzschild radius, but without an interior singularity. Moreover, for a typical galaxy with a supermassive black hole residing at its center, the model produces a simple expression for the galaxy's dynamics in its dependence on redshift. According to the emerging dynamics, a galaxy's supermassive black hole is part of a binary system, together with a naked singularity at redshift z = 2 -1/2 ≈ 0.707, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Another redshift, z ≈ 2.078, is also predicted to be associated with quasars and AGNs. The derived results are contrasted with observational data and with a recent ΛCDM model. Taken together, the produced galaxy dynamics and the aforementioned results could shed some light on the role of supermassive black holes in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.
The success of Information Relativity in reproducing the Schwarzschild radius of black holes, together with previous successful predictions of the phenomena of light bending, gravitational redshift, dark matter, and dark energy, attest the possibility of constructing a simple cosmology, based only on physical variables, without the notion of space time and its geodesics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[329] **viXra:1711.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 05:58:47*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We are describing a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity.1 We fully agree on all of the mathematical derivations in Ein- stein’s special relativity theory and his result of relativity of simultaneity when using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. The paradox introduced shows that Einstein’s special relativity theory leads to a motion paradox, where a train moving relative to the ground (and the ground moving relative to the train) must stand still and be moving at the same time. We will see that one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other reference frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events. This goes against common sense and logic. However, looking back at the history of relativity theory, even time dilation was going against common sense and a series of academics attempted to refute it.2 Still, based on this new paradox we have to ask ourselves if the world really can be that bizarre, or if Einstein’s special relativity could be incomplete in some way? We are not going to give an answer to the second question in this paper, but we will simply present the new paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[328] **viXra:1711.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 07:19:51*

**Authors:** Yanakikawa Yoon

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It doesn't exist in high school textbooks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[327] **viXra:1711.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 12:24:26*

**Authors:** Igore Elkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. -

The theory of Einstein's gravity actually gives only a change in the metric. This change, when using the principle of least action, leads to a convergence of material massive bodies. This is perceived as a gravitational interaction. In fact, the principle of least action can not force bodies to move, but only describes their motion. That is, there is an interaction that forces the bodies to move according to the principle of least action. That is, Einstein's theory is far from describing the gravitational interaction. The reason for the appearance of this interaction is written here and the basis of this interaction is the electrical interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[326] **viXra:1711.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 12:30:02*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 13 pages. Text: pp 1-7; pages 8-13 (please ignore the handwritten numbers): Table 1, legends for Figs. and 3 Figures; Paper presented at 216th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, Aug. 1998, short abstract no. 9.

During the synthesis of a deuteron nucleus from a neutron and a proton, an electron, positron pair and an antineutrino, neutrino pair are released. The electrostatic energy (order of MeV) of the former pair is released as gamma radiation and is equivalent to the mass defect. Based on the largest mass defect per nucleon (MDPN) as the criterion of nuclear stability, it. is estimated that, in general, for a nuclide X(Z,N) with a fractional mass defect f , the MDPN(nu) due to neutrinos/antineutrinos alone is equal to fk(n) (Z/(z+N)), where the proportionality constant k(n) = 0.7 micro atomic mass unit. Since f is of the order of 0.01, MDPN(nu) is in nano-atomic mass units, which is the right order of the mass of neutrinos. (This paper is reprinted with permission from Desktop publication (1998) by Arjun consultancy & publishing Inc.,Wayne N.J.(USA))

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[325] **viXra:1711.0404 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 14:49:14*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Several typos fixed, and a less restrictive derivation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is presented.

A simple, parameter-free conformal approach to gravity is presented based on the the square of the quadratic Ricci scalar R alone. It is shown that when R is a non-zero constant, the associated action is fully conformal and leads to the usual equations of motion associated with the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. To demonstrate the approach, we derive the Schwarzschild metric, the field of a charged particle and the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[324] **viXra:1711.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 20:32:14*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A brief summary.

**Category:** Social Science

[323] **viXra:1711.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:03:52*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The highest height of thought, philosophy and worship, the cognizance of the Self and the Truth, is outlined.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[322] **viXra:1711.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:30:32*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The radical idea that neutrinos are subatomic gravitational waves is presented. Given the available empirical evidence, as opposed to theoretical assumptions, this idea is not as bizarre and ignorable as it may at first sound.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[321] **viXra:1711.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:34:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Given the near universality of the Benford/Newcomb Law of First Digits, and the ubiquity of fractal self-similarity observed throughout nature from the smallest to largest scales, it is argued that nature’s most fundamental geometry may be conformal geometry, which is universally present in full, partial, and discrete/broken forms. As a consequence, the assumption of absolute scale may apply only in restricted contexts, whereas relative scale may be the more dominant principle for the cosmos as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[320] **viXra:1711.0399 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 22:53:42*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The electromagnetic spin energy of nucleus, and the phase and phase transition of matters, result from the interaction between electromagnetic spin energy of particles in mathematic logic.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[319] **viXra:1711.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-24 23:39:02*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I The ingenious connotation of relativity and electromagnetic dynamic energy: quality and qualitative leap
II Quantized electrodynamics and the interaction: the creativity of aesthetics in the grand unification— matter and universe, space, motion and time, biology and humanity
III Definition of natural electromagnetic dynamics
IV With grateful heart

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[318] **viXra:1711.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 03:18:06*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This article was writen under guidance of Holy Spirit

God call me in Oct. 2009 as His prophet in order to prepare so many people in His body of churches and nations for the End of Times. Before that, God asked me three times: "Do you love Me? Then shepherd My lambs." And I replied, "Yes, God. You know that I love You." At the time, I remembered that classic conversation between Jesus and Peter in John chapter 21. I tried to see how the relation of Jesus's question to Peter and God's question to me, but it is mystery. Initially, I was so enthusiastic with this unexpected job from God to become His prophet, and at the time, a part of me said that it is a very rare job offer.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[317] **viXra:1711.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 04:56:28*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The unified theory of dynamic space describes the first force of Nature
as the Universal antigravity one, because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated
centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is
not due to the Universe expansion as a result of the Big Bang, but to the relative
motion of galaxies and their centrifugal antigravity motion. The Cosmic journey of the
matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed towards the Universe
periphery, while the smallest Pythagorean Triple (3, 4, 5) reveals the harmony of
Universal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[316] **viXra:1711.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-29 07:41:26*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Making an intuitive assumption, and using the completeness of the position and momentum eigenstates, along with the postulates of quantum mechanics, we provide a geometric presentation of the position and momentum representations in quantum mechanics, in the hope of offering a perspective complementary to those given in standard textbooks.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[315] **viXra:1711.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 06:05:26*

**Authors:** Nikitina N.N, Nikitin I.V, Nikitin V.N.

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1

Life on Earth arose because of the anomalous structure of the solar system

**Category:** Astrophysics

[314] **viXra:1711.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 06:09:28*

**Authors:** Nikitina NN, Nikitin IV, Nikitin VN

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The climate of the solar system is predictable and entirely determined by the energy state of outer space

**Category:** Astrophysics

[313] **viXra:1711.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 09:49:39*

**Authors:** Alex Khaneles

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Photons are considered to be elementary bosons in the Standard Model. An assumption that photons are not elementary particles is assessed from an outlook of equilibrium statistical mechanics with insights from computer simulation.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[312] **viXra:1711.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 16:28:59*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

: A simple principle is added to stellar metamorphosis to begin explaining how thermodynamics actually applies to the beginnings of life.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[311] **viXra:1711.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 16:34:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the Experiment conducted at temperature 5.8Kelvin by scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optic they got the following measure for the charge radius of proton: 0,8335(95)fm. We deduce that the ether is function of temperature
See Vixra: 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Relativity and Cosmology; Vixra: 1711.0334 Nuclear and Atomic Physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[310] **viXra:1711.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-17 08:10:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 121 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-110 are my 2018-2019 Calendar with Physics Graphics and Red Book appendix. Pages 111-114 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8. Version2 (v2) has 2018-2019 Calendar. Version 3 (v3) has Red Book Physics appendix. Version 4 (v4) adds material about relations among E8 - H4 - F4 - D4 - D3=A3 - H3 - H2 = Penrose STAR tiling of 2-dim space. Version 5 (v5) updates Red Book Physics. Version 6 (v6) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[309] **viXra:1711.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 02:43:48*

**Authors:** Kevin Loch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Empirically derived formulas are proposed for calculating the Higgs field Yukawa couplings and pole masses of the twelve known fundamental fermions with experimental inputs me, mμ and the Fermi constant G0F.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[308] **viXra:1711.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 04:51:16*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 87 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“The Gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitational redshift is the proof that the gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
Because:
“The gravitons emitted after the photons are emitted, will not interact with the photons if they have only the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the gravitational redshift”
Adrian Ferent
Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction:
E = h × f + a × f - a × ν
where - a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton
ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
I am the first who understood and explained that gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep constellations together.
“If gravitons have only the speed of light will not be able to keep constellations together.“
A graviton needs less then one second to travel between stars located within 10 light-years.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
If the gravitons have only the speed of light, the light, the electromagnetic waves, the photons can escape from a black hole.
This means the gravitons must be faster than light.
You learned from your professors that nothing can travel faster than light; I explained that the gravitons are faster than light.
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong.
This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud, because gravitational waves are faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[307] **viXra:1711.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 15:40:20*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Keynes and the internationalist model.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[306] **viXra:1711.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 18:11:13*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages. continuation of STOE model of photon and rejection of wave model.

Spectrographic behavior of light has been attributed to the wave model of light.
The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) model of light suggests photons are composed of hods that are one of the two components of the universe. The Hodge diffraction experiments rejected the wave models of light. The Fraunhofer pattern of coherent light on a screen from a slit in a mask is compared to the STOE computer simulation of spectrographic effects. The number of hods serves the same place as the frequency (energy) of light. Thus, the energy of light is proportional to the number of hods in the photons. An additional hod in a photon adds Planks constant amount of energy to the photon. Therefore, the STOE incorporates spectrographic observations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[305] **viXra:1711.0383 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-03 13:06:58*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A theory of vacuum quantum gravity is developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[304] **viXra:1711.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 02:30:08*

**Authors:** Morteza Husainy Yar, Vahid Rahmati, Hamid Reza Dalili Oskouei

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Evolutionary computation is now an inseparable branch of artificial intelligence and smart methods based on evolutional algorithms aimed at solving different real world problems by natural procedures involving living creatures. It's based on random methods, regeneration of data, choosing by changing or replacing data within a system such as personal computer (PC), cloud, or any other data center. This paper briefly studies different evolutionary computation techniques used in some applications specifically image processing, cloud computing and grid computing. These methods are generally categorized as evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. Each of these subfields contains a variety of algorithms and techniques which are presented with their applications. This work tries to demonstrate the benefits of the field by presenting the real world applications of these methods implemented already. Among these applications is cloud computing scheduling problem improved by genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and bees algorithm. Some other applications are improvement of grid load balancing, image processing, improved bi-objective dynamic cell formation problem, robust machine cells for dynamic part production, integrated mixed-integer linear programming, robotic applications, and power control in wind turbines.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[303] **viXra:1711.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 02:45:39*

**Authors:** Vahid Rahmati

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A novel transform calling smoothing, which can improve interpolation and reduce approximation error, is introduced in this paper. This method can be applied to various formulas, including interpolation and approximation methods, which are denoted in the process of order manipulation. Subsequently, the paper shows how to achieve higher degree polynomial approximations through fewer interpolation points, which is impossible with ordinary methods of interpolation. In fact, this leads to an alternative solution to oscillatory behavior and Runge’s phenomenon occurring in polynomial interpolations or methods of least squares approximation when the number of points is increased signiﬁcantly to achieve higher degree polynomials with the aim of error reduction. Several ideas—in the form of theorems and their proofs—are therefore studied on the basis of smoothing process of the interpolation. Finally, a comprehensive comparison, with the intention of showing the advantage of the new transform over other methods in the form of MSE v. number of samples, is provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[302] **viXra:1711.0379 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 03:47:16*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 26 Pages. sorry.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of rigid transformable string particles.
The resulting model is called “Quantum FFF Theory” (FFF=Function Follows Form).
As a consequence however, the standard model should be extended with an alternative Higgs boson of different mass series (recent LHC measurements) as a base for unstable microscopic dark matter black hole (DMBH) nuclei (for Ball Lightning as interference Higgs knots) up to stable (Sunspot and S-Nova) black hole nuclei merging into a cyclic Big Crunch/ Big Bang nucleus.
Dark Energy of the vacuum is assume to be created by an oscillating massless springy stringy Axion/Higgs field virgin vacuum particle, being one half of a new emerging quantum gravity system combine with the opposing pressure of a pushing graviton. .
The vacuum particles are assumed to oscillate in tandem inside spiral (chiral) flux tubes between photon communication nodes with a variable Planck length as a base, creating a tetrahedron based chiral vacuum lattice connected by nodes between two tetrahedrons.
As a result, the dark matter black hole Big Bang was the cold explosion into dark matter black hole splinter chunks evaporating into the oscillating Axion/ Higgs field and series of smaller chunks, leaving a trail of Hydrogen creating stable black holes behind, also called the Lyman Alpha forest.
So, the new extended standard model is based on different geometrical string structures for Higgs based dark matter black holes but also extended with a monopole photon/ Gluon system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[301] **viXra:1711.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 08:04:42*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We evaluate Chaitin's incompleteness theorem of 1974. Martin Davis described it as “a dramatic extension of Gödel’s incompleteness theorem” in 1978.
We find the approach of the conjecture is moot, refute Chaitin's theorem of incompleteness, and remark that Chaitin's constant is suspicious.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[300] **viXra:1711.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:14:31*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ЭТО СТАТЬЯ НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Замечания к идее ВАРП двигателя. А.Антипин a1_mail@inbox.ru
В работе приведены общие соображения, которые показывают, что ВАРП устройства не смогут обеспечить ожидаемой сверхсветовой скорости перемещения объектов. Реальная скорость перемещения объектов с помощью ВАРП не превысит (с/2), т.е. ПОЛОВИНЫ скорости света.
=========
Comments to the idea of a WARP drive Antipin Alexandr Veniaminovich a1_mail@inbox.ru
The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[299] **viXra:1711.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:34:35*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that a precise characterization of the class of pfs is out of grasp. Moreover, the problem is totally useless physically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[298] **viXra:1711.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 22:14:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[297] **viXra:1711.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 23:52:24*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die Möglichkeit der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und ihrer Gravitationskraft zur Energieumwandlung ihrer Rotationsenergie in mechanische / elektrische Energie. Gezeigt wird eine technische Anwendung, bei der sich die Kreisel nicht tangential, sondern senktrecht von der Erde entfernen können. Hinweise zum Michelson-Experiment (richtige Wahl der Bezugssysteme), zur Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit und zur "Dunklen Energie" als elektromagnetische Strahlung

**Category:** Astrophysics

[296] **viXra:1711.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 00:18:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of One Step Evolution Of Any Real Positive Number.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[295] **viXra:1711.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 01:10:20*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Асимметрия всего – вот главное условие существования Вселенной, а значит не существует абсолютной окружности и, как следствие этого, числа Пи.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[294] **viXra:1711.0365 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-05 14:08:19*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 24 Pages. In English. Updated. Some minor corrections.

Starting from the 32 crystal classes, we find a complete classification scheme of the same with only 5 bits, and at least in part the meaning of the various bits.
There is no inverse demonstration, ie only 5 bits must generate all 32 crystalline classes in nature.
However, the proposed classification seems to invoke a logical process of formation of the various classes, doing this way:
the matter first aggregates without any symmetry, then it adopts various rotation symmetries (no symmetry, binary, ternary, etc., simple or composite) and then adds to each symmetry of rotation the additional symmetries c (center), m (planes) or c + m together

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[293] **viXra:1711.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 10:38:24*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Our example in the positive and contra example show the shortest known definitive refutation for Gödel's incompleteness theorem.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[292] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 16:41:54*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[291] **viXra:1711.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 17:33:57*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the theory "The Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen (Vixra:1711.0229;Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Relativity and Cosmology) we have deduced the existence of ether and explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. So, the concept of ether allows us to calculate the Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen: 0,840935•10^(-15) meters (Vixra:1711.0229) and the Charge radius of Muonic-Deuterium:2.12567•10^(-15)meters (Vixra:1711.0333; Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[290] **viXra:1711.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 02:12:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[289] **viXra:1711.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 02:43:10*

**Authors:** Frank Schröder

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Ontologies are a powerfull alternative to reinforcement learning. They store knowledge in a domain-specific language. The best-practice for implementing ontologies is a distributed version control system which is filled manually by programmers.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[288] **viXra:1711.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 05:21:55*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[287] **viXra:1711.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 08:01:42*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate two of the simpler equations for tautology which relate to Grilliot's trick and the standard extensionality trick via effective implication.
Eqs., as rendered, are not tautologous.
According to variant sysem VŁ4, this means Grilliot's trick, effective implication, and the subsequent non standard extensionality trick are not bivalent, but rather are a vector space.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[286] **viXra:1711.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 15:54:02*

**Authors:** Matanari Shimoinuda

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The group X, which is proposed by A.Connes, is an interesting thing for number theory. Let's think of the trace of a regular representation U on X of the idele class. However it is hard to compute it since X is non-compact. In this article, we try to show that the trace is computable.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[285] **viXra:1711.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 00:11:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. FFP 15 talk, half an hour, November 30, 11-11:30 AM

** NOTE, this is a “30 minute” Communications talk approved by Jesus, of FFP15
For November 30, 2017. Presumably for the conference proceedings**
We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). Two action integrals, one which is connected with quantum gravity is called equivalent to another action integral, and the 2nd action integral has a Lagrangian multiplier in it. Using the idea of a Lagrangian multiplier as a constraint equation, we draw our conclusions in a 1 to 1 and onto assumed equivalence between the two action integrals. The viability of the 1 to 1 and onto linkage between the two action integrals is open to question, but if this procedure is legitimate , the conclusions so assumed are fundamentally important. We also state this procedure should be streamed toward giving substance to the paper entitled “Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant”, by Ning Bao, et.al.2017 , as a way to find conditions for restricting the size of the cosmological constant to be of 10^ - 120 for reasons we discuss as a future works project. We come up with relic GW which are after 65 e folds of inflationary expansion leading to 10 ^ 36 GHz high frequency GW being possible at the site of formation of the 10^-120 sized cosmological constant, for 10 GHz HFGW today. After 65 e folds of inflationary expansion
Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[284] **viXra:1711.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:04:27*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be
seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both
inertial reference frames are
related by this acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of
such coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of
length contraction from Special Relativity is impossible in
reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[283] **viXra:1711.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:41:41*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: Any square of a prime p^2, where p > 3, can be written as p + q + (n*q – n + 1) or as p + q + (n*q - n – 1), where q and n*q – n + 1 respectively n*q - n – 1 are primes and n positive integer. Examples: 11^2 = 121 = 11 + 37 + (2*37 – 1), where 37 and 2*37 – 1 = 73 are primes; 13^2 = 169 = 13 + 53 + (2*53 – 3), where 53 and 2*53 – 3 = 103 are primes. An equivalent formulation of the conjecture is that for any prime p, p > 3, there exist n positive integer such that one of the numbers q = (p^2 – p + n – 1)/(n + 1) or q = p^2 – p + n + 1)/(n + 1) is prime satisfying also the condition that p^2 – p – q is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[282] **viXra:1711.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:53:10*

**Authors:** R.I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravitation and Cosmology, 20, 4 (2014), p. 264.

The operational and canonical definitions of an energy-momentum tensor (EMT) are considered as well as the tensor and nontensor conservation laws. It is shown that the canonical EMT contradicts the experiments and the operational definition, the Belinfante-Rosenfeld procedure worsens the situation, and the nontensor “conservation laws” are meaningless. A definition of the 4-momentum of a system demands a translator since integration of vectors is meaningless. The mass of a fluid sphere is calculated. It is shown that, according to the standard energy-momentum pseudotensor, the mass-energy of a gravitational field is positive. This contradicts the idea of a negative gravitational energy and discredits the pseudotensor. And what is more, integral 4-pseudovectors are meaningless in general since reference frames for their components are not determined even for coordinates which areMinkowskian at infinity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[281] **viXra:1711.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 06:12:38*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Having shown in our previous works that the real-valued Schrödinger wave equation can be used to find mathematical functions to construct spacetime structures of quantum particles, in this work, we will discuss the possibility to formulate a real-valued Dirac equation in which all physical objects and all differential operators that are used to describe the dynamics of a particle are real quantities and, furthermore, since solutions to the Dirac equation are wavefunctions that have four components, it is possible to suggest that solutions to the real-valued Dirac equation should be interpreted as a parameterisation of 3-dimensional differentiable manifolds which are embedded submanifolds of the Euclidean space R^4.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[280] **viXra:1711.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 07:15:39*

**Authors:** Alama Ekabal Ansari

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Time dilation is a well-known phenomenon for special theory of relativity and general relativity theory.
The present technology is not advanced enough to implement these theories practically.
Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from a gravitational mass. The time dilation is caused by differences in either gravity or relative speed. The time dilation is explained by working of two clocks reporting different times for different speed According to Einstein relativity (E=mc2), we know that an object with a non- zero rest mass cannot achieve the speed of light. According to relativistic theory, as the speed of the object increases, effective mass of the object also increases. The increase in effective mass makes more difficult to accelerate the object. Hence, more energy is required to increase the speed of the object.
Achieving the speed of light for the object, the effective mass become almost infinite. Hence, lot of energy is required to accelerate the object with the speed of light.
There is no such technology developed as on date through which speed of light can be achieved without consuming humongous energy.
Therefore, there is a need to provide a system which can overcome the limitation of existing technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[279] **viXra:1711.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 10:47:28*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the element of spatial distance in terms
of the time coordinate and a new tensor related to the Kronecker delta.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[278] **viXra:1711.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 14:12:41*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This essay discusses the meaning and role of the term “fundamental” as it applies to Math and Physics. The importance of Lagrange’s Four Squares Theorem is also discussed. It is argued that the vacuum is a 5-D Quantum-Space-Time and that the vacuum is fundamental.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[277] **viXra:1711.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 15:50:05*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A diagram is presented to show the differences between establishment dogma, electric universe and stellar metamorphosis (GTSM). Additions will be made at a later date for further clarification.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[276] **viXra:1711.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 20:07:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If you know and understand the way everything truly works -- with slight adjustments everything becomes completely compatible.

● Newton's gravitational force.

● Tesla's energy from the environment.

● Einstein's curved space-time.

● Heisenberg's probability and uncertainty.

They fit together like a glove.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[275] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-08 21:17:38*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper underwent a major update and was published under the new title: “General Relativity: Effects in time as Causation and can be found here: http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0109

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[274] **viXra:1711.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 00:38:43*

**Authors:** John E.Miller

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Physics has been static for the last '400' years, hidebound by Newton's hypothesis of gravitational attraction between heavenly bodies. Such hypothesis is not proven, by existing published data. This paper will derive a solution that complies with published data and the correct application of mathematical laws by analyzing the orbiting, Pluto-Charon circular waltz. The ultimate pointer, to the failure of Newtonian theory and a correction to Kepler's laws.
A previous paper "NEWTON CORRECTED", the theory of galaxy energy spheres will be applied to explain the complete mechanics for Pluto-Charon orbits and spins. The Universe is a mass packed solid, as is an ocean of water, when something moves everything else responds.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[273] **viXra:1711.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:29:59*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Playing with Carmichael numbers, a set of numbers I’ve always been fond of (I’ve “discovered” Fermat’s “Little” Theorem and the first few Carmichael numbers before I know they had already been discovered), I noticed that the formula C + 81*2^(4*d), where C is a Carmichael number and d one of its prime factors, gives often primes or products of very few primes. For instance, for C = 1493812621027441 are obtained in this manner three primes: 2918779690625137, 6729216728661136606577017055290271857 and 644530914387083488233375393598279808770191171433362641802841314053534708129737067311868017 (a 90-digit prime!), respectively for d = 11, d = 29 and d = 73.

**Category:** Number Theory

[272] **viXra:1711.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:41:43*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Жизнь на Земле возникла благодаря аномальному строению Солнечной системы

**Category:** Astrophysics

[271] **viXra:1711.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:44:10*

**Authors:** Nikitina N.N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V.N.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Климат Солнечной системы предсказуем и всецело определяется энергетическим
состоянием космического пространства.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[270] **viXra:1711.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:30:18*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version 1 presents the wrong expression ‘angular moment’ in stead of ‘angular momentum’, now used in version 2.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular momentum of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[269] **viXra:1711.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 05:44:37*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 56 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by: 2018, Journal of Biosciences and Medicines Vol.6 No.4, April 30, 2018

Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is regarded as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Our objective was to conduct a qualitative systematic review of some case-control studies to examine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of human cervical cancer beyond any reasonable doubt.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review and re-analysis of some impressive key studies aimed to answer the following question. Is there a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer? The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) guarantees the presence of cervical carcinoma. In other words, if human papillomavirus (HPV) is present, then cervical carcinoma is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical carcinoma. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.
Result: One study was able to provide strict evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) is a conditio sine qua non (a necessary condition) of cervical carcinoma while the other studies analyzed failed on this point. The studies analyzed provide impressive evidence of a cause-effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical carcinoma.
Conclusion: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical carcinoma.

**Category:** Statistics

[268] **viXra:1711.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 08:05:05*

**Authors:** Nathan Hamaoui

**Comments:** 9 Pages. an original theory of everything, copyrighted in referenced book by same author

This paper presents a unique ‘Theory of Everything’ that starts from the bottom up – building the universe from almost scratch. It then proceeds to define and map basic physical concepts including time and space. Viewed from this theory’s perspective, many currently axiomatic and paradoxical phenomena make natural sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[267] **viXra:1711.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 12:53:45*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This an expert text is focused on still unknown questions and answers of physics of elementary particles, elementary fields and its entangled particles. The text is built on new concept of theory of elementary particles in Standard Model, namely interactions of gauge bosons, hypothetically neutrinic gaugino – between lepton–neutrino and w (boson) wion and Z boson zion, and among vector bosons and scalar bosons, Higgs boson or graviton, gravitino and photino. Quantum theoretical particle Polyhedronic quantum prisma is possibly called Quantum Polyhedronic Soliton, and may lead to new point of view on TWISTOR THEORY, SUPERTWISTORS, TWISTOR STRING THEORY, GAUGE THEORY. Ending part of this text is dedicated to a Model situation of quantum gravity tunneling and entanglement of graviton and gravitinos. In this text is re–discovered scientifical work of scientists like Sir Roger Penrose, Cornelius Lanczos, Alan Faber, Kenneth G. Wilson, Alexander Polyakov.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[266] **viXra:1711.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 12:45:12*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Brannen neutrino mass triplet extends Koide's rule for the charged leptons, which was used to correctly predict the tau mass. Assuming that Koide's rule is exact, we consider the fundamental 2/9 lepton phase, noting connections to the CKM matrix and arithmetic information. An estimate for the fine structure constant is included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[265] **viXra:1711.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 18:36:24*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the theory "The Proton Charge of Muonic-Hydrogen" (Vixra: 1711.0229, Author: Piscedda Giampaolo) it is proved that the mass of a particle in the space cause the rotation of a volume portion, along X4 axis, then the existence of ether is deduced, and the theory concludes explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. In theory (1711.0229) we get the formula for the decrease of the charge radius of the muonic-hydrogen. From this formula we get now the charge radius of muonic-deuterium.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[264] **viXra:1711.0332 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-04 21:20:54*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The bioelectric excitation of action potential is the essential character of the living state of eukaryotic organisms, and it is the principal groundwork of physiology. The science and technology are advancing with the progress of the times, however, the principle on action potential remain stalled at the apparent cognition of last century due to the restriction of that era. Based on the highly developed molecular cell biology researches, this work brings insight into the endogenous mechanism of action potential, detects the every detail of this dynamic system: the physical and chemical attributes of each participant and the prerequisites of layout; and especially, focuses on the intrinsic relation and interaction in it. It gives the bran-new presentation on action potential mechanism and its physical and chemical regulation, and importantly, investigates the in-depth insight on the principle of dynamic homeostasis performed by action potential.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[263] **viXra:1711.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-24 03:51:49*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is the satellite letter of The eukaryotic mechanism directed by bioelectricity: creation and enlightenment

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[262] **viXra:1711.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 01:34:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture on Poulet numbers: There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 obtained from Poulet numbers P1 in the following way: let d1 and dn be the least respectively the largest prime factors of the number P1, where P1 is a Poulet number; than there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 of the form P1 + |P1 – dn^2|*d1, where |P1 – dn^2| is the absolute value of P1 – dn^2. Example: for Poulet number P1 = 1729 = 7*13*19 is obtained through this operation Poulet number P2 = 11305 (1729 – 19^2 = 1368 and 1729 + 1368*7 = 11305). Note that from 11 from the first 30 Poulet numbers (P1) were obtained through this method Poulet numbers (P2).

**Category:** Number Theory

[261] **viXra:1711.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 01:34:00*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The steady growth of the number of arcanas of the mysterious universe is a sign of imperfection of existing theories and ideas about the surrounding world, which contributes to the creation of radically new alternative ideas and theories. New ideas should be piercing and understandable to everyone, to promote an adequate perception of reality and to be as much as possible interconnected with each other and with existing scientific knowledge. In this case, alternative ideas will inevitably become punchy! The results of long-term theoretical studies of abnormal physical phenomena of the processes of the origin and evolution of the universe are embodied in the exclusive hypotheses of the creative collective "NIKI" and are set forth here in a logical sequence, from the moment the Universe emerged to its transformation into "nothing."

**Category:** Astrophysics

[260] **viXra:1711.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 04:36:51*

**Authors:** Zhixian Lin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. "Choose File" option is not working.

For beginners, the traditional explanation of a Transistor is not easy to understand. The traditional explanation can not explain why a slightly change of IB will create a significant change of IC clearly. This paper proposed the Distance Principle which can clearly and easily explain why a Transistor can work. Make beginners easier to understand the physical mechanism of a Transistor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[259] **viXra:1711.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 07:17:40*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, it is assumed that the Galaxy formation process starts with the dual pairing process of so called dark matter black hole splinters created by the Big Bang nucleus explosion..
Galaxy stability is assumed to be based on the external (new physics) dual dark matter black hole configurations with a growing spiral shaped star and Super Nova black hole population in between, perpendicular to the dual Black Hole axis..
As a consequence, all spiral galaxies should show to the edge-on observer, a quadruple configuration of dark matter postulated to be the origin of the Einstein Cross effect.
The successive central dark matter black hole, is supposed to be growing by smaller super nova black hole mergers, created inside the spiral galaxy plane.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[258] **viXra:1711.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 10:17:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel definition of Standard Deviation.

**Category:** Statistics

[257] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[256] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[255] **viXra:1711.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 14:07:02*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test a theorem and two properties from above.
Eqs. 1.1, 5.2, and 6.1 should be tautologous, but are not.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[254] **viXra:1711.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:23:21*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In my paper Part 1 on the physical nature of “Linear Momentum”, I have demonstrated that the difference between thermal motion and congruent motion is characterized by the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the particles and in my paper Part 3 on the physical nature of “Work, Kinetic Energy and Planck’s constant” I have demonstrated that the generation of work in particle systems consist in the transformation of isotropic motion into congruent translational motion.
In my paper Part 5 on the physical nature of “Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy” I came to the conclusion that the statistical Maxwell – Boltzmann speed distribution function is a consequence of the repetitive isotropic collisions, that are typical for thermal motion.
This allows me, on the basis of Clausius’ and Boltzmann’s absolute concepts of entropy, to propose a new proportionate entropy, in function of the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the elements of a particle system, which makes it possible to reveal the link between the second law of thermodynamics and Newton’s first law of motion, and which in my next paper will allow me to explain the physical nature of the variable velocity of particle systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[253] **viXra:1711.0321 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-26 15:16:26*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Physics today has an ambiguous attitude towards ‘velocity’: on the one hand it considers it a “relative” characteristic of which the numerical value depends on any fortuitously chosen reference frame. But on the other hand that same physics tells us that velocity has an absolute upper limit, which is the speed of light. This duality is caused by the fact that the Lorentz transformations accomplish a purely mathematical bridging between a relative velocity at low speeds and an absolute velocity at the speed of light, which causes a length contraction and a time dilation. But it is not clear whether these are observational or real physical phenomena, which has led to a number of contradictions, such as the “twin paradox”.
According to the present Standard Model, the Universe must have started with massless particles that moved at the speed of light and then something happened in a way that some particles acquired mass, which is in the present physics explained as a kind of ‘drag’ that is exerted by the Higgs field on certain particles. In this paper the author demonstrates that this massless origin of matter, strongly indicates that elementary mass particles (such as e.g. electrons and quarks) are in fact multi-particle systems that consist of entangled photons. This allows him to establish a general speed equation, that expresses the variable speed of a mass particle in function of the degree of congruence of the repetitive motions of its massless components. This means that variable velocity is a thermodynamic state of a particle system, in the same way as its pressure, its temperature or its entropy.
In that way, the obvious fact that the ‘size’ of a dynamic particle system is the area that is covered by the repetitive motions of its components, automatically leads to the Lorentz contraction of a moving mass particle in its direction of motion, which is demonstrated to be a real physical distortion.
This means that the Special Theory of Relativity is above all an observational theory, but that its so-called ‘relativistic’ equations, like e.g. the length contraction, the time dilation and the mass-energy equation and their applications e.g. in Quantum Field Theory, describe real physical phenomena, because they are expressed in function of the absolute speed of light.
This reveals the physical nature of mass particles as 3-dimensional particle-wave systems that can vary their speed in 3 directions and the physical nature of photons as 2-dimensional particle-wave systems that proceed at an invariable speed and that have mass characteristics (such as linear momentum) in directions perpendicular to their invariable speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[252] **viXra:1711.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 18:23:23*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The law of self-equilibrium sometimes uses this example: Too much work produces sickness; sickness produces less work; therefore, too much work implies less work. We rewrite the sentence to replace the connective verb with "causes" for better meaning and also include a modal operator for clarity: Too much work causes possible sickness; sickness causes less work; therefore, too much work causes less work. ... the law of self-equilibrium is not tautologous, and hence not a theorem and not a paradox.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[251] **viXra:1711.0317 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 12:03:53*

**Authors:** Giordano Colò

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We try to give a formulation of Strominger-Yau-Zaslow conjecture on mirror symmetry by studying the singularities of special Lagrangian submanifolds of 3-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this paper we’ll give the description of the boundary of the moduli space of special Lagrangian manifolds. We do this by introducing special Lagrangian cones in the more general Kähler manifolds. Then we can focus on the almost Calabi-Yau manifolds. We consider the behaviour of the Lagrangian manifolds near the conical singular points to classify them according to the way they are approximated from the asymptotic cone. Then we analyze their deformations in Calabi-Yau manifolds.

**Category:** Geometry

[250] **viXra:1711.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 09:51:29*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The electricity and electromagnetic field are the intrinsic property of the nature and universe, and the life created by the nature. The eukaryotic cells, rather than prokaryotic cells, perform the complicated and highly developed function of the organisms. On eukaryotic mechanism, two vital issues are urgent to update: (i) whether or not the bioelectric excitation operates in the interior of eukaryotic cells and how it operates the activity of eukaryotic cells; and (ii) how the organelles are managed into the coordinated and united work, and from where the potent dynamic energy that support the activity of organelles generates.
The eukaryotic cells are prior to prokaryotic cells with highly developed membrane-bound organelles. What this work focuses on is not only the complicated membrane system of eukaryotic cells, but with the bran-new insight: as an engineer, given the materials and the layout of eukaryotic membrane system, what does it imply? — This work discovers the intrinsic principle and mechanism on eukaryotic working directed by bioelectricity and bioelectromagnetic field, from materials and layout, to flowchart, presenting the perfect and ingenious design art of the nature on the creation of bioorganic electricity and eukaryotic working, which endows human being the precious enlightenment on the generation and utilization of bioorganic electricity.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[249] **viXra:1711.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-04 21:24:31*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The perpetual operation of energy in vigorous state, instead of standstill (heat death), is the essential vitality of biology and the universe, what principle of nature operates it? The perpetual refers to the state-in-operation of power system in dynamic homeostasis founded on ground energy, instead of the confusion without energy resource or energy dissipated. To pursue the perpetual dynamic power and energy creation is the summit realm of practical technology. However, it has long been disregarded theoretically and practically. This work starts from the highly developed biological studies, and by utilizing the intrinsic principle refined, explores the intrinsic principle, operating mechanism and energy creation of perpetual electromagnetic dynamic power from biology to the nature in macroscale and microscale. The electromagnetic perpetual motion generates from the relativity of field (thermal field, electromagnetic field and gravitation field) as the ground energy to operate energy conversion of thermodynamics, electromagnetic dynamics and fluid dynamics. It creates the potent energy of electricity and electromagnetic dynamic power. This work historically discovers a new milestone on the generating principle and operating mechanism of perpetual electromagnetic dynamic power and energy creation in biology and the nature. The strict and unified principle dominates the vigorous living state from the biology to the Earth’s geological and meteorological phenomena and celestial motions, not obfuscated but clarified, not disordered but in supreme harmony and homeostasis. And it is first time that clearly presents the applicable molecular biochemical model for the digitalized perpetual operation of bioelectricity and bioenergy resource, and provides the practicable reference on the development of harmless fine-energy power, with the purpose learning from and emulating the nature.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[248] **viXra:1711.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 03:46:24*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Interview

**Category:** Mind Science

[247] **viXra:1711.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 05:09:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Alejandro Chiappini

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

Las ecuaciones de Maxwell son los postulados del desarrollo presentado. De ellas se deducen como teoremas propiedades físicas fundamentales, como9 la distribución discreta de la energía, el valor teórico de la constante de estructura fina, el factor g del electrón, la unidad de masa elemental basada en las leyes de las partículas elementales (no de tipo convencional como la una) y varias propiedades más. El documento tiene estilo ameno y didáctico, para optimizar la comprensión.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[246] **viXra:1711.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 06:04:19*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As presumably a basis for neutrosophic logic these mistakes were found: Theorems 1 and 2 are not tautologous.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[245] **viXra:1711.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:30:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This note presents some attractors and three formulas for pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[244] **viXra:1711.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:33:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Dalzell integral.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[243] **viXra:1711.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:36:40*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents three integrals for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[242] **viXra:1711.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:38:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[241] **viXra:1711.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:41:14*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas involving pi and G (Catalan constant).

**Category:** Number Theory

[240] **viXra:1711.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:43:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note presents some fractals.

**Category:** Geometry

[239] **viXra:1711.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:45:49*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents a collection of integrals for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[238] **viXra:1711.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:49:36*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the real root of the equation: x^5+x^4+x^3+x^2+x-1=0.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[237] **viXra:1711.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:51:50*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents some elementary integrals for pi.

**Category:** Number Theory

[236] **viXra:1711.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 11:11:27*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Nós ampliamos a apresentação da teoria proposta no artigo precedente [1], a fim de que nossa concepção alcançasse um público mais amplo.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[235] **viXra:1711.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 11:58:38*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we construct an equation involving Alexander polynomials for knots 86 and 87.

**Category:** Topology

[234] **viXra:1711.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 11:25:35*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The C-ring of a motor contains either 34 or 44 copies of FliM but only about 26 copies of FliG. In addition, the amount of FliMs is influenced both by the direction of rotation and by the number of CheY-P signal molecules in the cytoplasm. The rotationally symmetrical model described here combines all known properties.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[233] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[232] **viXra:1711.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 20:01:20*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some "continuous" (that is, over real numbers in the interval (0,1)) infinite products are given with their finite product approximations. THESE PRODUCTS DESERVE MORE STUDY.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[231] **viXra:1711.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 20:05:52*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some examples of dx-less integrals are given with their finite sum approximations. They appear to have use in estimating long-term values of certain stochastic recursive functions. A request is made for determining convergence of such integrals.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[230] **viXra:1711.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-01 05:05:33*

**Authors:** Kurmet Sultan

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

In this paper we give a brief proof of the Collatz conjecture. It is shown that it is more efficient to start calculating the Collatz function C (n) from odd numbers 6m ± 1. It is further proved that if we calculate by the formula ((6n ± 1)·2^q -1) / 3 on the basis of a sequence of numbers 6n ± 1, increasing the exponent of two by 1 at each iteration, then to each number of the form 6n ± 1 there will correspond a set whose elements are numbers of the form 3t, 6m-1 and 6m + 1. Moreover, all sets are disjoint. Then it is shown that if we construct micro graphs of numbers by combining the numbers 6n ± 1 with their elements of the set 3t, 6m-1 and 6m + 1, then combine the micro graphs by combining equal numbers 6n ± 1 and 6m ± 1, then a tree-like fractal graph of numbers. A tree-like fractal graph of numbers, each vertex of which corresponds to numbers of the form 6m ± 1, is a proof of the Collatz conjecture, since any of its vertices is connected with a finite vertex connected with unity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[229] **viXra:1711.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 20:49:54*

**Authors:** Jeremiah J Johnson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Examining the relationship between solar neutrino flux and solar gravity finds they correlate by
(Equation provided in PDF)
where are neutrinos produced per t time, c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and is Planck's length. The correlation finds a match to within 0.74% of modern standard solar models and 0.63% of solar neutrino measured values(well within the margin of error). I also consider how this simplifies the Schwarzschild radius and the ramifications of this model on gravitational time dilation. I consider how the relation between neutrinos and gravity may help unravel the positive cosmological constant and Supernova behavior. Furthermore, I find evidence of a direct relationship between quantum angular momentum spin and gravity. Lastly, three testable predictions are provided.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[228] **viXra:1711.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 08:35:09*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Inescapable question

We formulate and discuss, as much as we can, an inevitable mathematical and philosophical question: why do the General Theory of Relativity and the Relative-Velocity Dependence of Gravitational Interaction lead to the same well-known formula for the anomalous Perihelion Advance ?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[227] **viXra:1711.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 10:01:33*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Three proposed models for an ‘electric sun’ are examined here, with evaluation of their plausibility based on the required mass-density relationship of the proposed composition assuming our sun is comprised purely of hydrogen (an idealized examination). The three models include (1) the ‘Electric Sky’ hypothesis, first proposed by Juergens and since then championed by advocates of a plasma/electric universe; (2) a sun comprised of an interior of liquid metallic hydrogen, proposed for more than the past decade by Robitaille; and (3) a sun composed of a superconducting, ‘cold’ solid hydrogen core, more recently developed by Burchell. The three models are not necessarily contradictory, as each includes aspects of the other. An overview of each is presented, followed by a simple analysis of the required mass-density of a sun composed of a solid hydrogen ‘core’ with a gaseous hydrogen surrounding annulus, potentially consistent with each model.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[226] **viXra:1711.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 09:29:57*

**Authors:** J Gerard Wolff

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This paper first defines "general, human-like artificial intelligence" (GHLAI) in terms of five principles. In the light of the definition, the paper summarises the strengths and potential of the "SP theory of intelligence" and its realisation in the "computer model", outlined in an appendix, in three main areas: the versatility of the SP system in aspects of intelligence; its versatility in the representation of diverse kinds of knowledge; and its potential for the seamless integration of diverse aspects of intelligence and diverse kinds of knowledge, in any combination. There are reasons to believe that a mature version of the SP system may attain full GHLAI in diverse aspects of intelligence and in the representation of diverse kinds of knowledge.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[225] **viXra:1711.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-30 10:59:47*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This version adds an example using Leibniz tables.

This article simplifies Niven's proofs that cos and cosh are irrational when evaluated at non-zero rational numbers. Only derivatives of polynomials are used. This is the third article in a series of articles that explores a unified approach to classic irrationality and transcendence proofs.

**Category:** Number Theory

[224] **viXra:1711.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 14 Pages. © 2016 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The rationale for rendering quantifiers as modal operators in Meth8 has arguments from satisfiability and reproducability of invalidating and validating syllogisms.
The Square of Opposition (original) produced four combinations for each corner A, I, E, O for 4 ^ 4 = 256 syllogisms. Medieval scholars determined 24 of the 256 syllogisms were valid deductions. Of those, 9 were made valid but only after additional known assumptions were applied as fix ups. Meth8 Tautologous none of the 24 syllogisms before fix ups. Meth8 also discovered correct additional assumptions to render the other 15 syllogisms Tautologous. We use Meth8 to replicate the 24 valid syllogisms derived from the original Square of Opposition. In the process we make three recent advances.
1. A third assumption is needed to fix up Modus Cesare EAE-2
2. The third assumption cannot be removed from Modus Camestros AEO-2 (as in other syllogisms with known third assumptions); and
3. No third assumptions are required for the other 22 syllogisms.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[223] **viXra:1711.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 12:09:05*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © 2016 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The modern revision of the square of opposition is not validated as tautologous by the Meth8 logic model checker, as based on system variant VŁ4. Consequently we redefine the square so that it is validated as true my Meth8. Instead of definientia using implication for universal terms or conjunction for existential terms, we adopt the equivalent connective for all terms. The modal modifiers necessity and possibility map quantifiers as applying to the entire terms rather than to the antecedent within the terms. We note the validating connectives for the edges on the square are: \ Nand for the Contraries and Contradictories; > Imply for the Subalterns; and + Or for the Subcontraries.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[222] **viXra:1711.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 12:11:20*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © 2016 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The modern, revised square of opposition is not validated as tautologous by the Meth8 logic checker in five models for all expressions. This leads us to consider that any logic system based on the square of opposition is spurious. What follows then is that a first order predicate logic based on the square of opposition is now suspicious.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[221] **viXra:1711.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 16:44:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

We obtain a polynomial based iterative solution for early universe creation of the Higgs boson mass, using a polynomial with the coefficients for derived through integral formulations with the mass of a Higgs boson, and the construction of the coefficients derived as of the using a potential system, for the Higgs, largely similar to the Peskin and Schroeder quantum field theoretic treatment for a Higgs potential. Afterwards, we examine if mass may have complex number and possibly imaginary values, with attendant description of consequences in the electroweak regime of space-time. We end with a description of Imaginary mass becoming Real in Electroweak, with resultant consequences for DM discussed in the last section with explicit construction of space-time bubbles nucleated due to imaginary mass of Higgs becoming real, as a contributing source of GW radiation in Electroweak era

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[220] **viXra:1711.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 23:30:43*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

A sentence to test is if known zeroes imply other zeroes. This effectively tests if a location of zeroes (trivial based on even numbers) and a location of zeroes (non trivial based on odd numbers) imply possibly another location of zeroes as a tautology, because the question is "Are there possibly other zeroes".

**Category:** Number Theory

[219] **viXra:1711.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:00:34*

**Authors:** Daniel Archer

**Comments:** 2 Pages. My first paper

The new finding of a dust belt around Proxima Centauri and the possibility of more planets than
was first thought is interpreted through the lens of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[218] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:24:40*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[217] **viXra:1711.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 07:04:37*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

© Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.
The Gödel incompleteness theorem states in effect that sequences of logic symbols can be assigned to strings of natural numbers, but because it is assumed there are more natural number than sequences of logic symbols, the symbols are incomplete as a self-referencing mechanism to describe repeatedly themselves as yet more numbers. (The Gödel completeness theorem states in effect that the sequences of logic symbols may be consistent to form a logic system that is sufficiently complete enough to prove theorems as tautology.)
The arguments ultimately turn on the mapping of sequences of symbols into strings of natural numbers.
The arguments also assume a function to map numbers as a domain into symbols as an image in a co-domain, also collectively named a range. The incompleteness theorem is that such a function exists and operates where all of its domain is larger than the smaller image existing within all of the co-domain. The completeness theorem is that all of the image, existing solely for its purposes, is self-sufficient unto the existence of itself.
We are interested in mapping the image in the co-domain as sequences of logic symbols back into the originating domain which is named a preimage. Attempting such an inverse function is not allowed by the one-way definition of a function to an image as dictated by the incompleteness theorem. We show this invertive approach or reverse process is not tautologous by evaluating the misuse of the application of quantified operators in the one-way functional mapping in the first place.
Our experimental results in mapping are the definitive evidence that constructionist logic and subsequently constructivistic logics are not complete (deny the completeness theorem) and hence deny the incompleteness theorem. The most important evidence is that those logics can exist only by ignoring the law of excluded middle (LEM) that "p or not p is a tautology", (p+~p)=(p=p). We argue that any system denying the LEM is not tautologous and hence unworkable.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[216] **viXra:1711.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 10:41:48*

**Authors:** Russell Leidich

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Herein we present the “surround” function, which is intended to produce a set of “surround codes” which enhance the sparsity of integer sets which have discrete derivatives of lesser Shannon entropy than the sets themselves. In various cases, the surround function is expected to provide further entropy reduction beyond that provided by straightforward delta (difference) encoding alone.

We then present the simple concept of “densification”, which facilitates the elimination of entropy overhead due to masks (symbols) which were considered possible but do not actually occur in a given mask list (set of symbols).

Finally we discuss the ramifications of these techniques for the sake of enhancing the speed and sensitivity of various entropy scans.

[215] **viXra:1711.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 13:07:08*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Monty Hall problem

**Category:** Number Theory

[214] **viXra:1711.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 17:44:40*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses and applies a basis for modeling elementary forces and particles. We show that models based on isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators describe aspects of the four traditional fundamental physics forces and point to some known and possible elementary particles. We summarize results from models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators. Results include predictions for new elementary particles and possible descriptions of dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[213] **viXra:1711.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 05:23:19*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Many of the elements in the periodic table plays a role in supporting life, either directly in biochemistry of indirectly in some supporting role. This is a catalogue of how each element is used.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[212] **viXra:1711.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 13:59:02*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do Stokes and Gauss's theorems from Vector Analyses hold also in curved spacetime (or in the curved coordinates of a flat manifold)? These theorems (especially the Gauss's or the "Divergence" theorem) are ones of the utmost importance, especially for theoretical astrophysics. My opinion is in the file. Can you tell me what journal will accept this "nonsense"?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[211] **viXra:1711.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 16:06:05*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

1. The axiom or rule of necessitation N states that if p is a theorem, then necessarily p is a theorem: If ⊢ p then ⊢ ◻p.
We show this is non-contingent (a truth), but not tautologous (a proof). We evaluate axioms (in bold) of N, K, T, 4, B, D, 5 to derive systems (in italics) of K, M, T, S4, S5, D.
We conclude that N the axiom or rule of necessitation is not tautologous Because system M as derived and rendered is not tautologous, system G-M also not tautologous.
What follows is that systems derived from using M are tainted, regardless of the tautological status of the result so masking the defect, such as systems S4, B, and S5.
We also find that Gentzen-sequent proof is suspicious, perhaps due to its non bi-valent lattice basis in a vector space.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[210] **viXra:1711.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 17:28:55*

**Authors:** David Njeru kathuri

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

This publication is about a theory that tries to scientifically prove that under certain conditions, fire is a portal that can be used in teleportation of matter.
The document also tries to give an alternative to General Relativity in the most scientifically precise way that leaves no room for doubt. This is done by giving a testable alternative theory of what the past & future is and its relation to gravity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[209] **viXra:1711.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 19:23:08*

**Authors:** Peng Yu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The application of prony method for various distance protection schemes is studied in this paper. The prony method extracts the desired information like frequency, amplitude, phase and damping components from a sampled response. The information generated from prony analysis is used for implementing distance protection scheme.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[208] **viXra:1711.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 21:33:15*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Recent experimental results have shown a violation of Bell’s inequalities, which are a mathematical formulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. The violation leads to the conclusion that there are no local hidden variable theories that underlie quantum mechanics. However, the Bell’s inequalities do not rule out the possibility to construct non-local hidden variable theories that comply with quantum mechanics, in particular, a theory of special and general relativity that permits an instantaneous transmission of interaction. In this work we show that a special relativity with a Euclidean metric that allows not only local interactions but also interactions that can be transmitted instantaneously can be constructed and, furthermore, such special relativity can also be generalised to formulate a general theory of relativity that leads to the same experimental results as Einstein theory of general relativity. We also show that it is possible to formulate Dirac-like relativistic wave equations in this Euclidean relativity with either real mass or imaginary mass, which suggests that the proper mass of a quantum particle may be defined in terms of a differential operator that is associated with a spacetime substructure of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[207] **viXra:1711.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 23:39:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: The square of any odd prime can be obtained from the numbers of the form 360*k + 72 in the following way: let d1, d2, ..., dn be the (not distinct) prime factors of the number 360*k + 72; than for any square of a prime p^2 there exist k such that (d1 - 1)*(d2 - 1)*...*(dn - 1) + 1 = p^2. Example: for p^2 = 13^2 = 169 there exist k = 17 such that from 360*17 + 72 = 6192 = 2^4*3^2*43 is obtained 1^4*2^2*42 + 1 = 169. I also conjecture that any absolute Fermat pseudoprime (Carmichael number) can be obtained through the presented formula, which attests again the special relation that I have often highlighted between the nature of Carmichael numbers and the nature of squares of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[206] **viXra:1711.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 03:38:23*

**Authors:** Lixin Fan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. NIPS 2017 publication.

We revisit fuzzy neural network with a cornerstone notion of generalized hamming distance, which provides a novel and theoretically justified framework to re-interpret many useful neural network techniques in terms of fuzzy logic. In particular, we conjecture and empirically illustrate that, the celebrated batch normalization (BN) technique actually adapts the “normalized” bias such that it approximates the rightful bias induced by the generalized hamming distance. Once the due bias is enforced analytically, neither the optimization of bias terms nor the sophisticated batch normalization is needed. Also in the light of generalized hamming distance, the popular rectified linear units (ReLU) can be treated as setting a minimal hamming distance threshold between network inputs and weights. This thresholding scheme, on the one hand, can be improved by introducing double-thresholding on both positive and negative extremes of neuron outputs. On the other hand, ReLUs turn out to be non-essential and can be removed from networks trained for simple tasks like MNIST classification. The proposed generalized hamming network (GHN) as such not only lends itself to rigorous analysis and interpretation within the fuzzy logic theory but also demonstrates fast learning speed, well-controlled behaviour and state-of-the-art performances on a variety of learning tasks.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[205] **viXra:1711.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-27 03:16:15*

**Authors:** Lixin Fan

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

This article aims to establish a concrete and fundamental connection between two important elds in artificial intelligence i.e. deep learning and fuzzy logic. On the one hand, we hope this article will pave the way for fuzzy logic researchers to develop convincing applications and tackle challenging problems which are of interest to machine learning community too. On the other hand, deep learning could benefit from the comparative research by re-examining many trail-and-error heuristics in the lens of fuzzy logic, and consequently, distilling the essential ingredients with rigorous foundations. Based on the new findings reported in [41] and this article, we believe the time is ripe to revisit fuzzy neural network as a crucial bridge between two schools of AI research i.e. symbolic versus connectionist [101] and eventually open the black-box of artificial neural networks.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[204] **viXra:1711.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 08:37:13*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This document is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

This explanation of gravitation supports the idea that basic discrete objects are excitations of a field. The massive basic discrete objects are spherical shock fronts that carry a standard bit of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[203] **viXra:1711.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 10:13:03*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 189 Pages.

© Colin James III 2016-2017 All rights reserved.
In applied and theoretical mathematics, assertions are categorized in alphabetical order as: axiom; conjecture; definition, entry; equation; expression; formula; functor; hypothesis; inequality; metatheorem; paradox; problem; proof; schema; system; theorem; and thesis. We evaluate 130 objects for 519 assertions to validate 156 as tautology and 363 as not (70%). We use Meth8 that is a modal logic checker in five models.
The semantic content or predicate basis of some expressions on their face does not disqualify them from evaluation by Meth8 in classical modal logic. However, the rules of classical logic, as based on the corrected Square of Opposition by Meth8, apply to virtually any logic system. Consequently some numerical equations are mapped to classical logic as Meth8 scripts.
The rationale for mapping quantifiers as modal operators is in the Appendix based on satisfiability and reproducability of validation of syllogisms.
A table lists what was tested with separated results. The names are numbered in alphabetical order. Test results are Invalidated as Not Validated Tautology (nvt) or Validated as Tautology (vt). For a paradox, invalidated means it is not validated as true, that is, it is not a paradox or contradiction.
The experimental tests used variables for 4 propositions, 4 theorems, and 11 propositions. The size of truth tables are respectively for 16-, 256-, and 2048- truth values. One formula of Popper in 250-characters processed in 125-steps instantly due to recent advances in look up table indexing.
The Meth8 modal theorem prover implements the logic system variant VŁ4 which corrects the quaternary Ł4 of Łukasiewicz. There are two sets of truth values on the 2-tuple {00, 10, 01, 11} as respectively

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[202] **viXra:1711.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 11:00:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture on Poulet numbers: There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 obtained from Poulet numbers P1 in the following way: let d1, d2, ..., dn be the (not distinct) prime factors of the number P1 – 1, where P1 is a Poulet number; than there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 of the form (d1 + 1)*(d2 + 1)*...*(dn + 1) + 1. Example: for Poulet number P1 = 645 is obtained through this operation Poulet number P2 = 1729 (644 = 2*2*7*23 and 3*3*8*24 + 1 = 1729). Note that from more than one Poulet number P1 can be obtained the same Poulet number P2 (from both 1729 and 6601 is obtained 46657).

**Category:** Number Theory

[201] **viXra:1711.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 11:22:22*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The following is a useful briefing of the most essential facts of life.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[200] **viXra:1711.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 07:17:38*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Quasi-exactly solvable symmetrized sextic oscillators have been proposed and studied by Quesne, who categorized them based on the parity – natural or unnatural – of their known eigenfunction [2]. Herein, we examine the quasi-exact solvability of symmetrized sextic oscillators using a quotient-polynomial approach [3, 4, 5], which, in this case, opens up the possibility to construct non-analytic sextic oscillators from analytic quotient polynomials, and thus to distinguish the oscillators resulting from analytic quotient polynomials from those resulting from non-analytic quotient polynomials. We analyze the cases n=0 and n=1, and we show that the results are in agreement with those of Quesne [2]. In the case n=2, we construct sextic oscillators using only analytic quotient polynomials, and focusing on the non-analytic oscillators whose known eigenfunction is of unnatural parity, we register a relation between the coefficients of the two non-analytic terms of the exponential polynomial, which then we generalize to the higher cases n=3 and n=4, to construct new non-analytic sextic oscillators whose known eigenfunction is of unnatural parity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[199] **viXra:1711.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-10 12:40:06*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A more complete bibliography is included.

This is companion article to The Irrationality and Transcendence of e Connected. In it the irrationality of pi^n is proven using the same lemmas used for e^n. Also the transcendence of pi is given as a simple extension of this irrationality result.

**Category:** Number Theory

[198] **viXra:1711.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 15:57:32*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

An improved version of Stirling's Formula (which I call Neylon's Approximation) for n! is constructed using Product Integrals.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[197] **viXra:1711.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 15:00:29*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Galina Pana

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper deals with the revealed localized electromagnetic spinning in vicinity of Laminine capsules, what can contribute into biological activity of this dietary supplement. This also can be employed for the further improvement of the product.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[196] **viXra:1711.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 17:56:26*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A simple paradox in probability theory is given. It highlights how inadequate common notions of what is a "fair bet" are (examples given).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[195] **viXra:1711.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 00:57:34*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We find that the Hodge conjecture is an overdetermined system rather than an underdetermined system, thereby becoming homogenous and leading to overfitting. A product of normal spaces need not be normal thereby initiating and reinforcing the conjecture. A norm should be found through regularization. We find the Magic Star polygon to be a satisfying norm. The Torelli theorem also gives deep and technical proof. Analysis can be seen through a multiple regression technique. Automorphism is not obtainable with a contradiction in the trivial and integral.

**Category:** Topology

[194] **viXra:1711.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 01:59:34*

**Authors:** Murugesan, Anitha

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The last theorem is the highlight of the paper

In the graph theory, two graphs are said to be isomorphic if there is a one-one, onto mapping defined between their set of vertices so as to preserving the adjacency between vertices. An isomorphism defined on a vertex set of a graph to itself is called automorphism of the given graph. Two vertices in a graph are said to be similar if there is an automorphism defined on its vertex set mapping one vertex to the other. In this paper, it has been discussed that every such automorphism defines an equivalence relation on the set of vertices and the number of equivalence classes is same as the number of rotations that the automorphism makes on the vertex set. The set of all automorphisms of a graph is a permutation group under the composition of permutations. This group is called automorphism group of the graph. A graph is said to be vertex transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on its vertex set. The path degree sequence of a vertex in a graph is the list of lengths of paths having this particular vertex as initial vertex. The ordered set of all such sequences is called path degree sequence of the graph. It is conjectured that two graphs are isomorphic iff they have same path degree sequence. In this paper, it has been discussed that this conjecture holds good when both the graphs are vertex transitive. The notion of functional graph has been introduced in this paper. The functional graph of any two isomorphic graphs is a graph in which the vertex set is the union of vertex sets of isomorphic graphs and two vertices are connected by an edge iff they are connected in any one of the graph when they belong to the same graph or one vertex is the image of the other under the given isomorphism when they are in different set of vertices. It has been proved that the functional graphs obtained from two isomorphic complete bipartite graphs are vertex transitive.
Keywords : graph automorphism ; functional graph ; vertex transitive graph ; path degree sequence.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[193] **viXra:1711.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-24 05:55:57*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages

Galaxy clusters are one of the most mysterious large-scale structures in the universe. The extremely hot X-ray emitting gas (plasma) that constitutes the intracluster medium (ICM) is also quite mysterious. The observed gravitational lensing and the high velocity dispersion of galaxies within the cluster add another mysterious dimension to a galaxy cluster. There are many puzzling questions adhered to galaxy clusters, such as, what causes the ICM to remain confined within the cluster? Is it dark matter that confines the ICM, or does the ICM possesses certain properties of its own which gives it the added advantage to remain confined within the cluster, instead of just dispersing or diffusing out of the cluster? Is dark matter really required to explain certain observations related to galaxy clusters, such as, ICM confinement, velocity dispersion of galaxies and the spooky gravitational lensing arcs observed within the cluster? Are we underestimating the baryonic mass? In this paper I present the study of a random galaxy cluster to completely rule out the possibility of dark matter’s presence in all galaxy clusters. The study provides explanation for such discussed mysterious phenomena associated with galaxy clusters that would otherwise be difficult to explain without considering the presence of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[192] **viXra:1711.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 06:37:55*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the ‘Total Intra Similarity And Dissimilarity Measure For The Values Taken By A Parameter Of Concern’. The advantage of such a measure is that using this measure we can clearly distinguish the contribution of Intra aspect variation and Inter aspect variation when both are bound to occur in a given phenomenon of concern. This measure provides the same advantages as that provided by the popular F-Statistic measure.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[191] **viXra:1711.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 09:49:05*

**Authors:** I. N. Tukaev

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper proves that the Dirichlet series determining the Riemann zeta function converges within a domain of a real component of complex variable equal to one, with an imaginary component non-equal to zero.

**Category:** Number Theory

[190] **viXra:1711.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 10:41:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the ‘Total Intra Similarity And Dissimilarity Measure For The Values Taken By A Parameter Of Concern’. The advantage of such a measure is that using this measure we can clearly distinguish the contribution of Intra aspect variation and Inter aspect variation when both are bound to occur in a given phenomenon of concern. This measure provides the same advantages as that provided by the popular F-Statistic measure.

**Category:** Statistics

[189] **viXra:1711.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 09:41:06*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We demonstrate some elementary identities for quocient of q-series.

**Category:** Number Theory

[188] **viXra:1711.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-04 17:59:07*

**Authors:** Ramón Isasi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. None

Para el estudio de los linajes familiares a través de los procedimientos ajustados a las normas establecidas por los genealogistas convencionales, estos siempre utilizan como único recurso la pesquisa documental obtenida en los libros eclesiásticos de bautismos, casamientos y defunciones; también los censos, registros civiles, testamentos y citaciones bibliográficas de otros autores. Algunas de estas dos últimas fuentes no ofrecen las garantías de veracidad objetiva, debido a datos incompletos y omisiones – a veces introduciendo tergiversaciones maliciosas – escondiendo las uniones desiguales o no deseadas, hasta desconocer a los hijos extramatrimoniales. Asimismo, en los casos de familias muy antiguas con un linaje que viene desde el inicio de la Conquista, muchas veces se oculta el inevitable origen mestizo del cual proceden. En este ensayo, se reconoce que los estudios realizados mediante los procedimientos de la genealogía genética, no pueden iniciarse desde ex-nihilo, sino, siempre deben partir de una línea de información específica aportada por el apellido de una persona y por otros datos familiares procedentes de la genealogía tradicional. Luego, se continúa el armado cruzando con otras informaciones, hasta puede reconstruir y encontrar en forma inequívoca y comprobada a personas desconocidas, aún muy distantes, como así excluir legitimidades dudosas para ir completando la red de un árbol familiar.

**Category:** Social Science

[187] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 22:39:18*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell’s inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question du Sautoy’s (2016) claim that Bell’s theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[186] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:42:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[185] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:40:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[184] **viXra:1711.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 03:26:43*

**Authors:** Frank Schröder

**Comments:** 8 Pages. German

Bei der Realisierung von Robotik-Projekten kann man eine ganze Menge verkehrt machen. Damit sind nicht nur kalte Lötstellen oder abstürzende Software gemeint, sondern sehr viel grundsätzlichere Dinge spielen eine Rolle. Um Fehler zu vermeiden, muss man sich zunächst einmal mit den Failure-Patterns näher auseinandersetzen, also jenen Entwicklungsmethoden, nach denen man auf gar keinen Fall einen Roboter bauen und wie die Software möglichst nicht funktionieren sollte.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[183] **viXra:1711.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 03:50:18*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we explore an elliptic integral

**Category:** General Mathematics

[182] **viXra:1711.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 03:53:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents two BBP-type formulas

**Category:** Number Theory

[181] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 11:50:49*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** In this file two versions of the paper are presented: English, pages 1-14, and Russian, pages 15-32

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented. In this file two versions of the paper are presented: English, pages 1-14, and Russian, pages 15-32

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1711.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Strong Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) are recently assumed to relate to the Dark Matter phenomenon. (J. R. Espinosa, et al.)
In Quantum FFF Theory ( FFF= Function Follow Form) however, Strong Interacting Massive Particles (or SIMPs) are described already as complex Quantum Knot Bosons in the form of “electric dark matter black hole” based ball lightning, micro Comets or even micro scale evaporating energy bullets found in silicon discharge globule experiments by the author.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunneling energy bullets, which is supposed to be a first sign of evaporating (decaying) Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball Lightning often observed in the natural environment.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, postulates that ball lightning nuclei are created by Magnetic particle interference into complex slow evaporating ( decaying) Higgs based quantum knots .
At the same time the LHC experiments showed us, that there should be Higgs particles of different mass series of 125 and 375 GeV. and even higher, which is reason to postulate that these mass series could be based on a form mechanical origin of the rigid string model of Quantum FFF Theory.
Future LHC results could give us more support for such mechanical –mass related Higgs series of 750- and 1625 GeV. as a support for such a rigid string based click-on model for the Higgs and the resulting decay time extension related to traveling distance..
If science is able to produce specific Higgs related SIMPs with exact decay times and travelling distances in the lab, then we also may be able to create new hand held technology for light saber (Star Wars) alike based cutting and smoothing hard stone as we find all over the world in ancient large and small stone cut- and smoothed artifacts.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[179] **viXra:1711.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 18:00:00*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We demonstrate some elementary identities for q-series involving the q-Pochhammer symbol, as well as an identity involving the generating functions of the (m,k)-capsids and (m, r1, r2)-capsids.

**Category:** Number Theory

[178] **viXra:1711.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 20:27:28*

**Authors:** Xiuyi Yang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We reinterpret the training of convolutional neural nets(CNNs) with universal classification theorem(UCT). This theory implies any disjoint datasets can be classified by two or more layers of CNNs based on ReLUs and rigid transformation switch units(RTSUs) we propose here, this explains why CNNs could memorize noise and real data. Subsequently, we present another fresh new hypothesis that CNN is insensitive to some variant from input training data example, this variant relates to original training input by generating functions. This hypothesis means CNNs can generalize well even for randomly generated training data and illuminates the paradox Why CNNs fit real and noise data and fail drastically when making predictions for noise data. Our findings suggest the study about generalization theory of CNNs should turn to generating functions instead of traditional statistics machine learning theory based on assumption that the training data and testing data are independent and identically distributed(IID), and apparently IID assumption contradicts our experiments in this paper.We experimentally verify these ideas correspondingly.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[177] **viXra:1711.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 20:45:13*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

H.G. Wells legacy and its descendants.

**Category:** Social Science

[176] **viXra:1711.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 21:23:34*

**Authors:** John E.Miller

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Much of Standard model physics defining Solar System orbits is founded on failure of mathematics to match DATA. The principle failure within the S.M. in diagnosing gravitational attraction as a property of planetary density, instead of the more correct conclusion that gravity is a property of EINSTEIN's CURVED SPACE. This paper will address Galaxy Energy Spheres(G.E.S.)as the driving force maintaining planetary orbits. WEB pages from NASA et. al. explain there is no explanation for VENUS and its opposite spin. This will be explained further as the subject matter for this paper

**Category:** Astrophysics

[175] **viXra:1711.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:45:13*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

“Outer-Art” is a movement set up as a protest against, or to ridicule, the random modern art which states that everything is… art! It was initiated by Florentin Smarandache, in 1990s, who ironically called for an upside-down artwork: to do art in a way it is not supposed to be done, i.e. to make art as ugly, as silly, as wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[174] **viXra:1711.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:46:45*

**Authors:** Lediana Paja, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Pradoksizmi është një lëvizje praktike në letërsi, art, filozofi, shkencë bazuar në përdorimet e tepruara të antitezës, antinomisë, konradiksionit, shembël-ltyrës, mosmarrëveshjes, anti-klisheve, derivimit të sensit, kundra fjalimeve, të pakuptueshmes, para-doksit, apo paradokseve të njëjta në krijime. U themelua dhe u udheheq nga Florentin Smarandache qe prej 1980, i cili u shpreh : “Qëllimi është zgjerimi i sferës artistike prej elementeve jo artistikë. Por sidomos kundra kohës, kundra kuptimit të krijimit. Eshtë gjithashtu një eksperiment”.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[173] **viXra:1711.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:47:43*

**Authors:** Mugur Grosu, Mircea Tuglea, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Because I have, finally, before my eyes two significant works- your volume, Destiny
(published last year although it was written 20 years ago!) and a more special work, Outer-Art,
that we have to talk about without fail later on-, we can start interviewing you. At the beginning I
am asking you to make a short introducing of your “inventions” until now: paradoxism, outer-art,
etc. Could you place these proposed directions within a certain order of the vanguard currents?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[172] **viXra:1711.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:49:19*

**Authors:** Nadia Idri, Salah Osman, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

From the book: NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache, Xiquan Publishing House,Phoenix, Chicago, 1991, 1992, 1993.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[171] **viXra:1711.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:50:28*

**Authors:** Sharif S. N. Bhuiyan, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

From the book: NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache, Xiquan Publishing House, Phoenix, Chicago, 1991, 1992, 1993.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[170] **viXra:1711.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:51:44*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Maria Nikolova, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Парадоксизмът е авангардно движение в литературата, изкуството, философията, науката,
основано на използването на огромен брой антитези, парадокси, противоречия, притчи, несъгласия в произведенията.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[169] **viXra:1711.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:52:12*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[168] **viXra:1711.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:53:15*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

From the book: NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache, Xiquan Publishing House,Phoenix, Chicago, 1991, 1992, 1993.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1711.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:54:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Shodovat se k Florentin Smarandache, paradoxism 1980 je teorie a škola paradoxů používání v literárním a uměleckém vytvoření. Stoupenci paradoxism věří, že to odhalí podstatné rozpory existence tím, že se zaměří na je, zatímco jiné avantgardní činnosti takový jak dadaism a surrealism dělají ne.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[166] **viXra:1711.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:55:51*

**Authors:** Henri Thijs, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Het paradoxisme (een offici Nederlandse term
moet nog worden uitgevonden), is een avantgardistische beweging in de literatuur, de kunst, de filosofie en de wetenschap die is gebaseerd op het excessief gebruik van antithesen, antinomie contradicties,en paradoxen in de creaties. De stroming werd
al in 1980 opgericht en gepatroneerd door de schrijver Florentin Smarandache die zijn beweegredenen aldus omschrijft: Het doel is de verruiming van de artistieke sfeer door de incorporatie van niet-artistieke elementen en vooral door de creatie op experimentle wijze tegendraads en averechts te laten verlopen.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1711.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:57:27*

**Authors:** Charles Le, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive used of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, paraphrases, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, parodies of proverbs and aphorisms, against-the-grain speech, upside-down interpre-tations, nonsense, paradoxes, semiparadoxes in creations. Paradoxism tries to find common parts to apparently uncommon things in any human field.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[164] **viXra:1711.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:58:29*

**Authors:** J. M. Charrier, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Le Paradoxisme est un mouvement d'avant-garde dans la littérature, l'art, la philosophie, la science appuyé sur l'excessive utilisation des antithèses, antinomies, contradictions, paraboles, déviations du sens, interpretations à l'envers des clichés, non-sens, paradoxes, semiparadoxes dans les créations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[163] **viXra:1711.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:59:22*

**Authors:** Bernd Hutschenreuther, Martina Teichert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

PARADOXISMUS ist eine literarische, künstlerische,
geistes- und naturwissenschaftliche Avantgarde-
Bewegung, die den exzessiven Einsatz von
Antithesen, Antinomien, Widersprüchen, Parabeln,
Wahrscheinlichkeiten und Paradoxien in Schöpfungen
zur Grundlage hat.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1711.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:00:44*

**Authors:** Theodora Blossis, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ο ΠΑΡΑΔΟΞΙΣΜΟΣ είναι ένα πρωτοποριακό κίνημα στη λογοτεχνία, την τέχνη, τη φιλοσοφία, την επιστήμη, με βάση τη δημιουργία με υπερβολική χρήση αντιθέσεων, αντονομίες, αντιφάσεων, παραβολών, αποδόσεων και παράδοξων ρημάτων.
Ιδρύθηκε και διευθύνεται από τον συγγραφέα Φλωρεντίν Σμαρανδάκε από το 1980, ο οποίος είπε:.. “Ο στόχος είναι η διεύρυνση της καλλιτεχνικής σφαίρας μέσω μη καλλιτεχνικών στοιχείων. Αλλά κυρίως η δημιουργία αντίθετων εννοίων, λογικής και χρόνου. Επίσης, για να πειραματιστεί."

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1711.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:01:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A paradoxizmus a nyolcvanas évek román irodalmi és mûvészeti avantgárd mozgalma. Kommunista-ellenes szándékkal Florentin Smaran-dache, az amerikai disszidens író és matematikus hozta létre az irányzatot, mely az alkotásban nagymértékben az ellentételezésre, az antinó-miákra, az oximoronokra, az ellentmondásokra és a paradoxonokra alapoz.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1711.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:03:01*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

PARADOXISMe adalah suatu gerakan kontemporere (avant-garde) dalam sastra, seni, filsafat
dan ilmu, didasarkan pada penggunaan berlebihan
dari antithesis, antinomies, kontradiksi, parable,
kejanggalan, anti-klisé, deviasi-deviasi dari
pemikiran, melawan butiran pidato, ketidakmasukakalan, paradoks, dan semiparadoks dalam penciptaan-penciptaan.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1711.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:04:06*

**Authors:** Felice Russo, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Il paradossismo e’ un movimento letterario e
artistico di avanguardia, come una protesta antitotalitaria, creata dallo scrittore Florentin Smarandache nel 1980, e basata sull’eccessivo uso delle antitesi, antinomie, contraddidizioni, paradossi durante la produzione.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1711.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:05:05*

**Authors:** Leonardo F. D. da Motta, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

"Paradoxismo" é um movimento de vanguarda da literatura, arte, filosofia, ciência, baseada no uso excessivo de antíteses, antinomias, contradições, parábolas, diferenças, paradoxos em criação. Foi criado e liderado pelo escritor Florentin Smarandache desde 1980, que disse: "O objetivo é alargar o legado artístico através de elementos não-artísticos. Mas especialmente o contratempo, contra-senso de criar. Também ao experimento."

**Category:** General Mathematics

[157] **viXra:1711.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:05:53*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Niculescu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Paradoxismul este o miscare internationala de avangarda in literatura, arta, filozofie, chiar si stiinta, bazata pe folosirea excesiva de antiteze, antinomii, contradictii, oximorone, parabole, paradoxuri in creatie.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[156] **viXra:1711.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:07:03*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Парадоксизм — это передовое литературное и художественное движение, основанное как антитоталитарный протест писателем Флорентином Смарандаке в 1980-м году. Его основа —активное использование антитез, антиномий, противоречий и парадоксов в творчестве.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[155] **viXra:1711.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:07:54*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

El Paradoxismo es un movimiento de vanguardia en literatura, arte, filosofía, ciencia, basado en el excesivo uso de antítesis, antinomias, contradicciones, parábolas, rarezas, y paradojas en la creación artística.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1711.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:08:48*

**Authors:** Kristina Staude, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

PARADOXISM är en avantgarderörelse inom
litteratur, konst, filosofi och vetenskap som är baserad på det omåttliga användandet av antiteser,
antinomier, motsägelser, parabler, tillfälligheter och paradoxer i skapelser.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1711.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:09:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

“Outer-Art” is a movement set up as a protest against, or to ridicule, the random modern art which states that everything is… art! It was initiated by Florentin Smarandache, in 1990s, who ironically called for an upside-down artwork: to do art in a way it is not supposed to be done, i.e. to make art as ugly, as silly, as wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1711.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:10:30*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

“Outer-Art” is a movement set up as a protest against, or to ridicule, the random modern art which states that everything is… art! It was initiated by Florentin Smarandache, in 1990s, who ironically called for an upside-down artwork: to do art in a way it is not supposed to be done, i.e. to make art as ugly, as silly, as wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[151] **viXra:1711.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:22:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[150] **viXra:1711.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-24 11:47:34*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor

**Comments:** 297 Pages.

This is an updated version of the book. It includes extra diagrams, illustrations and pictures. It also contains many more papers. Editing is in progress.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[149] **viXra:1711.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 13:51:59*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm

This slide/show animation (also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm) is meant to explain some of the concepts people find confusing about the entangled communications device and various interpretations of quantum mechanics. We find the wavefunction and its collapse to be very real phenomenon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[148] **viXra:1711.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 15:39:38*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple explanation is given for the continuation of the singlet state over large distances in an EPRBA experiment. The paper answers this question with clocks ticking in synchronized frequencies that can be carried by the particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[147] **viXra:1711.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 20:45:06*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this article, we first classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby get rid of two kinds which belong not to AX+BY=CZ. Then, affirm AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have at least a common prime factor by several concrete equalities. After that, prove AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers whereby even number 2W-1HZ as symmetric center after divide the inequality in four. Finally, reach a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture holds water via the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.

**Category:** Number Theory

[146] **viXra:1711.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 02:56:59*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We present new infinite arctangent sums and infinite sums of products of arctangents. Many previously known evaluations appear as special cases of the general results derived in this paper.

**Category:** Number Theory

[145] **viXra:1711.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 03:26:57*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The occurrence of infinite values in physical equations, such as singularity in the description of black holes, is a painstaking problem that causes many theories to break down and/or being incapable of describing extreme events. Different methods, such as re-normalization, have been used in the assessment of physical observables in order to erase the undesirable infinity. Here we propose a novel technique, based on geometrical considerations, that allows removal of infinity and achievement of physical theories void of such a problem. We compare finite quantities to curved lines endowed in positive-curvature manifolds, and intractable infinity to a straight line. In order to restore the equations and erase the straight line of infinity, we project the quantities onto curved lines endowed in negative-curvature manifolds.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[144] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1711.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 05:04:42*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

QUARKS -- A BASIC FUNDAMENTAL SUBSTANCE?

Something like a quark would be impossible. If there are 3 quarks in a proton and the quark is performing specific tasks -- that means the quark is NOT a fundamental basic thing.

And if a quark is not a basic thing that means it is also made from a group of smaller things -- that process would NOT be able to end. And it would keep getting more and more complex with more and more particles...

● 1 Proton

● 3 Quarks

● 9 Elfs

● 27 Dusters

More and more complex? Yes, the Elfs would have to do everything they do to keep themselves together plus everything the quarks are supposedly doing.

The quarks model turns into a nightmare immediately.

The only answer must be Quantum Thread Theory

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[142] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[140] **viXra:1711.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:27:04*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova, Erik Blasch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents a comparative analysis of performances of two types of multi-target tracking algorithms: 1)the Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter (JPDAF), and 2) classical Kalman Filter based algorithms for multi-target tracking improved with Quality Assessment of Data Association (QADA) method using optimal data association. The evaluation
is based on Monte Carlo simulations for difficult maneuvering multiple-target tracking (MTT) problems in clutter.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[139] **viXra:1711.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:28:48*

**Authors:** Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments
(BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system
based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one wants to use classical decision theory to make a decision.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[138] **viXra:1711.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:30:34*

**Authors:** Changrong Ye, Xiaoping Zeng, Guojun Li, Chenyuan Shi, Xin Jian, Xichuan Zhou

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most prominent causes of death among patients with
cardiac diseases. Since ventricular arrhythmia is the main cause of SCD and it can be predicted by T wave alternans (TWA), the detection of TWA in the body-surface electrocardiograph (ECG) plays an important role in the prevention of SCD. But due to the multi-source nature of TWA, the nonlinear propagation through thorax, and the effects of the strong noises, the information from
different channels is uncertain and competitive with each other.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[137] **viXra:1711.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Hongfei Li, Jinran Wang, Hongbin Jin, Kangsheng Tian, Zhongliang Jing

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A great deal of interest has been paid to computation problem of Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT). But there are still problems on complex analysis and frequently search. The computational measurement of DSmT is presented in which the computation is generated in the search for focal elements, the combination of focal elements and basic belief assignment, the expression of focal elements.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[136] **viXra:1711.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:33:42*

**Authors:** Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The study of alternative probabilistic transformation (PT) in DS theory has emerged recently as an interesting topic, especially in decision making applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[135] **viXra:1711.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:35:00*

**Authors:** Deyun Zhou, Qian Pan, Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Xiaoyang Li, Kun Zhang, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory has been widely used in various applications. However, to solve the problem of counter-intuitive outcomes by using classical Dempster-Shafer combination rule is still an open issue while fusing the conflicting evidences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[134] **viXra:1711.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:36:05*

**Authors:** Bayanmunkh Odgere, Chang-Hoon Lee

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Multiple evidences based decision making is an important functionality for computers and robots. To combine multiple evidences, mathematical theory of evidence has been developed, and it involves the most vital part called Dempster’s rule of combination. The rule is used for combining multiple evidences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[133] **viXra:1711.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:37:38*

**Authors:** Wei He, Zhixiong Li, Reza Malekian, Xinglong Liu, Zhihe Duan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Automatic Identification System (AIS), as a major data source of navigational data, is widely used in the application of connected ships for the purpose of implementing maritime situation
awareness and evaluating maritime transportation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[132] **viXra:1711.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:38:51*

**Authors:** Ruhuan Li, Deqiang Han, Jean Dezert, Yi Yang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Edge detection is one of the most important tasks in image processing and pattern recognition. Edge detector with multiple color channels can provide more edge information. However, the uncertainty occurring with the edge detection in each single channel and the discordance existing in the fusion
of multiple channels edge detectors make the detection difficult.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[131] **viXra:1711.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:40:06*

**Authors:** Jiankun Ding, Deqiang Han, Jean Dezert, Yi Yang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is an important theory for information fusion. However, in DST how to determinate the basic belief assignment (BBA) is still an open issue. The interval number based BBA determination method is simple and effective, where the features of different classes’ samples are modeled using the interval numbers, i.e., an interval number model is constructed for each focal element.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[130] **viXra:1711.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:42:23*

**Authors:** Daiyong Zhang, Jia Li, Qing Wu, Xinglong Liu, Xiumin Chu, Wei He

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The AIS broadcasts the ship’s navigation data
automatically and autonomously through VHF band. It plays an important role in collision avoidance and maritime situational awareness.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[129] **viXra:1711.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:47:08*

**Authors:** Shashank Govindaraj, Jeremi Gancet, Mark Post, Raul Dominguez, Fabrice Souvannavong, Simon Lacroix, Michal Smisek, Javier Hidalgo-Carrio, Bilal Wehbe, Alexander Fabisch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Fused sensory data provides decision-making processes with exploitable information about the external environment and a robot`s internal state.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[128] **viXra:1711.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:49:46*

**Authors:** Changrong Ye, Guojun Li, Yang Bao, Jinliang Qiao, Deping Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

T-Wave alternans (TWA) is a cardiac phenomenon
regarded as an index of high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Although a number of methods have been proposed for TWA detection, their final decision always fully depends on one single lead which is usually picked out for its strongest TWA detection result among all the other leads.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[127] **viXra:1711.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:50:47*

**Authors:** A. Mohammad-Shahri, M. Khodabandeh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, target differentiation based on the pattern of data which are obtained by a set of two ultrasonic sensors is considered. A neural network based target classifier is applied to these data to categorize the data of each sensor.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[126] **viXra:1711.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:54:03*

**Authors:** C. Bavithra, M.K. Uma

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concepts of intuitionistic Smarandache topological semigroups, intuitionistic Smarandache topological semigroup structure spaces, intuitionistic SG exteriors and intuitionistic SG semi exteriors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[125] **viXra:1711.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:56:07*

**Authors:** Yasin Unluturk, Suha Yilmaz, Muradiye Cimdiker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work, first the differential equation characterizing position vector of spacelike curve is obtained in Lorentzian plane L2: Then the special curves mentioned above are studied in Lorentzian plane L2: Finally some characterizations of these special curves are given in L2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[124] **viXra:1711.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:57:08*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz, Minh Perez

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we present the definitions and some properties of several Smarandache type functions that are involved in many proposed solved and unsolved problems and conjectures in number theory and recreational mathematics. Examples are also provided. Interesting problems related to them are proposed as addenda to this article.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[123] **viXra:1711.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:58:11*

**Authors:** Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

The present article discuss the problems of new Unitary Quantum Theory in its applications to the different aspects of the reality. There are spectacular examples of such applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[122] **viXra:1711.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:59:34*

**Authors:** Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The paper proposes a model of a unitary quantum field theory where the particle is represented as a wave packet. The frequency dispersion equation is chosen so that the packet periodically appears and disappears without changing its form. The envelope of the process is identified with a conventional wave function. Equation of such a field is nonlinear and relativistically invariant. With proper adjustments, they are reduced to Dirac,
Schroedinger and Hamilton-Jacobi equations. A number of new experimental effects are predicted both for high and low energies.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[121] **viXra:1711.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:17:33*

**Authors:** Shunqin Liu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to different conditions, researchers have defined a great deal of coloring problems and the corresponding chromatic numbers. Such as, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge
chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number,
smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper total chromatic number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[120] **viXra:1711.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:18:55*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt, Yasin Altun, Ceyda Cevahir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we investigated special Smarandache curves belonging to Sabban frame drawn on the surface of the sphere by Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve. We created Sabban frame belonging to this curve. It was explained Smarandache curves position vector is consisted by Sabban vectors belonging to this curve. Then, we calculated geodesic curvatures of this Smarandache curves. Found results were expressed depending on the Mannheim curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1711.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:19:49*

**Authors:** Sun Shin Ahn, Young Joo Seo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The notions of a Smarandache fuzzy subalgebra (ideal) of a Smarandache BCI-algebra, a Smarandache fuzzy clean(fresh) ideal of a Smarandache BCI-algebra are introduced. Examples are given, and several related properties are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[118] **viXra:1711.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:23:35*

**Authors:** R. Gowri, T. Rajeswari

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The notion of fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[117] **viXra:1711.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:31:44*

**Authors:** Dwiraj Talukdar, Sisir Kumar Rajbongshi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The set of all mappings from a finite set
X into a closed interval [0,1] is the set of fuzzy sets denoted by F .

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1711.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:34:55*

**Authors:** M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This paper derived single-valued neutrosophic graphs from single-valued neutrosophic hypergraphs via strong equivalence relation. We show that any weak single-valued neutrosophic graph is a derived single-valued neutrosophic graph and any linear weak single-valued neutrosophic tree is an extendable linear single-valued neutrosophic tree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[115] **viXra:1711.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:35:40*

**Authors:** Okpako Abugor Ejaita, Asagba P. O.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The two major motivations in medical science are to prevent and diagnose diseases. Diagnosis of disease must be done with care since it is the first stage of therapeutic actions towards eventual management of the disease; a mistake at this stage is disastrous and such adequate care must be ensured.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[114] **viXra:1711.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:37:00*

**Authors:** Ru-xia Liang, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers
(SVTNNs) have a strong capacity to depict uncertain, inconsistent, and incomplete information about decisio nmaking problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[113] **viXra:1711.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:38:21*

**Authors:** Daniel-Petru GHENCEA, Miron ZAPCIU, Claudiu-Florinel BISU, Elena-Iuliana BOTEANU, Elena-Luminiţa OLTEANU

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Lucrarea propune un model de previziune a comportării arborelui principal din punct de vedere al deformaţiilor termice şi a nivelului vibraţiilor prin evidenţierea şi prelucrarea ecuaţiilor caracteristice.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[112] **viXra:1711.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:39:34*

**Authors:** Xianying Qi, Boqiang Liu, Jianwei Xu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Image indeterminacy has been neglected in most traditional filtering algorithms. This paper proposes a pixel-wise adaptive neutrosophic filter based on neutrosophic indeterminacy feature to remove high-level Salt-and-Pepper noise.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[111] **viXra:1711.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 03:41:42*

**Authors:** Muhammad Akram, Anam Luqman

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Directed hypergraphs are widely used as a tool to solve and model the problems appearing in computer science and operations research. Bipolar neutrosophic models are more flexible and applicable because these models study neutrosophic
behavior positively as well as negatively.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[110] **viXra:1711.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:22:38*

**Authors:** P.Kumuthavalli, Sangeetha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper one generalizes the classical
fuzzy and imprecise fuzzy to the notion of “neutrosophic fuzzy” in order to be able to queue model. In this paper, we focus on developing an neutrosophic probability which is a new problem solving queue operation in the real standard domain by implementing a novel term " intuitionistic fuzzy neutrosophic logic,".

**Category:** General Mathematics

[109] **viXra:1711.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:24:03*

**Authors:** Francisco Gallego Lupiáñez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In an earlier paper, we proved that Smarandache’s definition of neutrosophic paraconsistent topology is neither a generalization of Çoker’s intuitionistic fuzzy topology nor a generalization of Smarandache’s neutrosophic topology. Recently, Salama and Alblowi proposed a new definition of neutrosophic topology, that generalizes Çoker’s intuitionistic fuzzy topology. Here, we study this new definition and its relation to Smarandache’s paraconsistent neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[108] **viXra:1711.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:29:26*

**Authors:** Hong-yu Zhang, Pu Ji, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Decision support models for satisfactory restaurants have attracted numerous researchers' attention. Many extant models do not consider the active, neutral and passive information in online reviews all at once.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1711.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:30:30*

**Authors:** Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengür

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Neutrosophic set (NS) theory is a formal framework to study the origin, nature, and scope of the neutral state. In this paper, neutrosophic set is applied in image domain and a new directional a-mean operation is defined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[106] **viXra:1711.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:35:11*

**Authors:** Zhi-Lian Guo, Yan-Ling Liu, Hai-Long Yang

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, we extend the rough set model on two different universes in intuitionistic
fuzzy approximation spaces to a single-valued neutrosophic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[105] **viXra:1711.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:36:19*

**Authors:** Yaozhong Luo, Longzhong Liu, Qinghua Huang, Xuelong Li

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Ultrasound imaging has become one of the most popular medical imaging modalities with numerous diagnostic applications.However, ultrasound (US) image segmentation, which is the essential process for further analysis, is a challenging task due to the poor image quality.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[104] **viXra:1711.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 07:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As Haug has shown in a long series of papers, Newton's gravitational constant is almost for sure a composite constant. What is this exotic animal that is meters cubed divided by kg and seconds squared? It is difficult to get any intuition from the gravitational constant alone, except from understanding that it is a constant we can measure empirically and use to get Newton's formula to match actual observations. Newton's gravitational constant is a composite constant that consists of the more fundamental constants.
This means we also can rewrite Einstein's constant in a more intuitive form where it becomes independent of big G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1711.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 14:41:13*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Due to wrong natural philosophy scientists scratch only surface of hurricane and tornado phenomena. Critique of mainstream science and some considerations which result from application of DesCartes philosophy in astrogeophysics are given.

**Category:** Climate Research

[102] **viXra:1711.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 08:58:42*

**Authors:** Masataka Ohta

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Consider a binary quantum channel with binary states |0> and |1> as an output channel of
some quantum computation device and assume that, if the channel is used as a classical binary channel
where |0> and |1> represent bit values of 0 and 1, respectively, the channel has small error probability
of p. Then, |0> transmitted over the channel will typically be sqrt(1-p)|0> +
exp(i*theta)|1> (0 ≤ theta < 2*pi).
That is, error of the channel makes|0> and sqrt(1-p)|0> +
exp(i*theta)|1> indistinguishable, which means
different results of parallel execution of the device can’t be represented by |0> and sqrt(1-p)|0> +
exp(i*theta)|1>. As representing N parallel binary results needs 2^N distinguishable states, effective degree
of quantum parallelism of the device, which is defined as degree of parallelism of binary results with
arbitrary small error probability by ideal encoding and ideal error correction, is limited by
log2(π/2*sqrt(p) + 1). That is, in practice, quantum computers are only as powerful as classical ones. Then,
a brief introduction on modern communication technology over photons is provided to show that
capacity of a binary quantum channel is almost twice better than quantum physicists had thought, that
a classical state representing an entangled state exists and that“qubit”is a bad idea. Finally, it is shown
that, without error caused by noise, ideal classical computers can be arbitrary fast.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1711.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 16:02:17*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article disseminates a series of new and interesting mathematical formulas for the fibonacci sequence as product of the investigations of the author since 2015.

**Category:** Number Theory

[100] **viXra:1711.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 22:14:49*

**Authors:** Irene Galtung

**Comments:** 53 pages

Science is mathematics. What is mathematics? Science seeks to uncover truths. “Science” is based on factually incorrect “mathematics”. “Science” is false. “Science” is factually incorrect. “Mathematics” is factually incorrect. Science is factually correct. Mathematics is factually correct. Let's look at: quantum mechanics -- the Standard Model of particle physics -- special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity -- Newton’s “science” -- Archimedes’ “science” -- etc.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[99] **viXra:1711.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 22:27:17*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

At present, By the requirement that the phase factor of the wave function has unity, Quantum values of magnetic flux are calculated, which seems to lack quantum logic.
Thus, in this paper, we apply the quantum mechanics logic strictly to this problem,The unit value is derived and the result is (hc/2e).
It is exactly the same as that obtained by Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and classical quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[98] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 19:01:37*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1711.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-05 23:12:29*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Letts. B

Recently, solutions to the $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation were found with relevant cosmological applications. We were able to obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature.
In this work we considerably improve our prior arguments in support of our findings, and provide further results which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; explain how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our $4D$ spacetime can only be inferred $indirectly$, but not be detected/observed directly. We conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] **viXra:1711.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 03:09:20*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Utopian science and its own sake.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[95] **viXra:1711.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-10 10:10:06*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs, Judson McCranie

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

All Ulam numbers up to one trillion are computed using an efficient linear-time algorithm. We report on the distribution of the numbers including the positions of the largest gaps.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1711.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 07:36:38*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Copernicus-Kepler Model Modification:
The sun is on the vertical level relative to the Earth.
All solar planets are found on the horizontal level relative to the Earth
The Sun is higher than the Earth, and higher than all solar planets
The straight line from the Sun to the Earth is the main line in the solar group
The planets revolve around this line, and not around the sun herself..
i.e. the Planets revolve around the line connected between the Sun and the Earth…
That means when the planet revolve around the sun, he will revolve around the Earth also because both of them connected by this same one line
That's why, the Ptolemy model lived very long time, because it was correct
So if the planet revolve around the sun or around the Earth the result will be the same, because both of them contributed to create the main line in the solar group
And because the sun is higher than the Earth, we see the sun hesitating motion to forward and backward with angle 63.7 degrees yearly, as a circle motion
So the sun circle motion is NOT true, but resulted from our wrong vision for the sun motion…
I claim, the planets from the Earth to Pluto move toward the sun, but Mercury and Venus move in the reverse direction
The Earth daily displacement toward the sun = 1 km
The previous modification can give us some explanation for the Egyptian astronomical phenomenon 2737, in which Mercury, Venus and Saturn were perpendicular on the Earth on 3/12/2012(on the Egyptian pyramids heads-appendix No.1),
Which proves, that the planets Not only revolve around the sun but also revolve around the Earth, supports this modification.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[93] **viXra:1711.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 07:42:14*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Monthly records of the CO2-concentration in the atmosphere and of the global temperature show a surprisingly periodic behaviour and a strong mutual correlation. This article describes why this phenomenon is the most convincing argument for the validity of the greenhouse model, explaining the worldwide climate problem. Even the most critical climate sceptics / sceptical climate critics cannot deny the greenhouse effect anymore.

**Category:** Climate Research

[92] **viXra:1711.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 09:47:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

This paper is intended to be a follow-up to our previous paper with title: "Reinterpreting Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius: On the antirealism tendency in modern physics." We will give more background for our propositions in the previous paper. Our message here is quite simple: allow us to remind fellow physicists and cosmologists to become more aware of Berkeley-idealism tendency, which can lead us to so many distractions instead of bringing us closer to the truth. We observe that much of the progress of modern physics in the last few decades only makes us as confused as before, but at a much higher level. In the last section, we will give some examples of how we can do something better than existing practice of physics in the past.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[91] **viXra:1711.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 08:32:57*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Further simplifications and clarifications.

Using just the derivative of the sum is the sum of the derivatives and simple undergraduate mathematics a proof is given showing e^n is irrational. The proof of e's transcendence is a simple generalization from this result.

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1711.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 18:46:12*

**Authors:** Irene Galtung

**Comments:** 60 pages

My Mathematics Manuscript is 60 pages. It is necessary and sufficient to understand mathematics. If you figure out prime numbers, then you figure out the rest of mathematics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[89] **viXra:1711.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 22:24:48*

**Authors:** Choe Ryujin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Theorem of prime pairs

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1711.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 23:29:58*

**Authors:** Bado idriss olivier

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paperwe give the proof Polignac Conjecture
by using Chebotarev -Artin theorem ,Mertens formula and Poincaré sieve For doing that we prove that .Let's X be an arbitrarily large real number and n an even integer we prove that there are many primes p such that p+n is prime between sqrt(X) and X

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1711.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 03:29:57*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The derivation of Lorentz transformations is shown in the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of the Lorentz transformations and special theory of relativity is given.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[86] **viXra:1711.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 05:47:27*

**Authors:** Vladimir Aksayskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents estimations of parameters of phonon, photon and graviton – which all represent boson family, derived with assumption that each of them has its own set of constants in Planck’s formula for boson gas in thermal equilibrium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[85] **viXra:1711.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 08:28:04*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The discussion in The Naked Scientist forum : https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=69618.0

This article aims to specify accurately the time duration spent for an object at free fall when it is at its highest point, as well as violating the current value for this time duration.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[84] **viXra:1711.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 08:24:04*

**Authors:** Vladimir Aksayskiy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Principle of Maximal Geochemical Activity MGA is included in “trial and error method” – the instrument to search a new. From what I know today, the greatest predictive power has the principle of maximum geochemical activity. Activity in the broadest sense: material, energy, informative. In the Russian-language scientific literature, it was first clearly stated by academician V.I. Vernadsky.
All living things on the planet throughout their milliards of years’ existence obey this principle and develop in accordance with it. According to V. I. Vernadsky, it is the empirical regularity that has never been broken on the planet. There were stops, but there was no return.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[83] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-26 14:07:39*

**Authors:** G. Dungworth, M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Beginning with the observationally successful FLRW constraint of Riofrio, a classical alternative to LCDM, we introduce a mass gap correction to cosmology, incorporating a few aspects of the $\Lambda$CDM model, wherein both neutrinos and non local mirror neutrinos play a key role. Non local neutrinos are antineutrinos. The equivalence principle is mildly broken using McCulloch's approach to quantum inertia and a new holographic principle. There is no dark matter and no dark energy, and mirror neutrino states are informationally connected to the CMB. Consequences include (i) a present day temperature of 2.73 K arising as a mirror rest mass, (ii) an estimate of the observable mass of the universe and (iii) an effective sterile mass of 1.29 eV, permitted by current oscillation results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[82] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-18 07:09:12*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a non-comparison based sorting algorithm with average case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[81] **viXra:1711.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 17:40:06*

**Authors:** Adam Lucas Young

**Comments:** 80 Pages. Copyright (c) 2017 Adam L. Young. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/).

Working-class coders and vulnerability researchers the
world over are subject to prior restraints on their speech imposed by
the institutions they work for. The restraints are in the form of
non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) and employment contracts that are
typically enforced using a process called pre-publication
censorship. Industrial pre-publication censorship chills contributions
of source code to society and chills the publication of vulnerabilities
found in code that has been given to society. This has a harmful effect
on the depth, breadth, and information assurance of society's foundation
of code. Restrictions on the human spirit call for new liberties to be
defined and upheld.
This manifesto defines Freedom A and Freedom B as follows.
Freedom A: you have the freedom to write code and give it to society
under conditions of your choosing.
Freedom B: you have the freedom to write and publish,
under conditions of your choosing,
a critique or documentation of code that has been given to society.
Free coding is defined as Freedom A and Freedom B.
Obstructions to free coding are identified and measures are presented
to uphold free coding.
The measures presented include a proposed corporate policy that balances
institutional equities with personal liberty, a software license term
tailored after Freedom B, and an experimental free coding software license.
Utilitarian, philosophical, and theological foundations of free coding are
given. Obstructions to free coding form a subset of the problem of
knowledge hoarding. I present my interpretations of the Book of Genesis, namely,
the Original Command and the Original Paradox. I believe that these
interpretations reveal the root of the problem of knowledge hoarding.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[80] **viXra:1711.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 23:51:41*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the Thresholding for Linear Binary Classifiers.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[79] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 23:08:21*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1711.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 04:52:42*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper deals with simulated interpretation of quantum mechanics. This interpretation is based on possibilities of computer simulation of our Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[77] **viXra:1711.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 07:20:31*

**Authors:** Deniz Uyar

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Finding whether a boolean formula is a tautology or not in a feasible time is an important problem of computer science. Many algorithms have been developed to solve this problem but none of them is a polynomial time algorithm. Our aim is
to develop an algorithm that achieve this in polynomial time.
In this article, we convert boolean functions to some graph forms in polynomial time. They are called two dimensional formulas and similar to AND-OR graphs except arches on them are bidirectional. Then these graphs are investigated to find properties which can be used to differentiate tautological formulas from non tautological ones.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[76] **viXra:1711.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 07:58:37*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model.
As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for an alternative Photonic Molecule based Higgs particle of different masses ( recent LHC measurements) based on different geometrical structures.
At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, the planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a topological superconductive vacuum.
In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles.
Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless singular transformer but rigid string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z and Higgs particles of different masses and even ball lightning and other black hole nuclei.
If we assume that different massive Higgs particle knots are the origin of different evaporation times, then there is reason to assume that the trajectory lengths measured from the source, before evaporation are covariant, without any radiation curvature.
Reason to suggest that the idea to use such a process for “lightsaber” projects with restricted length has some logic.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1711.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 08:38:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Recent gravitational wave detections have allowed physicists to confirm with greater and greater precision what Einstein predicted over 100 years ago in the theory of general relativity: that gravity does not act instantaneously as Newton thought, but instead propagates at the speed of light. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[74] **viXra:1711.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 11:21:56*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 pages.

Nós derivamos a densidade Lagrangeana para uma generalização da equação de Schroedinger para o átomo com um életron e um núcleo; e concluímos, por meio da equação generalizada, que este átomo seria o berço de píon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1711.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-05 03:05:10*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We introduce a generalization of the q-calculus, which we call qq'-calculus. Some formulas are obtained; however the theory remains limited.

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1711.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 12:39:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[71] **viXra:1711.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 13:03:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Using fourth order polynomial in the mass of the higgs boson, to interpolate basic properties, including the possible modification of one of the DM models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1711.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:37:22*

**Authors:** Wen Jiang, Yehang Shou

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The single-valued neutrosophic set is a subclass of neutrosophic set, and has been proposed in recent years. An important application for single-valued neutrosophic sets is to solve multicriteria decision-making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[69] **viXra:1711.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:38:19*

**Authors:** Muhammad Akram, Muzzamal Sitara

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this research study, we present concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic graph structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[68] **viXra:1711.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:40:19*

**Authors:** A.Victor Devadoss, M.Rekha

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The practices of child marriage is a violation of human rights and denies a child from basic right such as health, education and nutrition. It not only affects the girl’s lives but also the society.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[67] **viXra:1711.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:44:37*

**Authors:** Changxing Fan, Jun Ye, Keli Hu, En Fan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNN) is presented by Fang and Ye in 2017, which can describe the truth, falsity, and indeterminacy linguistic information independently. In this paper, the LNN and the Bonferroni mean operator are merged together to propose a LNN normalized weighted Bonferroni mean (LNNNWBM) operator and a LNN normalized weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (LNNNWGBM) operator and the properties of these two operators are proved.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[66] **viXra:1711.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:47:38*

**Authors:** Muhammad Akram, Maryam Nasir

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic sets provides an additional possibility to represent
imprecise, uncertain, inconsistent and incomplete information, which exists in real situations. This research article first presents the notion of intuitionistic neutrosophic competition graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[65] **viXra:1711.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:48:43*

**Authors:** N . Kondruk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

One of the most interesting and promising approaches to the analysis of multivariate phenomena and processes are methods of cluster analysis or automatic classification of objects. Clustering is one of the key areas of data mining.
Its objective is identification of some unknown structure of a group of similar objects in the initial set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[64] **viXra:1711.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:49:44*

**Authors:** Abdolreza Rashno, Saeed Sadri

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a new content-based image retrieval
(CBIR) scheme is proposed in neutrosophic (NS) domain. For this task, RGB images are first transformed to three subsets in NS domain and then segmented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[63] **viXra:1711.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:50:27*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Based on dynamic information collected from different time intervals in some real situations, this paper firstly proposes a dynamic single valued neutrosophic multiset (DSVNM) to express dynamic information and operational relations of DSVNMs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[62] **viXra:1711.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:51:38*

**Authors:** Lilian Shi, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNNs) can express the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity degrees independently by three linguistic variables. Hence, they are an effective tool for
describing indeterminate linguistic information under linguistic decision-making environments.
Similarity measures are usual tools in decision-making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1711.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:52:25*

**Authors:** Zhikang Lu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The neutrosophic cubic set can contain much more information to express its interval neutrosophic numbers and single-valued neutrosophic numbers simultaneously in indeterminate environments.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[60] **viXra:1711.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:53:27*

**Authors:** A.Victor Devadoss, M.Rekha

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Domestic violence is an abusive behaviour perpetrated by intimate partner and other members in the family. Traditionally women were expected to married soon and settle down in her life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[59] **viXra:1711.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:55:00*

**Authors:** Srijit Biswas, Anjali Gupta

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In almost all cities, the solid waste generation is increased dramatically and becomes a great challenge today to municipal authority for its
collection and safe disposal. Continuous uncontrolled generation of solid wastes forces the
existing landfills to become exhausted rapidly.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[58] **viXra:1711.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:55:47*

**Authors:** Weizhang Liang, Guoyan Zhao, Hao Wu

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The investment in and development of mineral resources play an important role in the
national economy. A good mining project investment can improve economic efficiency and increase
social wealth.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[57] **viXra:1711.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:56:32*

**Authors:** Zhikang Lu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

As an extension of an intuitionistic fuzzy set, a single-valued neutrosophic set is described
independently by the membership functions of its truth, indeterminacy, and falsity, which is a subclass of a neutrosophic set (NS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[56] **viXra:1711.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:57:38*

**Authors:** Jun Ye, Jiqian Chen, Rui Yong, Shigui Du

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In nature, the mechanical properties of geological bodies are very complex, and its various mechanical parameters are vague, incomplete, imprecise, and indeterminate. In these cases, we cannot always compute or provide exact/crisp values for the joint roughness coefficient (JRC),which is a quite crucial parameter for determining the shear strength in rock mechanics, but we need to approximate them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[55] **viXra:1711.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:58:43*

**Authors:** Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye, Shigui Du, Rui Yong

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In nature, the mechanical properties of geological bodies are very complex, and their various mechanical parameters are vague, incomplete, imprecise, and indeterminate. However, we cannot express them by the crisp values in classical probability and statistics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[54] **viXra:1711.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 04:59:41*

**Authors:** Hongjun Guan, Aiwu Zhao, Shuang Guan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Daily fluctuation trends of a stock market consist of three statuses like up, equal and down. It can be represented by a neutrosophic set which consists of three terms like the truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1711.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:04:03*

**Authors:** Ke-Qin Wang, Hu-Chen Liu, Liping Liu, Jia Huang

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Nowadays, companies have to improve their practices in the management of green supply
chain with increased awareness of environmental issues worldwide. Selecting the optimum green
supplier is crucial for green supply chain management, which is a challenging multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1711.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:05:13*

**Authors:** HAN Lili, WEI Cuiping

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) depicts not only the incomplete information, but also the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exist commonly in belief systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[51] **viXra:1711.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:08:25*

**Authors:** Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Minimum spanning tree finds its huge application in network designing, approximation algorithms for NP-hard problems, clustering problems and many more. Many research works have been done to find minimum spanning tree due to its various applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[50] **viXra:1711.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:09:26*

**Authors:** Soumitra De, Jaydev Mishra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, we have focused to process inconsistent
data through imprecise queries from a database which consists of neutrosophic and vague set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[49] **viXra:1711.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:10:15*

**Authors:** Hong-yu Zhang, Jian-qiangWang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As a generalization of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain,
imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[48] **viXra:1711.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:15:42*

**Authors:** Cengiz Kahraman, Mehdi Keshavarz Ghorabaee, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Sezi Cevik Onar, Morteza Yazdani, Basar Oztaysi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Evaluation based on Distance from Average Solution (EDAS) is a new multicriteria decision making
(MCDM) method, which is based on the distances of alternatives from the average scores of attributes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1711.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:18:14*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

To describe both certain linguistic neutrosophic information and uncertain linguistic neutrosophic information simultaneously in the real world, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic cubic number (LNCN), including an internal LNCN and external LNCN.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[46] **viXra:1711.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:20:52*

**Authors:** Chao Zhang, Deyu Li, Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

As a significant business activity, merger and acquisition (M&A) generally means transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[45] **viXra:1711.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:21:52*

**Authors:** M. Kavitha, P. Murugadas, S.Sriram

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The aim of this article is to study the concept of unique solvability of max-min fuzzy neutrosophic soft matrix equation and strong regularity of fuzzy neutrosophic soft matrices over Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Algebra (FNSA).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1711.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:22:32*

**Authors:** Weijie Shen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

With respect to single-valued neutrosophic multiple attribute decision making problems with completely unknown weight information, some operational laws of single-valued neutrosophic numbers, score function and accuracy function of single-valued neutrosophic numbers are introduced.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[43] **viXra:1711.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:26:56*

**Authors:** Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Jian-qiang Wang

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A simplified neutrosophic uncertain linguistic
set that integrates quantitative and qualitative evaluation can serve as an extension of both an uncertain linguistic variable and a simplified neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[42] **viXra:1711.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:28:00*

**Authors:** Mridula Sarkar, Tapan Kumar Roy

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This paper investigates multi–objective Neutrosophic Goal Optimization (NSGO) approach to optimize the cost of welding and deflection at the tip of a welded steel beam, while the maximum shear stress in the weld group, maximum bending stress in the beam, and buckling load of the beam have been considered as constraints.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[41] **viXra:1711.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:31:09*

**Authors:** Zebo Fang, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Existing intuitionistic linguistic variables can describe the linguistic information of both
the truth/membership and falsity/non-membership degrees, but it cannot represent the indeterminate
and inconsistent linguistic information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[40] **viXra:1711.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:31:52*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

To deal with decision-making problems with
interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, the paper proposes a multiple attribute group decision-making method under an interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic
environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[39] **viXra:1711.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:32:32*

**Authors:** Soumitra De

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have introduced a concept using Neutrosophic logic to solve the problem. Any neutrosophic data is based on three members. Neutrosophic logic is been used to handle in deterministic part of a neutrosophic data. We have focused to solve the real problem of a patient.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[38] **viXra:1711.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:33:35*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdel‑Basset, Mai Mohamed, Arun Kumar Sangaiah

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The main objective of this research is to study
the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) into Delphi framework in neutrosophic environment and present a new technique for checking consistency and calculating consensus degree of expert’s opinions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[37] **viXra:1711.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:36:29*

**Authors:** R.dhavaseelan, S. Jafari, Hanif Page

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we introduce neutrosophic generalized alpha-contra-continuous function, neutrosophic strongly generalized In this paper we introduce neutrosophic generalized.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[36] **viXra:1711.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:37:42*

**Authors:** Samir Dey, Tapan Kumar Roy

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper develops a multi-objective
Neutrosophic Goal Optimization technique for
optimizing the design of truss structure with multiple objectives subject to a specified set of constraints. In this optimum design formulation, the objective functions are weight and the deflection; the design variables are the cross-sections of the bar; the constraints are the stress in member.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[35] **viXra:1711.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:38:38*

**Authors:** Srijit Biswas, Sunita Bansal, Anjali Gupta

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An earthquake is the perceptible shaking
of the surface of the Earth occurs without prior
warning to the society. The occurrence of an
earthquake in a populated area may cause
numerous casualties and injuries as well as
extensive damage to property [4-5].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[34] **viXra:1711.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:39:49*

**Authors:** V. Venkateswara Rao, Y. Srinivasa Rao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to extend some more topics of topology in neutrosophic topology. Eerily introduce neutrosophic topological space and open sets, closed sets, semi-open and semi closed sets, now in this manuscript we extend up to neutrosophic pre-open and pre-closed (NPO and NPC).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1711.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:42:06*

**Authors:** Keli Hu, En Fan, Jun Ye, Changxing Fan, Shigen Shen, Yuzhang Gu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Visual object tracking is a critical task in computer vision. Challenging things always exist when an object needs to be tracked. For instance, background clutter is one of the most challenging problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[32] **viXra:1711.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:43:43*

**Authors:** A. Borumand Saeid, Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic set (NS) developed by Smarandacheis a more general platform which extends the concepts of the classic set and fuzzy
set, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[31] **viXra:1711.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:44:40*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic set (NS) developed by Smarandache is a more general platform which extends the concepts of the classic set and fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[30] **viXra:1711.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:45:46*

**Authors:** C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of neutrosophic topology and we investigate the topological structures neutrosophic rough sets. Further we examine the reflexivity and transitivity of neutrosophic rough sets and obtain some of its properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[29] **viXra:1711.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:54:17*

**Authors:** Ioan Constantin Dima, Mirela Teodorescu, Daniela Gîfu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The study highlights some communication instances of actual approach of human society
evolution in contrast with traditional communication. During the history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate
inscription tools) evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power (Innis, 1951), communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[28] **viXra:1711.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 05:58:56*

**Authors:** Shaoyong zheng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article explain "why sun and its planets mentained on one plane" and
Solar system as “sandwich or cell” theory,and extend of “law of universal gravitation”

**Category:** Astrophysics

[27] **viXra:1711.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:00:27*

**Authors:** Nasruddin Hassan, Ashraf Al-Quran

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we extend the notion of classical soft expert sets to possibility neutrosophic vague soft expert sets by applying the theory of soft expert sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[26] **viXra:1711.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:01:35*

**Authors:** Hong-gang Peng, Hong-yu Zhang, Jian-qiang Wang

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This paper introduces probability multi-valued
neutrosophic sets (PMVNSs) based on multi-valued neutrosophic sets and probability distribution. PMVNS can serve as a reliable tool to depict uncertain, incomplete, inconsistent and hesitant decision-making information and reflect the distribution characteristics of all provided
evaluation values.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[25] **viXra:1711.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:02:35*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Projection measure is one of important tools for handling decision-making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[24] **viXra:1711.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:04:34*

**Authors:** Muhammad Akram, Muzzamal Sitara

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research article, we apply the concept of interval-valued neutrosophic sets to graph
structures. We present the concept of interval-valued neutrosophic graph structures. We describe certain operations on interval-valued neutrosophic graph structures and elaborate them with appropriate examples. Further,we investigate some relevant properties of these operators. Moreover,we propose some open
problems on interval-valued neutrosophic line graph structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[23] **viXra:1711.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:05:27*

**Authors:** Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye, Shigui Du

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In rock mechanics, the study of shear strength on the structural surface is crucial to evaluating the stability of engineering rock mass.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22] **viXra:1711.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:05:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the Thresholding for Linear Binary Classifiers.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[21] **viXra:1711.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:06:25*

**Authors:** Abed Heshmati, Maryam Gholami, Abdolreza Rashno

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The process of partitioning an image into some different meaningful regions with the homogeneous
characteristics is called the image segmentation which is a crucial task in image analysis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20] **viXra:1711.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:09:52*

**Authors:** Sui-Zhi Luo, Peng-Fei Cheng, Jian-QiangWang, Yuan-Ji Huang

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Project delivery system selection is an essential part of project management. In the process of choosing appropriate transaction model, many factors should be under consideration, such as the capability and experience of proprietors, project implementation risk, and so on. How to make their comprehensive evaluations and select the optimal delivery system?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[19] **viXra:1711.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:21:17*

**Authors:** William Q Sumner

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. In 1907 Albert Einstein found that vacuum permittivity changes with gravity. Møller, Landau & Lifshitz, and Sumner found that it changes with spacetime curvature.
The wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions decrease with vacuum permittivity but the photons emitted from atoms decrease more than photons themselves do. This changes the interpretation of gravitational redshift to one where blueshifted photons are compared to greater blueshifted atomic emissions.
For Schwarzschild geometry, redshifts can be calculated most accurately using the metric. The equation derived using time dilation and the one derived here are identical. Their weak field approximation is the same as the redshift derivation using special relativity with Doppler shift.
For Friedmann geometry, redshifts calculated by comparing blueshifted atomic emissions to those of photons flips the meaning of Hubble redshift. The universe is accelerating in collapse, a result confirmed by supernova redshift observations. The equations and logic used for Friedmann and Schwarzschild redshifts are identical. Only their vacuum permittivities are different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1711.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:12:58*

**Authors:** M. Mullai, S. Broumi, A. Stephen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Normally, Minimal Spanning Tree algorithm is used to nd the shortest route in a network.
Neutrosophic set theory is used when incomplete, inconsistancy and indeterminacy occurs. In this paper, Bipolar Neutrosophic Numbers are used in Minimal Spanning Tree algorithm for finding the shortest path on a network when the distances are inconsistant and indeterminate and it is illustrated by a numerical example.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17] **viXra:1711.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:14:22*

**Authors:** Jing Fu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When a physician carries out the clinical survey of a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms to reach the initial evaluation/diagnosis of BPH, the existing initial
evaluation method of BPH based on the international prostate symptom score (I-PSS) usually uses the objective evaluation/diagnosis method with crisp values without considering fuzzy
information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[16] **viXra:1711.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:15:14*

**Authors:** Zhikang Lu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) can express incomplete, indeterminate, and
inconsistent information in the real world.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[15] **viXra:1711.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:18:28*

**Authors:** Ru-xin Nie, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

As one of the promising renewable energy resources, solar-wind energy has increasingly
become a regional engine in leading the economy and raising competitiveness.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14] **viXra:1711.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:19:34*

**Authors:** Ruipu TAN, Wende ZHANG, Shengqun CHEN

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper proposes a group decision making method based on entropy of neutrosophic linguistic sets and generalized single valued neutrosophic linguistic operators.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13] **viXra:1711.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:20:22*

**Authors:** G. Divya, J. Malarvizhi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic sets can be utilized as a Mathematical tool to deal with imprecise and unspecified information. The neutrosophic set is a generalization of fuzzy sets and intutionistic fuzzy sets which is applied in Graph theory. The neutrosophic fuzzy graph is used in the problems, where the relation between vertices and hence edges are indeterminate. In this paper complement of Neutrosophic fuzzy graph is introduced and few operations on Neutrosophic fuzzy graph (union, join) are also defined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12] **viXra:1711.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:21:20*

**Authors:** Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Dombi operations of T-norm and T-conorm introduced by Dombi can have the advantage of good flexibility with the operational parameter. In existing studies, however, the Dombi
operations have so far not yet been used for neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11] **viXra:1711.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:22:13*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A simplified neutrosophic set is characterized by a truth-membership function, an indeterminacy-membership function, and a falsity-membership function, which is a subclass of the neutrosophic set and contains the concepts of an interval neutrosophic set and a single valued neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10] **viXra:1711.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:25:08*

**Authors:** A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in vari-ous discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, hu-manities, social science to system biology.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9] **viXra:1711.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:26:09*

**Authors:** Soumitra De, Jaydev Mishra

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we proposed a new approach which is based on Neutrosophic logic to help the patient by taking proper decision through pathological report based analysis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8] **viXra:1711.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:28:07*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on the combination of trapezoidal fuzzy
numbers and a single-valued neutrosophic set, this paper proposes a trapezoidal neutrosophic set, some operational rules, score and accuracy functions for trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[7] **viXra:1711.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:29:05*

**Authors:** Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye, Shigui Du

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A refined single-valued/interval neutrosophic set is very suitable for the expression and application of decision-making problems with both attributes and sub-attributes since it is
described by its refined truth, indeterminacy, and falsity degrees.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[6] **viXra:1711.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:30:48*

**Authors:** Tahir Mahmood, Jun Ye, Qaisar Khan

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this article we present three similarity measures between simplied neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets, which contain the concept of single
valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets and interval valued neutrosophic hesitant
fuzzy sets, based on the extension of Jaccard similarity measure, Dice similarity measure and Cosine similarity in the vector space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[5] **viXra:1711.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:32:25*

**Authors:** K. Selvakumari, M. Ajitha Priyadharshini

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The scope of this paper is to introduce a new concept of buying a car on the basis of choice parameter by using vikor method. Here octagonal fuzzy number plays a vital role for solving many decision making problem involving uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1711.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:33:19*

**Authors:** E.V. Bogarova

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Проведение капитального ремонта многоквартирных домов (КРМКД) за счет средств фонда КР, требует решения многих организационных и методических вопросов на основе самых современных достижений
математики и информационных технологий.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[3] **viXra:1711.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 06:58:44*

**Authors:** leo Vuijk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Einstein’s relativity theory, the speed of light is supposed to be the same for every observer in all reference frames.
However, there seem to be incidental differences in the lightspeed if we observe the outliers of GPS satellite to CHAMP satellite distance measurements of 180m.
At the same time in the literature I found tiny structural but characteristic unexplained irregularities in Planetary radar-pulse reflection measurements, made by I.I. Shapiro in 1964, between the Earth and Venus.
Both observations support the idea of the existence of ellipsoidal lightspeed extinction (or vacuum adaptation) volumes around massive objects like the earth. Such a volume I will call LASOF or Local Asymmetric Oscillating Vacuum Frame.
Other historic lightspeed experiments support the idea that all objects with mass are equipped with some extinction volume.
As a consequence I propose new triangular trajectory lightspeed comparison experiments between the earth and dual satellites or dual balloons and even in the laboratory to support these lightspeed extinction and adaptation ideas.
Future GRACE / LISA satellite experiment should serve as alternative for the Michelson Morley ether wind experiment, reduced by Earth lightspeed frame dragging of the Local Asymmetric Oscillating vacuum Frame (LASOF) according to Q-FFF theory.
Observing Up and down ether wind differences of the light speed between two Grace satellites by earth motion around the sun as alternative for Michelson Morley experiment.
No lightspeed differences should be measured to or from the earth direction due to gravity drag effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1711.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 10:17:49*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The original ideas

The special theory of relativity formula for the photon Doppler
effect is applied to the frequency of the RLC circuit moving
vith velocity v relativly to the rest system. The relativistic
transformation of the RLC circuit components is derived in
case the components are all in series with the voltage source
(R−L−C−v). The generalization to the more complex situation
was not considered. It is not excluded that the article is the
preamble for the future investigation of electronic physics and will
be integral part of such instituions as Bell Laboratories, NASA,
CERN and so on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1711.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-01 03:07:58*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which accelerates cir-
cularly relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly
relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular mo-
mentum and kinetic energy due to the induced spin motion of the rigid
body to the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to the rotational
motion of the same spinning rigid body have been derived. The paper
also bringing to light the nature of the force which causes the induction
of spin motion in a rigid body and a formula which coupling of this high-
lighted force to the force which causes the rotation of the rigid body has
been also derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology