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1709 Submissions

[331] viXra:1709.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 12:21:17

A Pragmatic Language for Scientific Purposes

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In order to avoid the inconsistencies that undermine the (otherwise good) legitimacy of scientific claims and to make them as accurate as possible, here we provide a few suggestions concerning the very structure of scientific propositions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[330] viXra:1709.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 08:00:37

More About the Inconsistency Solution of the Maxwell Equations

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 12 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given.
Category: Classical Physics

[329] viXra:1709.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 09:59:50

Electron Spin and Rotating Vector Fields

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Journal "Quanta" Aug. 28, 2017, but rejected without review.

The nature of electron spin has presented an enigma right from the beginning of quantum mechanics. We suggest that a simple realistic picture of a real coherently rotating vector field can account for both the Schrödinger equation and electron spin in a consistent manner. Such a rotating field carries distributed angular momentum and energy in the same way as a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. We derive the Schrödinger equation from the relativistic Klein-Gordon Equation, where the complex wave function maps onto a fixed-axis real rotating vector. Such a realistic picture can also explain the Stern-Gerlach experiment which first identified electron spin. Remarkably, the predictions of a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment within this realistic picture differ from those of the orthodox quantum superposition approach. This two-stage experiment has not actually been done, and could provide insights into the limits of realistic models. This realistic picture also avoids quantum paradoxes and enables realistic explanations for a variety of quantum phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[328] viXra:1709.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 21:26:31

A Note on the Block Restricted Isometry Property Condition

Authors: Jianwen Huang, Jianjun Wang, Wendong Wang
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work, the sufficient condition for the recovery of block sparse signals that satisfy $b=\Phi x+\xi$ is investigated. We prove that every block s-sparse signal can be reconstructed by the $l_2/l_1$-minimization method in the noise-free situation and is stably reconstructed in the noisy measurement situation, if the sensing matrix fulfils the restricted isometry property with $\delta_{ts|\mathcal{I}}<t/(4-t)$ as $0<t<4/3$, $ts\geq2.$
Category: Statistics

[327] viXra:1709.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 00:23:20

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》 2. World Equations, Event Operations, and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Extend to the Universal Topology [1], this manuscript presents that the principles of World Equations, World Events and Motion Operations institute a set of Universal Equations and inaugurate the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields. Defined as the First Universal Field Equations, its application to Quantum Mechanics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[326] viXra:1709.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 12:37:20

The Kakeya Tube Conjecture Implies the Kakeya Conjecture

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we will give a proof that the Kakeya tube conjecture implies the Kakeya conjecture.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[325] viXra:1709.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 12:39:53

Principle Equivalence and Inequivalence

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. relativity, time, theory, everything, equivalence, wave, equation

Be ready for a 10 page compendium of the principles by which time operates with that of the relativistic theory in duplicity of reconcilation between either end of the wave equation. This theory incorporates the ideal of time and space transformation in very general form under entirely compatible principles and only two general equations for that of the theory of everything together. There is a rough synthesis of what is required then to understand the transformations of time; that of a theory second only to Albert Einstein's theory of special and general relativity; without contradiction.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[324] viXra:1709.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 13:11:07

Common Description of Quantum Electromagnetism and Relativistic Gravitation

Authors: Jérémy Kerneis
Comments: 16 Pages.

We use 3 equations as postulates: Pem referring to electromagnetism, Pgrav referring to gravity, and Pqm referring to quantum mechanic and defining the wave function. Combining Pem with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" corresponds to the original quantum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). Pqm implies that the wave function is solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case it implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules": Pem and Pqm then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms (the same as Dirac's energy levels). We check that the required degeneracy is justified by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justifies one half of the degeneracy). We observe the connection between Pqm, Quantum Field Theories and tunnel effect. From Pgrav we deduce an equation of motion very similar to general relativity (with accuracy 10^{-6} at the surface of the Sun), our postulate being explicitly an approximation. First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler's law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[323] viXra:1709.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:19:37

Laparoscopic Removal of a Migrated Intra Uterine Device Embedded in the Anterior Abdominal Wall in Yaounde (Cameroon), a Third World Country

Authors: Bang Guy Aristide, Nana Oumarou Blondel, Nong Libend Gilles Thierry, Noah Noah Dominique, Savom Eric Patrick
Comments: 3 Pages.

Uterine perforation is a serious complication which can happen after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Following the uterine rupture, an IUD may migrate into gynecologic, urinary or gastro-intestinal system organs. There are many reports of migrated iuds but fewer report of iuds embedded in the abdominal wall. Laparoscopic removal of a migrated IUD wasn’t yet described in our country For more information : https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/
Category: Biochemistry

[322] viXra:1709.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:23:20

Controversies in Pregnancy Management after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Twin Pregnancy Discordant for Trisomy 21 Diagnosed by Cell-Free Fetal DNA Testing

Authors: Emine Cetin, Tamina Rawnaq, Boris Schulze-Koenig, Moritz Doebert, Panagiota Zoi, Peter Schwaerzler
Comments: 3 Pages.

Background: Current preliminary data is advocating cfDNA testing in twin pregnancies since both increasing use of ART and higher maternal ages have raised the incidence of (discordant) aneuploidies. Procedures and findings:This report is raising ethical implications deriving from a twin pregnancy discordant for trisomy 21 conceived from egg donation and diagnosed by cfDNA testing after low risk conventional first-trimester screening. For More Information : https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/
Category: Biochemistry

[321] viXra:1709.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:25:10

Giant Oocytes with Two Meiotic Spindles and Two Polar Bodies: Report of Two Cases

Authors: Baris Baykal, Cem Korkmaz, Muhterem Bahçe, Cihangir Mutlu Ercan, Temel Ceyhan
Comments: 3 Pages.

With the advent of IVF technology, the terms normal and abnormal oocytes have been defined and one type of abnormal oocyte is the “giant oocyte”. Giant oocytes are defined to have a 30% larger diameter and twice the volume of normal oocytes[1,2]. Giant oocyte is a rarery observed phenomenon among humans and embryos may develop from these oocytes [2,3].The first hypothesis for the mechanism of their formation is cytoplasmic fusion of two oogonia and the second one is the lack of cytokinesis during mitotic divisions in an oogonium [4]. Fertilization and progression of a giant oocyte is suspected to be the cause of digynic triploidy, which is defined as triploidy with two maternal and one paternal complements [5]. In this case report, we present two giant oocytes, each shown to have two meiotic spindles via visualization by polarization microscope. Because giant oocytes can develop into embryos that are morphologically normal, but genetically abnormal, an embryologist has to be aware of this phenomenon. For this reason, the scientific aim of this report is to present the polarization microscopic properties of giant oocytes and increase the awareness of such oocytes among embryologists.
Category: Biochemistry

[320] viXra:1709.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:26:35

Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among Women Who Delivered Preterm Babies at Bugando Medical Centre, Tanzania

Authors: Josephine J. Rugaimukam, Michael J. Mahande, Sia E. Msuya, Rune N. Philemon
Comments: 7 Pages.

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality globally. Infants who are born preterm suffer long term health consequences. There only few studies done on risk factors for prematurity in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for preterm birth among women who delivered preterm babies at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods:A matched case-control study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Centre from May to June 2015. A total of 50 women with preterm birth (cases) were matched with 50 women who had term births (controls). Cases were matched with controls by date of delivery. We excluded mothers with multiple gestations and those who were sick and unsuitable for the interview. A structured questionnaire was used to collected relevant information from all participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were estimated in a multivariate regression model to determine factors associated with preterm delivery.
Category: Biochemistry

[319] viXra:1709.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:27:14

Pregnancy, Exercise and Late Effects in the Offspring until Adult Age

Authors: Jana Pařízková
Comments: 6 Pages.

Maternal exercise during pregnancy as one of the critical periods can have significant delayed effect in the offsprring’s fetal imprinting of future development until adult age; adequate and voluntary exercise is provided, not a forced one as a stress. Spontaneous physical activity of the offspring until adult age can be increased, and body composition, cardiac micro structure and reactibility (greater resistance to noxi), vasomotor function, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity along with related diseases (diabetes) can be positively influenced. Bone development and also the enhancement of brain function and learning sensitivity can be improved as revealed in a number of experimental model animal studies. Exercise during pregnancy was also shown to compensate in the offspring the detrimental effect of inadequate, e.g. high fat diets. Possibility of introducing significant modifications of the programming of the offspring’s desirable development and health status by adequate and physiological maternal exercise during pregnancy was supported also by some observations in humans.
Category: Biochemistry

[318] viXra:1709.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:33:58

The Role of Veterinarians in a Foundation for Elderly Dogs

Authors: Ronald Lagoe, Alyssa Chandler, Christine Berry
Comments: 2 Pages.

In recent years, interest in the care of elderly dogs has increased in the United States. Advances in veterinary medicine have prolonged the life spans of the animals that it supports. The needs of elderly dogs have generated interest among many specialties within veterinary medicine. These include internal medicine, surgery, anesthesiology, neurology, orthopedics, dermatology, and ophthalmology. This process has occurred in university teaching hospitals and private practices. This evolution of clinical practice has been supported by funding from veterinary providers and dog owners. Unlike in the case of human health care, this has not been accompanied by the development of large third party payers. As a result, a number of relatively small insurance plans and private organizations have emerged to address these needs.
Category: Biochemistry

[317] viXra:1709.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:35:28

Effect of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal (Molm) on the Growth, Carcass, Heamatology and Biochemical Parameters of Rabbits

Authors: Ghomsi MOS, Enow JT, Etchu KA, Tientcheu BL, Enamou G, Chouengouong TM, Mongo BG, Bayemi PH
Comments: 5 Pages.

An experiment was conducted with 30 mixed bred rabbits (6 to 8 weeks old) averaging 592g to assess the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits fed graded levels of dried Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM) of 0%, 25%, and 50%, as a replacement of Soya Bean Meal (SBM) and groundnut cake in 8-week feeding trial. Feed consumption and weight gain were monitored. Blood samples were collected from the animals through the ear vein for haematology and serum biochemistry, while weight of cut parts and visceral organs were collected from the animals after they were stunned and sacrificed after the 8-week feeding trials and weighed. Results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the value obtained for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, total protein and White Blood Cell (WBC). While the results of carcass and organ weight showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in values obtained for live weight, dress weight spleen, head and kidney. While there was no significant difference among the blood constants (VGM and MCHC). Among the leukocyte differential counts examined, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the dietary treatments. The results suggest that MOLM possess good dietary protein quality for optimal growth of rabbits and be incorporated in the rabbit’s diets up to 25% inclusion levels without any detrimental effects on the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits.
Category: Biochemistry

[316] viXra:1709.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:38:31

Effect of Month and Season of Birth on Milk Quantity and Quality of Holstein Friesian Cows in Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy Farm

Authors: Shaour Gul Faqiri, Gul Mohammad Tanin
Comments: 4 Pages.

AEffect of calving month and season on productive traits of Holstein dairy cows. In Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy farm. Productive data on 305 days lactation period for 49 Holstein dairy cows, which were collected during one month from dairy cattle in Beni Hisar Farm in Kabul province using recorded data from 1389 to 1392 years, were used to estimate the effect of calving month and season for the purpose of estimating the correlation between milk yield, fat production and fat percentage of the Holstein dairy cows. General linear model (GLM) procedure and SPSS software were used for the estimation of the effect calving month and seasons. The results showed calving month influenced significantly on productive traits (P < 0.05). The greatest milk and fat production (kg) were observed in dairy cows that calved in December. In addition, dairy cows that calved in October had the greatest fat percentage totally, the results showed, animals that calved in fall season had greater performance than the others. Naturally, milk production of these animals reached production peak in winter when the weather and nutritional conditions are suitable for production.
Category: Biochemistry

[315] viXra:1709.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:39:27

The Prevalence of Coxofemoral Osteoarthritis in Small Dog Breeds and HD Screening in Cairn Terries A Clinical Radiological Study

Authors: Jens Arnbjerg
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: The prevalence of coxofemoral osteoarthritis being very high, > 40 %, in some large dog breeds. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoarthritic changes in the hip joints in small dog breeds and study the clinical relevance of Hip Dysplasia scoring in Cairn Terries in Denmark. Methods: In a five-year-period study of 2423 small dog breeds (< 15 kg) at the University Hospital, Copenhagen the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the hip joints was calculated A full clinical examination was performed and hip joint radiographs taken in 18 Cairn Terriers, earlier officially scored for hip dysplasia by The Danish Kennel Club, 13 of them with a score of C, D or E respectively
Category: Biochemistry

[314] viXra:1709.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:40:22

Effect of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection on Carcass Yield and Characteristics of Sudan Desert Sheep

Authors: Nazik Z Eisa, Salih A Babiker, Hamid S Abdalla
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study was conducted to detect the effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection along with age and level of energy on the carcass yield and characteristics of Sudan Desert sheep. Forty-eight lambs were divided into eight groups of 6 animals each and fattened for 60 days. A total of twenty four animals (3 from each group) were selected for slaughter at the end of the fattening process. The study revealed significant differences in slaughter weights (P < 0.05), carcass weights (P < 0.05) and carcass characteristics. Both hot and cold empty body weights and dressing percentages were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by internal parasitic infection and dietary energy level. Wholesale cuts yields and loin composition were not significantly affected by infection except for muscle percentage (P < 0.05).
Category: Biochemistry

[313] viXra:1709.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:50:32

Liposomes and Nanotechnology in Drug Development: Focus On Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Abdul Malik, Jin Wei, Abdul Raheem, Walidullah Adil, Lei Cui, Ji-Xiang Chen, Jian-Guo Qu, Min Gu, Sheng-Chun Dang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Pancreatic cancer usually has high morbidity and mortality and rests one of the most challenging cancers to treat. 5 years survival rate is less than 6 percent overall for people with pancreatic cancer, because of very late diagnosis and absence of effective treatment. In a western world, pancreatic tumor is the fourth most common cause of death in a western world. The pancreatic tumor needs selective delivery of drugs to target cells, with no side effects is major goals of the recent investigations for the real treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Medication which targets pancreatic tumor cells specially and carriers which deliver medications to specific cells which are quickly dividing, development of these kind drugs is considered as magic for the management of pancreatic cancer. In latest years, liposomes and nanotechnology can show a vital character in the treatment of pancreatic tumor. Liposomes contain multiple characteristics, such as the ability to protect the material from degradation, the capacity for encapsulating many materials and capability for delivering materials intracellularly fusion with plasma membrane. Nanoparticles as a carrier offer a new style of delivery of the medications to target cells of a tumor and allow drugs for the binding to tumor cell membrane, to cytoplasmic and to nuclear receptor sites. It delivers high medication concentrations to specific cells with few side effects to other normal tissues. The general importance of this evaluation is to increase overall understanding of development of the therapeutic nanomedicine for the treatment of pancreatic tumors, agents delivered by nanoliposomes, liposomal nanomedicine in targeting cancer and safety issues.
Category: Biochemistry

[312] viXra:1709.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:51:52

Α Cost of Illness Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Greece

Authors: Athanasakis K, Pliarchopoulou F, Reppas L, Brountzos E, Filippiadis D, Foukas P, Sidiropoulos O, Kyriopoulos J, Boumpas D, Chounta A
Comments: 3 Pages.

Background/Objective: Although often called a “silent disease”, HBV entails a significant disease and financial burden for the health system. An attempt to provide detailed estimates of the direct cost of this – rather neglected – disease in Greece comprised the objective of this study. Methods: The medical records of 254 patients diagnosed with HBV and monitored in the Hepatology Unit of the ‘Attikon’ university hospital provided the basis for the analysis. Detailed resource use data (physician visits, medications, labwork, and hospitalizations) were derived from the patients’ records for a retrospective 12month period, before their most recent visit to the clinic. Calculations followed a third-party payer perspective, according to official prices and tariffs, and are expressed in year 2015 Euros.
Category: Biochemistry

[311] viXra:1709.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:53:19

Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Patients Related Liver Cirrhosis in a Tertiary Care Referral Hospital, Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Muayad A Merza
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) related to liver cirrhosis is an advanced liver fibrosis that is usually progressive, irreversible, and the only option for the treatment is liver transplantation in selected patients Objectives: to examine the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with the chronic HBV related to cirrhosis. Methods: The viral hepatitis clinic in Azadi Teaching Hospital is dealing with all viral hepatitis cases. All patients with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic HBV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information of the patients were retrieved by interviewing and from the case notes of September in 2014 until December in 2016. Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) classification was used to evaluate the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Category: Biochemistry

[310] viXra:1709.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:55:05

Does Aberrant Hepatic Arterial Anatomy Affect Resection Margin Status In Pancreaticoduodenectomy For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma?

Authors: Patrick E Casey, Snehal Lapsia, Rosanna De Souza, Kariem El hadd, Zaria Ali, Ambareen Kausar, David Chang, Colin A Harris, Daren A Subar
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aims: Resection margin status impacts on survival after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This study aims to assess the incidence and association between aberrant hepatic arterial anatomy and resection margin status. Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2007 and 2012. Patient demographics, pathology data, and resection margin status (R) were analysed. Arterial anatomy based on contrast enhanced computed tomography as per Michels classification was delineated.
Category: Biochemistry

[309] viXra:1709.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:59:38

Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma A Space Occupying Lesion in the Liver: An Enigma for Diagnosis

Authors: Rajdeep B More, Irfan A Shera, Sitendu K Patel, Ashwini Kumar Setya, Vivek Raj
Comments: 3 Pages.

Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma are rare soft tissue sarcomas with about only about 60 cases reported in the English literature [1]. Due to its rare existence and less studied, the diagnostic algorithms and standards of care have not been adequately defined. This has led to a delayed diagnosis and subsequently a poor prognosis and survival of such patients. We herein present a 72 year old lady with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma treated with chemotherapy and attempt to delineate the line of management after reviewing the medical literature. Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma is a rare primary hepatic malignancy which is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. The standard treatment guidelines are yet to be established; large cohort database is needed for better understanding of disease behaviour and management.
Category: Biochemistry

[308] viXra:1709.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:05:32

Electrospinning of Guar Gum/Corn Starch Blends

Authors: Weiqiao Yang, Ana MM Sousa, Xihong Li, Peggy M Tomasula, LinShu Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, electrospun nanofibers were prepared for the first time, from aqueous blends of guar gum (GG) and corn starch with amylose contents of 27.8% (CS28) and 50% (CS50). The fiber morphology and fiber diameter sizes (FDS) were correlated with solution rheology. The spinning solutions were prepared with 3 wt% total concentration and mass ratios ranging from 4:1 to 1:4 GG/CS. The GG alone (3 wt%) was highly viscous and predominantly elastic (G’>G’’) over the range of tested frequencies. Both CS were effective rheological modifiers that facilitated the electrospinning process. Partial substitution of GG by CS decreased solution viscosity and moved the elastic plateau (G’=G’’) to higher frequencies resulting in improved fiber morphology and defectfree nanofibers with uniform FDS at an optimal GG/CS ratio of 2:1 for CS28 and of 1:1 for CS50. The sonication of CS50 prior to blending with GG was important to eliminate nanofiber defects. GG and CS are costattractive options to produce 100% food-grade electrospun nanofibers with potential to encapsulate active food ingredients and be used to develop functional foods and other active food systems.
Category: Biochemistry

[307] viXra:1709.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:06:39

Making the Nitrification Inhibitor with LatexChitosan Raw Material for Agricultural Fertilizers Products

Authors: Sudirman Habibie, Moh Hamzah, Ade Sholeh Hidayat, Eryanti Kalembang, Jaudin, Diah Ayu Fitriani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fertilizer is one of the priorities for the agricultural industry and it contributes about 15 to 30% in the cost structure of rice farming. Capacity of national urea production in Indonesia is about 8 million tons per year while the needs are about 9 million tons per year. According to the Ministry of Industry in 2015 urea production can be increased by 6% from the previous national urea production capacity. On the use of fertilizers in the field, however, lost of nutrients during fertilization in the field (paddy) occurs a lot, so the efficiency of fertilizer use is reduced partly due to nitrification and urease. Therefore, it needs innovation and technological development of efficient agricultural fertilizer currently need to modify fertilizers with coating technology of nitrification inhibitor on the surface of the fertilizer granules. In this study the nature polymers (latex and chitosan) are used as a raw material nitrification inhibitors, several studies have shown that chitosan has a performance as anti bacteria that can be applied in agriculture. The study of a material generally involves the characterization by SEM and FT-IR to determine the characteristics micrographics and molecular bonding group of materials including latex-chitosan. The results of the study nitrification inhibitor made from latex-derived chitosan found that optimum formula of latex-chitosan mixture is sample with the mixture of latex 20% and chitosan 80% and be compatible with the surface of agricultural fertilizer granule, and a layer of latex-chitosan capable of strengthening the structure of fertilizer granules when tested in water for 3 months. This latex-chitosan based fertilizer shown as slow release fertilizer (urea and NPK) and resistant to moisture.
Category: Biochemistry

[306] viXra:1709.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:07:31

Investigation on Photoluminescence Behaviour of 2, 3-Diphenylquinoxalin-6-Vinyl Benzaldehyde

Authors: R Padma, M Sathiya, S Guhanathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) is one of the most important classes of conjugated polymers, with a wide range of applications, such as lightemitting diodes, optoelectronic devices etc. Electroluminescence from OLEDs arises from the radioactive decay of excitation generated by the recombination of electrons and holes injection from two opposite electrodes into the emissive polymer layer. Quinoxaline is a useful n-type building block with high electron affinity and good thermal stability. It has been successfully incorporating small molecules to find utility as electron transport materials in multilayer OLEDs based on PPV. Hence, vinyl benzaldehyde containing quinoxaline derivatives was synthesized using 6-methyl-2, 3-diphenylquinoxaline with terephthaldicarboxaldehyde via Wittig reaction. The structures of synthesised compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, 1 H, 13C, 31P-NMR, and MASS spectral data. The result of photoluminescence studies showed that vinyl benzaldehyde capped quinoxaline exhibited green emission maxima at shorter wavelengths of 454nm.
Category: Biochemistry

[305] viXra:1709.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:08:19

An Insight into the Capability of Composite Technology to Enable Magnesium to Spread its Wings in Engineering and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Gupta M
Comments: 2 Pages.

Nature has various ways to inspire humans through a lot of its creations that researchers in different disciplines are trying to understand and mimic in order to enhance current state of technology and quality of life. From materials perspective, nature uses composites in its creations involving plants and animals with bone as a classical example.
Category: Biochemistry

[304] viXra:1709.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:09:13

Polyvinyl Alcohol-Nanobioceramic Based Drug Delivery System

Authors: Shameem Shaik, Seethalakshmi K, Kaviya M, Venkatachalapathy B, Sridhar TM
Comments: 6 Pages.

Drug delivery research today is an advanced and important area in pharmaceutical research and application of nanotechnology includes enhancement of the solubility and permeability of the drugs so as to improve their bioavailability including delivery to the targeted site. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) based bioceramic nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers have been used in the present work to develop an amoxicillin based delivery systems. The synthesized n-HAP powders were estimated for the Ca/p ratio. This ratio indicates the presence of HAP as a single phase. The nano structure, morphology and presence of vibrational groups are con- firmed using instrumental analysis. The SEM images show the spherical shaped particles of nano hydroxyapatite are confirmed. The loading and unloading characteristics of the drug were recorded spectro photometrically.
Category: Biochemistry

[303] viXra:1709.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 08:02:49

More About the Inconsistency Solution of the Maxwell Equations \ Еще о непротиворечивом решении уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.
Category: Classical Physics

[302] viXra:1709.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 11:15:52

Prognostic Systems

Authors: Christopher L. Andreadis
Comments: 15 Pages. A though experiment rooted in non-linear time.

This is a calibration procedure that is prefaced by a set of premises that led up to said procedure. It deals with the possibility that "cause preceded by effect" is greater than null at the macroscopic scale.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[301] viXra:1709.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 14:21:13

The Earth Moves with Light Velocity Relative to the Sun

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 56 Pages.

The Earth moves with C velocity (light velocity) relative to the Sun i.e. The light is produced by The Earth Motion, where The Earth transforms her motion mechanical waves into light waves, producing the light beams These light beams travel to the sun and reflect on her where the sun is just a mirror. The Earth Motion means and equal "The Solar Planets Daily Velocities Total based on a new time rate defined by the Earth".
Category: Astrophysics

[300] viXra:1709.0330 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 09:06:33

The Inglorious History of Thermodynamics

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 8 Pages. misspelling corrected.

Usually, physics students don't like thermodynamics: it is incomprehensible. They commonly get told to get used to it. Later on, as an expert, they'll find that the thermodynamic calculations come with surprises: sometimes evil, sometimes good. That can mean only one thing: The theory is inconsistent. In here, it will be shown where that is.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[299] viXra:1709.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 23:43:46

A Temporal Hydrogen Atom and Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to formulate a temporal electromagnetic field that can be produced by a temporal system, such as a temporal hydrogen atom in the temporal continuum. We also show that a temporal electromagnetic field can manifest itself not only in the temporal continuum but also in the spatial space.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[298] viXra:1709.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 07:54:10

Reply to “Unscientific Behavior of the Yark Theory of Gravitation” by C. Corda

Authors: T. Yarman, A. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik
Comments: 3 pages

We respond to one more attempt by Corda (vixra: 1709.0190v1) in criticizing the Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, and show the fallacious character of his aggression.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[297] viXra:1709.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 09:55:26

New Findings on Electron Emission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Even more than 100 years after Einstein's explanation of photoemission the process of electron emission from a solid material upon illumination with light still poses challenging surprises. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[296] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-23 02:56:19

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 14 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...
Category: Quantum Physics

[295] viXra:1709.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 06:35:05

Understanding Interference and Diffraction of Photons and Electrons: a New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 33 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose, it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons. (As the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons.)
Category: Quantum Physics

[294] viXra:1709.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:15:15

Mother of all Field Equations

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[293] viXra:1709.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:35:00

Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity-RF

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[292] viXra:1709.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:49:31

Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity-RF {Version 2}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[291] viXra:1709.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 06:08:47

Relativistic Spacetime Structures of a Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In our previous works on possible relationship between Schrödinger wavefunctions and spacetime structures of quantum particles we suggested that a Ricci scalar curvature for a particular quantum state of a quantum system could be constructed using the Schrödinger wavefunctions as mathematical objects. In this work we will extend our discussions by suggesting possible line elements that can be used to construct relativistic spacetime structures of a hydrogen atom. We also discuss the possibility to use a covariant Ricci flow as evolution equations to describe the dynamics of the hydrogen atom geometric structures.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[290] viXra:1709.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 07:10:19

Tunable Laser Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[289] viXra:1709.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 08:59:42

揭秘量子力学 (Demystifying Quantum Mechanics)

Authors: Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages. Thank you

(The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered due to the influence of social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have become subject to a number of sensationalized story lines, which we refer to here as “quantum mysticism”. In this paper we demonstrate a three-pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into the mathematical details here to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystification the discipline withholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechanics is an entirely rational, intuitive, and accessible discipline. The world is full of mystery; however, a discipline devoted to quantifying and rationalizing behaviors of certain specific systems is hardly the place to go searching for mystery.) 由于社会压力的影响,围绕着各种数学和物理技术的叙述而被熟知的量子力学遇到了挫折。这些理论及其预测能力的不可思议的力量已经变成了一些耸人听闻的故事情节,我们称之为“量子神秘主义”。本文对这些力量进行了三方面的反击。精确的使用准确的术语,用直观的方法描述离散和微观现象的行为,这有效地揭开了量子力学的神秘面纱。我们不会在这里讨论数学细节,以使我们的讨论能够被普通人所理解。在我们揭开了这个学科的神秘性之后,它拥有了不可思议的预测能力,同时又不会吓跑一个理性的思考者。事实上,量子力学是一个完全理性的、直观的、易于理解的学科。这个世界充满了神秘;然而,这门学科致力于对某些特定系统的行为进行量化和合理化,并不是去寻找神秘事物的地方
Category: Quantum Physics

[288] viXra:1709.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 10:05:49

Relativity: The Theory vs The Principle

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 13 Pages.

While it appears to be a common practice today to refer to the “Theory of Relativity” as if it were the same as the “Principle of Relativity,” according to Albert Einstein, his “Theory of Relativity” is that the “Principle of Relativity” is an illusion.
Category: Astrophysics

[287] viXra:1709.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 12:04:19

Oscillating Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[286] viXra:1709.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 12:43:43

A New Interpretation of Photon

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn , where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in the Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in the photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction
Category: Quantum Physics

[285] viXra:1709.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 14:29:41

Quantum Teleportation Patterns of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[284] viXra:1709.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 00:01:00

The Recursive Future Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version 2}. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[283] viXra:1709.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 03:38:04

The Distribution of Primes

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we find the axiomatic pattern of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[282] viXra:1709.0311 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-21 09:40:48

Standard Model from Broken Scale Invariance in the Infrared

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory. The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[281] viXra:1709.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 13:49:06

Calculation of the Sum for Sequence of Square Natural Numbers. Russian

Authors: Misha Mikhaylov
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is the Russian version of my previous publication.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[280] viXra:1709.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 15:19:35

The Dirac-Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We take a time in a spinorial manifold so that we can define a Dirac-Schrödinger equation when we remplace the derivative with respect to the time by the Dirac operator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[279] viXra:1709.0308 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 12:48:40

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》 1. Universal Topology

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. Remarkable groundbreakings in Unified Field Theory (2016-2017)

The workings of Universal Topology unfolds a duality of our natural world at the following remarks: i) Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single spacetime manifold; ii) Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements; iii) A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations; iv) Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of Potential Entanglements; and v) Commutation Infrastructure as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of Lorentz Generators, Pauli matrices, Electromagnetic Field Structures, Inertial Commutation Curvature, and General Relativity. Upon this inception, our Universal Topology is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[278] viXra:1709.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 19:35:33

The Existence of God: An Application of the Poisson Distribution

Authors: Charles M. Byrne
Comments: 13 pages, Keywords: God, evolution, mutation, recombination, genetics, molecular biology, naturalism, Poisson distribution

In his theory of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin provided a plausible alternative to Christianity's creation account of human origins. In response, the Christian botanist Asa Gray suggested to Darwin that the variation that drives evolution might be generated by God. Darwin rejected Gray’s hypothesis, invoking philosophical naturalism, a hallmark scientific paradigm. Darwin's conclusion was reached on ideological grounds rather than empirical ones. Biological evidence that emerged subsequent to Darwin’s time yields a different conclusion. A means to assess the question of the source of genetic variation is provided by fitting the Poisson distribution to counts of mutation and chromosome crossover events at the DNA sites where they occur. A general failure of fit between observational data and the Poisson distribution confirms an exception to the naturalistic paradigm, and thereby provides epistemic access to the existence of God.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[277] viXra:1709.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 03:02:58

Relativistic Invariance in Direct Derivation of a 4x4 Diagonal Matrix Schrodinger Equation from Relativistic Total Energy

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from total relativistic energy. Here, $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{q}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$. In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either. Instead, use is made of the algebra of operators. Proof is delivered that it is possible to derive Lorentz invariant forms in this way.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[276] viXra:1709.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 13:07:26

Calculation of the Sum for Sequence of Square Natural Numbers

Authors: Misha Mikhaylov
Comments: 2 Pages.

This sum for natural values is, of course, already calculated by Bernoulli himself – at least modern or relatively recent authors that deal with it usually refer to take into account Bernoulli numbers. But, apparently, this method is rather cumbersome. Therefore, there can be suggested another, easier way to do this, but without claiming of its superfluous rigidity.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[275] viXra:1709.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 07:24:33

Boys' Function Computed by Gauss-Jacobi Quadrature

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 48 Pages. Most of the content is the source code listing

Boys' Function F_m(z) that appears in the quantum mechanics of Gaussian Type Orbitals is a special case of Kummer's confluent hypergeometric function. We evaluate its integral representation of a product of a power and an exponential function over the unit interval with the numerical Gauss-Jacobi quadrature. We provide an implementation in C for real values of the argument z which basically employs a table of the weights and abscissae of the quadrature rule for integer quantum numbers m <= 129.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[274] viXra:1709.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 09:38:25

Invisible Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Transparent particles with extraordinarily high refractive indices can become almost invisible at wavelengths longer than the particle size, an A*STAR-led theoretical study has shown. [25] How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides.
Category: Condensed Matter

[273] viXra:1709.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 09:47:27

Microwaves Based on Mechanical Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Devices that allow to route microwave signals are essential engineering tools. In particular, isolators, which let signals flow in one direction but block them in the other, are needed to protect sensitive equipment from harm. [26] Transparent particles with extraordinarily high refractive indices can become almost invisible at wavelengths longer than the particle size, an A*STAR-led theoretical study has shown. [25] How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[272] viXra:1709.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 17:21:22

A First Class Analysis, and Dissemination of Information of the September 11th Attacks

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 11 Pages.

Considering Iran as one of the powerful propagators of radicalism mindset. In September 11, 2001, many American people were killed by terror attacks by several U.S. oppositions. A strong relationship between Palestine and jihadist groups with the Iranian government is existed. Sayyid Qutb, one of the earlier famous figures in Islam, had made an important role in issuing fatwas of jihad against the west, until he was executed in Egypt. And above all on the days of the incident the attackers were receiving strong support by western oppositions. Those days, Islamism in Europe had made strong connections with some Arabs and also Iranians. So, for example the al-Quds Mosque in Hamburg was not such an exception. There some attackers attended and met one another, forming the Hamburg cell. Al-Qaeda is an advocate of Islamic jihad. Prior to the Syrian war, Iranian government had between 2,000 and 3,000 IRGC officers stationed in Syria, helping to train local troops and managing supply routes of arms and money to neighboring Lebanon. Hezbollah trained al-Qaeda and U.S. partially trained Mujahideen. Even though PMOI and also supporters of Saddam Hussein and the Ba'athist Iraq from the west and supporters of jihad and the Taliban and other militias from the east were threatening Iranians, application of Islamic thesis about jihad around the world was necessary for all these countries. Here we shall investigate the real causes of this famous attack that happened several years ago in the American soil. Years after the attacks, a memorial was built in New York City. In addition to the one at Ground Zero, a number of other memorials have been built across the United States. Such as Flight 93 National Memorial, and Pentagon Memorial. Construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum began in August 2006. And it was opened to the general public in 2014. Just after the September 11 attacks President George W. Bush called it as “despicable acts of terror”. Today we are trying hard to stand against the will of the terrorists. Relatives of the victims of the attacks won’t ever forget such violations against humanity.
Category: Social Science

[271] viXra:1709.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 18:59:44

Why Ufos Are Depicted as Saucer Shaped

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 1 Page.

There is a definite reason for “Why UFOs are saucer shaped” and the shape itself has a clue in it for altering gravity. Kind of maneuvers the UFOs/space ships are expected to exhibit are only possible via shielding gravity, or altering the space curvature to say in other words. Therefore UFOs have to involve altered/anti gravity The natural result of gravity is spherical shape. All massive heavenly bodies are near spheres, barring the rotational bulges. Ignore the smaller bodies where there is not enough matter/gravity to cause a spherical shape. Sphere has this property of "Minimum surface area for a given volume". So, gravity is associated with a shape with "Minimum surface area for a given volume" i.e. sphere. Anti gravity (or gravity shielded) is associated with just the opposite - "Maximum surface area for a given volume". Of all shapes, saucer shape has "Maximum surface area for a given volume". Ideally, it is a sheet (plane) that has "Maximum surface area for a given volume", but the sheet would not have place inside it for carrying the stuff. It would not be possible to place gravity altering mechanism inside a sheet. Therefore the most practical shape that associates with altering gravity/space - is saucer shape. So, it is not just a co-incidence that the UFOs are depicted as saucer shaped. This is not to say that the space ships can not be other shapes. They can be and bigger space ships would more likely be other shapes. Once you have a gravity altering mechanism in a saucer shape, then it can be covered with bodies of other more suitable shapes for the purpose of longer travel and comfort, which would include creation of artificial gravity for living beings/things. The smallest (bare minimum) UFOs are more likely to be saucer shaped. These are suitable, and used, for entering the atmosphere of planets. Saucer shape is also more suitable for minimizing the damage by deflecting debris. Bigger ones can be saucer shaped, or any other shapes.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[270] viXra:1709.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 22:03:13

STOE Inertia

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photons is extended to model the inertia of mass. The characteristic of the plenum, hods, and their interactions yields the Newtonian characteristics of gravitational mass and inertial mass. The medium of the wave in the Hodge Experiment was the massless plenum. The plenum is the carrier of the inertia. The hods are the carrier of the gravitational mass. The Equivalence Principle is derived rather being assumed. Mach's Principle is inconsistent with the STOE.
Category: Classical Physics

[269] viXra:1709.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 23:18:05

Dualism of time in the SRT of Einstein

Authors: Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article it will be shown that in the moving frame of reference according to SRT two different time scales are observed. From this it follows that the "relativity of simultaneity" does not exist. Also from this follows the infidelity of the second postulate of Einstein on the constancy of the speed of light in all IFRs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[268] viXra:1709.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 01:14:28

Cosmophysics

Authors: Nikitin Aleksandr Pavlovich
Comments: 31 Pages.

Abstract This article presents the foundations of cosmodynamics - energy theory, which lays the foundation for a new paradigm of physical science, which allows to combine the modern theory of the microcosm and macrocosm. It is proposed to consider the motion of matter in space-time, i.e all of the changes and interactions, including gravity, taking place in the cosmos, not as a police cooperation body, charges, particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as displays and consequences of energy processes in the same cosmos. The measure of these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power, equal to Planck's constant. Proposed movement of matter in space to consider (to describe, reflect in our minds) as the movement of energy, as the energy dynamics of the vector field, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. On the basis of the theory developed by the energy available energy interpretation of the hydrogen atom, and all of baryonic matter, for example, the Earth and the Sun, when the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and "radiation" the energy flow vector material-energy field. Planck values are given in the dimensions LT system. It is alleged that the cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has nothing to do with the mythical "Big Bang".
Category: Classical Physics

[267] viXra:1709.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 06:46:03

Fermat’s Zero Theorem

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fermat’s zero theorem is stated as follows: It is impossible to separate a square of a difference of two natural numbers into two squares of differences, or a cube power of a difference into two cube powers of differences, or a fourth power of a difference into two fourth powers, or in general, any power higher than the first, into two like powers of differences.
Category: Number Theory

[266] viXra:1709.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 11:33:20

Cost Effective Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Canadian and US researchers have taken an important step towards enabling quantum networks to be cost-effective and truly secure from attack. [16] You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[265] viXra:1709.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 12:14:34

Cours de Géodésie Pour Les élèves Ingénieurs Option Géomatique

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 306 Pages. In French.

It a course notes of geodesy for the students of Geomatics Option of ESAT school.
Category: Geophysics

[264] viXra:1709.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 07:21:06

On Richard III's Y-DNA and Time-Asymmetric Mutation Rates

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 20 Pages.

A skeleton excavated in 2012 is almost certainly that of the English king, Richard III (1452 -1485), and mtDNA (which is passed from mother to child) extracted from the skeleton matches mtDNA taken from descendants of Richard's sister Anne of York. However Y-DNA (which is passed from father to son) extracted from the skeleton apparently doesn't match Y-DNA taken from descendants of Henry Somerset the 5th Duke of Beaufort, who according to history descended from Richard's 2nd great grand father Edward III (1312 - 1377). The implication according to geneticists, and the media, is that there is a "false paternity event" somewhere between Edward and the Somersets. In this note, a formula for calculating the time of the most recent common ancestor is introduced, and some of its consequences outlined. This formula is attached to a mathematical framework within which it is possible that the traditional genealogy is correct. If this framework is the right framework for understanding of genetic inheritance, then it has been wrongly assumed that Y-DNA mutation rates are like-line, constant and smooth - in reality they are wave-like and decrease erratically in the direction of the future, and the contrary impression is is an illusion created by an over-focus on the relatively constant and smooth nature of genetic change in the present and the near-present.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[263] viXra:1709.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 08:37:27

Slowing Down Light to Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Light travels fast – sometimes a little too fast when it comes to data processing. [25] Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[262] viXra:1709.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 09:13:07

Single-Photon Guns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[261] viXra:1709.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 04:47:04

Selected Papers de L'Ingénieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 94 Pages. In French.

This book concerns the tome III of the selected papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem that contains papers about: - the robust estimators, - the coordinates Fuseaux in Tunisia, - the problem of the movement of n body.
Category: General Mathematics

[260] viXra:1709.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 04:55:48

Special Rule for Certain Prime Numbers

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 2 Pages.

A quadratic equation for prime numbers is assumed to be true that satisfy the following four rules. Some prime numbers violate these rules. Whereas some non prime numbers satisfy the four rules. They are not prime, therefore to make them violate the fourth rule we need to study how to choose the value of m and n so as make the quadratic equation as the primes generating formula.
Category: Number Theory

[259] viXra:1709.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 06:50:53

Principal Directon Divising Partitioning Initialisation of K-Means Clustering Allows to Identify the Most Salient Genes in Discriminating Among Leukemias

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 35 Pages.

This paper attempts to cluster leukemia patients described by gene expression data, and to discover the most discriminating genes that are responsible for the clustering. A combined approach of Principal Direction Divisive Partitioning and bisect K-means algorithms is applied to the clustering of the investigated leukemia dataset. Both unsupervised and supervised methods are considered in order to get optimal result. The combination of PDDP and bisect K-means successfully clusters leukemia patients, and efficiently discovers salient genes able to the discriminate the clusters. The combined approach works well on the automatic clustering of leukemia patients depending merely on the gene expression information, and it has great potential on solving similar problems, like classifying pancreatic tumors. The salient identified genes may thus enhance relevant information for discriminating among leukemias.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[258] viXra:1709.0285 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-20 07:40:31

An Iterated LP Approach to the Exact Computation of the Partition Function in General Markov Random Field Models

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 21 Pages. improved version

In a recent paper (I. Bechar, 2017), we have shown that one may efficiently compute the marginals of a general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) model with respect to an arbitrary collection of point subsets by solving a single linear program. Therefore, in this paper, we build on such a work for showing that the partition function of a general higher-order MRF model may, in turn, be computed both in an exact and efficient way, by iteratively solving, at most, $n$ linear programs, with $n$ standing for the number of nodes in the graph representation of a MRF model. This is, first, achieved by establishing a recursive formula between the partition function of a given MRF model and the one of another (one-node smaller) MRF model resulting from the pruning of any of the nodes of the graph of the former. Then, we show that the problem amounts to solving successive and increasingly simpler MRF marginal inference problems, and thus, one may use the approach developed in (I. Bechar, 2017) for solving such MRF marginal inference problems.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[257] viXra:1709.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 16:19:25

Unification

Authors: Benjamin Allen Sullivan
Comments: 25 Pages.

Cette publication comprend deux équations dérivées et extrapolées à partir d’un livre que j’ai créé en 2015/2016: Probabilité, Mécaniques quantiques, et Probabilité-Quanta. Le dernier est composé de plusieurs pensées expérimentales et de postulats. J’y ai inclus des numérisations de la publication originale afin d’illustrer mon travail et dans l’espoir de réaliser ces expériences.
Category: Quantum Physics

[256] viXra:1709.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 19:46:40

Negative Entropy and Reverse Arrow of Time for a Parallel Antimatter Universe.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 1 Page. Reason on Dr. Guths exponential inflation.

Balloon inside balloon theory published as comments in year 2004.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[255] viXra:1709.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 20:00:56

On the Kakeya Conjecture

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we will prove a theorem that implies the Kakeya conjecture.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[254] viXra:1709.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 23:14:13

Electrostatic Field Control Osmotic Pressure, to Achieve "The Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine" Experimental Report

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the case of zero current, only ± 32V of the electrostatic field reversal, it brought the liquid level up to about 30cm significant dramatic changes.Where does the energy that causes the liquid level change?Experimental facts seem to have been presented for the human "second type of perpetual motion machine"?!
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[253] viXra:1709.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 23:55:22

Quantum Metaphysics: the Hydrogen Atom the Heart of the Universe !?

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 12 Pages.

Abstract This paper presents an energy interpretation of quantum theory. It is proposed to deal with all the changes and interactions (including gravity) is not as power bodies interaction of charges of particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as the manifestations and consequences of energy processes in a unified cosmos. Measure these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power equal to Planck's constant. The motion of matter in the universe is seen as the dynamics of the vector field of energy, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. Energy is proposed interpretation of the hydrogen atom, in which the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and the radiation energy flux vector material-energy field. Planck values are shown in the dimensions of the LT. It is argued that a cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has no relation to the mythical "Big Bang". Shows the energy interpretation of the fine structure constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[252] viXra:1709.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 00:15:24

Ray of Light Near the Sun: the Energy View

Authors: Nikitin A. P.
Comments: Pages.

It is explained the deviation of the light beam in the gravitational field of the Sun from energy considerations, when all the changes and interactions, including gravitational ones, are considered not as force interactions or geometric manifestations of the curvature of space-time, but as manifestations and consequences of the motion of matter, described as the motion of energy in space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[251] viXra:1709.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 02:48:22

Optical and Electrical Bistability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, serving as building blocks of switches, logic gates and memories in computer systems. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[250] viXra:1709.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 07:10:58

Understanding Cellular Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of Caltech scientists has uncovered a molecular code that cells use to communicate with each other. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[249] viXra:1709.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 07:46:10

Light Bandwidth Ceiling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[248] viXra:1709.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 08:23:30

Drops of Quark-Gluon Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[247] viXra:1709.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 08:45:54

Ultra-Fast 3D Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A new microscope can capture 3-D images of live organisms in real time. It's called the QIs-scope, an innovation from a spinoff of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), 4D Nature. The microscope can be used in biomedical research or to improve clinical diagnosis procedures. [22] Scientists have developed a camera that can see through the human body. [21] A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are.
Category: Physics of Biology

[246] viXra:1709.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 09:35:00

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Klein-Gordon Equation in Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 20 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[245] viXra:1709.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 13:03:59

Electromagnetic Line Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new mode of electromagnetic wave called a "line wave," which travels along an infinitely thin line along the interface between two adjacent surfaces with different electromagnetic properties. [25] The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[244] viXra:1709.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 05:06:33

Turning Optical Data into Readable Soundwaves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[243] viXra:1709.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 06:39:04

Cells Programmed to Fight Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[242] viXra:1709.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 14:07:17

Nanoscale Optical Quantum Memory Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[241] viXra:1709.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 14:15:43

„Geomagnetic Pole” Shift Should Reduce Apsidal Precession Speed of Earth’s Orbit

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

Perihelion precession of planets is explained here in terms of vortical рhysics and mass-dynamic forces. Weakening of „geomagnetic” field should weaken Earth’s vortex and therefore- slow down perihelion precession of Earth’s orbit. Taking in account this should be important for asteroide threat calculations in advance.
Category: Classical Physics

[240] viXra:1709.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 19:16:04

E8 Real Forms and Evolution of our Universe

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(8) symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[239] viXra:1709.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 00:04:29

Zero.probabilystic Foundation Oftheoretyical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 54 Pages.

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[238] viXra:1709.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 01:09:08

GRT Experiment: Supernova Sn1987a (100 Years of General Relativity GTR) Nikitin Aleksandr Ltd. "Kamproekt" 423814, Russia, Naberezhnye Chelny, Moskovsky Prospekt, 98, e-Mail: Anikitinaaa@mail.ru Abstract General Relativity (GRT), Created by the Genius of

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: Pages.

Abstract General relativity (GRT), created by the genius of Einstein from 1907 to 1915 as a geometric theory of gravity, developing special theory of relativity (STR), has been 100 years does not rest and excites minds. Since then, it performed many experiments to confirm with great accuracy GRT. In this paper, we propose to draw attention to the possibility of direct experimental verification of the dependence of the velocity of light by the gravitational potential, what Einstein wrote in 1911 in his article «On the effect of gravity on light propagation» [1, V1, p.172 ]. We assume that nature itself has put this experiment in space in the presence of "dark matter", namely: February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud broke out amazing supernova SN1987A, from which the light came to Earth 2h 47m later neutrinos. On the basis of numerous observations are given an explanation of this fact in terms of changing the speed of light neutrinos, and depending on the time-varying gravitational potential of the Universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[237] viXra:1709.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 01:22:30

On the Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants Nikitin A.p. Russia, Moscow, e-Mail: Anikitinaaa@mail.ru

Authors: Aleksandr Nikitin
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[236] viXra:1709.0261 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-23 06:11:49

Michelson and Morley Experiment Does not Validate Length Contraction

Authors: Ziaedin Shafiei
Comments: 10 Pages. Version 2 - 23 Sep 2017

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer. This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction, and time dilation, as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment. Subsequently, the constancy of the speed of light becomes uncorroborated by the experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[235] viXra:1709.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 12:39:48

Self-Interacting Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Self-Interacting Dark Matter " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[234] viXra:1709.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-19 07:26:35

On Quantum Mechanics: Does G-d Throw Dice?

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[233] viXra:1709.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:33:28

Fermat's Theorem. Proof by 2 Operations

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages.

The essence of the contradiction. The hypothetical Fermat's equality is contradictory between the second digits of the factors of the number А.
Category: Number Theory

[232] viXra:1709.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:35:16

Fermat's Theorem. Proof by 2 Operations French

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. French version

The essence of the contradiction. The hypothetical Fermat's equality is contradictory between the second digits of the factors of the number А.
L'égalité de Fermat est contradictoire entre les deuxièmes chiffres des facteurs du nombre A.
Category: Number Theory

[231] viXra:1709.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:36:32

Fermat's Theorem. Proof by 2 Operations Russian

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian version

The essence of the contradiction. The hypothetical Fermat's equality is contradictory between the second digits of the factors of the number А.
Суть противоречия. Равенство Ферма противоречиво по вторым цифрам сомножителей числа А.
Category: Number Theory

[230] viXra:1709.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:43:36

When Were Hydrocarbons Really Formed?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 MS paint diagram

Establishment dogma has a false worldview, which compounds into hundreds of false smaller theories, models and guesses. They accept that hydrocarbons found in oil and natural gas form as a by-product of decaying life. This is false. Oil and natural gas formed alongside the beginning formation of life itself. It can even be argued that oil/natural gas formed even slightly before life began. This would render the accepted decaying organic material dogma false. Explanation is provided.
Category: Biochemistry

[229] viXra:1709.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 07:14:29

Looks Deeper into Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Scientists are now able to observe a never before seen atomic transformation that may take place in many catalytic reactions, thanks to researchers at Binghamton University and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[228] viXra:1709.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 07:45:10

"Experimentally Proven": the Big Fallacy of Theoretical Physics.

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation. If the prevailing model cannot explain new experimental data because of its imperfections, theorists add to the model fictitious entities and helpmates which are defined on the basis of the new experimental data, so that the new experimental data can now be calculated with the modified model. Remaining contradictions are camouflaged as good as possible to make the model consistent. If later on calculated data obtained indirectly from new experiments are consistent with the fictitious entities and helpmates, theorists conclude that this is the prove that the fictitious entities and helpmates really exist. The conclusion is a fallacy because it ignores that the model was previously made consistent, what means that all data obtained through experiments and calculations must be explained with the model, otherwise the model would not be consistent. Adding more and more fictitious entities and helpmates to an imperfect model makes it, with the time, more and more complex, untrustworthy and non-physical and finally a radically new model is required to overcome these problems.
Category: Classical Physics

[227] viXra:1709.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 11:25:39

DNA Nanorobot

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[226] viXra:1709.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 14:19:28

Scalar Theory of Everything Model for Steering Humanity's Growth

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 12 Pages.

We are at a critical time in the evolution of our understanding of the physics of the universe and the evolution of the growth of humanity. Humans lack sufficient knowledge to predict outcomes of their actions. The long-term growth of science and humanity has been by trial-and-error. Life observations are applied to determine new science principles. The process and practice of science and the Scalar Theory of Everything model are applied to suggest how humanity can grow. New fundamental principles of science are proposed. The human species is at such a level that it must reorganize the national and international structure to allow competition and change. Inhibiting change is not an option. Nature's law is grow or die. The measure of success in nature is survival. The national military authority must obey and enforce nature's laws. Competition must be allowed between religions, between approaches to technology, between approaches to society, and between approaches to the environment. Humanity should steer the future by creating a true nation organization. The best state that humanity can achieve is to be able to adapt to changes without the destruction of war or of national collapse.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[225] viXra:1709.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 06:15:04

A Harmonic Oscillator in a Potential Energy Proportional to the Square of the Second Derivative of the Coordinate with Respect to Time

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 12 Pages.

In search to construct a Lagrangian functional of a damped harmonic oscillator I thought to study higher derivatives of coordinates with respect to time in the Lagrangian of a simple harmonic oscillator by adding a term proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time in its Lagrangian. In Newtonian mechanics a damping term is added directly to the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, whereas in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics (Analytical Mechanics as opposed to Vectroial Mechanics of Newton) adding a term to the Lagrangian of the simple harmonic oscillator wouldn’t reveal whether the term is a damping driving or a forced driving agent until one study the solutions of the equation of motion. Here, The Euler-Lagrange and equation of motion of a harmonic oscillator in a potential energy proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time have been formulated and discussed. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing the partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations.
Category: Classical Physics

[224] viXra:1709.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 10:26:26

Simulating the Idling Behavior of Escherichia Coli

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

Until now, it is not known how the motors of E. coli reverse the direction of rotation, mostly simultaneously. If the C-ring is bistable and if the number of bound CheY-P depends on the direction of rotation, there is a strong variation in the concentration of CheY-P in the cytoplasm. Then, the synchronous changeover can be explained without further additional assumptions.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[223] viXra:1709.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 04:30:43

Relaxing Electrons in Solids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[222] viXra:1709.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 04:50:26

Nonmetallic Half-Metallicity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The microscopic mechanism proposed by the researchers differs significantly from the usual half-metal model based on a strong electron-electron interaction. [35] Now an international team by Nagoya University has developed a new way of controlling the domain structure of ferroelectric materials, which could accelerate development of future electronic and electro-mechanical devices. [34] The unusual crystal structures of these materials have regions in their lattices, called domains, that behave like molecular switches. [33] A new way of operating the powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has enabled researchers to detect and measure fluctuations in magnetic structures being considered for new data storage and computing technologies. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[221] viXra:1709.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 13:21:02

Demystifying Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages. Chinese Translation of Existing Paper

The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered under the influence of various social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have thus become subject to a number of sensationalized storylines, which we refer to here as quantum mysticism. In this paper we demonstrate a three pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into mathematical details, to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystificaion the discipline witholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechnics is entirely a rational, intuitive, and learnable discipline, no more subject to mysticism than any other aspect of the world around us. If you think you don't understand quantum mechanics, it's probably because you don't understand quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[220] viXra:1709.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 14:25:28

Universe According to the Stoe

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 36 Pages.

We are at a special moment in our scientific evolution that requires the big of cosmology and the small of light and of particle physics be united by a single model. The Scalar Theory of Everything model (STOE) suggests fundamental assumptions with consideration for the successful parts of current models and for the data inconsistent with current models. The STOE is simpler, corresponds to both General Relativity and quantum mechanics, and solves many current mysteries and inconsistencies. Data comparisons with redshift, discrete redshift, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, universe temperature, and the double slit experiment are successful. Therefore, the STOE is founded on orthodox science. Data analysis in 2011 confirmed predictions of the STOE made in 2006 that no other model suggested. A new test of the double slit experiment rejected the wave model of light and confirmed predictions of the STOE. The fundamental principles are applied to life and the purpose of life in our universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[219] viXra:1709.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 04:30:58

Exact Marginal Inference in General Markov Random Field Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 36 Pages. added the omitted nonnegativity constraint on the pseudo-marginals in LP (16)

This paper addresses the problem of exact marginal inference in general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) models. This is a fundamental AI problem, yet, renowned for its hardness. Nevertheless, by introducing an algebraic framework (referred to as the ortho-marginal framework)--which turns out to be, at once, a general approximation framework of discrete functions with arbitrary accuracy by means of their sets of margins, as well as a a principled means for modeling sets of locally consistent functions from a global perspective-- we are able to devise a linear programming approach which can solve the marginal inference problem for any instance of the MRF model both exactly and efficiently.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[218] viXra:1709.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 03:01:55

Exact Map Inference in General Higher-Order Graphical Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 50 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the problem of exact MAP inference in general higher-order graphical models by means of a traditional linear programming relaxation approach. In fact, the proof that we have developed in this paper is a rather simple algebraic proof being made straightforward, above all, by the introduction of two novel algebraic tools. Indeed, on the one hand, we introduce the notion of delta-distribution which merely stands for the difference of two arbitrary probability distributions, and which mainly serves to alleviate the sign constraint inherent to a traditional probability distribution. On the other hand, we develop an approximation framework of general discrete functions by means of an orthogonal projection expressing in terms of linear combinations of function margins with respect to a given collection of point subsets, though, we rather exploit the latter approach for the purpose of modeling locally consistent sets of discrete functions from a global perspective. After that, as a first step, we develop from scratch the expectation optimization framework which is nothing else than a reformulation, on stochastic grounds, of the convex-hull approach, as a second step, we develop the traditional LP relaxation of such an expectation optimization approach, and we show that it enables to solve the MAP inference problem in graphical models under rather general assumptions. Last but not least, we describe an algorithm which allows to compute an exact MAP solution from a perhaps fractional optimal (probability) solution of the proposed LP relaxation.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[217] viXra:1709.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 02:37:18

Density Functional Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Kohn-Sham density functional theory is one of the most successful theories in chemistry. [19] Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18] Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[216] viXra:1709.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 04:01:45

Optical Nanosensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[215] viXra:1709.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 12:41:26

Portable Electrocaloric Cooling Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[214] viXra:1709.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 13:16:37

Quantum Computers Threaten Encrypted Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The era of full-fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it. [17] Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[213] viXra:1709.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 08:19:27

Finding 'internal Clock' Within Live Human Cells

Authors: Philip Maulion
Comments: 6 Pages.

The ultimate, elementary, internal clock, of the living world seems to have been discovered. If we refer to the discoveries of the neuroscientists and biologists, the human being has an endogenous clock that made him a transmitter of the beat of time. This essential beat is estimated at 10-25 second and is that what we are able to measure it? If so, no need to search a source in Nature. The time would be unreal. But the 'Presence' of the ‘Thinking Being’ is a first reality. If not, there is none knowledge's statement possible in physical science as in any other science. Ref. viXra:1211.0149 ; viXra:1301.0157 ; viXra:1307.0018. philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr
Category: Quantum Physics

[212] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 09:52:02

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[211] viXra:1709.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:01:14

Light Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1709.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:16:28

Examination of MAXLOW’S Model for Expansion Tectonics – an Astronomical Perspective

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe
Comments: 10 Pages.

While not drawing any conclusion regarding the validity of the theory that Earth has undergone volumetric (and mass) expansion over the course of its geologic history, this paper examines one of the leading contenders' models for just such growth, that of James Maxlow ("Global Tectonic Data Modeling," Terella Press, Australia [2017]). Maxlow’s extensive analysis of (paleo-)geology, paleomagnetics, space geodetics, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleobiology, fossil fuels, past extinctions and metallogenics suggest that Earth’s radius has grown exponentially over the past 1.6 x 109 years by a factor of 3.75, with sufficient increase in mass to ensure that surface gravity has not decreased, and quite possibly has increased. A much more cursory examination of this assumption from the perspective of astronomical physics, particularly conservation of Earth’s orbital and rotational angular momentum, suggests a much more “modest” rate of increase, not necessarily exponential. And, while quite limited in comparison to Maxlow’s analysis, this simplified one still raises apparently valid discrepancies that should be addressed. Hopefully, further research and analysis, or validation of different assumptions, can bring these two competing arenas into closer agreement.
Category: Geophysics

[209] viXra:1709.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:21:16

Plausibility of Shaw’s “Aether Concept of Gravity”

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shaw has proposed an aether explanation for gravity, publishing several papers over the current decade (see http://www.duncanshaw.ca/). These have evolved into his “Aether Concept of Gravity,” by which inflowing aether into cosmic bodies produces an accelerating “ram force” that manifests as the “attractive” gravitational force without the need to postulate “action at a distance.” While examination of the full theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it is feasible to examine three of the key aspects which lend themselves to modeling in the form of mathematical constructs. While no attempt is made to explain the physics behind Shaw’s theory, an investigation into its plausibility, at least from a mathematical perspective, is undertaken and appears to support at least this level of plausibility.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[208] viXra:1709.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:29:53

A 3-Dimensional Excursion Through 2-Dimensional “Flatland” as an Analogy for 4-Dimensional Light and Coulombic Force in Three Dimensions

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, P.e.
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 19th century novella “Flatland” has often inspired comparisons of inter-dimensional phenomena, particularly how phenomena in dimension n + 1 would be manifested to observers restricted to dimension n. With n = 2, a possible analogy for the phenomena of light and Coulombic repulsion and attraction is examined for its potential extension to n = 3, given the impossibility of our even physically imagining a fourth dimension, purely spatial (i.e., not-temporal, in contrast to Einstein’s time or space-time) like the three we know (length, width and height).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[207] viXra:1709.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:41:43

Microworld 37. Quantum Reveries of “METALLIC” Hydrogen

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The Internet reports Harvard University physicists for the first time ever have derived “metallic” hydrogen.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[206] viXra:1709.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 10:00:47

Time, Space and Constant Speed of Light with Questionable Relativity.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 1 Page. Reality with time.

Are we following the right path by applying relativity for the larger universe?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[205] viXra:1709.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 10:22:10

New Way to Manipulate Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In a pioneering effort to control, measure and understand magnetism at the atomic level, researchers working at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have discovered a new method for manipulating the nanoscale properties of magnetic materials. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[204] viXra:1709.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-21 10:05:49

On the Trouble With Physics

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[203] viXra:1709.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 05:23:56

A Minor Theorem Related with the Fermat Conjecture

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is obtained a minor theorem related with the Fermat conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[202] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 11:38:01

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[201] viXra:1709.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 13:26:42

Terahertz-Speed Polarization Optical Switch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A Sandia National Laboratories-led team has for the first time used optics rather than electronics to switch a nanometer-thick thin film device from completely dark to completely transparent, or light, at a speed of trillionths of a second. [26] Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[200] viXra:1709.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:26:18

Quantum Gravity Without Additional Theory: Compatibility of Schwarzschild Metric and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: Pages.

The current notion of spacetime is marked by three assumptions which are in contradiction to special relativity and to the Schwarzschild metric, and this is the reason why the quantization of spacetime cannot work. Instead, the key to quantum gravity is the limitation of the notion of spacetime to its actual role, by the means of three insights: 1. Spacetime is not continuous, in particular not in spacelike direction, and thus it cannot be quantized. 2. For the solution of fundamental problems of physics about time, we must consider the notion of proper time instead of the coordinate time of spacetime. 3. Gravitation may be represented by Schwarzschild metric not only as the curved spacetime, but alternatively also as gravitational time dilation in absolute, uncurved space. From these three insights are following the characteristics of quantum gravity. The result: Gravity appears within quantum mechanics in the form of gravitational time dilation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[199] viXra:1709.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:32:12

Gravité Quantique Sans Théorie Supplémentaire :La Compatibilité de la Métrique de Schwarzschild et de la Mécanique Quantique

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: Pages.

La notion actuelle de l'espace-temps est marquée par trois présomptions qui ne sont pas compatibles avec les principes de la relativité restreinte et de la métrique de Schwarzschild, et c'est la raison pourquoi la quantification de l'espace-temps ne peut pas fonctionner. Pour arriver au but, il est important de limiter l'espace-temps à son véritable rôle, fondé sur trois conclusions : 1. L'espace-temps n'est pas continu, il n'y a notamment pas de continuité dans la direction genre espace, et pour cette raison toute tentative de sa quantification doit échouer. 2. Pour les problèmes fondamentaux de la physique par rapport au temps, il faut se baser sur la notion fondamentale du temps propre au lieu de la notion du temps coordonné de l'espace-temps. 3. La gravitation peut être représentée par la métrique de Schwarzschild non seulement sous forme d'espace-temps courbe, mais aussi sous la forme de la dilatation de temps gravitationnelle dans l'espace absolu, non courbé. A partir de ces trois conclusions il est possible de déduire les caractéristiques de la gravité quantique. Le résultat : La gravité agit dans la mécanique quantique en tant que dilatation de temps gravitationnelle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[198] viXra:1709.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:35:01

Quantengravitation Ohne Zusätzliche Theorien: Vereinbarkeit Von Schwarzschildmetrik Und Quantenmechanik

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: Pages.

Der heutige Raumzeitbegriff wird von drei Annahmen geprägt, die im Widerspruch zur speziellen Relativitätstheorie und zur Schwarzschildmetrik stehen, und dies ist der Grund, warum eine Quantisierung der Raumzeit nicht funktionieren kann. Zum Ziel führt stattdessen die Beschränkung der Raumzeit auf ihre eigentliche Rolle, anhand von drei Erkenntnissen: 1. Die Raumzeit ist nicht stetig, insbesondere nicht in raumartiger Richtung, und daher nicht quantifizierbar. 2. Für fundamentale Probleme der Physik zum Thema Zeit muss man auf den fundamentaleren Begriff der Eigenzeit abstellen, nicht jedoch auf die Koordinatenzeit der Raumzeit. 3. Gravitation lässt sich von der Schwarzschildmetrik nicht nur in der gekrümmten Raumzeit darstellen, sondern auch als gravitative Zeitdilatation im absoluten, ungekrümmten Raum. Aus diesen drei Erkenntnissen ergeben sich die Merkmale der Quantengravitation. Das Ergebnis: Gravitation wirkt im absoluten Raum der Quantenmechanik als gravitative Zeitdilatation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[197] viXra:1709.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:52:53

Gravitational "Anomalies" Caused by Shapiro Delayed Traveling Energy Quanta Around Galactic and Cosmic Scale Structures

Authors: Jose Gregorio Baquero
Comments: 13 Pages.

In 1964, Irwin Shapiro pointed out that electromagnetic waves traveling near a gravitational well of a star were delayed due to relativistic Gravitational Time Dilation (GTD). This paper proposes that traveling energy quanta (mainly vacuum energy and gravitational waves, as well as neutrinos, electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, stellar winds, and all other kinds of waves and relativistic particles yet to be discovered) accumulate in a Density Wave like mechanism around the galactic and cosmic scale structures because of Shapiro Delay. Ultimately, the accumulative effect is a substantial increase in energy density when seen from frames of reference far from the regions where it occurs. The higher energy density is imperceptible for an observer within its own frame of reference since the proposed mechanism nature is relativistic. The higher concentration of travelling energy quanta around galaxies and galaxy clusters is creating extra gravitational distortion in spacetime with its mass equivalent. The Relativistically Accumulated Mass Equivalent Mechanism (RAMEN), using the proposed model, matches without free parameters the tested local group galaxy rotation curves for all orbits using the same traveling energy density value. The paper proposes how all observations of “Dark Matter” can be easily explained by RAMEN. It predicts the existence of a Universe Traveling Energy Density in disagreement by several orders of magnitude with currently accepted Universe Critical Energy Density. The paper discusses how the Casimir Effect experiments directly confirm with less than 5% disagreement with Quantum Field Theory the existence of higher energy densities in the vacuum. It also discusses how we may have misunderstood the nature of the predominant form of energy in the universe and that have prevented us from understanding the gravitational anomalies attributed to “Dark Matter”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[196] viXra:1709.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 21:42:22

Spin toe

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

This is a toe that explanis the reasons for movement of masses in the universe and gravity
Category: Classical Physics

[195] viXra:1709.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 01:40:11

Local Time Theory

Authors: G. Stranathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternate way of thinking of 'empty' space and its interactions with matter, which may further explain certain mechanics of the universe, such as the behaviors of light, gravity and other forces. This paper will serve as a placeholder to communicate the general concepts until I am able to refine it further.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[194] viXra:1709.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:10:07

A Hypothesis About the Origin of Superconductivity

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 2 Pages.

I try to obtain the quantum origin of superconductivity
Category: Condensed Matter

[193] viXra:1709.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:11:16

Quantum Thinking Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[192] viXra:1709.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:37:32

Photonic Molecule based Higgs Photonic Knots of Different Masses the Origin of Future Lightsaber use?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 14 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for an alternative Photonic Molecule based Higgs particle of different masses ( recent LHC measurements) based on different geometrical structures. At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, the planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a topological superconductive vacuum. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless singular transformer but rigid string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z and Higgs particles of different masses and even ball lightning and other black hole nuclei. If we assume that different massive Higgs particle knots are the origin of different evaporation times, then there is reason to assume that the trajectory lengths measured from the source, before evaporation are covariant, without any radiation curvature. Reason to suggest that the idea to use such a process for “lightsaber” projects with restricted length has some logic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[191] viXra:1709.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 07:17:15

De Eenvoud Van de Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.
Category: Quantum Physics

[190] viXra:1709.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 09:49:31

Molecule's Energy using a Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Simulating molecules on quantum computers just got much easier with IBM's superconducting quantum hardware. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[189] viXra:1709.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 15:27:20

Physical Simplicity

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[188] viXra:1709.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 05:45:18

Conclusion Explained to the Theory of Contraction of the Universe with the Speed of Light 1

Authors: Dan Aurelian Ivan
Comments: 1 Page.

Conclusion explained to the of ,,Contraction of the universe with the speed of light theory" 1
Category: Classical Physics

[187] viXra:1709.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 06:46:27

Analyzing Huge Volumes of Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[186] viXra:1709.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 13:40:05

Photon Diffraction and Interference

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 30 Pages.

Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle--like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the fractal philosophy are combined. The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by toy computer experiments. The simulations include photons from a distance, in Young's experiment, and from a laser. The patterns on the screens show diffraction patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[185] viXra:1709.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 13:44:29

Pioneer Anomaly Predictions Confirmed

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 1 Page.

The STOE explains many mysterious phenomena from diverse observational disciplines. Some predictions of the STOE in 2006 concerning the Pioneer Anomaly (PA) that no other model predicted have been published in 2009 and 2011.
Category: Astrophysics

[184] viXra:1709.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 18:25:56

The Gravity Theory of Mass Extinction

Authors: John Stojanowski
Comments: 11 Pages.

The cause of mass extinctions is a subject that has been debated for well over a hundred years. Currently, the two prime suspects are bolide impact and volcanism, specifically flood basalt eruptions referred to as Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Bolide impact has only been associated with one of the Big Five mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous Period whereas four of the Big Five mass extinctions have unquestionably been associated with LIPs as is the case for other major extinctions. Based upon the above, volcanic association with mass extinction is hypothesized to have had its lethal effect via global warming, global cooling, anoxia and hypoxia. However, the problem with the volcanogenic extinction hypothesis is that the onset of eruptions in the mid-Phanerozoic eon slightly postdates the main phase of extinctions.09,14 This paper introduces a third theory to explain the mass extinctions, the Gravity Theory of Mass Extinction (GTME)01, which is able to explain the primary cause of the extinctions, which is not volcanogenic and not the result of bolide impact. It is also able to explain why LIPs are associated with most of the extinctions as well as geomagnetic reversals and massive changes in sea level. In addition, it offers a reason why a bolide impact occurred near the end of the Cretaceous Period.
Category: Geophysics

[183] viXra:1709.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 23:28:20

Dialogues on Various Relativistic Paradoxes

Authors: Francois Leyvraz
Comments: 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[182] viXra:1709.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 20:59:32

The Nature of Mind

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 11 Pages. An essay response to FQXi's asking whether mindless math can give rise to purpose.

Does purpose arise from 'mindless math'? Humans are self-aware and aware of their surroundings, thus conscious. The Darwinian Credo holds that consciousness emerges from increasing complexity. The alternative is an inherently conscious, purposeful universe. How does one decide this issue? The basis of physics is experience, so we analyze mind from this perspective.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[181] viXra:1709.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:17:17

A Critical Path Problem Using Triangular Neutrosophic Number

Authors: Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Baset, Yongquan Zhou, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Critical Path Method (CPM) is one of several related techniques for planning and managing of complicated projects in real world applications. In many situations, the data obtained for decision makers are only approximate, which gives rise of neutrosophic critical path problem. In this paper, the proposed method has been made to find the critical path in network diagram, whose activity time uncertain. The vague parameters in the network are represented by triangular neutrosophic numbers, instead of crisp numbers. At the end of paper, two illustrative examples are provided to validate the proposed approach.
Category: General Mathematics

[180] viXra:1709.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:20:17

A Lattice Theoretic Look: A Negated Approach to Adjectival (Intersective, Neutrosophic and Private) Phrases

Authors: Selcuk Topal, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to provide a contribution to Natural Logic and Neutrosophic Theory. This paper considers lattice structures built on noun phrases. Firstly, we present some new negations of intersective adjectival phrases and their settheoretic semantics such as non-red non-cars and red non-cars. Secondly, a lattice structure is built on positive and negative nouns and their positive and negative intersective adjectival phrases. Thirdly, a richer lattice is obtained from previous one by adding neutrosophic prefixes neut and anti to intersective adjectival phrases. Finally, the richest lattice is constructed via extending the previous lattice structures by private adjectives (fake, counterfeit). We call these lattice classes Neutrosophic Linguistic Lattices (NLL).
Category: General Mathematics

[179] viXra:1709.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:22:15

An Efficient Image Segmentation Algorithm Using Neutrosophic Graph Cut

Authors: Yanhui Guo, Yaman Akbulut, Abdulkadir Sengür, Rong Xia, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

Segmentation is considered as an important step in image processing and computer vision applications, which divides an input image into various non-overlapping homogenous regions and helps to interpret the image more conveniently. This paper presents an efficient image segmentation algorithm using neutrosophic graph cut (NGC).
Category: General Mathematics

[178] viXra:1709.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:23:40

A Novel NeutrosophicWeighted Extreme Learning Machine for Imbalanced Data Set

Authors: Yaman Akbulut, Abdulkadir Sengür, Yanhui Guo, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

Extreme learning machine (ELM) is known as a kind of single-hidden layer feedforward network (SLFN), and has obtained considerable attention within the machine learning community and achieved various real-world applications.
Category: General Mathematics

[177] viXra:1709.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:26:24

Compact Open Topology and Evaluation Map via Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: R. Dhavaseelan, S. Jafari, F. Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic locally compact and neutrosophic compact open topology are introduced and some interesting propositions are discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[176] viXra:1709.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:29:13

Complex Neutrosophic Soft Set

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Talea, Mumtaz Ali, Ganeshsree Selvachandran
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the complex neutrosophic soft set model, which is a hybrid of complex fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets and soft sets. The basic set theoretic operations and some concepts related to the structure of this model are introduced, and illustrated. An example related to a decision making problem involving uncertain and subjective information is presented, to demonstrate the utility of this model.
Category: General Mathematics

[175] viXra:1709.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:33:10

CSP and “omics” Technology Applied on Versatile and Intelligent Portable Platform for Modeling Complex Bio-medical Data

Authors: Luige Vladareanu, Mihaiela Iliescu, Hongbo Wang, Feng Yongfei, Victor Vladareanu, Hongnian Yu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper presents relevant aspects of the idea ofusing the digital medicine in cancer, so that to shape a viable strategy for creating and implementing an interactive digital platform, NEO-VIP, that should be the basic support to design the strategy for integration of basic, clinical and environmental research on neoplasia progression to cancer.
Category: General Mathematics

[174] viXra:1709.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:34:45

Generalized Bipolar Neutrosophic Graphs of Type 1

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research paper, based on the notion of generalized single valued neutrosophic graphs of type 1, we presented a new type of neutrosophic graphs called generalized bipolar neutrosophic graphs of type 1 (GBNG1) and presented a matrix representation for it and studied some properties of this new concept. The concept of GBNG1 is an extension of generalized fuzzy graphs of type 1 (GFG1) and generalized single valued neutrosophic of type 1 (GSVNG1).
Category: General Mathematics

[173] viXra:1709.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:37:44

Neutrosophic Application for Decision Logic in Robot Intelligent Control Systems

Authors: Victor Vlădăreanu, Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vlădăreanu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The paper presents the research undertaken for extending the functionality of a regular fuzzy multi-input decision support system through the application of basic neutrosophy principles. The application is designed and simulated using tools already available for the fuzzy implementation, adapted to the requirements of the neutrosophic extension. The results show an increase in the decision classification index, while improving the environmental accuracy of the considered model.
Category: General Mathematics

[172] viXra:1709.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:40:06

Unscientific Behavior of the Yark Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 8 Pages. Invited contribution accepted for publication in the 2018 Issue of New Advances in Physics.

We ultimately show the unscientific behavior of the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (which applications have been published in both of non-mainstream and mainstream journals) by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong, unchallengeable empiric evidence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[171] viXra:1709.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:41:12

Next-Generation Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[170] viXra:1709.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:43:58

Neutrosophic Cubic MCGDM Method Based on Similarity Measure

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Shariful Alam, Tapan Kumar Roy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

The notion of neutrosophic cubic set is originated from the hybridization of the concept of neutrosophic set and intervalvalued neutrosophic set. We define similarity measure for neutrosophic cubic sets and prove some of its basic properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[169] viXra:1709.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:47:36

Neutrosophic Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Authors: Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Baset, Abdel-Nasser, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper a solution procedure is proposed to solve neutrosophic linear fractional programming problem where the cost of objective function, the resources and the technologal coefficients are triangular neutrosophic numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[168] viXra:1709.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:49:07

Neutrosophic Quadruple Algebraic Hyperstructures

Authors: A. A. A. Agboola, B. Davvaz, F. Smarandache
Comments: 29 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to develop neutro- sophic quadruple algebraic hyperstructures. Specically, we develop neutrosophic quadruple semihypergroups, neutrosophic quadruple canonical hypergroups and neutrosophic quadruple hyperrings and we present elementary properties which characterize them.
Category: General Mathematics

[167] viXra:1709.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:50:24

NS-K-NN: Neutrosophic Set-Based K-Nearest Neighbors Classifier

Authors: Yaman Akbulut, Abdulkadir Sengur, Yanhui Guo, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), which is known to be a simple and efficient approach,is a non-parametric supervised classifier. It aims to determine the class label of an unknown sample by its k-nearest neighbors that are stored in a training set.
Category: General Mathematics

[166] viXra:1709.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:51:42

On Neutrosophic Semi-Supra Open Set and Neutrosophic Semi-Supra Continuous Functions

Authors: R. Dhavaseelan, M. Parimala, S. Jafari, F. Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and investigate a new class of sets and functions between topological space called neutrosophic semi-supra open set and neutrosophic semi-supra open continuous functions respectively.
Category: General Mathematics

[165] viXra:1709.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:57:32

PCR5 and Neutrosophic Probability in Target Identification (revisited)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, Bilal Hadjadji, Zayen Azzouz Omar
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we use PCR5 in order to fusion the information of two sources providing subjective probabilities of an event A to occur in the following form: chance that A occurs, indeterminate chance of occurrence of A, chance that A does not occur.
Category: General Mathematics

[164] viXra:1709.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 03:10:32

Special Types of Bipolar Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Ali Hassan, Muhammad Aslam Malik, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 55 Pages.

Neutrosophic theory has many applications in graph theory, bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs (BSVNGs) is the generalization of fuzzy graphs and intuitionistic fuzzy graphs, SVNGs. In this paper we introduce some types of BSVNGs, such as subdivision BSVNGs, middle BSVNGs, total BSVNGs and bipolar single valued neutrosophic line graphs (BSVNLGs), also investigate the isomorphism, co weak isomorphism and weak isomorphism properties of subdivision BSVNGs, middle BSVNGs,total BSVNGs and BSVNLGs.
Category: General Mathematics

[163] viXra:1709.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 03:11:54

Support-Neutrosophic Set: A New Concept in Soft Computing

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thao, Florentin Smarandache, Nguyen Van Dinh
Comments: 6 Pages.

Today, soft computing is a field that is used a lot in solving real-world problems, such as problems in economics, finance, banking... With the aim to serve for solving the real problem, many new theories and/or tools which were proposed, improved to help soft computing used more efficiently.
Category: General Mathematics

[162] viXra:1709.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 03:11:52

Mobile-Phone Breathing Monitor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers have developed new software that makes it possible to use low-cost, thermal cameras attached to mobile phones to track how fast a person is breathing. [22] Scientists have developed a camera that can see through the human body. [21] A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[161] viXra:1709.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 03:12:55

Teoria Neutrosofică a Evoluției: Grade de Evoluție / Indeterminare / Involuție

Authors: Florentin SMARANDACHE
Comments: 3 Pages.

În decembrie 2016 - ianuarie 2017, am întreprins o croazieră culturală și științifică în Arhipelagul Galápagos, Ecuador, în Oceanul Pacific,unde am vizitat șapte insule și insulițe: Mosquera, Isabela, Fernandina, Santiago, Sombrero Chino, Santa Cruz și Rabida, într-o croazieră cu vaporul Golondrina.
Category: General Mathematics

[160] viXra:1709.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 03:15:30

A Generalization of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: W.B. Wasantha Kandasamy, Illanteral Kandasamy, Florentin Smrandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Collatz conjecture is an open conjecture in mathematics named so after Collatz who proposed it in 1937.
Category: General Mathematics

[159] viXra:1709.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 03:20:18

Using Neutrosophic Sets to Obtain PERT Threes-Times Estimates Project Management

Authors: Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Baset, Abdel-Nasser H. Zaied, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets have been introduced as a generalization of crisp sets, fuzzy sets, and intuitionistic fuzzy sets to represent uncertain, inconsistent and incomplete information about real world problems. Elements of neutrosophic set are characterized by a truth-membership, falsity-membership and indeterminacy membership functions. For the first time, this paper attempts to introduce the mathematical representation of Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) in neutrosophic environment. Here the elements of three-times estimates of PERT are considered as neutrosophic elements.
Category: General Mathematics

[158] viXra:1709.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 11:42:53

Energy Highway along Protein Strands

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The theory explaining how polarons carry energy in crystals can be applied to long molecules called polypeptides—which can fold into proteins. [25] Two new computational tools, MSMuTect and MSMutSig, could help reveal how often mutations in common DNA features called microsatellites appear in, and contribute to, cancer. [24] A Northeastern research team has developed new technology that optimizes DNA sequencing using nanophysics and electric currents. [23] Nevertheless, the accumulation of DNA damage is a cause of aging. A team of scientists based at CECAD at the University of Cologne is now trying to better understand the damage to the genome driving the aging process. [22] By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[157] viXra:1709.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 12:40:52

Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. [21] Magnetic data storage has long been considered too slow for use in the working memories of computers. Researchers at ETH have now investigated a technique by which magnetic data writing can be done considerably faster and using less energy. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[156] viXra:1709.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 13:04:54

RSA Cryptography over Polynomials (II)

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

Here is presented a cryptosystem near the RSA cryptosystem but for polynomials over a finite field, more precisely two irreducible polynomials instead of two prime numbers.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[155] viXra:1709.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 13:20:05

TODIM Method for Group Decision Making under Bipolar Neutrosophic Set Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Shariful Alam, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 17 Pages. The article is accepted for publicatgioin in New Trends in Neutrosophic Theory and Applications-Volume II, 2017

Classical TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for Interactive Multi criteria Decision Making) method works on crisp numbers to solve multi-attribute group decision making problems. In this paper, we define TODIM method in bipolar neutrosophic set environment to handle multi-attribute group decision making problems, which means we combine the TODIM with bipolar neutrosophic number to deal with multi-attribute group decision making problems. We have proposed a new method for solving multi-attribute group decision making problems. Finally, we solve multi-attribute group decision making problem using our newly proposed TODIM method to show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[154] viXra:1709.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 07:37:22

Beam of Invisibility

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[153] viXra:1709.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 10:30:45

AI is Reinforcing Stereotypes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Following the old saying that "knowledge is power", companies are seeking to infer increasingly intimate properties about their customers as a way to gain an edge over their competitors. [27] Researchers from Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) have published a study in which individual faces and other physical traits were predicted using whole genome sequencing data and machine learning. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[152] viXra:1709.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 05:29:44

Expansion of the Universe and Cosmological Redshift

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 8 Pages.

Astronomical observations show generally a redshift of electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and galaxies that proves they move away from the observer. There are nevertheless numerous exceptions that prove the existence of a blueshift of radiation and consequently an approach of stars and galaxies. This fact together with a few important anisotropies that are present in the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwaves Background Radiation (CMBR) pose important problems for theories of the Big Bang and of the isotropic expansion of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[151] viXra:1709.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 06:47:26

Mergeable Nervous Robots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles have developed self-reconfiguring modular robots that can merge, split and even self-heal while retaining full sensorimotor control. [29] A challenging brain technique called whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology or whole-cell recording (WCR) is a procedure so delicate and complex that only a handful of humans in the whole world can do it. [28] ComText allows robots to understand contextual commands such as, " Pick up the box I put down. " [27] McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[150] viXra:1709.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 07:05:38

Universal Quantum Bus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

NIST scientists have achieved a world record in detecting the intensity of an ultra-faint source of light, equaling the capabilities of the deep-space instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope but operating 100 times faster and with equivalent accuracy. [26] Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:1709.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 13:57:07

The Contraction of the Universe with the Speed of Light Theory

Authors: Dan Aurelian Ivan
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Universe constricts at the speed of light c. This theory is based on some assumptions of the "The Expanding Spacetime Theory" [1], but instead of using measurements of distance, speed, mass and time as fourth dimension in an attempt to prove that the universe expands in space and time, I support that the universe has only one absolute and constant value which is the speed of constriction. Any measurement of distance and mass in the Universe is relative, having a different value every given moment. The change of scale measurement by the constriction of the Universe.is the way in which the Universe exist, phenomenon that can not be observed due to the fact that our sense organs and our instruments of measurement and observation are parts of the same universe and everything constricts at the same speed The constricting Universe is infinite and the time is the measure of movements taking place in the Universe, according to Infinite Universe Theory [2].
Category: Classical Physics

[148] viXra:1709.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 21:11:20

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 2 & Philosophy (in Chinese)

Authors: DING Jian
Comments: 14 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Non-being" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western Philosophy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[147] viXra:1709.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 03:06:55

The Lifetime of the Neutron: Experimental Aspect

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 2 Pages. Reference: Valery B. Smolensky “About the life time of a neutron” (http://ufn.ru/ru/tribune/)

Based on the comparison of the experimental data obtained in determining the lifetime of neutrons using two fundamentally different measurement methods, the assumption is made that the neutron has two different time of life and, as a consequence, the possibility of the existence in nature of related stable two-particle States: long-lived neutron-antineutron short-lived and long-lived antineutron-short-lived neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[146] viXra:1709.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 03:37:11

Wherefrom Comes the Missing Baryon Number in the Eightfoldway Model?

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 6 Pages.

An extremely puzzling problem of particle physics is, how come, no baryon number arises mathematically to describe the spin-1/2 octet baryons in the Eightfold way model. Recently the author has shown that all the canonical proposals to provide a baryon number to solve the above problem, are funda- mentally wrong. So what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show that the topological Skyrme-Witten model which takes account of the Wess- Zumino anomaly comes to our rescue. In contrast to the two avour model, the presence of this anomaly term for three avours, shows that the quantal states are monopolar harmonics, which are not functions but sections of a ber bun- dle. This generates a profoundly signicant "right hypercharges", which lead to making the adjoint representation of SU(3) as being the ground state. This provides a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons in the adjoint representation, to connect to the Eightfold way model baryon octet states. This solves the mystery of the missing baryon number in the Eightfold way model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[145] viXra:1709.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 12:53:40

Cryptography Over the Circle

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

As a commutativ group the circle can be used to make cryptography. Here is presented the general figure of a cryptography over the circle.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[144] viXra:1709.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 07:57:39

DNA Microsatellites

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

DNA Microsatellites Two new computational tools, MSMuTect and MSMutSig, could help reveal how often mutations in common DNA features called microsatellites appear in, and contribute to, cancer. [24] A Northeastern research team has developed new technology that optimizes DNA sequencing using nanophysics and electric currents. [23] Nevertheless, the accumulation of DNA damage is a cause of aging. A team of scientists based at CECAD at the University of Cologne is now trying to better understand the damage to the genome driving the aging process. [22] By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[143] viXra:1709.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 16:09:20

Rediscovered Dark Quanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[142] viXra:1709.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 06:51:13

Herontdekte Donkere Kwanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.
Category: Quantum Physics

[141] viXra:1709.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 09:03:24

Terahertz Graphene Absorbers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[140] viXra:1709.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 09:12:20

The Temperature Dependence on Intermolecular Potential Energy in the Design of a Supercritical Stirling Cycle Heat Engine

Authors: Matthew David Marko
Comments: 22 pages, 4 tables, 3 figures

The Stirling thermodynamic heat engine cycle is modified, where instead of an ideal gas, a real, supercritical, monatomic working fluid subjected to intermolecular attractive forces is used. The potential energy of real gases is redefined to show it decreasing with temperature as a result of the attractive Keesom forces, which are temperature dependent. This new definition of potential energy is used to thermodynamically design a Stirling cycle heat engine with supercritical xenon gas, and an engine efficiency that exceeds the Carnot efficiency is demonstrated. The change in internal energy predicted is compared to experimental measurements of condensing steam, xenon, argon, krypton, nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane, normal butane, and iso-butane, and the close match validates this new definition of temperature-dependent real gas potential energy, as well as the thermodynamic feasibility of the modified supercritical Stirling cycle heat engine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[139] viXra:1709.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 15:43:35

General Theoretical Aspects of Cell Mechanics from Circadian Oscillator Point of View Based on Higher Order Logic(HOL) – A Short Communication to Develop Informatics Framework Involving Bio-Chemical Concepts of Cells and Mobile Computing Environments.

Authors: N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P
Comments: 7 Pages. A Short communication on multi-discplinary approach based on informatics of cells and mobile computing environments

We observe the “internal clock” that man possesses in common with animals,plants and protists has drawn the interest of scientists and researchers from diverse fields of science and technology.Performing R&D in this promising and challenging domain of circadian rhythms is very much useful to those engaged in research in general,industrial and aerospace medicine.It is in this context it was decided to work on topics involving circadian rhythms and formalisms based on Higher Order Logic(HOL) using Dynamic Architecture concepts to further evaluate the theories involved and to come up with certain informatics frameworks. To the best of our knowledge this paper is one of the pioneering topics in the domain of “Circadian Systems” and its informatics.
Category: Physics of Biology

[138] viXra:1709.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 16:47:35

Neutrosophic Regression and Possible Nonlinearity of Hubble Law: Some Preliminary Remarks

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 17 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known to experts, that in the nonlinear regression analysis, numerous curve fitting methods exist, which allow the statistician to cook up the data according to what he/she wants to see. Such a deep problem in nonlinear regression methods will be discussed in particular in the context of analyzing Hubble diagram from various existing data. It is our aim to distinguish the raw data and foregone conclusions, in order to arrive at a model-independent conclusion. As a preliminary remark, we deem that it remains possible that the Hubble law exhibits nonlinearity, just like proposed by Segal & Nicoll long time ago. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[137] viXra:1709.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 16:58:23

Convergence of the Ratio of Perimeter of a Regular Polygon to the Length of Its Longest Diagonal as the Number of Sides of Polygon Increases

Authors: Pawan Kumar Bishwakarma, Sumit Khadka
Comments: 16 Pages.

A regular polygon is a planar geometrical structure with all sides of equal length and all angles of equal magnitude. The ratio of perimeter of any regular polygon to the length of its longest diagonal is a constant term and the ratio converges to the value of as the number of sides of the polygon increases. The result has been shown to be valid by actually calculating the ratio for each polygon by using corresponding formula and geometrical reasoning. A computational calculation of the ratio has also been presented to validate the convergence. The values have been calculated up to 30 significant digits.
Category: Geometry

[136] viXra:1709.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 18:57:12

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 2 & Philosophy

Authors: DING Jian
Comments: 19 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth, and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Nonbeing" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western philosophy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[135] viXra:1709.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 20:53:40

Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller for Velocity Control of an Electro Hydraulic Servo System

Authors: Zohreh Alzahra Sanai Dashti, Milad Gholami, Masoud Hajimani
Comments: 7 Pages. IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR - JEEE) e - ISSN: 2278 - 1676,p - ISSN: 2320 - 3331, Volume 12, Issue 4 Ver. I I (Jul. – Aug. 2017), PP 29 - 35

In this paper, a biologically motivated controller based on mammalian limbic system called Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) is used for velocity control of an Electro Hydraulic Servo System (EHSS) in presence of flow nonlinearities, internal friction and noise. It is shown that this technique can be successfully used to stabilize any chosen operating point of the system with noise and without noise. All derived results are validated by computer simulation of a nonlinear mathematical model of the system. The controllers which introduced have big range for control the system. We compare BELBIC controller results with feedbacks linearization, backstepping and PID controller.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[134] viXra:1709.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 20:56:32

Design & Implementation of Fuzzy Parallel Distributed Compensation Controller for Magnetic Levitation System

Authors: Milad Gholami, Zohreh Alzahra Sanai Dashti, Masoud Hajimani
Comments: 9 Pages. IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR - JEEE) e - ISSN : 2278 - 1676,p - ISSN: 2320 - 3331, Volume 12, Issue 4 Ver. I I (Jul. – Aug. 2017), PP 20 - 28

This study applies technique parallel distributed compensation (PDC) for position control of a Magnetic levitation system. PDC method is based on nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. It is shown that this technique can be successfully used to stabilize any chosen operating point of the system. All derived results are validated by experimental and computer simulation of a nonlinear mathematical model of the system. The controllers which introduced have big range for control the system.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[133] viXra:1709.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 03:22:54

Internal Clock Within Live Human Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A team of scientists has revealed an internal clock within live human cells, a finding that creates new opportunities for understanding the building blocks of life and the onset of disease. [23] Nevertheless, the accumulation of DNA damage is a cause of aging. A team of scientists based at CECAD at the University of Cologne is now trying to better understand the damage to the genome driving the aging process. [22] By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[132] viXra:1709.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 03:54:15

Cosmology Science Between Facts and Faith

Authors: Laszlo A. Marosi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The standard cosmological model rests on a never-ending array of hypotheses and assumptions (dark matter, dark energy and others) which either cannot be proved or, although theoretically possible, cannot yet be proved experimentally. This lack of secure knowledge raises legitimate doubts over the validity of the Big Bang model, which therefore cannot be seen as the ultimate answer to the question of the emergence and evolution of the universe. If the search for dark matter and dark energy turns out to be unsuccessful, the whole construction will break down and we will unavoidably face the question of which of the many different models based on Einstein’s field equations represents the real world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[131] viXra:1709.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 04:01:35

Interatomic Coulomb Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Extreme environments are created in the labs at TU Wien. In an ion trap, large amounts of energy are used to rip a great number of electrons out of their atoms, leaving highly charged ions behind. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[130] viXra:1709.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 04:32:59

DNA Sequencing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A Northeastern research team has developed new technology that optimizes DNA sequencing using nanophysics and electric currents. [23] Nevertheless, the accumulation of DNA damage is a cause of aging. A team of scientists based at CECAD at the University of Cologne is now trying to better understand the damage to the genome driving the aging process. [22] By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[129] viXra:1709.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 04:51:38

Gene Synthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of scientists led by the University of Southampton has demonstrated a groundbreaking new method of gene synthesis-a vital research tool with real-world applications in everything from growing transplantable organs to developing treatments for cancer. [24] A Northeastern research team has developed new technology that optimizes DNA sequencing using nanophysics and electric currents. [23] Nevertheless, the accumulation of DNA damage is a cause of aging. A team of scientists based at CECAD at the University of Cologne is now trying to better understand the damage to the genome driving the aging process. [22] By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[128] viXra:1709.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 05:17:12

Switch Between a Mirror and a Window

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[127] viXra:1709.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 09:30:32

Mirrors Improve Light Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[126] viXra:1709.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 09:48:29

Second Law of Thermodynamics in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[125] viXra:1709.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 11:21:53

The Difference of Any Real Transcendental Number and Complex Number E^i is Always a Complex Transcendental Number.

Authors: Charanjeet Singh Bansrao
Comments: 4 Pages.

The difference of any real transcendental number and complex number e^i is always a complex transcendental number.
Category: Algebra

[124] viXra:1709.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 11:29:47

Global Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[123] viXra:1709.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 04:33:50

Basics of Astrophysics Revisited. I. Mass Luminosity Relation for K, M and G Class Stars

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 5 Pages.

Small volume statistics show, that luminosity of slow rotating stars is proportional to their angular momentums of rotation. Cause should be outside of standard solar model. Slow rotating giants and dim dwarfs are not out of „main sequence” in this concept. Predictive power of stellar mass-radius- equatorial rotation speed-luminosity relation has been offered to test in numerous examples.
Category: Astrophysics

[122] viXra:1709.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 05:10:30

Theorems on Pythagorean Triples and Prime Numbers

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 3 Pages.

Relationships among natural numbers constituting a Pythagorean triple (PT) and between these natural numbers constituting the Pythagorean triples (PTs) and Prime Numbers (PNs) have been found. These relationships are formulated as theorems; first theorem is that the natural numbers constituting a Pythagorean triple (PT) satisfy a certain equation related to sum of their differences; second theorem is that differences of sum of the natural numbers constituting a Pythagorean triple (PT) are prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[121] viXra:1709.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 05:48:31

X-ray Binary Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

When matter from the normal star accretes onto the black hole, a jet of charged particles is ejected at relativistic (near-light) speeds, and these particles emit strong X-ray radiation. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[120] viXra:1709.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 07:20:36

The Formation of the Universe Premised on the Existence of Aether (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 21 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.4. Original Japanese paper.

In previous paper "Consideration on universal gravitation premised on the existence of aether (in Japanese)", it considered the cosmic inflation,the Big Bang and the dark energy on the premise of the presence of aether to show the possibility of the neoaether theory.This time, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is structured like bubbles overlapping many layers. There is a Supermassive black hole in the center of almost all galaxies, and its mass has a certain proportional relationship with the mass of the galaxy. It focused on these two points and further deepened the consideration.As a result, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is formed by the cosmic inflation continuing to occur several times at the same time in multiple places. The dark matter is an attractive force phenomenon caused by the flow of aether in one direction. These two points were newly turned out.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[119] viXra:1709.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 07:51:38

Machine Learning Monitoring Air Quality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

UCLA researchers have developed a cost-effective mobile device to measure air quality. It works by detecting pollutants and determining their concentration and size using a mobile microscope connected to a smartphone and a machine-learning algorithm that automatically analyzes the images of the pollutants. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[118] viXra:1709.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-13 06:23:37

The Impossibility of Large-scale Retrocausal Signalling

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages. Corrected a few typos and made a diagram clearer

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that are claimed to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[117] viXra:1709.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 18:47:03

Pre Octonionic to Octonionic Gravity and Could Kinetic Energy be Larger Than Potential Energy Before Inflation?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 16 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so we also invoke the geometry of Octonionic non-commutative structure and when it breaks down. Doing so is also equivalent to a speculation given earlier by the author as to the kinetic energy of Pre Planckian space-time being significantly larger than the Potential energy, which is the opposite of what happens after the onset of Inflation, with the assumption as to how this is justified given in a (Pre Planckian) Hubble Parameter set as of Eq. (16), and we close with a comparison of this proposal with string cosmology, as represented in the 2nd reference in this paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[116] viXra:1709.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 20:46:04

Ladder Paradox. Final Refutation of the SRT of Einstein.

Authors: Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article describes the logical error that physicists made when proving ladder paradox for 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[115] viXra:1709.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 21:44:42

A Discrete Bass-Riccati Diffusion Model for Forecasting The Adoption of New Carsharing Services

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there is rapid growth in the adoption of sharing economy as conceptual framework of digital innovations. The so-called sharing economy is likely to impact many areas of social life, not only hotel, travelling, and logistics, but also new transportation services including carsharing and ridesharing. Nonetheless, current travel demand models are unable to predict long-range trends in travel behavior as they do not entail a mechanism that projects membership and market share of new modes of transport (Uber, Lyft, Grab etc.) Following El Zarwi, Vij & Walker, in the present paper we will discuss the use of technology adoption model based on Bass-Riccati equation to forecast the future of carsharing as new transportation services. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.
Category: Economics and Finance

[114] viXra:1709.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 01:01:16

Coordinate Transformation Between Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Acceleration Coordinate Lorentz Transformation

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be seperated if one of them is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both inertial reference frames are related by the acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of this coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of length contraction from Lorentz Transformation is impossible in reality and physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[113] viXra:1709.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 02:16:10

1

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Главное различие между астероидами и кометами заключается не в их составе, а в их структуре.
Category: Astrophysics

[112] viXra:1709.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 02:29:49

Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. «ПИОНЕРЫ» ОСТАНУТСЯ ДОМА. Космические аппараты не улетели за пределы Солнечной системы, а просто застряли в её энергетической оболочке.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Космические аппараты не улетели за пределы Солнечной системы, а просто застряли в её энергетической оболочке.
Category: Astrophysics

[111] viXra:1709.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 02:55:30

ПАРАД УРАГАНОВ ПРОДОЛЖИТСЯ… Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. Ураган – результат направленного вертикального движения энергетических потоков, источником которых являются энергетические образования мантии, движущейся относительно коры Земли.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Ураган – результат направленного вертикального движения энергетических потоков, источником которых являются энергетические образования мантии, движущейся относительно коры Земли.
Category: Astrophysics

[110] viXra:1709.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 11:53:34

A Newtonian-Vortex Cosmology Model from Solar System to Galaxy to Large Scale Structures: Navier-Stokes-Inspired Cosmography

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Matt Visser asked the following interesting questions: How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane — as the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe become increasingly baroque. Therefore, in this paper we will discuss a novel Newtonian cosmology model with vortex, which offers wide implications from solar system, galaxy modeling up to large scale structures of the Universe. The basic starting point is very simple: It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law.” More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vortical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review an Ermakov-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. A potential application is also considered, namely for understanding tornado dynamics using 3D Navier-Stokes equations. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology models.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[109] viXra:1709.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 12:32:07

A New Definition of Speed Involving the Elimination of Time .

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed.
Comments: 2 pages. Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to redefine speed by eliminating time , considering time as something that does not exist.
Category: Classical Physics

[108] viXra:1709.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 12:46:12

History of Economics in Great Britain :Development Outlook After Technological Revolution the 17th Century

Authors: Zhuravlev Andrey, Yadrin Alexander
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article describes basic development of Great Britain.
Category: Social Science

[107] viXra:1709.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 04:26:30

On the Kakeya Set Conjecture

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we will prove the Kakeya set conjecture. In addition we will prove that in the usual approach to the Kakeya maximal function conjecture we can assume that the tube-sets are maximal. Moreover, we will construct a tube- set were the well known L2 bound for the Kakeya maximal function is attained.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[106] viXra:1709.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 08:04:41

Modified Newtonian Dymanics in a Hypersphere MOND(H)

Authors: Peter J Carroll
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper proposes a modification to Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation that would have negligible and undetectable effects at terrestrial scales, but at greater scales, it would have obvious effects that would create significant anomalies that we have already observed and that conventional theories have perhaps misinterpreted. Newton devised his theories on the assumption that we inhabit a strictly Euclidian spacetime. Einstein showed that spacetime can have curvature. Conventional cosmology currently asserts that we inhabit an expanding universe with an overall curvature close to, or exactly equal to, zero. If however we entertain the possibility that the universe has a very small positive curvature then that small positive curvature could account for a number of apparent astronomical anomalies and remove the need to assume that it expands.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[105] viXra:1709.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 04:50:39

Theoretical Determination of the Weinberg Angle and the Mass Ratio of the W and Z Bosons

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide the international scientific community information on the possibility of theoretical determination of the Weinberg angle and the mass ratio of the W and Z bosons with a precision equal to the error to determine the relationship of experimental values of the masses of the neutron and proton.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[104] viXra:1709.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 05:11:19

A Special Hexagon with Two-Fold Symmetry Must Have an Inscribed Square Satisfying the Toeplitz Conjecture

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we generate a special hexagon with two-fold symmetry by diagonally juxtaposing two squares of different dimensions so that they share exactly one common vertex and their adjacent sides are perpendicular to one another. We connect in specific pairs, the vertices adjacent to common vertex of both squares to generate a hexagon that is symmetrical about a line connecting the unconnected vertices. We show that this special hexagon must have one square whose points lie on its sides. With suitable modifications, it may be possible to use this technique to prove the Toeplitz conjecture for a simple closed curve generated by connecting the same six vertices of this special hexagon.
Category: Geometry

[103] viXra:1709.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-10 08:24:10

A New Semantic Theory of Nature Language

Authors: Kun Xing
Comments: 70 Pages.

Formal Semantics and Distributional Semantics are two important semantic frameworks in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Cognitive Semantics belongs to the movement of Cognitive Linguistics, which is based on contemporary cognitive science. Each framework could deal with some meaning phenomena, but none of them fulfills all requirements proposed by applications. A unified semantic theory characterizing all important language phenomena has both theoretical and practical significance; however, although many attempts have been made in recent years, no existing theory has achieved this goal yet. This article introduces a new semantic theory that has the potential to characterize most of the important meaning phenomena of natural language and to fulfill most of the necessary requirements for philosophical analysis and for NLP applications. The theory is based on a unified representation of information, and constructs a kind of mathematical model called cognitive model to interpret natural language expressions in a compositional manner. It accepts the empirical assumption of Cognitive Semantics, and overcomes most shortcomings of Formal Semantics and of Distributional Semantics. The theory, however, is not a simple combination of existing theories, but an extensive generalization of classic logic and Formal Semantics. It inherits nearly all advantages of Formal Semantics, and also provides descriptive contents for objects and events as fine-gram as possible, descriptive contents which represent the results of human cognition.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[102] viXra:1709.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 06:02:27

Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy-Annex a

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 6 Pages.

In a first article (1) we have exposed a Theory of Dark matter and a Theory of Dark energy. In this article we are going to bring complements to each of the 2 theories. Concerning the Theory of dark matter, we are going to study the flat rotation curve of galaxies with a flat rotation curve close to the centre of those galaxies (r close to 0), and then the collisions between dark matter and baryonic matter. We will also show how obtaining the Tully-Fisher’s law taking into account the plasma constituting the Inter Cluster Medium (ICM). Concerning the Theory of dark energy, we are going to study the phenomena in the early Universe that are the origin of the great structures observed today.
Category: Astrophysics

[101] viXra:1709.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 06:11:14

The Contraction of the Universe with the Speed of Light

Authors: Dan Aurelian Ivan
Comments: 3 Pages.

The theory of relativity establishes the speed of light in the vacuum as the highest possible speed and shows that the speed of light towards different observers is the same. The speed of light is set as an absolute constant. The paradox of constancy of light speed created a great problem for physics, a problem that Albert Einstein considered to have solved it suggesting that physical theories should not depend on the observer's state of motion but also that the speed of light must remain a constant and the rest of the physics has to change to align to this. Why is this speed the only absolute constant in physics? The question is fundamental, considering that modern physics and all cosmological theories are based on this constant. While the velocity of any body or particle except the photon is relative, why is the propagation velocity of the wave that supports the photon constant? But what if everything is observed and demonstrated is not real? What if this speed considered to be a constant and a limit in the universe is not the speed of light but the speed of contraction of the infinite universe itself? What if the radiation and the force fields are oscillations of the molecules, atoms , ions and elementary particles that the contraction of the universe converts into waves? My hypothesis answers these questions : the universe constricts at the speed of light. My hypothesis provides the sort of firm advance in general understanding of universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[100] viXra:1709.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 13:08:00

Universe Became a Light-Filled State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

But the big mystery lies in how it actually emerged from the dark into its light-filled state, and that's what researchers from the University of Iowa set out to solve. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[99] viXra:1709.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 13:42:22

Fixing Astronomy, Astrophysics and Geophysics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Establishment dogma has a false worldview, they have justified compartmentalization of stars with classification based on mass. Stars were classified to be mutually exclusive of planets/exoplanets, yet a star is a young hot exoplanet/planet. The stars lose mass as they evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[98] viXra:1709.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-12 16:35:00

The Higgs Boson and the "Leptonic Spectrum"

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 5 Pages. section added (at bottom)

The conservation role of the Higgs boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum"
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[97] viXra:1709.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-10 04:32:33

Our Universe and Emergent Gravity.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 2 Pages. replace

Our matter universe and surrounding antimatter universe and emergent gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] viXra:1709.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 09:30:51

Diseases Targeted Using Nanotechnology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists are designing materials that are a thousand times smaller than the width of a hair. Known as nanomaterials or nanoparticles, some could help treat diseases. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[95] viXra:1709.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 10:15:41

Behaviour of a Matter Torus Under the Influence of the Expanding Cosmos

Authors: Ernst Schmutzer
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper the behaviour of a matter torus under the influence of the expanding cosmos model (according to our theory PUFT) is investigated. This task can numerically be treated for the full life time of the cosmos model (from the Urstart to the Finish). As we know from our literature cited, the graphic course of the cosmological scalaric field after the Urstart exhibits an increase , followed by a return down to the Finish. This curious behaviour of the cosmological scalaric field leads to the suspicion that the shape of the torus during the life time of the cosmos may be: sphere at the Urstart, transformation of the sphere to a ring with decreasing thickness, return to a sphere at the Finish. It seems that such a theoretically predicted physical effect could perhaps exist in Nature. The torus was chosen as a test object, since the numerical calculations can be done without approximation procedures. We took this rather simple example to show this cosmological effect for further applications in astrophysics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[94] viXra:1709.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 09:58:44

Qualitätsentwicklung

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 81 Pages.

Self-Learning-Course (Quality for Psychologists and Social Professions) Language: German
Category: Social Science

[93] viXra:1709.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 13:23:08

Simulation of Magnetic Reconnection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Jonathan Ng, a Princeton University graduate student at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), has for the first time applied a fluid simulation to the space plasma process behind solar flares northern lights and space storms. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[92] viXra:1709.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 13:34:21

Robots Understand Brain Function

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

A challenging brain technique called whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology or whole-cell recording (WCR) is a procedure so delicate and complex that only a handful of humans in the whole world can do it. [28] ComText allows robots to understand contextual commands such as, " Pick up the box I put down. " [27] McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[91] viXra:1709.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 19:17:43

Consideration on Universal Gravitation Premised on the Existence of Aether (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 24 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.3. Original Japanese paper.

The law of universal gravitation in which all objects are attracting each other, has been clarified physical laws such as how to work and how to calculate the strength of force, and it is widely used along with the three laws of motion. However, the fundamental problem of why attraction exists between substances and what conveys the power has not yet been elucidated.This time, on the premise that aether exists and attracted by gravity, it considered the universal gravitation. As a result, if since each substance attracts aether by attraction, it thinks that aether acts as a so-called rope and substances attract each other, then the strength of attraction acting between substances is not inversely proportional to the square of distance and it turned out to be contrary to the inverse-square law which is the nature of universal gravitation. Therefore, in order to consider the properties of substances as a source of attraction in detail, the properties of elementary particles considered as the smallest unit of substances were examined on the premise of the existence of aether. In quantum theory it is thought that elementary particles have both properties of particles and waves and can not determine the position. This is because elementary particles have the three phases of "gas phase", "liquid phase", and "solid phase" (to be distinguished from the three states of macroscopic substances by surrounding them with ") similar to those of macroscopic substances, and they are constantly repeating phase change,but we can think that it is only in the case of "liquid phase", "solid phase" that we can identify its position. In the case of elementary particles, the substance corresponding to the molecule of the macroscopic substance is aether, and it is assumed that elementary particles always repeat phase change at very short intervals between "solid phase" or "liquid phase" where we can specify the position and "gas phase" where we can not locate did. And, in addition to that, we examined the mechanism of attractive force generation using the concept of "aether pressure" similar to the concept of atmospheric pressure.As a result, we could explain the mechanism of attractive force generation and its properties theoretically.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[90] viXra:1709.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 02:07:35

Electricity from the Bloodstream

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

To produce hydropower on a much smaller scale, Chinese scientists have now developed a lightweight power generator based on carbon nanotube fibers suitable to convert even the energy of blood flowing through vessels into electricity. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[89] viXra:1709.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 12:19:26

Question 383 : Nonlinear Equation , Euler Numbers , Number Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.
Category: Number Theory

[88] viXra:1709.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 08:00:36

Photons Transformed into Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[87] viXra:1709.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 08:33:52

Magic Nucleus of Lead-208

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists generally imagine atomic nuclei to be more or less spherical clusters of protons and neutrons, but always relatively chaotic. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[86] viXra:1709.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 08:48:23

Quantum Memory for Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[85] viXra:1709.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 09:03:02

Imaging of Free Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[84] viXra:1709.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 04:57:18

Remote Wind Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new remote sensing instrument based on light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that could offer a simple and robust way to accurately measure wind speed. [27] Water has many ice phases that form under different pressure and temperature conditions. [26] An ANSTO researcher has co-authored a novel theoretical approach to explain inconsistencies between crystallographic and chemical experimental data in the apparent transformation of a pyrochlore to defect fluorite in La2Zr2O7. [25] When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"— Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[83] viXra:1709.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 06:37:52

Laser Plasma Acceleration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.” This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[82] viXra:1709.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 06:58:41

Hybrid Semiconductor Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Fabricating hybrid semiconductor lasers on materials other than the commonly used silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates has proved challenging. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Category: Condensed Matter

[81] viXra:1709.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 14:21:29

Chromosome Motor Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

It is one of the great mysteries in biology: How does a cell neatly distribute its replicated DNA between two daughter cells? [14] Motorized molecules driven by light have been used to drill holes in the membranes of individual cells and show promise for either bringing therapeutic agents into the cells or directly inducing the cells to die. [13] Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have demonstrated for the first time using micromotors to treat a bacterial infection in the stomach. [12] The ability to stimulate neural circuits with very high precision light to control cells—optogenetics—is key to exciting advances in the study and mapping of the living brain. [11] A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10], has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[80] viXra:1709.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 14:48:12

Quintessential Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Michael A. Sherbon
Comments: 7 Pages. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science, 15, 4, 23-26 (2015). CC 4.0

An introduction is given to the geometry and harmonics of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid, with the metaphysical and mathematical determination of the fine-structure constant of electromagnetic interactions. Newton's gravitational constant is also presented in harmonic form and other fundamental physical constants are then found related to the quintessential geometry of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid.
Category: Quantum Physics

[79] viXra:1709.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 18:19:51

A Possibility of Brain Stimulation with Oscillating Neutrinos

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Special properties of the first ordinary (observable) matter, produced in the universe -the oscillating neutrinos - are discussed in a context of their use for healing and stimulation of the brain.
Category: Physics of Biology

[78] viXra:1709.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 00:45:04

Fine Soccer(3)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 81 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[77] viXra:1709.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 23:35:34

The Simplest Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract: In this paper the author gives the simplest proving method of Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT) that is just equivalent to the one that Fermat had said there were not enough spaces to write it down but of course not the same one since nobody knows what the proof of Fermat was. The purpose of this paper is not only just to demonstrate the simplest proof but also to illustrate that there are many simple proving methods of FLT that are waited to be found.
Category: Number Theory

[76] viXra:1709.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 12:08:25

Quantum Computer Detectives

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1709.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 09:58:35

Magnetic Data Writing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Magnetic data storage has long been considered too slow for use in the working memories of computers. Researchers at ETH have now investigated a technique by which magnetic data writing can be done considerably faster and using less energy. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[74] viXra:1709.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 10:13:54

The Quantization of Space and the Dark Matter

Authors: Martin Thomas Pollner
Comments: 3 pages in English, 2 Pages in German

English Summary: As a supplement to my publication on "The Quantization of the Physical Real Space and the Expansion of Space" in vixra.org 1203.088 of 29th March 2012 it will be described here how a flow of quantified space (flow of Dark Photons) especially within rotating spiral galaxies constitutes the so called Dark Matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1709.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 11:08:35

P Versus Np's Answer.

Authors: Gokulakannan.P
Comments: Pages.

Always think simple to answer a question which is being seem tough.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[72] viXra:1709.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 12:58:15

Electron Spin Resonance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Australian scientists have developed a new tool for imaging life at the nanoscale that will provide new insights into the role of transition metal ions such as copper in neuro-degenerative diseases. [22] Scientists have developed a camera that can see through the human body. [21] A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[71] viXra:1709.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 13:26:56

Quantum Simulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[70] viXra:1709.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 13:53:23

Driving Quantum Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1709.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 14:17:38

Single Photon Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1709.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-11 18:58:03

Theory of Everything = Philosophy of Everything + Physics of Everything. Unifying Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics, Extra-Dimensions, and Consciousness

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 36 Pages. MINOR CORRECTIIONS

Scientific and philosophical knowledge and concepts, about our universe, have reached a practically saturated bloated condition, where science and mathematics, on their own, cannot fully explain physical realities: the ultimate nature of quantum theory, Einstein’s relativity laws, and their integration into a Theory of Everything, unless we resort to new ideas and concepts of physical realities. There are important physics aspects which have varied interpretations like for instance mass, gravitation, particles and forces, the Higgs boson, symmetry, dimensions and others. A Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists, might be the ultimate concept of physics, capable of elucidating all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. A natural concept of the origin of our universe is simply speculative and unbelievable. This article explains that we require new physics, including multi-dimensional physics, as the only approach that can take us towards understanding aspects of Metaphysics, the higher science that potentially underpins quantum theory, relativity, consciousness and spacetime. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics, but not their philosophy and science, could perhaps be applied in abstruse attempts to find new ways to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe, seems to unconditionally require inputs from a higher-level quantum concept connected to metaphysics. This option is the only one capable to unravel the Theory of Everything, from which the integration of quantum theory with Einstein’s relativity and consciousness, has a strong potential to surface. These new physics are within our reach and are imperative to lead to the ultimate explanation of the universe, which will clearly show that there must have been a supernatural act of creation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[67] viXra:1709.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 19:36:47

Using Barbour's Ephemeris Time, and Padmanabhan's Inflaton Value ,plus Will’s Massive Graviton Velocity to Isolate Rest Energy of Massive Graviton as Compared to Racetrack Inflation Results of Graviton Physics and Modified Wheeler De Witt Results of wo

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 27 Pages.

The idea is to identify via ephemeris time as given by Barbour and an inflaton field as given by Padmanabhan, for scale factor proportional to time to the alpha power and a velocity given by Will for massive gravitons, an initial energy for a massive graviton in space-time. The spatial values for the graviton production could be from the Planckian to Electro weak regime, with a nod to using a worm hole from a prior to a present universe as a delivery font for gravitational energy, as an information carrying bridge from prior universe 'information settings' to the present space-time. The number of Gravitons will be set as N, and the initial time, as a tie in with Barbour's ephemeris time, a constant times Planck time. In setting up the positions, as input into the positions and distributions of gravitons in our model, we will compare results as could be generated by Racetrack inflation, for presumed position of relic gravitons when just produced in the universe, as compared with results given by an adaptation of an argument presented by Crowell, in a modification of the Wheeler de Witt equation he gave germane to worm hole physics. In addition, with this presentation we will discuss entropy generation via graviton production. And compare that with semi classical arguments, as well as Brane – anti brane combinations. The idea will be to in all of this to re set the particulars of massive gravity in such a way as to revisit the outstanding problem of massive gravity: Its predictions do not match those of general relativity in the limit when a massive graviton mass approaches zero. In particular, while at small scales, Newton's gravitational law is recovered, the bending of light is only three quarters of the result Albert Einstein obtained in general relativity PACS 96.50.Ry, 98.80.-k, 98.80.Cq, 98.80.Bp
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] viXra:1709.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 07:16:28

Identification of Individuals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers from Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) have published a study in which individual faces and other physical traits were predicted using whole genome sequencing data and machine learning. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[65] viXra:1709.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 07:32:22

Analyzing the Monotonicity of Belief Interval Based Uncertainty Measures in Belief Function Theory

Authors: Xinyang Deng, Shiyu Wang, Yong Deng
Comments: 21 Pages.

Measuring the uncertainty of pieces of evidence is an open issue in belief function theory. A rational uncertainty measure for belief functions should meet some desirable properties, where monotonicity is an very important property. Recently, measuring the total uncertainty of a belief function based on its associated belief intervals becomes a new research idea and have attracted increasing interest. Several belief interval based uncertainty measures have been proposed for belief functions. In this paper, we summarize the properties of these uncertainty measures and especially investigate whether the monotonicity is satisfied by the measures. This study provide a comprehensive comparison to these belief interval based uncertainty measures and is very useful for choosing the appropriate uncertainty measure in the practical applications.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[64] viXra:1709.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 09:58:56

Bohr Radius as the Sum of Golden Sections Pertaining to the Electron and Proton, Covalent Bond Lengths Between Same Two Atoms as Exact Sums of Their Cationic and Anionic Radii and Additivity of Atomic and or Ionic Radii in Bond Lengths – Collected work

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages.

The author has shown over a decade ago that the energy of the hydrogen atom is actually positive (not negative as per Bohr). In Bohr’s treatment, the energy amounts to half the Coulombic energy between an electron and a proton, and hence is negative. The present author considered an alternate approach: the ionization potential as the difference in the potentials of the electron and proton at a distance of the Bohr radius. This makes the energy positive and it has the same magnitude as given by Bohr’s equation. Moreover, Bohr radius was found to be divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the proton and electron. Further, all covalent bond lengths amounted to exact sums of the Golden ratio based cationic and anionic radii. Bond lengths were shown to be simple sums of atomic and or ionic radii. This article is a collection of the author’s work.
Category: Chemistry

[63] viXra:1709.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 04:39:57

Flip-Flop Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1709.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 05:06:03

Generalized Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs of First Type

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Ali Hassan, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages. 2017 IEEE International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA), Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland, 3-5 July 2017.

In this paper, motivated by the notion of generalized single valued neutrosophic graphs of first type, we defined a new neutrosophic graphs named generalized interval valued neutrosophic graphs of first type (GIVNG1) and presented a matrix representation for it and studied few properties of this new concept. The concept of GIVNG1 is an extension of generalized fuzzy graphs (GFG1) and generalized single valued neutrosophic of first type (GSVNG1).
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[61] viXra:1709.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 05:08:06

Computation of Shortest Path Problem in a Network with SV-Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages. 2017 IEEE International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA), Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland, 3-5 July 2017.

In this article, we present an algorithm method for finding the shortest path length between a paired nodes on a network where the edge weights are characterized by single valued triangular neutrosophic numbers. The proposed algorithm gives the shortest path length from source node to destination node based on a ranking method. Finally a numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[60] viXra:1709.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 05:14:18

Complex Neutrosophic Graphs of Type 1

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages. 2017 IEEE International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA), Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland, 3-5 July 2017

In this paper, we introduced a new neutrosophic graphs called complex neutrosophic graphs of type1 (CNG1) and presented a matrix representation for it and studied some properties of this new concept. The concept of CNG1 is an extension of generalized fuzzy graphs of type 1 (GFG1) and generalized single valued neutrosophic graphs of type 1 (GSVNG1).
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[59] viXra:1709.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 06:43:56

Computational Environments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Differences in software environments can cause problems when those experiments need to be reproduced—so scientists at the MDC in Berlin are seeking a solution. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[58] viXra:1709.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 06:52:28

A Fatal Error in a PhD Thesis Titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”, City University, London, 1982

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 14 Pages.

I spotted a fatal error in understanding of one of the basics of mathematics used in a PhD thesis titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”,City University, London, 1982. There also are two types of errors, one is a typographic error and a second one is a major error. Scanned copy of part of the thesis page (131-140) where the errors occurred is attached to this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[57] viXra:1709.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 14:26:19

Ultralow Density Ice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Water has many ice phases that form under different pressure and temperature conditions. [26] An ANSTO researcher has co-authored a novel theoretical approach to explain inconsistencies between crystallographic and chemical experimental data in the apparent transformation of a pyrochlore to defect fluorite in La2Zr2O7. [25] When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"— Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[56] viXra:1709.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 23:54:48

Reexamination of the Theory of Relativity on the Premise of the Presence of Aether (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 13 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.2. Original Japanese paper.

In the presence of aether as a medium of light, the speed of light in vacuum can be considered constant with aether. Then, the principle of constancy of light velocity does not hold, and the theory of relativity guided by this as one of the starting points also does not hold. However, delay of time and bending of light due to gravity derived from the theory of relativity are verified by various experiments and observations. Therefore, we reexamined the properties of light, time and space on the premise of the presence of aether as light medium. As a result, without using the principle of constancy of light velocity, we could explain many events that have been thought to be the result of the theory of relativity, such as delay of clock, bending and redshift of light due to gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[55] viXra:1709.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 07:36:43

Diamonds Optical Components

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Thanks to a new technique developed at EPFL, optical diffraction gratings can now be made out of pure diamond, with their surfaces smoothed down to the very last atom. [25] When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"— Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons.
Category: Condensed Matter

[54] viXra:1709.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 07:59:56

Dark Matter Candidates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[53] viXra:1709.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 08:12:05

The Reexamination About the Aether Drag Hypothesis and the Aberration of Light (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 4 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.1. Original Japanese paper.

The Michelson-Morley experiment denied the existence of the aether wind Therefore, various hypotheses were considered to explain the existence of the aether even if no aether wind was observed. In one of them, there was the aether drag hypothesis that the aether was dragged by the earth.But,the aether drag hypothesis was denied because it couldn't explain the aberration of light. However, this time, I paid attention to the approaching angle of the light which was seen from the moving aether and re-examined.As a result, it turned out that the aberration of light can be explained even if the aether and the earth are moving together.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[52] viXra:1709.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 08:14:20

Fundamental Laws of Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The research probes whether the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[51] viXra:1709.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 08:31:55

The Theory of Quantum Gravity Without Divergenies and Calculation of Cosmological Constant

Authors: T. Christolyubov, M. Christolyubova
Comments: 10 Pages.

To construct quantum gravity we introduce the quantum gravity state as function of particle coordinates and functional of fields, We add metric as the new argument of state: $$ \Psi=\Psi(t,x_{1},...x_{n},\lbrace A^{\gamma}(x)\rbrace, \lbrace g_{\mu\nu}(x) \rbrace) $$ we calculate the cosmological constant assuming that the quantum state is a function of time and radius of universe (mini-superspace) $$ \Psi=\Psi(t,a) $$ To avoid infinities in the solutions, we substitute the usual equation for propagotor with initial value Cauchy problem, which has finite and unique solution, for example we substitute the equation for Dirac electron propagator $$ (\gamma^\mu p_\mu - mc)K(t,x,t_0,x_0)= \delta(\vec{x} - \vec{x_0})\delta(t-t_0) $$ which already has infinity at the start $t = t_0 $, with the initial value Cauchy problem $$ \begin{cases} (H - i \hbar\partial / \partial t)K(t,x,t_0,x_0)=0,\\ K(t,x,t_0,x_0) = \delta(\vec{x} - \vec{x_0}),\quad t=t_0, \end{cases} $$ which has finite and unique solution.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] viXra:1709.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 22:35:29

Feasibility Analysis of Interstellar Migration under Current Technical Conditions

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 4 Pages.

Under the current technical conditions Interstellar Migration has a realistic feasibility.Immigration spacecraft carrying a certain amount of human fertilized eggs which were under frozen storage. When the migrant spacecraft arrives at the destination planet, the artificial intelligence robot take out the human fertilized eggs, then starts the artificial uterine hatching system in the spacecraft to cultivate human beings. Once the human babies were born under the artificial uterine cultivation,the AI robots will nurture human babies' growth,and educate the babies properly with all the existing human knowledge.The migrating human will rebuild the human civilization in the new planet under the help of AI robots.
Category: Astrophysics

[49] viXra:1709.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-11 05:47:35

On the Cosmological Evolution

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow, in particular spacetime manifolds with constant curvature. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1709.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 03:06:23

Origin of Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1709.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 03:24:30

Two Rhombic Aircrafts

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. NextGen aeronautics

We show the designs of two rhombic aircrafts with gliding capabilities.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[46] viXra:1709.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 04:26:06

On the Dual Nature of Logical Variables and Clause-Sets

Authors: Elnaserledinellah Mahmood Abdelwahab
Comments: © 2016 Journal Academica Foundation. All rights reserved. With perpetual, non-exclusive license for viXra.org - Originally received 08-04-2016 - accepted 09-12-2016 - published 09-15-2016 J.Acad.(N.Y.)6,3:202-239 (38 pages) - ISSN 2161-3338

This paper describes the conceptual approach behind the proposed solution of the 3SAT problem recently published in [Abdelwahab 2016]. It is intended for interested readers providing a step-by-step, mostly informal explanation of the new paradigm proposed there completing the picture from an epistemological point of view with the concept of duality on center-stage. After a brief introduction discussing the importance of duality in both, physics and mathematics as well as past efforts to solve the P vs. NP problem, a theorem is proven showing that true randomness of input-variables is a property of algorithms which has to be given up when discrete, finite domains are considered. This insight has an already known side effect on computation paradigms, namely: The ability to de-randomize probabilistic algorithms. The theorem uses a canonical type of de-randomization which reveals dual properties of logical variables and Clause-Sets. A distinction is made between what we call the syntactical Container Expression (CE) and the semantic Pattern Expression (PE). A single sided approach is presumed to be insufficient to solve anyone of the dual problems of efficiently finding an assignment validating a 3CNF Clause-Set and finding a 3CNF-representation for a given semantic pattern. The deeply rooted reason, hereafter referred to as The Inefficiency Principle, is conjectured to be the inherent difficulty of translating one expression into the other based on a single-sided perspective. It expresses our inability to perceive and efficiently calculate complementary properties of a logical formula applying one view only. It is proposed as an alternative to the commonly accepted P≠NP conjecture. On the other hand, the idea of algorithmically using information deduced from PE to guide the instantiation of variables in a resolution procedure applied on a CE is as per [Abdelwahab 2016] able to provide an efficient solution to the 3SAT-problem. Finally, linking de-randomization to this positive solution has various well-established and important consequences for probabilistic complexity classes which are shown to hold.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[45] viXra:1709.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-19 07:48:27

Describing a Fluid Motion with 3-D Rectangular Coordinates

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 9 Pages.

We describe a fluid in three-dimensional motion with at most one spatial variable by rectangular coordinate, beyond time, and conclude on the breakdown of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions and the necessity of use of vector pressure.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[44] viXra:1709.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 05:55:21

Crystallographic and Chemical Inconsistencies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

An ANSTO researcher has co-authored a novel theoretical approach to explain inconsistencies between crystallographic and chemical experimental data in the apparent transformation of a pyrochlore to defect fluorite in La2Zr2O7. [25] When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"— Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[43] viXra:1709.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 12:25:38

L’ÉQUATION DE L’UNIVERS

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 32 pages. This is the French version of « THE EQUATION OF THE UNIVERSE » on viXra.org/abs/1709.0033v2.

Une nouvelle équation est trouvée dans laquelle le concept de matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électro-gravitation. La gravitation résulte de l’électromagnétisme – force intrinsèquement beaucoup plus forte – divisé par l’espace-temps cosmologique. Le rayon de l’espace-temps appartient à la famille des ondes électromagnétiques : la longueur d’onde est le rayon de l’univers et la période est son âge cosmologique. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Cette équation s’érige en modèle mathématique permettant de se représenter l’énergie noire (ou constante cosmologique) comme étant une énergie à la fois « négative » et « fatiguée ». En fait, c’est une équation de la cosmologie quantique qui opère la réconciliation entre le macrocosme et le microcosme, pour dresser une vision cohérente du comportement de la matière à travers l’espace et le temps.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[42] viXra:1709.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 12:46:27

Irreducible Quantum Dimension

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1709.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 12:55:15

Efficiency of X-Ray Analyses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

So-called Fresnel zone plate spectrometers offer new and more efficient ways of conducting experiments using soft X-rays. [30] The world's largest X-ray laser opens Friday in Germany, promising to shed new light onto very small things by letting scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions. [29] A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1709.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 07:14:27

Quantum Reminder

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[39] viXra:1709.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 09:14:17

Quantum Chaos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18] Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1709.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 09:59:20

Medical Camera

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Scientists have developed a camera that can see through the human body. [21] A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[37] viXra:1709.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-05 01:13:16

RSA Cryptography over Polynomials

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

Here is defined, following the RSA cryptosystem, a method of cryptography for polynomials over finite rings.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[36] viXra:1709.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 13:52:23

Time-Resolved Measurement of Internal Conversion Dynamics in Strong-Field Molecular Ionization

Authors: Vincent Tagliamonti, Brian Kaufman, Arthur Zhao, Tamás Rozgonyi, Philipp Marquetand, Thomas Weinacht
Comments: 8 Pages.

We time-resolve coupled electronic and nuclear dynamics during strong-field molecular ionization by measuring the momentum-resolved photoelectron yield as a function of pump-probe delay for a pair of strong-field laser pulses. The sub-10-fs pulses are generated using a specially designed ultrafast optical pulse shaper and the electrons are measured using velocity map imaging. Our measurements, in conjunction with calculations that solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, allow us to time-resolve resonance-enhanced strong-field ionization and break it down into three basic steps: (1) Stark-shifted resonant excitation of a high-lying neutral state of the molecule, (2) nonadiabatic dynamics (internal conversion) in which multiple electronic states are coupled, and (3) coupling to the continuum (ionization) http://learnrnd.com/detail.php?id=Biowarfare_and_Germwarfare
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[35] viXra:1709.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 14:20:10

Evolution and the Mind of God

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 8 Pages.

This essay asks the question who, or what, is God. This is not new. Philosophers and religions have made many attempts to understand the nature of God. This essay is different from earlier attempts in that it develops a theory of God based on all known science and our limited understanding of the processes in the universe. It is not necessary to start with the belief that God exists; rather, by following the logic of the essay, it can be concluded that God exists.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[34] viXra:1709.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 14:46:25

Neutrino Mixing with Hopf Algebras

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 9 Pages.

Neutrino mixing in a spectral model for QFT employs the Bogoliubov transformation, which is a quantum Fourier transform. We look at the Hopf algebras in this setting, from a more motivic perspective. Experimental results for mixing are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33] viXra:1709.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 20:12:38

The Application of the Relativity of Simultaneity, in the Proof of Paradoxes, Leads to Two Physical Events and Does not Solve the Contradiction of SRT

Authors: Arutyunov Henry
Comments: 1 Page.

The article shows that the paradoxes of the ladder can not be solved with the help of the relativity of simultaneity. There are no paradoxes of SRT, there is only a contradiction between SRT and nature.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1709.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-06 06:56:10

The Equation of the Universe

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. The force of gravitation arises of electromagnetism – inherently much stronger – divided by the cosmological space-time. The radius of space-time belongs to the family of electromagnetic waves: the wavelength is the radius of the universe and the period is its cosmological age. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter, and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1709.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 05:17:53

New Approach to the Theoretical Value of the Wavelength of the CMB Photons

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract In this new approach the total number of the photons from the Big-Bang [1] and the volume of the entire Universe at the present epoch [2], have produced the energy density of the CMB photons. This energy density shows that the photons of the CMB have a wavelength of: . Approximate frequency of 30 GHz with a temperature of: .This new approach indicates that the CMB photons are the force behind the expansion of the Universe [3] or the Dark energy. The peak at 0.2 cm, 160 mega Hertz with a temperature of 2.7 K could either be due to all the galaxies in the Universe giving a peak intensity in the microwave at 2.7 K or according to: P.J.E. PEEBLES Principles of physical cosmology (pages144 and145). “The CBR energy density can be compared to that of other local fields. The luminosity of the Milky Way is so at our position near the outskirts, at distance from the centre, the energy density is . This defines an effective temperature for the starlight; the result is . The interstellar magnetic field is . If we again define effective temperature by the energy density, , we get .”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1709.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 06:23:26

One Step Evolution Of Any Real Positive Number

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about One Step Evolution Of Any Real Positive Number.
Category: General Mathematics

[29] viXra:1709.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 10:28:45

Nano-Sized Muscle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Imagine repeatedly lifting 165 times your weight without breaking a sweat—a feat normally reserved for heroes like Spider-Man. [20] Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[28] viXra:1709.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-05 06:02:43

Quasi-Exactly Solving the Sextic Anharmonic Oscillator Using a Quotient Polynomial

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 33 Pages.

Among the one-dimensional, smooth and real polynomial potentials, the sextic anharmonic oscillator is the only one that can be quasi-exactly solved [6, 7], in the sense that it is expressed in terms of a non-negative integer n and for every value of n, we can find n+1 energies and the respective eigenfunctions in closed form. In this work, we use, as basic parameter, the constant term of a quotient polynomial [3], to quasi-exactly solve the sextic anharmonic oscillator and demonstrate that the new parameter is a preferential one to study the system, as it makes the analysis straightforward and transparent.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[27] viXra:1709.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 05:26:57

Was Polchinski Wrong? Colombeau Disributional Rindler Spacetime with Disributional Levi-Cività Connection Induced a Strong Vacuum Dominance. Unruh Effect Revisited

Authors: J. Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, E. R. Men’kova
Comments: 58 Pages.

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field Φ in a Rindler distributional spacetime with distributional Levi-Cività connection is considered.It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of acceleration on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant contributions. Here we argue that this belief is wrong by showing that in a Rindler distributional background spacetime with distributional Levi-Cività connection the vacuum energy of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background distributional spacetime such a Rindler distributional background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy density component. This semiclassical gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on a Rindler distributional spacetimes with distributional Levi-Cività connection. In particular we obtain that the vacuum fluctuations 〈2  has a singular behavior at a Rindler horizon   0 : 〈2~−4,  ≈ c2/a,a → . Therefore sufficiently strongly accelerated observer burns up near the Rindler horizon. Thus Polchinski’s account doesn’t violation of the Einstein equivalence principle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] viXra:1709.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 13:05:45

The Generation Mechanism of the Distortion of Space by Mass is Described in Figure.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

In modern physics, understanding of gravity is perfectly understood by the general theory of relativity. By the general relativity and its gravitational equations, gravity is understood to be a distortion of the space around mass forming. The state of distortion in the space is perfectly explained by solving the gravitational equation. However, neither Newton nor Einstein's general relativity explains the cause that the space around the mass distorts, and the space is distorted by what kind of mechanism. The model of my hypothesis "particle pulsation principle" can explain the mechanism of the generation of gravity (distortion of space) in the figure.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] viXra:1709.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 14:50:05

Solution for a Special Case of the Toeplitz Conjecture

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to Toeplitz conjecture or the inscribed square conjecture, every simple closed curve in a plane must have atleast one set of four points on it that belong to a square. This conjecture remains unsolved for a general case although it has been proven for some special cases of simple closed curves. In this paper, we prove the conjecture for a special case of a simple closed curve derived from two simple closed curves, each of which have exactly only one set of points defining a square. The Toeplitz solution squares of two parent simple closed curves have the same dimensions and share exactly one common vertex and the adjacent sides of the two squares form a right angle. The derived simple closed curve is formed by eliminating this common vertex (that belonged to the two solutions squares to begin with) and connecting other available points on the parent curves. We show that this derived simple closed curve has atleast one solution square satisfying the Toeplitz conjecture.
Category: Geometry

[24] viXra:1709.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 21:25:55

Possible Source of The Earth’s Geomagnetic Field

Authors: Yuanjie Huang
Comments: 20 Pages.

The earth’s geomagnetic field provides a safe environment for the earth’s biology against solar wind. However, revealing source of geomagnetic field is very challenging and it has puzzled people for several hundred years. Here, based on the previously proposed Yuheng Zhang effect, I show a simple theory to account for generation of geomagnetic field. This theory only has two requisites, one is metallic core, the other is self-rotation of the earth. Based on this theory, several interesting points are concluded: 1) negative charges accumulate at a metallic thin layer (MTL) at core-mantle boundaries (CMB) and positive charges distribute within the earth’s core; 2) rotation of the separated charges would yield geomagnetic field and gives field strength for the Earth, Ganymede and Mercury, which are in agreement with measurement values; 3) misalignment of MTL rotation axis with the earth’s rotation axis causes geomagnetic declination and a quadrupole field; 4) for a planet, a solid metallic core will generate a geomagnetic field without magnetic declination and geomagnetic reversal, and geomagnetic declination suggests a liquid metallic core; 5) dynamic evolution processes of MTL dominate long-term geomagnetic variations and reversals, e.g., a slower MTL rotation causing a geomagnetic reversal and recovery of MTL rotation eliminating geomagnetic reversal; 6) at center of the earth’s inner core, the geomagnetic field would show a reversal at a critical radius, and geomagnetic fields point from the earth’s south pole to north pole; 7) the earth’s geomagnetic pole and some quadrupoles would exhibit the same angular velocity of westward drift; 8) even if geomagnetic dipole vanished, quadrupole fields would continue to sustain and protect biology from harmful ultraviolet radiation and the solar wind; 9) absence of internal magnetic field for the Venus, Moon and Mars implies non-existence of metallic core in these planets and moons. In all, this theory provide people a new sight to understand the source of the earth’s geomagnetic field.
Category: Geophysics

[23] viXra:1709.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 22:48:23

An Axiom-free Relativizing of Newtonian Physics Predicts the Gravitational Redshift as Good as General Relativity

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 6 Pages.

Of the most important predictions of General Relativity theory, are its success in predicting the light bending near massive celestial objects, and the gravitational redshift, suffered by light emitted from such objects. In a recent article we showed that an axiom-free relativizing of Newtonian Physics, termed Information Relativity theory, predicts, at least as good as General Relativity, the degree of solar light bending observed during all investigated Solar eclipses. Here we demonstrate that the theory also matches the predictions of General Relativity for the gravitational redshift.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1709.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 08:11:27

Thermal Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[21] viXra:1709.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 08:43:01

Hexark and Preon Model #8 and the Unification of Forces: a Summary

Authors: A.J.Fearnley
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper summarises a model for building all elementary particles of the Standard Model plus the higgs, dark matter, dark energy and gravitons, out of preons and sub-preons. The preons are themselves built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. The four forces are shown to be unified by hexarks being string-like objects comprising a compactified multiverse-like structure of at least 10^39 strands of string-like 4D space and time blocks (septarks). Despite the individual forces seeming very different from each another, they all derive from the same colour strands, either as net colour braids (QCD and attractive gravity) or as net neutral-colour braids/strands (electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy, or repulsive gravity). Different strength forces have different numbers of braids in them but QCD-colour is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, the same as gravitational colour while electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy are all qualitatively the same neutral-colour mix, but not quantitatively the same.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20] viXra:1709.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 05:09:39

Morphogenesis of Gravitational Structures Through a Non-Differentiable Approach

Authors: Maricel Agop, Mugur B. Răuţ, Mihai Pricop
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present paper analyzes the morphogenesis of gravitational structures, assuming that dynamics of a test particle in a gravitational field takes place on continuous but non-differentiable curves. The dynamics of such gravitational system is described by an equation for a complex speed that characterizes its rheological behavior. Moreover, the separation of movements on interaction scales in the dynamics equation implies a non-differentiable hydrodynamical model. Finally, such an approach was applied both to one and two body problems and, via numerical simulation, to the morphogenesis of gravitational structures. Consequently, quantization at intragalactic (Solar System) and extragalactic scales (Tifft’s effect) as well as certain modifications of Newton’s force occur. At the same time there is a tendency to form gravitational structures at any epoch, without inflationary phase.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1709.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 07:01:40

Understanding Robots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

ComText allows robots to understand contextual commands such as, " Pick up the box I put down. " [27] McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18] viXra:1709.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 14:19:28

Quantum Algorithm Determining a Homogeneous Linear Function

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Ahmed Farouk, Do Ngoc Diep
Comments: 6 Pages

We present a method of fast determining a homogeneous linear function $f(x):= s.x=s_1x_1+ s_2x_2+\dots+s_Nx_N$ from $\{0,1,\dots,d-1\}^N$ with coefficients $s=(s_1,\dots,s_N)$. Here $x=(x_1,\dots,x_N)$ and $x_j\in{\bf R}$. Given the interpolation values $(f(1), f(2),...,f(N))=\vec{y}$, we shall determine the unknown coefficients $s = (s_1(\vec{y}),\dots, s_N(\vec{y}))$ of the linear function, simultaneously. The speed of determining the values is shown to outperform the classical case by a factor of $N$. Our method is based on the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm \cite{BVG} to qudit systems \cite{BVD}.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1709.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-02 05:59:18

Showing Fjortof’s Theorem Does not Apply for Defining Instability for Early Universe Thermodynamic Potentials. Asking if Nucleated Particles Result At/before Electro-Weak Era Due to Injection of Matter-Energy at the Big Bang?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 16 Pages. Identical to last version. Changed my name, to Andrew Beckwith, so it is easier to find

This paper uses the “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability. The point is that it does not apply in the vicinity of the big bang. We apply this theorem to what is called by T. Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which becomes would be unstable if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism has to be appealed to. In the case of vacuum nucleation, we argue that conditions exist for the nucleation of particles as of the electroweak regime. Due to injecting material from a node point, in spacetime. This regime of early universe creation, coexits with the failure of applications of “Fjortoft” theorem in such a way as to give necessary and sufficient conditons for matter creation, in a way similar to the Higgs Boson. Key words: Fjortoft theorem, thermodynamic potential, matter creation, Higgs Boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1709.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 23:26:09

A Side Dish of Interesting Matters

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 28 Pages.

This isn't meant as the 'main course'. The 'main course' is what time has to be, and what kind of universe fits with the necessary kinds of time to allow physics as we know it, without contradiction of the models that are used to represent it and without paradox.The following topics are discussed: Complexity Arising, About change, Emergence, Self organization, Evolution, The evolution of consciousness, Causal order of consciousness's effect on external reality, Freewill, Fate and determinism, Causality, storytelling and world view, The laws of nature, Philosophical/ Theological matters, On the simulation hypothesis.The framework of a continually changing uni-temporal Object universe brings together physics at macroscopic and quantum scales, brings physics closer to theological ideas and overcomes many physics and philosophy problems. With wider, considerate communication, rather than being esoteric and insignificant, perhaps the model has further unifying, and liberating potential for human kind.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[15] viXra:1709.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 23:41:54

Bomb, Masses Acummulation to One and Movement

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

This is how to explode a mass into a bomb or make several masses merge or make a mass move using two balls and pressure. the inner ball contains the mass and the outer ball contains the inner ball
Category: Classical Physics

[14] viXra:1709.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 02:51:53

Gold from Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

UCLA physicists have proposed new theories for how the universe's first black holes might have formed and the role they might play in the production of heavy elements such as gold, platinum and uranium. [17] A long-standing but unproven assumption about the X-ray spectra of black holes in space has been contradicted by hands-on experiments performed at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1709.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 03:44:43

Proving Grimm’s Conjecture by Step-by- Step Forming Consecutive Composite Numbers’ Points at the Number Axis(Chinese)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 25 Pages.

Let us regard positive integers which have a common prime factor as a kind, then the positive half line of the number axis consists of infinite many recurring line segments which have same permutations of c kinds of integers’ points, where c≥1. In this article we shall prove Grimm’s conjecture by the method which changes stepwise symbols of each kind of composite numbers’ points at the original number axis, so as to form consecutive composite numbers’ points inside the limited field of proven Legendre- Zhang conjecture as the true.
Category: Number Theory

[12] viXra:1709.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 08:04:55

Nanoparticles Throw off Microscopic Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Gold nanoparticles brighten the fluorescent dyes researchers use to highlight and study proteins, bacteria and other cells, but the nanoparticles also introduce an artifact that makes the dye appear removed from the target it's illuminating. [20] Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[11] viXra:1709.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 08:25:20

Quantum Memory Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1709.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 09:03:32

ALPHA Antihydrogen Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

New research by a team from Aarhus, Swansea, and Purdue Universities has enabled recent experiments to make the first measurement of the 1S – 2S atomic state transition in antihydrogen. [12] The LHCb experiment has found hints of what could be a new piece of the jigsaw puzzle of the missing antimatter in our universe. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9] viXra:1709.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 09:27:20

An Undeniable Holistic Contradiction Between Quantum Theory and Experiments and Experimental Verification of the Copenhagen Interpretation

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 21 Pages.

Contradiction between theory and experiment is a threat to the theory. People have paid their attention to regular contradiction (between theory and single experiment) and have found no serious threat. We first propose holistic contradiction, in which one major law of nature (called the bad law) conflicts with each and every quantum experiment. (A) We prove the existence of holistic contradiction (extrinsic-intrinsic contradiction). We show that all known experiments overturn traditional classification of matter and grand unified intrinsic reference space. Namely, the holistic contradiction means that every experiment ever performed by human confirms that (a) the classification of matter depends upon the operability, but not upon the description of larger matter in terms of smaller matter; (b) quantum form we observe is extrinsic but not intrinsic expression of micro-matter; (c) intrinsic and primitive reference system is human’s operable classical one but not reference system in micro-scale. The method of proof is traditional, i.e., verification one-by-one experimentally. (B) The holistic contradiction is the biggest threat to quantum physics, because overturning old classification of matter and the uniqueness of intrinsic system means breaking the supporting structure of quantum physics. We present effects of the breaking on quantum theories in three ways. (1) It is commonly accepted that the Copenhagen interpretation (i.e., CI) is philosophical, and to verify it seems to be impossible, since verifying “reality is restricted to observation” seems to be beyond human capabilities. However, we complete the crucial step of verifying CI. The key to our proof is the disproof of the bad law. (2) Overthrowing old classification of matter makes position of the Standard Model in physics to be greatly reduced, since mapping relation between intrinsic and extrinsic form of micro-matter becomes top thesis in quantum theory. This requires reorganizing the Standard Model such that group SU expresses only extrinsic but not the ultimate blocks. Overthrowing the uniqueness of intrinsic system gives evidence against the string theory, since the extrinsic features of quantum form is incompatible to geometry of string theory. (3) We give a simulation model and show that the relevance between intrinsic and extrinsic system is the key ingredient for producing the abstract state space and probability contribution.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1709.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 09:44:09

Quantum Entanglement is Inevitable

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1709.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 10:31:26

Computing, Cognition and Information Compression

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 21 Pages.

This article develops the idea that the storage and processing of information in computers and in brains may often be understood as information compression. The article first reviews what is meant by information and, in particular, what is meant by redundancy, a concept which is fundamental in all methods for information compression. Principles of information compression are described. The major part of the article describes how these principles may be seen in a range of observations and ideas in computing and cognition: the phenomena of adaptation and inhibition in nervous systems; 'neural' computing; the creation and recognition of 'objects' and 'classes'in perception and cognition; stereoscopic vision and random-dot stereograms; the organisation of natural languages; the organisation of grammars; the organisation of functional, structured, logic and object-oriented computer programs; the application and de-referencing of identifiers in computing; retrieval of information from databases; access and retrieval of information from computer memory; logical deduction and resolution theorem proving; inductive reasoning and probabilistic inference; parsing; normalisation of databases.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[6] viXra:1709.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 10:34:42

Anti-Skyrmions Bit Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A group of scientists from the Max Planck Institutes in Halle and Dresden have discovered a new kind of magnetic nano-object in a novel material that could serve as a magnetic bit with cloaking properties to make a magnetic disk drive with no moving parts - a Racetrack Memory - a reality in the near future. [19] Jarvis Loh, Gan Chee Kwan and Khoo Khoong Hong from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore, have modeled these minute spin spirals in nanoscopic crystal layers. [18] Some of the world's leading technology companies are trying to build massive quantum computers that rely on materials super-cooled to near absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which atoms would cease to move. [17] While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[5] viXra:1709.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 05:14:14

X-ray Laser into Nano-World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

The world's largest X-ray laser opens Friday in Germany, promising to shed new light onto very small things by letting scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions. [29] A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1709.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 06:49:15

Simple Chess Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the University of St Andrews have thrown down the gauntlet to computer programmers to find a solution to a "simple" chess puzzle which could, in fact, take thousands of years to solve and net a $1m prize. [11] It appears that we are approaching a unique time in the history of man and science where empirical measures and deductive reasoning can actually inform us spiritually. Integrated Information Theory (IIT)-put forth by neuroscientists Giulio Tononi and Christof Koch-is a new framework that describes a way to experimentally measure the extent to which a system is conscious. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[3] viXra:1709.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 07:17:32

Affirmative Resolve of Conway’s Problem

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we prove Conway's problem.
Category: Number Theory

[2] viXra:1709.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 00:17:59

Quantum Gravity and the Titius-Bode Rule

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Today, in the areas of theoretical foundation and experimental verification, there is great interest in the properties of a future Quantum Gravity. The ultimate goal of the present research is to contribute to the creation of a definitive, universally acceptable, theory of Quantum Gravity. In the present paper, the two hundred and fifty years of history of the empirical Titius-Bode rule is investigated, under the assumption that this rule is key evidence for a quantum feature in the already long-known classical gravity. Keywords: Titius-Bode rule, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, de Broglie matter wave, Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1709.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 03:39:54

Magnetic Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The magnetic field of a galaxy five billion light-years from Earth has been detected by astronomers. [18] When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science - and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics