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1708 Submissions

[464] viXra:1708.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 13:19:40

Thanks to Bekenstein Bound Holograhic Phenomena Collapse of E8 Symmetry Cyclic Universes Can be Prevented

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: The Bekenstein Bound energy limit of the universe has a value determined by the universe's radius and mc^2 energy content at a given time. The bound energy cannot be exceeded and controls the maximum size and final age of each succeeding cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[463] viXra:1708.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 14:14:46

Source for Brain's Development

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21] Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19]
Category: Mind Science

[462] viXra:1708.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 14:55:22

AI Analyzes Gravitational Lenses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have for the first time shown that neural networks - a form of artificial intelligence - can accurately analyze the complex distortions in spacetime known as gravitational lenses 10 million times faster than traditional methods. [16] By listening to the acoustic signal emitted by a laboratory-created earthquake, a computer science approach using machine learning can predict the time remaining before the fault fails. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[461] viXra:1708.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 17:40:12

Outline of an Experiment to Test Retrocausal Versus Superluminal Interpretations of a Digital Protocol Over a Quantum Channel

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is an interpretation of Quantum Mechanics gaining ground that had its roots in Feynman-Wheeler absorber theory, which has lead to the Watanabe Two-state vector /Cramer Transactional-Interpretation/ /Sutherland viewpoint of Retrocausality. It seems that fantastical notions of superluminal effects are to be abhorred for equally fantastical notions of retrocausality. Noting that physics is the science of natural philosophy, we add to the argument with an outline of an experiment to settle the matter, by a blocking protocol where future actions would be limited by actions in the past (and hence the future) or not at all if the hypothesis is false.
Category: Quantum Physics

[460] viXra:1708.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 23:30:10

A New Physical Model for Calculation of Atomic Mass

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the generally accepted physical model, the synthesis of the heavy elements may happen at a very high temperature in supernova explosions. In consequence of nuclear fu-sion, the supernova stars emit a very strong electromagnetic (EM) radiation, predominantly in the form of X-rays and gamma rays. The intensive EM radiation drastically decreases the masses of the exploding stars, directly causing mass defects of the nuclei. The general description of black body EM radiation is based on the famous Planck’s radiation theory, which supposes the existence of independent quantum oscillators inside the black body. In this paper, it is supposed that in exploding supernova stars, the EM radiating oscillators can be identified with the nascent heavy elements losing their specific yields of their own rest masses in the radiation process. The final binding energy of the nuclei is additionally determined by strong neutrino radiation. Extending Planck’s radiation law for discrete radiation energies, a very simple formula is obtained for the theoretical description of the measured neutral atomic masses. Keywords: atomic mass calculation, Planck’s radiation law, the origin of the elements, binding energy of the nuclei, new theoretical model of the nuclear synthesis.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[459] viXra:1708.0479 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-02 16:55:18

Theory of Interactive Geometric Particles of the Field

Authors: M. D. Monsia
Comments: 2 pages

This work aims to investigate the exchange particles, photon, W and Z bosons, gluon and graviton which are responsible for fundamental interactions, and other types of elementary particles in terms of crystalline polyhedra of quantum vacuum.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[458] viXra:1708.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 10:08:15

Motorized Molecules Destroy Diseased Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Motorized molecules driven by light have been used to drill holes in the membranes of individual cells and show promise for either bringing therapeutic agents into the cells or directly inducing the cells to die. [13] Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have demonstrated for the first time using micromotors to treat a bacterial infection in the stomach. [12] The ability to stimulate neural circuits with very high precision light to control cells—optogenetics—is key to exciting advances in the study and mapping of the living brain. [11] A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10], has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[457] viXra:1708.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 05:50:19

Towards Soliton Computer Based on Solitary Wave Solution of Maxwell-Dirac Equation: a Plausible Alternative to Manakov System

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are a number of proposals to consider collision-based soliton computer based on certain chemical reactions, namely Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, which leads to soliton solutions of coupled Nonlinear Schroedinger equations. They are called Manakov System. But it seems to us that such a soliton computer model can also be based on solitary wave solution of Maxwell-Dirac equation, which reduces to Choquard equation. And soliton solution of Choquard equation has been investigated by many researchers, therefore it seems more profound from physics perspective. However, we consider both schemes of soliton computer are equally possible. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[456] viXra:1708.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 13:09:46

Bacteria Talk to Human Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

We have a symbiotic relationship with the trillions of bacteria that live in our bodies—they help us, we help them. It turns out that they even speak the same language. [18] This biocell could, in the long run, offer an alternative to fuel cells that require rare and costly metals, such as platinum. [17] Scientists have yet to understand and explain how life's informational molecules – proteins and DNA and RNA – arose from simpler chemicals when life on earth emerged some four billion years ago. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
Category: Physics of Biology

[455] viXra:1708.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 13:27:54

World's Biggest X-ray Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[454] viXra:1708.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 16:42:54

Do Physical Laws/ Physics Parameter Constants Remain Invariant from a Prior Universe, to the Present Universe?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 22 Pages. accepted by jhepgc, and Christian Corda for publication

The invariance of physical law between a prior to a present universe is brought up, as a continuation of analyzing entropy in today’s universe, and the relationship of entropy to information content in a prior universe. If or not there is enough information to preserve the amount of physical law also may play a role as to if or not additional dimensions for cosmological dynamics is necessary.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[453] viXra:1708.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 20:26:27

P=NP Via Integer Factorization and Optimization

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that P = NP
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[452] viXra:1708.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 22:14:52

Michelson and Morley Expected the Wrong Result from Their Experiment

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[451] viXra:1708.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 12:48:09

Earthquake Machine Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

By listening to the acoustic signal emitted by a laboratory-created earthquake, a computer science approach using machine learning can predict the time remaining before the fault fails. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[450] viXra:1708.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 07:14:02

A Classical Relation of the Higgs Mechanism

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 9 pages, including 13 figures

Subatomic mass scales derived from the radii of the planets of the solar system, by way of the ‘quantum/classical connection’, lie on the mass/energy levels of the Planck Model. The geometric mean of the eight planetary radii maps onto the Higgs field vacuum expectation value (246 GeV), while the radius of Jupiter maps onto the mass of the Higgs boson (125 GeV). While Higgs field coupling constants derived from a ten-dimensional geometry relate particle masses to the expectation value of the field, coupling constants derived from the ten-dimensional geometry relate the planetary radii to the (geometric) mean planetary radius.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[449] viXra:1708.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 07:10:40

High-Speed Electromechanical Switches and Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Now an international team by Nagoya University has developed a new way of controlling the domain structure of ferroelectric materials, which could accelerate development of future electronic and electro-mechanical devices. [34] The unusual crystal structures of these materials have regions in their lattices, called domains, that behave like molecular switches. [33] A new way of operating the powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has enabled researchers to detect and measure fluctuations in magnetic structures being considered for new data storage and computing technologies. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[448] viXra:1708.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 08:00:11

Store Data on Single Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[447] viXra:1708.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 08:19:54

Nanophotonic Chip System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[446] viXra:1708.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 08:48:31

Beat the Heat in 3-D Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

In the Moore's Law race to keep improving computer performance, the IT industry has turned upward, stacking chips like nano-sized 3-D skyscrapers. [20] Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[445] viXra:1708.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 10:20:22

Researchers Produce Effective Biocell

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

This biocell could, in the long run, offer an alternative to fuel cells that require rare and costly metals, such as platinum. [17] Scientists have yet to understand and explain how life's informational molecules – proteins and DNA and RNA – arose from simpler chemicals when life on earth emerged some four billion years ago. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[444] viXra:1708.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 11:09:03

Aging due to DNA Damage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Nevertheless, the accumulation of DNA damage is a cause of aging. A team of scientists based at CECAD at the University of Cologne is now trying to better understand the damage to the genome driving the aging process. [22] By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[443] viXra:1708.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 15:48:54

Calculations Using Quantum Chemistry for Inorganic Molecule Simulation BeLi2SeSi

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari
Comments: 10 Pages.

Inorganic crystals have been used in the most diverse electronic systems since the nineteenth century, which apply to the wide variety of technological applications, which are the quartz crystals are the most used. Elements such as beryllium, lithium, silicon and selenium are widely used. The difficulty of finding such crystals from the combination of elements in nature or synthesized, suggest an advanced study of the same. In this sense, these elements were chosen because of the physical-chemical properties of each one, to simulate a seed molecule whose arrangement would be formed by the combination of these, aiming at the future development of a crystal to be used technologically. A study using computer programs with ab initio method was applied and the quantum chemistry was utilized through Molecular Mechanics, HartreeFock, Møller-Plesset and Density Functional Theory, on several bases. The main focus was to obtain a stable molecular structure acceptable to quantum chemistry. As a result of the likely molecular structure of the arrangement of a crystal was obtained, beyond the dipole moment, thermal energy, heat of vaporization and entropy of the molecule. The simulated molecule has a cationic molecular structure, in the atoms Selenium and Silicon. As a consequence, it has a strong electric dipole moment. Due to its geometry, it presents a probable formation structure of a crystal with a tetrahedral and hexahedral crystal structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[442] viXra:1708.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 17:16:30

How to Effect a Desired Rotation of a Vector about a Given Axis via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

We show how to transform a "rotate a vector around a given axis" problem into one that may be solved via GA, which rotates objects with respect to bivectors. A sample problem is worked to show how to calculate the result of such a rotation conveniently via an Excel spreadsheet, to which a link is provided.
Category: Geometry

[441] viXra:1708.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 00:50:04

Human Papillomavirus: Cancer and Prevention, Why Doesn’t Everyone Receive HPV Vaccination?

Authors: J Mullin
Comments: 17 Pages.

Human papillomavirus is a highly transmissible through the skin to skin contact and has many strains, with strains HPV-16/18 being high-risk HPV, that is highly correlated with cervical, oropharyngeal, anal, and penile cancers. But these strains are highly preventable by using two of the available vaccines, Gardasil (2vHPV) and Gardasil 9 (9vHPV). Vaccination is between the ages of 9 to 26 years of age is recommended. But even with the advent of the vaccine, the vaccination rate in many countries remains low. Women and men who have sex with men are at higher risk for HPV-associated cancers. So why does not every eligible person receive the vaccination? Factors for apprehension include fear of early sexual behaviors, parental choice, and insufficient knowledge. But the greater good principle shows that since vaccination is for the greater good, it thus outweighs other moral objections to vaccination. It is recommended that all eligible for vaccination should receive it, regardless of sex, to add for a herd immunity and help lower HPV-associated cancer incidence.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[440] viXra:1708.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 05:51:37

Comparative Studies of Theories of Force as well as Generalized Theories Clusters of Force and Fifth Force — No.4 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 9 Pages.

As No.4 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies of various theories (or formulae) of force, and on this basis, presents the concepts of generalized theory of force and generalized theories clusters of force. The essence of generalized theory of force is the extension and generalization of Newton's second law. In Newton's second law, force is the product of mass and acceleration of the object; while in generalized theory of force, force is the product of generalized mass and generalized acceleration of the object, in which: the generalized mass (including quantity of electricity, and the like) and the generalized acceleration are both the functions of coordinates and time, as well as other appropriate variables. Various generalized theories of force form generalized theories clusters of force. In the unified framework of generalized theories clusters of force, the related problems of Newton's second law, law of gravity, law of Coulomb, special relativity, general relativity, strong interaction, weak interaction, and the like, are discussed. Finally, by comparison, concept of the fifth force in nature, namely quantum interaction (including quantum discontinuous interaction, quantum uncertain interaction, quantum stochastic interaction, quantum entanglement interaction, and the like), is proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[439] viXra:1708.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 06:57:06

Method to Calculate pi

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

This is a method to calculate pi using a computer
Category: Geometry

[438] viXra:1708.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:13:35

Why not a Stress Test in an Asymptomatic Person? “The World is Drowning…….”

Authors: Sonia Mishra, Ajay Mishra, Jagdish P Mishra
Comments: 4 Pages.

While growing up, I remember someone telling me a poignant story: “Once a teenager was drowning in a river, he started to yell, “Help me; help me, the world is drowning...........” Well, I will come back to this story at the end of this article... The really so very pertinent question in Medicine is: Should we do any test when someone is asymptomatic? In Cardiology, the very simple question to be asked is: “Do we need to do a stress test when a person is asymptomatic?” Whether that person is truly asymptomatic or not is altogether a different kind of question, however most of the guidelines (US, European and others) state not to do a stress test when a person is asymptomatic (Class III Indication). You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[437] viXra:1708.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:15:16

Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis in Patient with Ventricular Septal Defect: A Report of Clinical Case from Dakar, Senegal

Authors: Mohamed Leye, Momar Dioum, Adama Sawadogo, Modibo Doumbia, Joseph Mingou, Dominique Bindia, Arame Diagne Diallo, Magalie Kaya, Simon Manga, Kadia Ba, Ousmane Dieye, Ibrahima Bara Diop
Comments: 3 Pages.

Infective Endocarditis (IE) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare serious complication in the patients with congenital heart diseases. The authors report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with VSD. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[436] viXra:1708.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:16:21

Efficacy of High-Resolution Epicardial Ultrasonography in Cardiovascular Surgery

Authors: Masaya Oi, Ryuji Higashita, Noboru Ishikawa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In cardiovascular surgery, it is important to identify the target vessel and to assess the quality of vascular structure. Preoperative enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography give us that information; however, we sometimes encounter difficulties due to limitation of those preoperative examinations. Intraoperative use of 15-MHz high-frequency epicardial ultrasound with small probe has a great potential to detect small vessels and it will give us benefits in cardiovascular operations, especially coronary artery bypass surgery You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[435] viXra:1708.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:17:11

Massive Bleeding After Median Sternotomy: Case Report of an Infrequent Complication of Infective Endocarditis

Authors: Laura Varela Barca, Jose Lopez Menendez, Ana Redondo Palacios, Jorge Rodriguez Roda Stuart
Comments: 3 Pages.

bstract We report an unusual complication of acute infective endocarditis, found in a 70 year-old man with a previous history of two cardiac surgery procedures. The first one was a full root replacement (BentallDe Bono procedure), associated with three bypasses (one mammary and two vein grafts). The second procedure was a mitral valve replacement through a right thoracotomy ought to native mitral valve endocarditis. In the current admission, echocardiography showed a periaortic abscess (Figure 1) and severe prosthetic mitral valve insufficiency. CT scan showed a big collection in the anterior mediastinal space adjacent to the composite graft (Figure 2), which was suspected to be purulent material. A third surgical intervention was programmed despite the extreme surgical risk. During the median sternotomy, a massive bleeding occurred. It was originated in the mediastinal collection, which truly was a collection of contained bleeding, originated in the 10 yearsold anastomosis of the saphenous vein to the composite graft, which was completely detached due to endocarditic involvement of the aortic graft. The institution of cardiopulmonary bypass before sternal opening enabled the surgical team to maintain a stable hemodynamic situation and to continue the procedure satisfactorily. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[434] viXra:1708.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:18:32

Total Artificial Heart as the Destination Therapy: A Review

Authors: Abdul Mannan Khan Minhas, Salman Assad, Maryam Khan, Saba Ahmed, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Sriharsha Chakravarthi Athota, Jonathan Constantin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: For the patients awaiting cardiac transplantation, mechanical circulatory support has been widely utilized in the form of left ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Both total artificial heart and left ventricular assist device have been approved for the use as a bridge to transplantation therapy; however only left ventricular assist device has been approved for use as the destination therapy. The purpose of this review is to establish, using this literature, the possibility for the artificial heart transplant to be used as destination therapy besides highlighting the recent developments in this area of research in order to narrate the future of artificial heart transplantation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[433] viXra:1708.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:21:21

Grid-Based Molecular Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A series of grid-based computational technologies for in silico virtual screening and molecular design of new drugs is proposed. [19] A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[432] viXra:1708.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:50:38

Neutron Holography 3-D Atomic Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Now, a collaboration among Japanese researchers from national particle accelerator facilities across Japan has developed a new multiple-wavelength neutron holography technique that can give insight into previously unknown structures. [20] A series of grid-based computational technologies for in silico virtual screening and molecular design of new drugs is proposed. [19] A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[431] viXra:1708.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 08:29:56

Magnetic Skyrmion Fluctuations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A new way of operating the powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has enabled researchers to detect and measure fluctuations in magnetic structures being considered for new data storage and computing technologies. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[430] viXra:1708.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 09:27:31

Switch on Ferroelectrics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The unusual crystal structures of these materials have regions in their lattices, called domains, that behave like molecular switches. [33] A new way of operating the powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has enabled researchers to detect and measure fluctuations in magnetic structures being considered for new data storage and computing technologies. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[429] viXra:1708.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 04:19:52

Thermodynamic Irreversibility in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. [15] A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has developed a means for directly observing dynamical quantum phase transitions in an interacting many-body system. [14] In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[428] viXra:1708.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 05:42:34

How Many Points Are there in a Line Segment? – a New Answer from Discrete Space Viewpoint

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

While it is known that Euclid’s five axioms include a proposition that a line consists at least of two points, modern geometry avoid consistently any discussion on the precise definition of point, line, etc. It is our aim to clarify one of notorious question in Euclidean geometry: how many points are there in a line segment? – from discrete space viewpoint. In retrospect, it may offer an alternative of quantum gravity, i.e. by exploring discrete gravitational theories.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[427] viXra:1708.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 05:44:10

The Sharing-Cooperation-Solidarity Economy: an Outline of New Development Path for Developing Countries

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Rostow’s approach to economic development, summarized in The Stages of Economic Growth, involved an economy passing through a sequence well-defined phases. His growth theory has been accepted as development paradigm by many developing countries. Nonetheless, in the past recent years, it becomes clear that Rostow model imposes several weaknesses, namely debt and dependency problems. External debt flourished in so many developing countries until it possesses risk of default, and also developing countries become much more dependent to technologies coming from the developed countries. In other words, we need a new path for development which may offer more liberating effects instead of making dependent islands here and there. And in this paper we consider The Sharing-Cooperative-Solidarity Economy as possible new development paradigm for developing countries. This is an outline paper, not so elaborated yet.
Category: Economics and Finance

[426] viXra:1708.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-05 08:17:26

Basic Learning Methodology in Academic Theory Studies

Authors: Ryoma.N.
Comments: 70 Pages. Language:Japanese

In defining autonomously adaptive learning methods, creating an academic "Academic Theory Studies" aiming to efficiently and effectively conduct learning, it defines the outline and fundamental matters of Academic Theory Studies. Explanation will be developed with the following items. 1. Outline of Academic Theory Studies 2. Definition of basic matters in Academic Theory Studies 3. Basic formula defined in the theory of Academic Theory Studies 4. Definition of Reference Example of Learning Method 5. Basic Information Technology in Academic Theory Studies 6. Definition of fundamental concepts concerning application of learning methods in Academic Theory Studies 7. Definition of learning methods
Category: Education and Didactics

[425] viXra:1708.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:23:32

Alternative Reflections on the "Pioneer Anomaly"

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 7 Pages.

Since the unexpected acceleration effects of the so called Pioneer anomaly were realized, an enormous number of articles appeared with possible explanations of this mystery. Meanwhile, however, an anisotropic radiation pressure due to heat loss is commonly accepted as source of this acceleration. On the basis of the Alternative Reflections on Gravitation (ARG), however, a quite different source must be expected: When a satellite moves in the sea of gravitons it produces retarding forces, proportional to its speed v and against the direction of its motion, comparable to a ship when it moves on the ocean. The projection of these retarding forces towards the line of sight determines the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer anomaly. The behavior of this acceleration can easily be calculated by use of freely available positional data of both Pioneer satellites. The calculated data, however, appear to be so confusing, that it is understandable, that most of the related Doppler-data were not published. In the case of Pioneer11, data are available of the anomalous acceleration at distances behind the Saturn-Flyby. And these data are very well compatible with the results of the ARG-calculations.
Category: Astrophysics

[424] viXra:1708.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:54:16

Vascular Effects of Cannabis: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Homa Timlin, Kirthi Machireddy, Luc Nguyen, Hilda T Draeger
Comments: 3 Pages.

Marijuana is the 3rd most popular recreational drug and the use of recreational and medical marijuana has been legalized in several states. Knowledge of both acute and chronic adverse effects of cannabis is essential when counseling the public. We report 2 cases who developed arteritis and Raynaud’s as a squeal of long term cannabis use and provide a literature review. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[423] viXra:1708.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:56:21

Renal and Paraspinal Mass in a Patient with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Does Biopsy of one Mass Reflect Pathology in the other

Authors: Homa Timlin, Michael Phillips, Jeremy Hackworth, Duvuru Geetha
Comments: 2 Pages.

Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a necrotizing vacuities affecting medium and small sized blood vessels and produces necrotizing granulomas often involving the upper and lower respiratory tract . GPA can present as tumor like masses in the breast and kidney. However, an association between GPA and renal cell cancer has also been reported. We report a GPA patient who presented with abdominal pain and was found to have a renal and paraspinal mass which were biopsied revealing two distinct pathologic entities. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[422] viXra:1708.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:57:23

Pseudo-Pseudo Meigs’ Syndrome in Rheumatology

Authors: Vitorino Modesto dos Santos
Comments: 1 Page.

The Meigs’ Syndrome (MS) described in 1937 by Meigs and Cass was characterized by benign ovarian fibroma, ascites and hydrothorax that resolve after the tumor removal. Peritoneal and pleural fluids of the patients originally with MS were transudates. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[421] viXra:1708.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:58:24

Needle Versus Forceps Technique in Ultrasound-Guided Synovial Biopsy of the Knee Joint

Authors: Thomas Hügle, Piotr Urbaniak, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, Christian Marx, Giorgio Tamborrini
Comments: 3 Pages.

Objectives: Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy is increasingly applied in rheumatology. Usually forceps- or needle-based techniques are used. So far there has been no direct comparison of different devices regarding their suitability in high resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound (hrMSUS)-guided synovial biopsy. Methods: A core needle biopsy (Quickcore, Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN, USA), an anterograde arthroscopy forceps (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany), a retrograde forceps (Retroforce, KarlStorz GmbH Tuttlingen, Germany) and an convexly shaped integrated core needle system (Synovex, Hipp Medical, Kolbingen, Germany) were tested for ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy of the suprapatellar recess in cadaver knee joints. Four senior rheumatologists scored each intervention from 0-5 regarding the following characteristics: visualization, handiness, accuracy, synovial tissue yield, invasiveness and overall suitability. Each intervention was recorded as static images and video clips. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[420] viXra:1708.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:59:31

Myelomeningocele as Newborn Complication of Lupus Patient. a Singular Case.

Authors: TMSc. Urbano Solis Cartas, MSc. Guillermo Gualpa Jaramillo, Dr.C. Pablo Djabayan Djibeyan, MSc. Lilia del Carmen Villavicencio Narváez
Comments: 4 Pages.

Introduction: pregnancy is considered a risk in patients with rheumatic diseases. The relationship between pregnancy and rheumatic diseases is colored by exacerbation or remission of the disease and possible effects of pregnancy and your final product. Disorders of neural tube development are the second largest group of congenital malformations, with the myelomeningocele is one of the most common malformations. Case presentation: the case of a newborn with myelomeningocele, the son of a female patient of 27 years diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus 4 years of evolution is presented. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[419] viXra:1708.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:01:29

Tropical Infection Induced Hemophagocytic LymphoHistiocytosis

Authors: Pannu AK, Sharma N
Comments: 4 Pages.

Tropical infections include Dengue, Malaria, Scrub Typhus, Leptospirosis, Typhoid and some other fevers, lead to high morbidity and mortality. Many of these cases have multi-organ dysfunction and require intensive care unit care. Hemophagocytic LymphoHistiocytosis (HLH), represent a severe hyper-inflammatory condition, can complicate the clinical course of tropical fevers. Methods: Here we report the clinico-pathological features, laboratory data, treatment and outcome of 3 cases of tropical fever (2 scrub typhus and 1 dengue) complicated by HLH. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[418] viXra:1708.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:02:30

Dermatomyositis as Initial Presentation of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: a Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Pannu AK, Varma SC
Comments: 3 Pages.

The increased incident of malignancy is well established in patients with inflammatory myopathies and specifically in Dermatomyositis (DM). However, the association between DM and Hodgkin’s Disease (HD) is very unusual. We have recently had the opportunity of observing a patient who manifested the clinical features of DM and found to have HD after a detailed work up. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[417] viXra:1708.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:03:24

Aplastic Anemia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Better Prognosis Acquired Aplastic Anemia

Authors: Pannu AK, Varma SC
Comments: 2 Pages.

Aplastic anemia (AA) is an uncommon hematologic manifestation of systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) with significant difference in the course and outcome from other forms of acquired AA due to underlying immune mediated mechanism of the disease. Here we report a case of SLE with thrombocytopenia at presentation and later evolved to develop pancytopenia with bone marrow aplasia. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[416] viXra:1708.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:04:28

Warfarin Related Nephropathy: a Case Report from a Tertiary Hospital of North India and Review of Literature

Authors: Pannu AK, Vohra G, Agarwal P
Comments: 3 Pages.

Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant to treat or prevent thrombotic complications since its approval in the 1950s. Bleeding is the most common complication of warfarin and the risk increases sharply with the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Warfarin Related Nephropathy (WRN) is a newly recognised disease entity and an undiagnosed complication of warfarin. It occurs with over anticoagulation and is associated with increased renal morbidity and all cause mortality. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[415] viXra:1708.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:06:42

Farmers Perception on Fungicide Use for Developing Sustainable Environment and Conservation of Biodiversity: A Study in Cooch Behar District of India

Authors: Ganesh Das
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fungicide was essential for control of infestation of fungus on different crop. Farmers were use different type of fungicide on crop field. Their perception on fungicide use may be different. Different government and private organisation took initiative to aware the farmer about the use of fungicide. But still a problem was found by Cooch Behar Krishi Vigyan Kendra that farmer perception of fungicides use were not homogeneous and the different sources of information may be use by the farmers for fungicide application. So a study was conducted at Gopalpur village in Cooch Behar district, West Bengal, India to know the farmer perception on fungicide use and sources of information utilize for fungicide application. The data were collected during June, 2016. The research design was followed in the study was survey research method. The sample size of the study was 100.The dependent variable of this study was perception and independent variables were age, gender, number of family member, caste, land holding, education, annual income and sources of information. The descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, Pearson’s product moment correlation and other statistical tools were used for the investigation. This study had shown the relation of the perception of fungicide use with the different independent variable and the role of different extension mechanism for fungicide information providing. It was concluded from the study that farmers’ perception of fungicide use were not homogeneous and the different socio-economic variable may affect the perception of the farmers on fungicide use. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[414] viXra:1708.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:07:43

Evaluation of Different Crop Sequence Production Potential, Economics and Nutrient Balance under New Alluvial Situation Of NEPZ

Authors: Dhiman Mukherjee
Comments: 5 Pages.

A field experiment was conducted during 2014-16 at Kalyani, under the aegis of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidayalayathe to evaluate the most profitable and efficient cropping systems for indogangetic belt of west Bengal. Treatment comprised of 14 cropping sequence system tested in randomized block design with three replications. For comparison between crop sequences, the yields of all crop sequences were converted into rice equivalent on price basis. With various treatments, more rice equivalent yield was observed with rice-mung sequence (5897 kg/ha), and was significantly higher than rest of the sequence during kharif season and was at par with the maize-wheat (5868 kg/ha), chilly- wheat (5694 kg/ha) and maizecabbage (5503 kg/ha) system. This tested crop sequence resulted in 21.9, 21.3, 17.7 and 13.7 % more grain yield over traditional practice of rice- wheat system, which is most dominant in this region. However, during Rabi season rice- potato (6613 kg/ha), gave significantly more economic yield compare to all other cropping pattern. This sequence resulted in 128.1 % more rice equivalent grain yield over traditional practice of rice- wheat system. Further, rice - cauliflower sequence gave the highest net return (Rs. 97.58 thousand/ha), followed by rice – chickpea (Rs. 88.69 thousand/ha) and rice – mung (Rs. 84.36 thousand/ha). Higher benefit: cost ratio was obtained from ricemung (2.23) and was just followed by chilly –wheat (2.22) and ricecauliflower (2.19) cropping sequence. Present work revealed that, productivity, profitability and sustainable yield index were higher under rice – cauliflower and rice – mung cropping sequence then the traditional rice –wheat sequence. Further, overall nutrient mining by this system was quite low compared to other sequences and suitable under this zone. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[413] viXra:1708.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:08:51

Supply Chains and Rural Communities: Applying Terroir to American Rural Development

Authors: Joseph Molnar, Jolene Glenn
Comments: 5 Pages.

Terroir is a French concept establishing the natural ecology, cultural history, and social organizations of a community create unique agricultural food products. This paper outlines the conceptual foundation for quality promotion in the in the supply chain of geographically differentiated agricultural products. It identifies production processes and pressures determining the current and potential change shaping the commodity chain. It delineates who and how value is added though all stages of production from farm to consumer. The significance of these types of crops in terms of economic as well as cultural value warrants high investment in insuring its terroir, identity, and quality. The actors involved in each stage of production are identified. Many products possessing terroir are advanced and protected by these social groups. The study is part of a larger research project concerning the terroir of Vidalia Onions and through quality and identity development, preservation of the economic and cultural assets of southern Georgia. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[412] viXra:1708.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:09:51

Using Ahp for Evaluation of Criteria for Agro-Industrial Projects

Authors: Gregory Yom Din, Aislu B Yunusova
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article describes an application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluation of criteria for agro-industrial projects. For this purpose, a database was collected from interviews with experts in agricultural regions of Russia (South Urals) in 2015-2016. Experts are classified according to their relationship to agro-industrial business, work experience, education, and gender. The questionnaire was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process methodology. Part of the questions was based on the approach of the prospect theory in order to identify expert attitude to risk associated with the implementation of investment projects. In total, 226 experts responded to the questionnaire. Criteria of agro-industrial projects - financial, social, and risk criteria - were ranked according to their importance and taking into account the expert attitude to risk. Estimates of the criteria importance and expert features analyzed in the study may be used to improve the presentation of agro-industrial projects thus contributing to their successful evaluation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[411] viXra:1708.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:11:02

Computational Identification of Conserved Domains from Genomic Survey Sequences in Green Gram [vigna Radiata (L.) R. Wilczek]

Authors: Ramprasad Eruvuri, Prasad Gajula MNV, Durga Rani V, Anuradha1, Vanisri S
Comments: 4 Pages.

With recent advances in the field of genome sequencing, analysis and availability of large genomic data in the public domain, we made an attempt to survey the presence of the conserved domains, super families and multi domains having putative functions identified from green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) using computational tools. In this study we have been identified the various conserved domains, super families having putative functions for fundamental, metabolic, developmental, evolutionary processes and physiogenic nature from the query sequences. This study was beneficial in the area of comparativ e genomics for the identification of important genes and also development of functional molecular markers in identified genes for green gram and its related crops improvement. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[410] viXra:1708.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 13:29:24

Four-Dimensional Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[409] viXra:1708.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 21:51:53

A Probabilistic Definition of Drowsiness

Authors: Chun-Shu Wei
Comments: 7 Pages.

Drowsiness is a cognitive factor that affects human behavior such as response time. However, quantifying drowsiness in a subject measurement has been an unsolved challenge. In this study, I proposed a probabilistic definition for drowsiness and developed a drowsiness index based on the response time in a sustained attentional task. Results show that, with normalization and temporal smoothing, the drowsiness index is able to track the variation of drowsiness.
Category: Mind Science

[408] viXra:1708.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 01:09:09

Black Hole Models Contradicted

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A long-standing but unproven assumption about the X-ray spectra of black holes in space has been contradicted by hands-on experiments performed at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[407] viXra:1708.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 02:39:21

A Covariant Ricci Flow

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to formulate a covariant Ricci flow so that it satisfies the principle of relativity and therefore can be applied to all coordinate systems defined on a Riemannian manifold. Since the investigation may be considered to be in the domain of pure mathematics, which is outside our field of physical investigations, therefore there may be errors in mathematical arguments that we are unable to foresee.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[406] viXra:1708.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 12:21:04

Optical Control of Magnetic Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[405] viXra:1708.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 07:34:18

Equation of Motion of a Particle in a Potential Proportional to Square of Second Derivative of Position W.r.t Time in Its Lagrangian

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 7 Pages.

I constructed a Lagrangian functional and equation of motion of a classical particle in a potential that is proportional to square of second derivative of its position with respect to time. Solution of equation of motion is identical to the solution of the equation of motion of the conventional simple harmonic oscillator in a potential that is proportional to square of its position.
Category: Classical Physics

[404] viXra:1708.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:10:40

Double Integrals and Series for Some Classical Constants

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 21 Pages.

This note presents a collection of double integrals for some classical constants.
Category: Number Theory

[403] viXra:1708.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:14:53

Some Examples of Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 56 Pages.

This note presents some examples of Newton-Raphson fractals.
Category: Geometry

[402] viXra:1708.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:22:53

Question 331: a Short Note on pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages.

This note presents some results on pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[401] viXra:1708.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:28:05

Double Integrals Involving Pi^2 and Pi^3

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we give some double integrals involving pi^2 and pi^3.
Category: General Mathematics

[400] viXra:1708.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:38:14

The Quintic Equation: X^5+10*x^3+20*x-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 11 Pages.

This note presents the roots (in radicals) of the equations:x^5+10*x^3+20*x-1=0 , x^5-20*x^4-10*x^2-1=0 and related fractals.
Category: Algebra

[399] viXra:1708.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:44:11

Question 357: Some Infinite Products

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some infinite products involving pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[398] viXra:1708.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:47:32

Question 337: Integrals and Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 13 Pages.

This note presents fifteen integrals and ten fractals.
Category: General Mathematics

[397] viXra:1708.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:55:08

Artificial Intelligence Cyber Attacks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The next major cyberattack could involve artificial intelligence systems. [13] Steve was a security robot employed by the Washington Harbour center in the Georgetown district of the US capital. [12] Combining the intuition of humans with the impartiality of computers could improve decision-making for organizations, eventually leading to lower costs and better profits, according to a team of researchers. [11] A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[396] viXra:1708.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 09:05:32

Infrared Spectral Survey of the Entire Sky

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Proposed astrophysics mission to conduct the first infrared spectral survey of the entire sky. [11] Researchers have created a 3D printed cosmic microwave background-a map of the oldest light in the universe-and provided the files for download. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[395] viXra:1708.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 10:03:11

Photosensitive Perovskites

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[394] viXra:1708.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 10:09:24

Implementation of a Core(c) Number Sieve.

Authors: Preininger Helmut
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we give an implementation of a Core(c) Number Sieve (for a given c=1,2,3,.. we sift out numbers that have in there factorization a prime with a power >= c). For c=2 we have a squarefree number sieve. (Note, that, for c=1, our implementation compute the usual prime number sieve.) Our goal is to use only one codebase and avoid extra algorithms for every c. We use some well known algorithms and adopt it for our purpose.
Category: Number Theory

[393] viXra:1708.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:13:54

Gene Editing: do not Forget About Animal Agriculture

Authors: Yanina Petracca, Alison L. Van Eenennaam, Martin Alfredo Lema
Comments: 2 Pages.

In vivo gene editing techniques have attracted great interest, not only in the scientific community, but also among regulatory agencies worldwide. Within the agricultural sector, gene-edited organisms pose an opportunity to help with broad challenges such as climate change, disease and pest pressure and increasing demands for agri food products . Nevertheless, there are ongoing debates on how to handle such challenges at the regulatory level that need to be solved as a sine qua non condition for these organisms to have a chance of becoming commercially available. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[392] viXra:1708.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:15:10

Socio-Commercial Agri-Biotech Model for Rural Development in India by Combining Livestock and Organic Farming Practices

Authors: Abhishek Cukkemane
Comments: 4 Pages.

India experienced major success in agriculture productivity, post-green revolution, due to use of fertilizers. Around the same time, operation flood made India from a milk-deficient to highest producer by introducing exotic breeds. These approaches resulted in food and milk security but at a cost of decrease in soil health and loss in animal farming especially indigenous breeds of cattle. Since few years, educated medium land holding farmers have adopted organic farming practises. But, the supply of high quality organic manures remains a bottle neck in many sectors. It is therefore necessary to highlight the importance of combining organic- and cattle farming to the rural folk by introducing socio-commercial models based on modern biotechnological processes that can convert animal wastes into high quality manures on a mass-scale that can be efficiently marketed in the rural areas. Such practise will make small and medium land holding farmers adopt cattle farms, which will in turn be an epicenter for rural development by constant supply of manures to the farmers at a reasonable price. Therefore, we briefly highlight the impact of farming revolutions and the problems faced by farmers in India. Our analysis of the total cattle waste in India and the area of arable land, we highlight the possibility of organic farming across the nation. By utilizing readily available raw materialist is possible to accommodate socio-commercial model that can result in revenue generation by combining organic- and animal- farming practises for agronomic and rural development. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[391] viXra:1708.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:16:21

Zika Virus Infection: An Emergency of International Concern

Authors: Sunny Mandal, Sudhish Mishra, Prabir K. Mandal
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus, meaning that it is insect vector-borne disease, most commonly transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans. ZIKV is endemic to parts of Africa and Asia, but over the past months, a large number of locally acquired cases have been discovered in Brazil. The number of cases and the locations of the outbreak qualify ZIKV as a rapidly growing epidemic threat. The ZIKV causes microcephaly, small heads and often damaged brains, which may not have developed properly during pregnancy or may have stopped growing in the first years of life. These children may experience a range of problems, like developmental delays, intellectual deficits or hearing loss. Until recently, Zika was not considered a major threat because its symptoms are relatively mild. There is no widely available test for Zika infection. Infection with Zika virus may be suspected based on symptoms and recent history of travel. A diagnosis of Zika virus infection can only be confirmed through laboratory tests on blood or other body fluids, such as urine, saliva or semen. Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[390] viXra:1708.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:17:55

Development and Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Five Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Thuy Trang Nguyen, Vo Van Giau, Tuong Kha Vo
Comments: 9 Pages.

Foodborne pathogens present serious concerns to human health and can even lead to fatalities. The gold standard for pathogen identification – bacterial culture – is costly and time consuming. A cheaper and quicker alternative will benefit in controlling food safety. In this study, we developed a multiplex-PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of five Foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio cholerae, based on five genes stx1, femA, invA, iap, và ctxA, respectively. Specific primers for multiplex PCR amplification of the stx (Shiga-like toxin), nuc (thermo nuclease), inv A (invasion protein A), iap (invasive associative protein), and ctx A (cholera toxin A) genes that were established to amplify simultaneous detection of the target pathogens. The assay was also validated for its specificity, sensitivity, and applied to test some spiked food samples. The results showed the products expected multiplex PCR fragments of approximately 112, 244, 301, 453, 518 and 720bp for S. aureus, Salmonella spp. V. cholera, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and 16S rRNA, respectively. The assay was specific to the targeted pathogens and was sufficiently sensitive and robust to effectively analyze market samples. The whole process took less than 24 h to complete indicating that the assay is suitable for reliable and rapid identification of these five foodborne pathogens, which could be suitable in microbial epidemiology investigation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[389] viXra:1708.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:39:26

Nouvelle Ecriture des Equations du Problème de n Corps

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. In French.

From the equations of the problem of $n$ body, we consider that $t$ is a function of the variables $(x_k,y_k,z_k)_{k=1,n}$. We write a new formulation of the equations of the $n$ body problem.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[388] viXra:1708.0405 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-01 13:16:29

On the Antisymmetric Tensor and Sources of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 18 Pages. En/Ru

The canonical antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor has four-dimensional divergences for each of the indices, so the introduction of a field source into its divergence equation for only one of the indices is incorrect. The total divergence of the antisymmetric tensor is identically zero and does not have a field source. The article is devoted to the mathematically correct introduction of the electromagnetic field source into the field equations. The field equations follow from a symmetric tensor having a full four-dimensional divergence not equal to zero. This divergence is equal to the four-dimensional source of the electromagnetic field. From the new system of equations of the electromagnetic field follow the canonical wave equations for the electric field strength, magnetic induction, electromagnetic potential (Maxwell's equations in the Lorentz gauge), and also follow the wave equation for the divergence of the electromagnetic potential describing longitudinal waves that do not have a magnetic component. A new system of electromagnetic field equations solves the problem of Newton's third law in electrodynamics.
Category: Classical Physics

[387] viXra:1708.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 06:04:10

Statistics on Small Graphs

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: Pages 47-120 are adjacency matrices for connected simple graphs up to 7 nodes.

We create the unlabeled or vertex-labeled graphs with up to 10 edges and up to 10 vertices and classify them by a set of standard properties: directed or not, vertex-labeled or not, connectivity, presence of isolated vertices, presence of multiedges and presence of loops. We present tables of how many graphs exist in these categories.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[386] viXra:1708.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 13:44:12

Rocks do not Self-Assemble in Outer Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Observations are made completely falsifying the idea that rocks can self-assemble in outer space.
Category: Astrophysics

[385] viXra:1708.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 22:14:17

A Possible Model of Parallel Universes

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 1 Page.

We suggest a possible Model of Parallel Universes(Worlds) wherein the same space can be occupied by different Universes on condition that all parts and particles of any one Universe exist only in discrete moments of time and does not exist in other moments of time and these sets of moments( one set per each Universe) do not intersect so that Universes can be "parallel" in time.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[384] viXra:1708.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 00:10:32

The Mistake of Michelson, Morley and Their Followers.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandeex.ru

It is shown here that interferometers can not detect a difference in the speeds of light signals. For the proof, we assume that there is a difference in the speed of light signals. Then we get different units of length for different signals. Therefore, the time of passage of the interferometer arm by the light signal does not change. And this does not give a shift in the interference image.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[383] viXra:1708.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 00:19:33

Units and Class Numbers Extracted from Regulators of Small Number Fields

Authors: Lulu Karami
Comments: 48 Pages.

This submission demonstrates how to use the analytic class number formula to express certain quotients of Dedekind's Eta function as a unit raised to the power of a quoteint of class numbers, for particular number fields. It includes a loose derivation for some special cases of reciprocity laws and the Fourier series of particular Eisenstein series.
Category: Number Theory

[382] viXra:1708.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 00:33:44

History Lessons from the 5th Solvay Meeting, 1927

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 54 Pages. Intended for an international meeting in Kiev, September 2017

Largely drawn from “Quantum Theory at the Crossroads : Reconsideringthe1927 Solvay Conference” by Guido Bacciagaluppi and Antony Valentini, but also from several books by Pais (“ Inward Bound” and “Subtle is the Lord”), plus other sources, we examine some of the very contemporary themes as to quantum measurement which were debated in the 5th Solvay meeting. In addition we also discuss some issues given by Roland Omnes in “Understanding Quantum Mechanics” as to the problem of classical and quantum properties, which is at the forefront of the Quantum Gravity issues of how to reconcile semi classical physics with the presumed bridge between Planckian physics (presumably quantum in nature) with the rest of cosmology. The issues argued in part by the Solvay meeting as to Quantum measurements and the competing Pilot theory, as brought up by De Broglie, and how that plays out as to the later Hidden Variables and the alleged determinism foundations of an embedding structure for Quantum physics, still are with us, and make the Solvay meeting, 1927 a stellar event, still worth revisiting 90 years later.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[381] viXra:1708.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:08:24

The Therapeutic Potential of Cocos Nucifera Water on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Toxicity in Male Rat

Authors: Olabisi O. Ogunrinola, Omolade O. Fajana, Babakunle O. Williams, Eunice Ogedengbe, Ajibola A. Onifade, Francisca C. Ekeocha, Kareemat O. Shasore
Comments: 6 Pages.

Cocos nucifera (Coconut) water is one of the world natural products with increasing scientific evidence that support its role in health and medicinal application. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of Cocos nucifera water on cadmium-induced toxicity in male rat. Sixty-four animals were randomly grouped into five, groups 3, 4, 5 (n=16) were exposed to 100, 200, and 300 ppm cadmium doses for 6 weeks in their drinking water as cadmium chloride. At the end of 6 weeks, eight from each group were sacrificed and the remaining was administered with 10 % coconut water for a week. Control animals (n=8; group 1) received distilled water and Cocos nucifera water (n=8; group 2) for the same six week period. Lipid profile analysis revealed that cadmiuminduction exhibited different dyslipidemia patterns. Significant dose-dependent hypocholesterolemia, hypotriacylglyceridemia and hypophospholipidemia characterized the effect of cadmium exposure at all doses while Cocos nucifera water treatment for a week reverse these effects by 4, 24 and 22 % in plasma and 16, 15 and 2 % in the erythrocytes respectively. The exposure to cadmium resulted in reduced cholesterol, triacylglyceride concentration in the brain and cholesterol, phospholipids concentrations in the hepatic compartments. Also, the exposure caused an increase in brain phospholipids and hepatic triacylglycerides concentrations. The administration of Cocos nucifera water significantly (p < 0.05) reverses these effects. Our findings indicate that although the cadmium-exposure at different doses resulted in down and upregulation of lipid profile, the administration of Cocos nucifera water was able to reverse the damage caused by cadmium-induced toxicity. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[380] viXra:1708.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:11:18

Degradation and Human Health Risk Assessment of Underground Water of Trans Ganga-Yamuna Rural Regions of a North Indian District

Authors: Ayesha Mariya, K.P. Singh, Ashutosh Tripathi, Mohd Masood, Niraj Kumar
Comments: 9 Pages.

The present study investigates the physico-chemical qualities and fecal contamination of ground water; and related health risks of rural areas of trans-Ganga and Yamuna region of a North-Indian district, Allahabad, India. The pH, turbidity, TDS, BOD, and COD, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and fecal coliform contamination was estimated in 269 water samples of 14 villages. Higher levels of turbidity, alkalinity, chloride and fecal contamination in ground water of trans-Yamuna area were found as compared to trans-Ganga. About 75% samples of trans-Yamuna were contaminated with faecal coliform as compared to trans-Ganga region (55%).Significant positive correlation existed between chloride, TDS, alkalinity (r=0.74- 0.91; p < 0.05), hardness and pH (r = 0.75-0.85; p < 0.05). The Relative Risk (RR) of some waterborne diseases was very high (2.11-8.00) in trans-Yamuna as compared to trans-Ganga region (1.81-3.48). Furthermore, the new treatment requirement parameter (NNT) for waterborne diseases of these rural areas was also estimated, which suggests that the need of a new and improved treatment approach for these diseases is more frequent in the trans-Yamuna area as compared to trans-Ganga. Our results suggest urgent attention and intervention for improving the quality of potable water in these rural areas and to control the waterborne diseases associated to rural health risks. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[379] viXra:1708.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:12:53

Fine Structure of the Gas Bladder of Alligator Gar, Atractosteus Spatula

Authors: Ahmad Omar-Ali, Wes Baumgartner, Peter J. Allen, Lora Petrie-Hanson
Comments: 8 Pages.

Anthropogenic factors seriously affect water quality and adversely affect fish populations. Agricultural run-off accumulates in the Mississippi River and the coastal estuaries. Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) inhabits these waters and is impacted by agricultural pollution, petrochemical contaminants and oil spills. These fish are bimodal air breathers, and use a primitive lung as an accessory organ. The gas bladder, or Air Breathing Organ (ABO) of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), is a vascularized air sac located dorsal to the body lumen. It has characteristics of amphibian lungs. Alligator gar air-breathing organs function to supplement branchial respiratory exchange with aerial gas exchange. The alligator gar gas bladder is an elongated air sac that originates dorsal to the pharynx. Air enters through a pharyngeal-esophageal duct that is controlled by two glottal ridges. The pharyngeo-esophageal duct is approximately 5mm long and is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium that is continuous with the central canal epithelium. The gas bladder has a central canal that subdivides the bladder into right and left lobes. Each lobe is further divided by septa into series of air spaces. The septa consist of blood vessels and smooth and striated muscles. Air circulates throughout the central canal, lobes and air spaces. The thickness of the septa is determined by underlying, supportive striated muscle. The internal surface of the gas bladder is a continuous respiratory epithelial layer that includes mucus cells, pneumocytes, and ciliated epithelial cells. An understanding of the normal tissue characteristics of this air breathing organ provides a baseline for studying the effects of environmental toxins on this organ. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[378] viXra:1708.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:14:22

Studies on HIV Resistance to Multiple Drug Therapy (Lamivudine, Zidovudine and Nevirapine) in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Ibeh IN, Okungbowa, Ibeh NI, Isitua CC
Comments: 3 Pages.

Resistance to anti-retroviral drugs has long been recognized as a possible occurrence which may further complicate the management and control of microbial infections including the dreaded Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The present study evaluates cases of suspected unresponsiveness to Lamivudine, Zidovudine and Nevirapine (HAART) in Benin City Nigeria. Five adult males and females (3m, 2f) between the ages of 35 - 50 years who had been on triple drug therapy (LZN) for a minimum of five years and were terminally ill in hospitals were recruited for this study. Venous blood (5.0mls) was collected from the subjects for analysis for viral antibodies, CD4 + T cells and viral load determination. The subjects were then placed on 10.0g of Manna and 20.0mls of Bioclean II daily and observed for 120 days. Venous blood samples were collected again at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after commencement of treatment for analysis. Skin rashes disappeared after 60days. There were increases in Body weight from 47.4(Kg) to 62.4kg, CD4+ T cells from 47.3 cells/µl to 327.8 and a reduction of viral load from 253,671.5 copies/ml to 23, 240.3 copies.ml after 90 days. This finding suggests that the viruses carried by the individuals investigated in this study were not responding to Lamivudine + Zidevudine + Nevirapine. The implication is that resistance to HAART may be developing challenges to the management of HIV/AIDS in this community. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[377] viXra:1708.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:15:52

Bacterial Community Structure in Activated Sludge Process

Authors: Shah M, Hiral Borasiya
Comments: 7 Pages.

Microbial activity and structure of the bacterial community of activated sludge reactors, which treated industrial wastewater, were studied. Microbial communities, including ammonia oxidation bacteria, eubacteria, actinomycetic communities were studied in two different systems of the polymerase chain electrophoresis gradient denaturing gel reaction using amplified gene fragments 16S rRNA of bacteria. Both systems, which used an anoxic-aerobic process and anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic process, respectively, received the same industrial waste water, operating under the same conditions and showed the similar processing performance. Oxidizing bacterial communities of ammonia from two systems showed almost identical structures corresponding to ammonia removal like, while the bacterial community actinomycetic showed obvious differences. The anoxic-aerobic-anaerobic system showed eubacterial richer communities actinomycetic the anoxic-aerobic system. FISH results showed that the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial cells in the anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic system are increased by 3.8 ± 0.2% of the total bacterial population while those in the anoxic-aerobic system represented 1.7 ± 0.2%. Thus, the existence of an anaerobic-anoxic environment in the anaerobic-aerobic system has resulted in a marked increase in biodiversity. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[376] viXra:1708.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:21:16

Optimization of Extraction Techniques SPE, QuEChERS and Ultrasound Method for Trace level Determination of Imidacloprid in Vegetables (Cabbage and Spinach) and Soil by (UFLC)

Authors: Prakash Samnani, Kamlesh Vishwakarma, Bipul Bihari Saha
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract A simple, sensitive, fast and inexpensive method was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE), ultrasound and QuEChERS method with Ultra Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC) for trace level determination of imidacloprid in vegetables (Cabbage and Spinach) and Soil. The method was validated using Cabbage; Spinach and soil samples spiked with imidacloprid at different concentration levels (LOQ 0.01, 10 x LOQ 0.10 and 50 x LOQ 0.50 µg/g). Average recoveries (using each concentration 5 replicates) ranged from 89.39 to 99.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 2.15%, calibration solutions concentration used were in the range 0.005 - 1.0 µg/mL and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 µg/mL and 0.01 µg/mL, respectively You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[375] viXra:1708.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:22:23

The Importance and Applications of High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography in Biopharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries

Authors: X. Michael Liu
Comments: 1 Page.

Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) or High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) is the most broadly accepted method for the determination of molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of macromolecules. It is a special type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on molecular sizes or hydrodynamic volumes and not according to partition or affinities toward the stationary phases. HPSEC is also called Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) in polymer science and gel filtration chromatography (GFC) in the biological sciences. Conventional HPSEC equipped with a concentration detector (i.e. refractive index, UV-vis, or photodiode array) acquires molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of analytes according to the elution volumes or a peak position calibration using a series of standards of known molecular weights and chemistry. Therefore, the obtained molecular weights and molecular weight distributions by conventional HPSEC are the relative ones. The advantages of conventional SEC are high robustness, excellent reproducibility, and ease of transfer between laboratories. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[374] viXra:1708.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:24:17

Quantitative Analysis of KH903 from Human Serum by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study

Authors: Bing Tian Bi, Ben Y. Zou, Min J. Zhao, Wen L. Zhu, Xiao Ke, Li T. Deng, Hai Liao, Jing Zhan, Kun Y. Feng, Su Li
Comments: 6 Pages.

KH903 is a novel antiangiogenic drug for cancer therapy. Its pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients is therefore very important for choosing doses and dosing intervals in clinical application. A selective, sensitive, and rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method was developed and validated here for the determination of KH903 in patient serum. This method is specific enough for the detection of KH903 in serum samples. Nonlinear calibration curves were obtained for KH903 at a concentration range of 0.781-50 ng/ ml (r > 0.999). The intra-batch accuracy ranged from 83.4% to 94.5%, and the inter-batch accuracy varied from 88.8% to 91.7%. Stability tests showed that KH903 was stable throughout the analytical procedure. This study is the first to utilize the ELISA method for the pharmacokinetic study of KH903 in six cancer patients who had received a single dose of KH903 (4.0 mg/ kg) administered intravenously. The results address the pharmacokinetic profile of KH903 in cancer patients in detail and evaluate the binding efficacy of KH903 on VEGF in patients to provide guidance for the regimen of KH903 in phase I clinical trials. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[373] viXra:1708.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:26:25

Simultaneous Estimation of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Tablet Dosage Form by Reverse Phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Bala Rami Reddy.Yenumula, Mutta Reddy.Singampalli, Bala Sekhara Reddy.Challa
Comments: 6 Pages.

A simple, rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method had been developed and validated for estimation of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in tablet dosage form. The estimation was carried out on PhenomenexLuna C18 (25 cm x 4.60 mm, particle size 5 µm) column with a mixture of 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.8): Acetonitrile; 40: 60 (v/v) as mobile phase. UV detection was performed at 260 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity as per ICH norms. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of commercially available dosage form. The retention time was 2.81 and 7.42 min for emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate respectively and total run time was 10 min. at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/ min. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 40.00 - 240.00 µg/ mL for emtricitabine and 60.00 - 360.00 µg/ mL for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 1.54 and 4.54 µg/ mL for emtricitabine and 4.60 and 13.65 µg/ mL for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate respectively. The high percentage of recovery and low percentage coefficient of variance confirm the suitability of the method for the simultaneous estimation of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in tablet dosage form. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[372] viXra:1708.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:28:05

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): The Workhorse in the Analytical Laboratory

Authors: Victoria F. Samanidou
Comments: 2 Pages.

Instrumental analysis has disposed classical chemical analysis in every analytical laboratory, since many decades, as it is faster and more productive. Beyond any doubt chromatography and above all High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is the workhorse in routine analysis, either as standalone technique or hyphenated with specific and more sensitive spectroscopic techniques. Thus the detection of analytes can be feasible at low concentrations following regulatory requirements, as for example those set by environmental protection agencies, food authorities or pharmacopeias, that are getting stricter every day.
Category: Biochemistry

[371] viXra:1708.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:32:59

Optimization and Evaluation of Monodispersed TetrandrineLoaded PLA Microspheres Prepared With A SPG Membrane Emulsification Technique

Authors: Jin Lu, Ai-ling Yin, Meng Zhang, Xue-e Yu, Ting-ming Fu, Hua-xu Zhu, Li-wei Guo
Comments: 11 Pages.

To improve pulmonary drug concentrations and to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the adverse side effects, uniformsized tetrandrine-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres with a suitable particle size for pulmonary inhalation were prepared by the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique. The main parameters influencing PLA microsphere properties were investigated: transmembrane pressure, circulation speed, high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB value), PLA concentration and oil-water volume ratio. Narrowly size-distributed tetrandrine-loaded PLA microspheres were obtained with a high drug encapsulation efficiency of 81.0% and an average diameter of 3.16 μm under optimized conditions. The results of Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that tetrandrine would be either molecularly dispersed in the polymer or distributed in an amorphous form. Further, the in vitro drug release experiment confirmed that the uniform-sized tetrandrine-loaded PLA microspheres showed suppressed burst release. These studies provide a basis for the use of uniformly sized 3.16 μm tetrandrine-loaded PLA microspheres for pulmonary inhalation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[370] viXra:1708.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:34:45

Pharmacokinetics of Cymbopogon Citratus Infusion in Rats After Single Oral Dose Administration

Authors: Gustavo Costa, Ana Fortuna, Daniela Gonçalves, Isabel Vitória Figueiredo, Amílcar Falcão, Maria Teresa Batista
Comments: 9 Pages.

Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, is a tropical herb used in worldwide traditional medicine for centuries. Studies previously conducted by our team demonstrated its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and recently, the antiinflammatory potential was also observed in vivo. However, little is known about its pharmacokinetics. The current study aimed at obtaining, for the first time, the pharmacokinetic profile of lemongrass infusion after a single dose oral administration to rats. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[369] viXra:1708.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:36:48

Two New Coumarins from the Leaves of Phellodendronamurense.

Authors: Zhao Zhang, Guangzhi Li, Lingchao Dai, Bengang Zhang, Jianyong Si
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two new coumarins, PhellodenolsI (1) and J (2), were isolated from the leaves of Phellodendronamurense. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The two new compounds were tested against Hela, AGS, and MGC-803 human cancer cell lines and exhibited cytotoxic activities with IC50 values between 18.71± 5.23 μM and 36.92± 4.72 μM. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[368] viXra:1708.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:38:13

Rp-Hplc Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tolperisone Hcl and Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Authors: G Kumaraswamy, V Swapna, D Sudheer kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new method was established for simultaneous estimation of Tolperisone and Diclofenac sodium by RP-HPLC method. The chromatographic conditions were successfully developed for the separation of Tolperisone and Diclofenac sodium by using Agilent C18 column flow rate was 1ml/min, mobile phase ratio was (70:30 v/v) ACN: phosphate buffer pH 3 (pH was adjusted with orthophosphoricacid), detection wavelength was 240nm.The retention times were found to be 4.645 mins and 2.242 mins. The % purity of Tolperisone and Diclofenac sodium was found to be 100.3% and 99.27% respectively. The analytical method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The precision study was precision, robustness and repeatability. LOD value was 2.17 and 0.0372 and LOQ value was 6.60 and 0.1125 respectively. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[367] viXra:1708.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:39:23

Criteria of Patient Selection in a Clinical Trial

Authors: Michel Bourin
Comments: 4 Pages.

Which criteria will govern patient selection if this choice is to take various requirements into account and if the key problem is to obtain homogeneous groups in order to reduce variability in response and yet provide representative samples of the affection studied? The means of selecting patients will be defined by inclusion and exclusion criteria, which should be as explicit as possible. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[366] viXra:1708.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 11:00:45

Hodge Experiment (Continued) of Interference with a Slit in a Transparent Mask Rejects Wave Models of Light

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 6 Pages.

Young's interference and Hodge's diffraction of light experiments show characteristics of light that have defied modeling except for the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model. The Hodge Experiment is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a slit impinges on a second mask with a slit(s). The Hodge Experiment is extended to model a diffraction pattern on a transparent second mask with a slit. The screen pattern is an interference pattern such as produced with two slits in Young's Experiment. A nail is placed between the first and second mask to block the light of the center maxima. The interference fringes remained in the secondary peaks. This observation rejects wave models of light that requires light through the second slit. The STOE model successfully modeled the observed pattern.
Category: Quantum Physics

[365] viXra:1708.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 07:24:43

Solutions of Exercises of Tensor Calculus Made Simple

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 90 Pages.

This document contains the solutions of all exercises of my book: Tensor Calculus Made Simple.
Category: General Mathematics

[364] viXra:1708.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 07:40:31

Security Robots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Combining the intuition of humans with the impartiality of computers could improve decision-making for organizations, eventually leading to lower costs and better profits, according to a team of researchers. [11] A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[363] viXra:1708.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 09:31:10

Division by Zero and the Arrival of Ada

Authors: I Gede Putra Yasa ''Gus Satya''
Comments: 24 Pages.

Division by 0 is not defined in mathematics. Mathematics suggests solutions by work around methods. However they give only approximate, not the actual or exact, results. Through this paper we propose methods to solve those problems. One characteristic of our solution methods is that they produce actual or exact results. They are also in conformity with, and supported by, physical or empirical facts. Other characteristic is their simplicity. We can do computations easily based on basic arithmetic or algebra or other computation methods we already familiar with.
Category: Number Theory

[362] viXra:1708.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 05:26:21

Michelson-Morley Experiment's Error Hidden for 130 Years

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why the Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[361] viXra:1708.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 06:34:27

“The Quantum Computer Based on Lepton–neutrino Particles and Other “quanticles““

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 12 Pages.

This publication is based on studies of The Moravian Masaryk University, Professor RNDr. Josef Havel, Dr.Sc., from Department of Analytical Chemistry and Department of Physical Electronics. The significant subject of the work is an application of ANN (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK, with MALDI–TOF SPECTROMETRY, HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), Electrophoresis and Research of AAS (ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY). This text says about research of neutrinos and photons, wimp’s like an application of construction of QUANTUM ANN COMPUTER. The Article consists of study an introduction of Author and Prof. RNDr. J. Havel, Dr.Sc. theme of mineralogy and biology and geography and scientific cooperation from the year 2004, study generally could be known like soil computation. The second part of this publication is dedicated to short History of Computational Science. The third part says about Highlights of this article, concretely Author’s sketches of a quantum computer. The fourth part talks about results from continual measuring of statistical data from project SAGE 37Ar neutrino source experiment (SAGE -> SOVIET–AMERICAN– 71GERMANIUM–71GALIUM EXPERIMENT IN CAUCASCUS BAKSAN. Fifth part is connected with METHODS (KATRIN AND TROITSK NU–MASS). Sixth part is focused to conclusions of Research of neutrinos and other quanticles, namely photon proton, photon neutrino, neutrino photon and wimp’s.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[360] viXra:1708.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 06:46:29

High Frequency Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Novel, high-frequency electronic chip potentially capable of transmitting tens of gigabits of data per second—a rate that is orders of magnitude above the fastest internet speeds available today—has been developed by engineers at the University of California, Davis. [19] For the first time, researchers have sent a quantum-secured message containing more than one bit of information per photon through the air above a city. [18] In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17] Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[359] viXra:1708.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 21:18:14

Energy Body Theory Opens New Frontiers of Physics in the 21st Century

Authors: Ichiro Nakayama
Comments: 150 Pages.

There are four kinds of force in the natural world, which are electromagnetic force, weak force, strong force and gravity. To unify them, the “Theory of Everything” is looked for. More, there are also “Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy” which are still mysterious. But, “Energy Body Theory” will unify them on the base of one axiom including dark matter and dark energy. It describes that the whole universe including elementary particles is made of just only energy body. As a result, the conclusion that all interactions are caused by the difference of energy level of energy body is drawn. Energy body theory also contrives an elementary particle model according to the axiom. The model draws the shape like that energy body is revolving as a wave motion focusing on a self-axis, and attenuates from the center part in high energy state to the foot area of the expanse part in low energy state, and becomes one with space. The spherical part of the center shows the character of a particle and the foot area part shows the character of field. A rise or a descent of energy is caused by the direction of a mutual wave motion, and repulsive force or attractive force is caused. Then, it is conceivable that light and electromagnetic waves are the transcriptions which are made when electronic posture changes and is transcript into static energy body (space). I inspected if this idea is right applying to the basic physical phenomena which are electromagnetism, an elementary particle, gravity, dark energy and the structure of the universe, etc. And I am successful in all cases that I inspected up to now. More, basic physical phenomena which are not shown the reasons now by the present physics was explained. For example, they are the reasons that an elementary particle has a character of electrical charge, that an electrical charge is plus or minus, that magnetic field occurs around electrical current, that an elementary particle and light have the character of duality of particle and wave, that light velocity is invariable, that Bose and Einstein condensation occurs, and what is a spin of an elementary particle. More, the universe expansion is also too. Energy body theory explains what gravity and the dark energy are, and even advocates the structure of the universe that the universe circulation system functions instead of big-bang theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[358] viXra:1708.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 11:40:29

Avoiding the Semmelweis Reflex and Worldview Lag

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The author supposes a simple idea to avoid the Semmelweis Reflex and a short explanation of the main cause due to first hand experience, backed by simple rule of influencing people in a less caustic way.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[357] viXra:1708.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 07:38:05

Moving Edge of a Crack

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

What, exactly, happens right around the edge of the crack, in the area in which those large stresses are concentrated? [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[356] viXra:1708.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 08:20:39

Further Tractability Results for Fractional Hypertree Width

Authors: Wolfgang Fischl, Georg Gottlob, Reinhard Pichler
Comments: 16 Pages.

The authors have recently shown that recognizing low fractional hypertree-width (fhw) is NP-complete in the general case and that the problem becomes tractable if the hypergraphs under consideration have degree and intersection width bounded by a constant, i.e., every vertex is contained in only constantly many different edges and the intersection of two edges contains only constantly many vertices. In this article, we show that bounded degree alone suffices to ensure tractability.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[355] viXra:1708.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-30 10:50:20

The Dynamics of the Gravity Field

Authors: Malik Matwi
Comments: 34 Pages. Damascus University, Syria

We derive the canonical momentum of the gravity field. Then we use it to derive the path integral of the gravity field. The canonical momentum is represented in Lorentz group. We derive it from the holonomy U(A) of the connection A of Lorentz group. We derive the path integral of gravity field as known in quantum fields theory and discuss the situation of free gravity field (like electromagnetic field). We find that this situation is only in the background spacetime, weak gravity, the situation of low matter density. We search for a theory in which the gravity field is a dynamical at any energy in arbitrary curved spacetime. For that, we suggest a duality gravity-area. That duality lets to possibility to study both gravity and area as dynamical fields in arbitrary curved spacetime. We find that the area field exists in the space-like and the gravity field exists in the time-like. We find that the tensor product of gravity and area fields, in selfdual representation, satisfies the reality condition. We derive the static potential of exchanging gravitons in scalar and spinor fields, the Newtonian gravitational potential.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[354] viXra:1708.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 11:23:46

Cargo Cult Science - The Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Richard Feynman introduced the 1974 graduation class of the California Institute of Technology to the concept of cargo cult science. Cargo cult science is a process that gives the appearance of the scientific method. The term ether and its basic definition was known long before it was determined light was a wave. It had been postulated that the ether was responsible for the ability of light to transit a vacuum. The purpose of the Michelson-Morley (1887) experiment was to determine whether the ether existed. The experiment produced a null result, indicating the ether did not exist and space was empty. Acceptance of the experiment result has had a profound impact on scientific thought and allowed theories to be promulgated based upon space being empty. The expanding Universe is taught as a fact and the validity of that conclusion is discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[353] viXra:1708.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 14:38:23

Nylonase Genes and Proteins - Distribution, Conservation, and Possible Origins

Authors: S.T. Cordova, J.C. Sanford
Comments: 78 Pages.

Nylon comprises a family of man-made substances that were first manufactured in 1935. Nylonases are biological enzymes that can break down nylon oligomers. Although the most prominent nylonases are within the family of enzymes classified as 6-aminohexanoate hydrolases, some enzymes not formally classified as 6-aminohexanoate hydrolases also have the ability to breakdown nylons, and so can also be classified as nylonases. Organisms that encode a nylonase enzyme do not necessarily have the ability to actually survive on a nylon substrate as their sole carbon source. Among the first documented organisms that did have this ability was the soil bacterium Arthrobacter KI72. It has long been thought that nylonase genes and proteins were essentially absent from the biosphere prior to 1935. This belief led to the widespread assumption that any nylonase gene observed in the present must have emerged since 1935. Several authors developed hypothetical models of how a specific nylonase gene (the nylB gene found within Arthrobacter KI72), might have arisen very recently as a de novo gene. In this paper we show that the widely-held assumption that all nylonase genes must have evolved very recently is no longer credible. This is in light of the wide-spread distribution of diverse nylonases throughout the biosphere. Likewise, we show that the early speculations regarding the possible de novo origin of the nylB nylonase gene are no longer credible. Our review of the literature shows that a variety of nylonase-digesting bacteria have been found in extremely diverse natural environments – far removed from any synthetic nylon sources. In addition, we show there are over 1800 organisms with computationally predicted (provisional) 6-aminohexanoate hydrolase/nylonase genes in the NIH-funded UNIPROT database. These 1800 predicted nylonases are not yet experimentally confirmed to cleave nylons, but have significant homology to the experimentally confirmed nylonases. In addition to 6-aminohexanoate hydrolases, proteases like trypsin and certain lipases have been experimentally demonstrated to have nylonase activity. If we include all proteases and lipases that may have nylonase activity, the number of organisms with nylonase activity may exceed ten thousand. The widespread distribution of nylonases and their homologs strongly suggests that nylonases were already widespread prior to 1935. Lastly, we have carefully examined the claims that the nylB gene arose as a de novo gene very recently. The theories of Ohno (the frame shift hypothesis) and Okada (the gene duplication hypothesis), were speculative in nature, and yet were uncritically accepted. In light of new data, these early speculations no longer appear tenable.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[352] viXra:1708.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-15 00:10:14

E8 Root Vectors from 8D to 3D

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 39 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice. Version 4 (v4) describes a natural progression from 600-cell to Superposition of 8 E8 Lattices
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[351] viXra:1708.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 22:10:27

On the Occasion of Eclipse 2017: an ex-Ante Prediction of Starlight Bending Without Allusion to Spacetime

Authors: Ramzi suleiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this brief note we put forward a novel prediction of starlight bending, to be measured during Eclipse 2017. Our prediction is based on a simple, relativistic modification of Newton's physics, without allusion, whatsoever, to Einstein's concept of spacetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[350] viXra:1708.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 22:14:38

Dark Matter and Dark Energy as Quantum Entities

Authors: Ramzi suleiman
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the present article, we propose a new model based on our recently proposed information relativity theory for explaining dark matter and dark energy and for inferring about the nature of their interactions. The model gives rise to a matter-wave duality, similar to the realistic de Broglie–Bohm model. We allude briefly to the model’s applications in predicting and explaining quantum phenomena; then we utilize it to construct a simple quantum cosmology of the universe, according to which dark matter and dark energy are, respectively, quantum matter and dual-wave energy at cosmic scales. We use the model to explain, in physical terms, the dynamic interaction among matter, dark matter, and dark energy as functions of the recession velocities and redshifts of celestial objects, such galaxies, quasars, etc. Contrary to the standard cosmological model, the predicted distributions of matter and dark energy densities, as functions of redshift, are far from being uniform, with matter reaching its maximal energy density at a point of quantum phase transition equaling the golden ratio (z ≈ 1.618). The predicted dynamics between matter and dark energy are shown to a function of the celestial’s object recession velocity (or redshift). We derive general terms for predicting the amount of matter and dark energy in any redshift range and show that our predictions confirm with recent observations-based ΛCDM cosmologies. The model predicts that, for redshift z ≤ 1 2 , corresponding to recession velocity β ≤ 1/3 , the universe is dominated by matter, while for z > 1 2 (β > 1/3 ), it is dominated by dark energy. This prediction alleviates the so-called “coincidence problem,” by providing a physical explanation as to why the density of the two components at the present time are equal.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[349] viXra:1708.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 23:40:12

Reservoir Theory

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

We are shrinking
Category: Classical Physics

[348] viXra:1708.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:46:13

Endothelial Dysfunction in Mexican Obese Children, is there A Role of the Gut Microbiota?

Authors: Khemlal Nirmalkar, Selvasankar Murugesan, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, María del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Jaime Garcia-Mena
Comments: 4 Pages.

Endothelial dysfunction is a predisposing factor for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; and at the same time, endothelial dysfunction is associated to obesity. The prevalence of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and obesity is quite high among Mexican children; on the other hand, gut microbiota has been associated to obesity in the same population. Atherosclerosis is associated to gut microbiota in humans, and this association raise the possibility that endothelial dysfunction is also related with the gut microbiota in obese population. This review addresses the current knowledge of association of endothelial dysfunction, with obesity and atherosclerosis; however, there are no reports of association of endothelial dysfunction with gut microbiota through the measurement of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and selectins. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[347] viXra:1708.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:53:25

Disparate Body Composition Outcomes for Underwater Weighing, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, and Two Bioelectrical Impedance Devices in Overweight Young Adults

Authors: Michelle Alencar, Kelly E. Johnson, Nathan Cole, Ann L. Gibson
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: As the prevalence of obesity rises, so does the need for reliable Body Composition (BC) methods. Many methods of BC analysis exist, however validity between methods has been questioned. Uncertainty exists within the scientific literature about which laboratory method and field measurement is applicable for the overweight population to estimate Percent Body Fat (% BF). There is scarce research comparing Hydrostatic Weighing (HW) and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) with field methods in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare HW and DXA with Multi-Frequency (MF-BIA) and a Single-Frequency (SFBIA) Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) device. Methods: Twenty-five overweight and obese adults (BMI 30.1 ± 4.1 kg/ m2, 13 males, 12 females, ages 24.6 ± 4.7y) were randomly assessed by vertical SF-BIA, and supine MF-BIA against DXA and lastly HW. All participants followed standardized pre-testing guidelines for BC assessment. Agreement was assessed using a 2 (group) x 4 (method) RMANOVA and post-hoc t-tests were applied as appropriate. All methods of body composition were used and compared to DXA and HW. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[346] viXra:1708.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:54:39

Assessing Stages of Readiness to Lose Weight among Overweight and Obese Adolescents using Trans-Theoretical Model

Authors: Asmah Johari, Rosnah Sutan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: Assessing the individual’s level of readiness to change will help in losing weight and targeting for an ideal body weight. This study was aimed to determine the readiness to lose weight among overweight and obese adolescents using TransTheoretical Model (TTM) assessment tool. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 631 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years whose screened as overweight or obese (body mass index for age with z-score of ≥ 1 SD from WHO Reference 2007). Samples were selected using multistage random sampling from secondary level schools of two urban districts. The students had completed the translated and validated TTM constructs questionnaire and were categorized according to five stages of readiness to lose weight. One way ANOVA and MANOVA were used to analyze the relationship between stages of readiness to lose weight according to TTM assessment tool. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[345] viXra:1708.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:55:54

Understanding Weight Change While Incarcerated: Qualitative Groundwork for a Collaborative Health Intervention

Authors: Nell Baldwin, Amber Cardoos, Jennifer G. Clarke
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the context of the ever-increasing incarcerated population in the U.S. and our “obesity epidemic,” recent work has investigated whether incarcerated individuals are at higher risk for obesity and related diseases. We build on this scholarship by interviewing incarcerated men and women, as well as correctional facility staff to parse the barriers and facilitators to maintaining a healthy weight on the inside. This qualitative analysis forms the groundwork for a collaborative health intervention to address weight gain and weight maintenance in a U.S. correctional facility. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[344] viXra:1708.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:57:38

Obesity and Cancer: Evidence, Postulated Mechanisms and Prospectives

Authors: Hala Fawzy Mohamed Kamel, Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Obesity is a major health problem tremendously increasing worldwide, obesity has been accompanied by a state of metabolic dysregulation, characterized by insulin resistance and may be associated with many comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Lately a great attention has been gained toward the association of obesity with certain cancers. Numerous studies and meta-analysis reported that, obesity is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, postmenopausal breast cancer, and endometrial, renal, pancreatic, prostate and colorectal cancers. In spite of, the evidence of such association that link obesity with risk and recurrence or death from cancer, however the linking mechanisms has not been yet fully explained. Obesity may promote cancer by: 1) alteration of adipocytokines: Leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin with promotion of angiogenesis and interactions with other mediators and cytokines. 2) Hypoxia and angiogenesis due to expansion of adipose tissue with release of certain mediators that stimulate angiogenesis. 3) Metaflammation state of low grade and chronic inflammation that merely stimulate release of cytokines as (TNFα) and (IL-6) and the activation of pro-inflammatory signaling. 4) Insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia and increased levels of insulin and growth factors as IGFs and IGF binding proteins. 5) Increased levels of sex steroids, including estradiol and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) particularly in cases of endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. 6) oxidative stress and reduction of antioxidants with possibility of oxidative damage or mutation of DNA. 7) epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation , histones and chromatin remodeling factors . In fact, it remains unclear how the convergence of these mechanisms may drive obesity-associated cancer, considering the complex and multi-factorial characterization of cancer as well as the variation of genetics background of obese subjects. Prospective studies is worth pursuing especially towards therapeutic implications to prevent or treat obesity- associated cancer. Our aim is providing updated and comprehensive review about postulated and prospective links and molecular mechanisms between obesity and cancer, focusing upon mechanistic mediators that may drive obesity- associated cancers and may be targeted molecules for prospectives therapies. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[343] viXra:1708.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:15:21

Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomies: Correlations Between Primary Tumor and Histological Findings of Controlateral Breast

Authors: Vitale V, Mattei MS, Lombardi A, Maggi S, Stanzani G, Di Stefano D, Argento G, Cunsolo G, Campanella L, Mastrangeli MR, Amanti C
Comments: 6 Pages.

Backgound: In Italy in 2015 48,000 new cases of breast carcinomas were diagnosed. Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have a significant risk of developing contralateral breast cancer during the rest of their lives and this risk is closely associated to the family history, to the onset of breast cancer at a young age and is expressed at about 0.5 to 1% of metachronous tumors per year. The purpose of this work was to evaluate which and how many neoplastic lesions were seen in the contralateral breast that underwent prophylactic mastectomy and to understand what factors predict the appearance of such lesions. Methods: 168 bilateral mastectomies were analyzed in patients with an average age of 47 years, carried out from July 2008 to April 2016, at the Breast Unit of the Sant’Andrea Hospital. We considered women of any age suffering from unilateral breast cancer without either clinical or radiological evidence of a malignant lesion in the contralateral breast and negative for mutations of the BRCA1-BRCA2 genes test. Of the 168 bilateral mastectomies 35 patients were excluded from the study because they underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, another 35 patients because they were suffering from a bilateral neoplasia and 7 cases because they had mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[342] viXra:1708.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:17:40

Serpiginous Supravenous Hyperpigmentation

Authors: Nora Naqos
Comments: 1 Page.

Serpiginous supravenous hyperpigmentation is a rare clinical event that occurs almost exclusively after peripheral intravenous chemotherapy. A patient of 40 years old diagnosed with cavum carcinoma and received fluorouracile and Cisplatine chemotherapy. After the second cycle, hyperpigmentation appears in the left forearm, clinical examination found serpiginous hyperpigmented streaks along the course of the superficial veins without any other mucocutaneous lesions. Initially described with 5FU and also reported with other molecules such as vinorelbine, cisplatin, Bleomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin, docetaxel, fotemustine, it does not require specific therapeutic and doesn’t impose any dosage reduction. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[341] viXra:1708.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:19:25

Uterine Adenosarcoma in Obese/Overweight Patients; A Report of Two Cases

Authors: Shota Asano, Takashi Shibata, TomokiKodera, Yoshihiro Ikura, Tetsuya Oishi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Uterine adenosarcomas are an uncommon gynecological neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components and usually presenting as a polypoid mass. We report herein two cases of uterine adenosarcoma. Both of the patients were obese/overweight (body mass index 32 kg/m2 and 27 kg/m2, respectively), and controlling obesity and metabolic disorders seemed to be the key to prevent their post-operative tumor recurrence. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Physics of Biology

[340] viXra:1708.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:21:31

Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Review

Authors: Basem T. Jamal, Scharukh Jalisi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Background: Since most oropharyngeal carcinomas are locally advanced at presentation, patients are often treated with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. However, for early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma, national guidelines state that it can be treated by either primary surgery or radiotherapy. This study analyse national survival rates of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma for surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities. Methods: All cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx between 1988 and 2007 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 17 database. The SEER database is a population-based cancer registry that captures 17 distinct population groups in 198 counties in the United States. It represents approximately 26% of the overall United States population and contains information on 6,117,327 cases of cancer diagnosed since 1973. Overall survival was the primary outcome measure. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. Significance was defined as P<0.05. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[339] viXra:1708.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:22:48

Convergence Revolution – Piloting the Third Scientific Revolution Through Start-Ups for Breast Cancer Cure

Authors: Pramod Khargonekar, Anthony Sinskey, Charles Miller, Balu Ranganathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Convergence revolution integrates various academic disciplines with wide spectrum of activities and also connects them with translation and innovation ecosystem thereby going well beyond traditional collaborations. This is the third revolution in the life science arena, first being DNA discovery and second genomics where almost entire human genome has been sequenced. The third revolution, convergence revolution has the potential to lead to a solution for breast cancer cure. Breast cancer is the second largest mortality causative agent among women. In United States, nearly 40,000 women die of breast cancer every year. Till date (March 2017), 3.1 million women have been medicated for breast cancer. On an average every 2 minutes, a woman in the U.S. is diagnosed with breast cancer. Convergence may provide a more effective solution for cure breast cancer by multipronged approach using nanotechnology (targeted delivery with controlled release), imaging protocols (Raman spectroscopy) and biomarkers detection involving physicists, chemists, bioengineers, radiologists, clinical oncologists and entrepreneurs and proposing for a National Cancer Data Ecosystem. This work is a classic example of convergence involving multi-disciplinary researchers and technology developers. Several start-ups are working in the direction of breast cancer therapy onto clinical trials which can pave way for translation to clinics for the cure of belligerent types of breast cancers which affect young women. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[338] viXra:1708.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:25:48

Activation of Monocyte-Macrophage Cells in Pregnancies Complicated by Bacterial-Viral Urogenital Infections

Authors: L.A.Vygovskaya
Comments: 1 Page.

Introduction: Fetoplacental insufficiency and intrauterine infection of the fetus are one of the triggers for various complications of gestational process with persistent infections of the pregnant being a special concern for obstetricians. Immunopathogenic mechanisms play the leading role in the development of these complications. Pregnancy is known to be characterized by a unique new equilibrium state between specific and nonspecific immunity in the mother in which monocytes, rather than lymphocytes become the central cells of immunological adaptation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Physics of Biology

[337] viXra:1708.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:28:53

Sirenomelia, the Mermaid Syndrome in Kuwait: A case Report

Authors: Fatemah Alhadhoud
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sirenomelia also called as Mermaid Syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation of uncertain etiology. It is characterized by fusion of the lower limbs and commonly associated with severe urogenital and gastrointestinal malformation. We report a case of sirenomelia occurring in a 25 year old Kuwaiti woman following premature rupture of membranes. This is the first documented case in this country. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[336] viXra:1708.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:31:54

Fetal Echography Remotely Controlled Using A TeleOperated Motorized Probe and Echograph Unit

Authors: Philippe Arbeille, Jose Ruiz, Gabriel Carles, Victorita Stefanescu, Monica Georgescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Objective to evaluate the performance of a new device for fetal tele-echographyin isolated medical centers. Methods fetal tele-echography and Doppler was performed using,a) a portable echograph which setting and function (Doppler pulsed and color, 3D capture..) can be operated from away via internet, b) equipped with motorized probes (400g, 430cm3) which transducer can be orientated from away by an expert also via internet. The pregnant were in medical center far away from the expert center. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[335] viXra:1708.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:33:03

A Staged Feasibility Study of a Novel Vaginal Bowel Control System for the Treatment of Accidental Bowel Leakage in Adult Women

Authors: Michelle Miki Takase-Sanchez
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background Accidental bowel leakage, or fecal incontinence, impacts the quality of life in women of all ages. A minimallyinvasive vaginal bowel control system was designed to reduce accidents and provides a new health care option for women. Methods A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate fit, patient comfort, and ease-of-use of this novel vaginal bowel control therapy at home to better inform device design, treatment delivery, and the design of a subsequent pivotal clinical trial protocol. Staged evaluations were performed in women without and with self-reported accidental bowel leakage of any severity. Wear duration progressed from an initial one-time, in-office fitting to extended-wear periods at home. Device-related adverse events were collected in all subjects exposed to the device. Treatment responses were collected at baseline and after 1-month wear in women with accidental bowel leakage. Additionally, device comfort and satisfaction were assessed. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[334] viXra:1708.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:35:20

A Rare Case of Newborn with Accessory Scrotum Associated with Bifid Scrotum and Perineal Lipoma

Authors: Enrica Rossi, Massimo Basile, Ubaldo Bongini, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Chiara Caporalini, Claudio Defilippi
Comments: 3 Pages.

We report a case of bifid scrotum with accessory scrotum and peduncular lipoma in perineal region occurring in a full-term male neonate. Physical examination showed two soft perineal masses located between a bifid scrotum and the anus. No abnormalities of anus were detected. The patient underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations confirming a homogeneous fat tissue matter of the posterior mass and showing fluid content inside the anterior one. The patient also underwent a Gastrografin enema and no analcolon anomalies were detected. The masses were completely excised and the histological examination revealed a lipoma, with tissue suggestive of scrotum, so a definite diagnosis of accessory scrotum, associated with lipoma was made. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[333] viXra:1708.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:36:07

Quantum Entanglement is Real

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[332] viXra:1708.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:40:16

The Impact of Maternal Incarceration on Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: Research Findings from a National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health

Authors: Zina McGee, Bertha L. Davis, Sherri Saunders-Goldson, Marissa Fletcher, Lindsay Fisher
Comments: 7 Pages.

Data for this study were drawn from quantitative analyses derived from secondary statistics from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), which is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States to examine the impact of maternal incarceration on emotional and behavioral outcomes among adolescents. It was hypothesized that maternal incarceration would increase the number of risk factors among adolescents including delinquency, victimization, emotional outcomes and drug usage. For this project, the survey data were analyzed on self-identified non-white (minority) participants reporting criminal justice involvement measured through lifetime arrest, age at first arrest, number of pre-18 arrests and number of post-18 arrests as behavioral outcomes. Measures of self-reported depression and anxiety were also included to examine mental health outcomes. Results from hierarchical multiple linear regressions indicated that having a mother incarcerated explains variance in emotional outcomes and behavioral risk influences such as symptomatology, criminal involvement, and drug use over and beyond sociodemographic factors including gender, educational level and family income. Policy implications and suggestions for future research are addressed. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[331] viXra:1708.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:42:04

Critical Incident Technique Applied in Nursing and Healthcare Sciences

Authors: Bengt Fridlund, Maria Henricson, Jan Mårtensson
Comments: 5 Pages.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the development and current status of the critical incident technique (CIT), with focus on its fundamental definitions, guidelines, and pros and cons when applied in nursing and healthcare sciences. Method: A theoretical reasoning based on the original literature and with the support of updated literature relevant to the CIT was used. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[330] viXra:1708.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:43:09

Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of Hepatitis C Screening

Authors: Jennifer Cameron, Robyn Ray
Comments: 5 Pages.

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a clinical reminder system to increase the incidence of patients born between 1945 and 1965 who are offered screening for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). A clinical reminder form was utilized to prompt primary care providers to offer screening for HCV. Pre-implementation and postimplementation data were collected via retrospective chart review. Data was analyzed to compare patients who were offered testing for HCV pre- and post-implementation of the clinical reminder system. In the pre-implementation data that was collected, 238 patients out of the 600 randomly collected met inclusion criteria of being born between 1945 and 1965. Of these 238 patients, only four were offered screening for HCV prior to implementation of the project. In the post-implementation data, 248 out of 600 patients met the inclusion criteria of being born between the ages of 1945 and 1965. Of these 248 who met inclusion criteria, 211 were offered screening for HCV. This resulted in 85% of patients who were offered screening for HCV post-implementation versus 2% pre-implementation. The results of the study showed that the use of a clinical reminder system was effective in increasing the number of patients who were offered screening for HCV. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[329] viXra:1708.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:44:20

Effect of Hospital-Based Providers Continuous Support on Progress of Active Phase of Labor

Authors: Gehan Ebrahim Ghonemy, Entesar Fatouh Abd El Moneim, Zeinab Ahmed Abdelsalam
Comments: 6 Pages.

events in a woman and spouse life, and can have strong physical, emotional, and psychological effects. Aim of the study: To evaluate the effect of continuous support provided by nurses during labor on the duration of the active phase of labor. Method: A quasi- experimental design was adopted, using Apurposive Sample of 200 women was randomly divided into control group (n=100) who had not received support on childbirth. In the intervention group (n =100) continuous support during labor was provided. Data collected using an interview sheet, a partograph (labor progress record), and visual analogue scale to assess severity of pain. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[328] viXra:1708.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:45:32

The Impact of Intravenous Protocols During Labor on Maternal \ Newborn Outcomes

Authors: Gehan Ebrahim Ghonemy, Naglaa Fathy Mahmoud Kotob
Comments: 9 Pages.

common practice in labor. Adequate rehydration has shown a reduction in labor duration. However results of other trials proposed that labor duration could be decreased by administering IV fluids at a rate of 250ml/hr which is better than giving such fluids in a rate of 125ml/hr. Aim: Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of three protocols of intravenous fluids on the progress of labor and newborn weight loss during the first week post partum. Design: A descriptive Correlation research design was adopted. In this study in order to investigate the research hypothesis. Sample: A convenient sample of 150 laboring women (divided to 50 each group) was selected. Partograph, fluid chart and baby weight and diaper sheet was used to collect the data. Setting: The study was conducted at the labor room in two Egyptian governmental hospitals. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[327] viXra:1708.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 03:14:10

Conformal Metasurface Waveguides

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[326] viXra:1708.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 07:44:15

Phase Shifts During Atomic Scattering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[325] viXra:1708.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 08:57:15

Quantum Phase Transitions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has developed a means for directly observing dynamical quantum phase transitions in an interacting many-body system. [14] In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[324] viXra:1708.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 22:13:50

Routing Games Over Time with Fifo Policy

Authors: Anisse Ismaili
Comments: 16 Pages. Submission to conference WINE 2017 on August 2nd.

We study atomic routing games where every agent travels both along its decided edges and through time. The agents arriving on an edge are first lined up in a \emph{first-in-first-out} queue and may wait: an edge is associated with a capacity, which defines how many agents-per-time-step can pop from the queue's head and enter the edge, to transit for a fixed delay. We show that the best-response optimization problem is not approximable, and that deciding the existence of a Nash equilibrium is complete for the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Then, we drop the rationality assumption, introduce a behavioral concept based on GPS navigation, and study its worst-case efficiency ratio to coordination.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[323] viXra:1708.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 22:53:22

A Method Of Triangulating Point Sources Using Omnidirectional Sensors

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 7 Pages. Author's email address is mharney1268@yahoo.com

A method of triangulating point sources is described that uses the placement of four omnidirectional sensors in a triangular pattern. With this method, the derivation of the Cartesian coordinates of the source relative to the sensor array is described, as well as the source’s intensity.
Category: Classical Physics

[322] viXra:1708.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 23:00:16

木币:一种为长寿命和稳定性而建立的点对点电子货币

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf, Difei Zhang
Comments: Pages.

我们在这里概述木币的设计考虑和实施,特别是与其他加密货币相区别的 部分。木币是一种非常像比特币的加密货币。然而,比特币的设计是明确地将 一种不可再生资源(黄金)做成了模型。对于木币,我们更加密切地将可持续 资源做成模型。特别是木币可以避免比特币释放模型中时间的不对称性,最大 限度地激励货币的参与和延长货币的使用寿命。我们的解决方案能使货币供应 量成对数增长。此外,我们概述了在核心协议中两个其他更改后的设计考虑: 使用Skein哈希函数进行挖掘,并利用椭圆曲线数字签名算法(ECDSA)的 X9_prime256v1曲线来确保数字所有权
Category: Economics and Finance

[321] viXra:1708.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 00:22:05

Quantum Marxian Political Economics

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 15 Pages.

The mathematical characterization of “the Productive Forces” of a macro economic system is based upon the analogy between political economy and Newtonian mechanics, which is expressed as the product of the growth rate of the profit rate (p) and the surplus value (M), showing several quantum qualities like a photon quanta. The one-dimensional linear harmonic oscillator model can correlate the angular frequency with the change rate of the rate of profit thus with the economic growth rate, resulting the quantum-like interpretation of various business cycles. The matrix operator analysis of the Leontief’s input-output table, similar to the matrix mechanics of quantum physics, gives the Schrodinger function like value-price transformation eigen function, with the reduced organic composite of capital as the eigenvalue of the price wave function, namely the relations of production, leading to the "two Cambridge controversy" resolved. The statistic physical entropy increase theory combined with the Marx labor value function leads to the quantitative formulation of the relations of production.
Category: Quantum Physics

[320] viXra:1708.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 02:32:10

QCD Self-Consistent Only With a Self-Consistenct QED

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Mohsin Ilahi, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Standard Model of particle physics, based on the group structure SU (N ) c ⊗ SU (2) L ⊗U (1) Y (f orN c = 3), has been very successful. However in it, the electric charge is not quantized and is fixed by hand to be 2/3 and -1/3. This is its major shortcoming. This model runs into conflict with another similarly structured, but actually quite different model, wherein the electric charge is fully quantized and depends upon colour degree of freedom as well. We study this basic conflict between these models and how they connect to a consistent study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for arbitrary number of colours. We run into a basic issue of consistency of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) with these fundamentally different charges. Study of consistency of ( QCD + QED ) together, makes discriminating and conclusive statements about the relevance of these two model structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[319] viXra:1708.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 07:42:51

Evolution of Chemistry into Biology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Scientists have yet to understand and explain how life's informational molecules – proteins and DNA and RNA – arose from simpler chemicals when life on earth emerged some four billion years ago. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[318] viXra:1708.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 08:55:33

Black Holes eat Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[317] viXra:1708.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 10:03:29

High-Dimensional Quantum Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have sent a quantum-secured message containing more than one bit of information per photon through the air above a city. [18] In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17] Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[316] viXra:1708.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 11:59:55

Organic Bioelectronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers with the University of Houston and Pennsylvania State University have reported a new fabrication technique for biocompatible neural devices that allow more precise tuning of the electrical performance of neural probes, along with improved properties for drug delivery. [17] Quantum dots (QDs) have found so many applications in recent years, they can now be purchased with a variety of composite structures and configurations. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[315] viXra:1708.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 13:23:16

Computers Improve Decision Making

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Combining the intuition of humans with the impartiality of computers could improve decision-making for organizations, eventually leading to lower costs and better profits, according to a team of researchers. [11] A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[314] viXra:1708.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 13:34:48

Vacuum Calculations Burden of Proof

Authors: David Njeru Kathuri
Comments: 52 Pages.

Burden of proof is the obligation on somebody presenting a new idea (a claim) to provide evidence to support its truth (a warrant). Once evidence has been presented, it is up to any opposing "side" to prove the evidence presented is not adequate. The document is about solving the Division by Zero problem. This is done via scientifically analyzing what quantitative division really entails -After a scientific analysis, it yields a principal/law that states that division of any countable quantity cannot occur without movement. This principle helps in the solving of the Division by Zero problem. It falls under Mathematical Analysis category and tries to distinguish the scope of limits involving zero and its inverse, that is, divisions by zero.
Category: General Mathematics

[313] viXra:1708.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 04:01:54

Study on Knowledge Level of Livestock Owners Related to Breeding Aspect of Organic Animal Husbandry Practices in Arid Region of Rajasthan

Authors: Gujar B, Purohit NR, Basant Bais
Comments: 3 Pages.

A study was conducted in two selected districts of arid region of Rajasthan i.e. Barmer and Bikaner. From each selected district, two tehsils were selected purposively. She and Chohtan tehsils from Barmer district and Kolayat and Lunkaransar tehsils from Bikaner district were selected on the basis of highest livestock population and two villages were selected randomly from each tehsil. Thus, total eight villages were selected and from each selected village, 15 respondents were selected randomly making the sample size of 120 livestock owners in present study. Data were collected from livestock owners with the help of semi-structured interview schedule, researcher’s own observations were also recorded regarding the breeding practices followed by livestock owners. From the study it was found that majority (40.8%) of the livestock owners had high level of knowledge followed by medium (32.5%) and low (26.7%) level knowledge about breeding aspect of Organic Animal Husbandry practices. The sub-areas under different organic breeding practices in which the livestock owners had highest knowledge was promoted animals for natural service and knowledge of heat detection (mean score 1.00 for each) from breeding practices and the livestock owners had highest adoption about traditional methods for heat detection (adoption index 99.58). It was concluded that Livestock owners in Arid Region of Rajasthan mostly kept desi (local) breeds and preferred natural service for reproduction. These practices of farmers were well fitted with the standards of organic livestock farming related to breeding aspect. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[312] viXra:1708.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 06:50:21

Using a Quotient Polynomial to Probe the Solvability of Polynomial Potentials in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 17 Pages.

Making use of the Bethe ansatz, we introduce a quotient polynomial and we show that the presence of intermediate terms in the quotient polynomial, i.e. terms other than the constant and the leading one, constitutes a non-solvability condition for the respective potential. In this context, both the exact solvability of the quantum harmonic oscillator and the quasi-exact solvability of the sextic anharmonic oscillator stem naturally from the quotient polynomial, as in the first case, it is an energy-dependent constant, while in the second case, it is a second-degree binomial with no linear term. In all other cases, the quotient polynomial has at least one intermediate term, the presence of which makes the respective potentials non-solvable.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[311] viXra:1708.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 07:10:42

Quantum Mechanics Change Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17] Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[310] viXra:1708.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 14:41:22

Proof of Majorana Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Barbara presents an advanced quantum chip that will be able to provide definitive proof of the mysterious Majorana particles. [9[ On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[309] viXra:1708.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 16:42:37

The Earth Attracts with Greater Force the Moon, Than the Moon Attracts the Earth

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 80 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I discovered that the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth! “Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum” Adrian Ferent “Think more and Study less” Adrian Ferent “Newton's third law is wrong” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors and your books: Newton's third Law of Motion: the law of Action and Reaction, if the Earth exerts a force on the Moon, the Moon must exert an equal and opposite force on the Earth. “The flux density of gravitons emitted by the Earth is bigger than the flux density of gravitons emitted by the Moon.” Adrian Ferent This means: “The Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth”
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[308] viXra:1708.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:33:56

Is Global 2D-Strain Able to Be Better Tool for Cardiotoxicity Determination in Cancer Survivors Received Various Chemotherapeutic Agents?

Authors: Alexander E Berezin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The cardiac toxicity has been recognized as a major medical problem that negatively affecting quality of life and prognosis in cancer survivors within chemotherapies and after ending of the treatment. The mini review is focused on the innate mechanisms of cardiotoxicity and the techniques regarding the cardiac evaluation of cancer patients. It has discussed radial and circumferential strain rates as a tool for the early detection of cardiotoxicity, whereas there are some limitation to correctly interpret findings in cancer patients with known cardiac disease and heart failure. It is concluded that more investigations are required to explain the advantages and weakness of 2D strain / 2D strain rate in cardiotoxicity determination. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[307] viXra:1708.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:39:00

Does Baseline Pao2/Fio2 Affect the In-Hospital Outcome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

Authors: Minati Choudhury, Kreethi Chigurupati, Milind P Hote, MV Kalaivani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Oxygen saturation and the PaO2 are the direct risk factors for post -operative respiratory outcome in patients undergoing prolonged surgery under general anaesthesia. However the effect of preoperative PaO2 and PaO2 /FiO2 ratio on the postoperative course of the patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is not known. Hypothesis: Pre-operative PaO2 and PaO2 /FiO2 ratio have a significant effect on the postoperative outcome among the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Study design: Prospective clinical study Setting: Tertiary health care centre Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty eight consecutive patients with a EURO Score of <6 undergoing routine first time coronary artery bypass grafting were selected for this study. Patients with ventricular dysfunction, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), renal or hepatic dysfunction, patients on mechanical ventilation, on preoperative Intra Aortic Ballon Pump (IABP) and those who had to undergo emergency surgery were excluded from the study. All patients were managed by the same anaesthesia and surgical team and the anaesthesia management protocol was similar for all the patients. The pre-operative PaO2 /FiO2 ratio (base line) for all patients was noted before anaesthesia induction in room air. The primary outcome measures were duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and hospital stay. The secondary outcome measures were requirement of inotropes, arrhythmias, requirement of IABP, cardiogenic shock, perioperative myocardial infarction, sepsis, respiratory failure , any other organ dysfunction and death .The total duration of follow up period was one month. Statistical analysis: Seventeen subjects were subsequently dropped because of incomplete data. Consequently, the data for 141 subjects were used for the analysis. The various methods used were Student T test, Spearman’s coefficient correlation, bi-variate and univariate logistic regression analysis. In each case a p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: There exists a positive correlation between preoperative PaO2 /FiO2 ratio and duration of intubation (r = -0.5607, p = 0.001) as well as Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (r = -0.2564, p = 0.002). PaO2 /FiO2 ratio also has a positive correlation with the use of inotropes (p=0.03) and frequency of death (p=0.014) in the patients undergoing CABG . Conclusion: Low pre-operative PaO2 /FiO2 ratio has a direct impact on the in-hospital outcome among the patients undergoing coronary arterybypass grafting. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[306] viXra:1708.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:40:14

Open Source Research: A Proposed Method to Study Peripartum Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Philip D Houck
Comments: 7 Pages.

Rare diseases such as peripartum myocardial infarction are difficult to study using double blind randomized controlled clinical trials. There have been no new advancements in the conduct of clinical trials since 1947. As a result, rare diseases have not been effectively studied despite a gradual gain in knowledge of potential mechanisms. This paper suggests a method of study that can be applied to rare disorders by an older method suggested by James Lind – the controlled clinical trial. Open source models similarly developed by software engineers will allow free access to multiple protocols and allows the physician to choose the protocol that seems most promising. Free access of clinical data will be available to help the physician decide which protocol is successful. Results will be updated continuously by a biostatistician compared with historical control and other competing protocols. Open Source - as a philosophy that promotes a universal access via free license to a product’s design or blueprint, and b) universal redistribution of that design or blueprint, including subsequent improvements to it by anyone. Open-source model includes the concept of concurrent, yet different agendas and differing approaches in production. The components of Open source research consist of a WEB site, governing body, data partner, biostatistician, tissue, genetic, proteomic specimen analysis, and funding. The site will be a center for literature review, protocol and protocol rational, consent forms, data collection center, case material, data analysis, and provide on line future publications generated by this open data source. Open source research is different from a registry in that the protocols are based on a biologic model and selected by the physician. Open source allows multiple models to be tested. A successful protocol suggests the model of disease is correct. Results are recorded similarly to a registry and can be used to assess the real time efficacy each protocol used. This method allows an iterative adjustment of treatments until the most effective therapy is found. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[305] viXra:1708.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:42:01

Long-Term Follow-Up Analysis of Percutaneous Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty: Experience of an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Babu Ezhumalai, Neeraj Awasthy, Ajit Ananthakrishna, Santhosh Satheesh, Balachander Jayaraman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objectives: Our objectives were to study the effectiveness and long-term follow-up outcomes of percutaneous Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty (BPV) performed in adults and children at an Indian tertiary care hospital. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with more than mild congenital valvular Pulmonary Stenosis (PS) having echocardiographic peak gradient ≥50mmHg, who underwent BPV in a tertiary care hospital in India from 1988 to 2011. Clinical profile, echocardiographic details, procedural data, complications etc were studied. Patients were followed with annual echocardiographic and clinical assessment. Results: 108 patients including 37 children and 71 adults underwent BPV. Single balloon technique was mostly employed (99.1%). The mean balloon/annulus ratio was 1.22 ± 0.02. The transvalvular peak-to-peak gradient measured immediately before and after valvuloplasty was 103.4 ± 33.9mmHg and 33.9 ± 17.5mmHg respectively (65.1% reduction, p<0.0001). Intervention was successful and partially successful in 100 (92.6%) subjects and 8 (7.4%) subjects respectively, irrespective of age and gender. Less than moderate pulmonary regurgitation occurred in 73 (67.6%) patients. At discharge, peak Doppler gradient was reduced by 74.1% compared to admission value. This was further significantly reduced (25.4%) at short-term follow-up. This reduction in gradient was sustained at mid-term and long-term follow-up. The median duration of follow-up was 15years (range: 2 to 27 years). All patients were asymptomatic at short-term and mid-term follow-up. Two (1.9%) patients who developed restenosis on long-term underwent repeat valvuloplasty. Conclusions: BPV is a well-tolerated non-surgical treatment modality for congenital valvular PS producing highly effective results irrespective of age or gender. The results are excellent at immediate-term, short-term, mid-term and long-term. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[304] viXra:1708.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:48:11

The Choice Of Optimal Coronary Stents: Is It Possible To Maximize Cost-Effectiveness?

Authors: Rajeev Gupta, Neelesh Gupta, Shukri Saliba Shukri Mushahwar, Abdullah Mohammed Shehab
Comments: 4 Pages.

Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with implantation of the stent have become standard-of-care in the management of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), including amongst patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The most expensive hardware in PCI is drug-eluting stent (DES), thus making PCI an expensive affair; leading to unaffordability in many parts of the world. We made an attempt, to identify improved cost-effective ways to substitute DES with bare-metal stent (BMS) as and when feasible, while preserving the interests of the patients. While for patients with unstable CAD, DES is superior to BMS in device-oriented outcomes (unlike in patientoriented outcomes); patients with stable CAD with lesion (type A/B1 morphology) with coronary vessels larger than or equal to 3.75 mm: BMS is as good as second-generation DES, in both patient-oriented composite outcomes (all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, MI; and revascularization) and in device-oriented composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven TLR) both in shortand long-term follow-up. For patients with very-high risk of bleeding, irrespective of the cause of bleeding: BMS may be preferred with a view to reducing bleeding complication (as major bleeding adversely affects prognosis). Prefer no stent strategy i.e., only plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) as and when possible like for patients with focal tandem stenotic-aneurysmal lesions and in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes with triple-vessel disease (planned for coronary artery bypass, POBA to relieve the obstruction to achieveing TIMI 3 flow, if possible). Replace temptation of oculostenotic reflex with the objective assessment of ischemia with flow fractional reserve (FFR) for lesions between 50% and 90%, particularly in stable CAD. Of course, for patients with obstructive left main stem (LMCA) disease and for bifurcation lesions (needing 2 or more stent strategy), and for lesions with Type B2 / C morphology, use of DES (preferably secondgeneration) to improve both patient-oriented and device-oriented outcomes is cost-effective and is recommended. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[303] viXra:1708.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:57:20

New Ether Theory

Authors: Mr ether
Comments: 18 Pages. this si paradigm shift of classical physics

I successed structure the grand unified theory "new ether exist " by ether exist. ether is quatum pair charge production by space energy. various physical phenomena can explained by ether.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[302] viXra:1708.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:59:08

Microvascular Decompression of the Optic Nerve

Authors: Jack Andrew S, Mc Dougall Cameron, O Kelly Cian J, Edwards Marianne C, Chow, MichaelM
Comments: 3 Pages.

Symptomatic compression of the optic apparatus by a tortuous internal carotid artery (ICA) is rare. We report a patient with visual decline due to optic nerve compression by the ICA. The patient presented with a visual field deficit and standard work-up revealed no discernible cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated distortion of the optic nerve by the ICA. The optic nerve was decompressed with resultant clinical improvement. Optic nerve compression by the ICA may be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, microvascular decompression led to improvement in visual function. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[301] viXra:1708.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:00:45

From Biography to Theory: the Role of Anna Freud in the Emergence of the “adolescent Process”

Authors: Florian Houssier
Comments: 10 Pages.

Some aspects of Anna Freud’s life reveal the existence of specifically adolescent conflicts, which can be tied to some of her theoretical and clinical discoveries in the field of adolescent psychoanalysis. Her historical input in the gradual construction of a theoretical corpus on adolescence has often been ignored. These links between biography and theory gave rise to a movement of conceptualisation making it possible to develop a psychoanalytic metapsychology of adolescence: indeed, emerged such notions as asceticism, intellectualisation in relationship with anorexia and the struggle against the genitalisation of the adolescent body. Today, the Annafreudian school of thought has remained the main source of investigation and theoretical transmission of what is now called the adolescent process. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[300] viXra:1708.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:02:35

Primay Extraosseous Ewing’s Sarcoma Of The Lombar Epidural Space Presenting As Cauda Equina Syndrome

Authors: Hatim Belfquih, Brahim El mostarchid
Comments: 1 Page.

A 31-year-old woman complained of right sciatica for 2 months followed one month later by gait disturbance and weakness of right lower extremity. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a extradural mass extending from L4 to S1/S2 interspace. It appeared hypo-intense on T1-weighted and T2- weighted images and contrast enhancement after injection of gadolinium (Figure 1A, B and C). Axial MR images revealed a mass extention to the right neural foramen at the L5–S1 which is enlarged (Fig1D, E). The patient underwent laminectomy of L4 to S1, A highly vascular lesion was seen in the epidural space, extending from L4 root axilla down to the S1 root, could be excised totally. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[299] viXra:1708.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:06:12

Meningitis: Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Authors: S vanisree reddy
Comments: 2 Pages.

Bacterial meningitis continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most ordinary and most violent pathogens of meningitis. Clinical and experimental studies have recognized a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms resulting in brain injure, squeal and neuropsychological deficit. Vaccination has really contributed to the current turn down in the number of cases for the three most usual meningeal pathogens. Genetic targeting and/or pharmacologic blockade of the implicated pathways possibly a potential strategy for therapeutic adjunctive measures to improve outcome and may hold substantial assure, in concert with antimicrobial agents, in human with delicate bacterial meningitis You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[298] viXra:1708.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:11:10

Association Between Both Self-Reported and Directly Observed Physical Function and Depressive Symptoms in a us Chinese Population: Findings from the Pine Study

Authors: Mengting Li, Xinqi Dong
Comments: 8 Pages.

Purpose: The association between physical function and depressive symptoms has been widely discussed in literature. However, the heterogeneity in measuring self-reported physical function has obfuscated the applicability of research findings while limited research investigated the association between performancebased physical function and depressive symptoms. This study aims to examine the association between both self-reported and performance-based physical function and depressive symptoms. Methods: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the Greater Chicago area. Self-reported physical function was measured by Katz activities of daily living (ADL), Lawton instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), Index of Basic Physical Activities scale and Index of Mobility scale. Performance-based physical function was measured by Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Depressive symptoms and depression were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: Every one point higher in ADL (OR: 1.29, 1.14-1.45), IADL (OR: 1.17, 1.13-1.22), Index of Basic Physical Activities scale (OR: 1.22, 1.19-1.26), Index of Mobility scale (OR: 1.52, 1.39- 1.66), and SPPB (OR: 1.16, 1.12-1.19) was significantly associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms. In addition, both selfreported and performance-based physical function was significantly associated with depression. Discussion: This study initially examined the association between both self-reported and performance-based physical function and depressive symptoms and it further identified physical function impairment was not only associated with depressive symptoms, but also depression. Our study suggests that health professionals should be aware of the depressive symptoms or depression in older adults with physical function impairment. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[297] viXra:1708.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:13:42

Mental Health of Pneumoconiosis Patients in China: a Meta-Analysis

Authors: Ruixue Huang, Jian-An Hu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Objective: To compare the mental health status of pneumoconiosis patients with that of healthy individuals in China with the aim of providing a scientific basis for psychological intervention and mental health education. Methods: A computerized literature search was conducted using several databases, including CBM, Wan fang Data, VIP Information, CNKI, CMCI, and Pub Med, to collect articles published between 1999 and 2014 regarding the mental health of pneumoconiosis patients in China. The papers that met the selection criteria were subject to a meta-analysis, with RevMan 5.0 software used to process the data. Results: A total of five articles involving 1342 cases met the research criteria and were selected for analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that, relative to healthy individuals, pneumoconiosis patients showed significantly more pronounced tendencies toward experiencing anxiety, depression, somatization, horror, forced, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, enmity, psychosis. Conclusion: Serious mental health problems exist among pneumoconiosis patients in comparison with healthy individuals, particularly with regard to experiencing anxiety, depression. The mental health exhibited by pneumoconiosis patients appears to be worse than that of healthy individuals. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[296] viXra:1708.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:17:26

Spiritual Interventions in Iran: a Review Article

Authors: Nadereh Memaryan, Zeinab Ghaempanah, Ruohollah Seddigh
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objectives: Although many studies have examined the effects of spiritual interventions, ambiguity of the model of them causes bias. This study aimed to achieve a picture of spiritual interventions in Iran as a Shiite Muslim country. Method: An advanced search was conducted in main Iranian and international databases using both the English and Persian keywords of spiritual intervention, spiritual care, spiritual therapy, spiritual support, and spirituality. Iranian studies that indexed until May 2016 and were related to the effects of spiritual therapies in clinical trials were selected. Results: Out of the 31selected articles, 17 were in Persianlanguage journals, and 14 were in English-language journals. The interventions that have presented in these articles were classified into three main categories: research-based interventions, mixed interventions and arbitrary interventions. Conclusion: No clear model for spiritual interventions can be extracted from Iranian studies. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[295] viXra:1708.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:19:13

Cross-Cultural Assessments and Stakeholder Consultancy Towards Resource Waste Reduction and Climate Change Prevention

Authors: C. Hornsby, Nicholas Head, Evangelia Ploumistou, S. Ulgiati
Comments: 22 Pages.

Concerns are growing across the board about the increasing resource demand by society and the poor way in which society has been dealing with waste and recovery of natural resources. It is clear that the time of what seemed to be abundant and cheap natural resources is coming to an end with the growing needs of a ever increasing global population combined with concerns about the security of supply of many essential materials, energy and products. At the same time, there is a rise in interest in understanding coming from different stakeholder groups in the sustainable management of natural resources and protection of the environment, linked with civil society’s concerns about the continuing and growing practise of landfilling. Concerns are growing across the board about the increasing resource demand by society and the poor way in which society has been dealing with waste and recovery of natural resources. It is clear that the time of what seemed to be abundant and cheap natural resources is coming to an end with the growing needs of a ever increasing global population combined with concerns about the security of supply of many essential materials, energy and products. At the same time, there is a rise in interest in understanding coming from different stakeholder groups in the sustainable management of natural resources and protection of the environment, linked with civil society’s concerns about the continuing and growing practise of landfilling. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[294] viXra:1708.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:30:03

An Investigation on Substance Misuse Treatment, Mental Health Care Providers’ Perception on Relapse: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Charles Blessings Maloya, Omero Gonekani Mwale
Comments: 5 Pages.

Introduction: Relapse is a common treatment outcome for many substance misusers. How a relapse is perceived may decree how it can be responded to. This study aimed at investigating substance misuse treatment, mental health care providers’ perception of relapse. Methods: This study employed a cross sectional research design. The sample was drawn from two drug and alcohol treatment services in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires which were analyzed by using SPSS. Results: The results indicated that n=25(92%) reported having a better understanding of their role legitimacy when caring for clients with relapses. Only n=4(15%) reported that there is little that can be done to help clients who have relapsed. Not surprisingly, n=1(4%) was a participant who was uncertain of his counselling skills and believed that clients with several relapses cannot be treated. Conclusion: In conclusion, there was inconsistency between providers’ knowledge and their reaction to relapse. Therefore, emotional reactions if left unchecked may constitute a barrier to provision of care and may negatively impact treatment outcomes. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[293] viXra:1708.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:38:19

Medical Humanities in Obstetrics: The Uncertainty to be Born

Authors: Nicola Surico, Cinzia D’Agostino, Flavia Garofalo, Martina Arcieri, Federica Brambilla, Daniela Surico
Comments: 3 Pages.

Medical Humanities are a multi-disciplinary field of research that promote increased awareness on the humanistic and cultural dimensions of health care. This discipline research about the profound effects of disease on patients and health professionals offering models and methods for addressing ethical dilemmas. They touch multiple disciplines such as literature, history, philosophy, anthropology, religion and arts. We will describe a case of an extreme preterm premature rupture of membranes, as an example of one of the most sensitive and debated issues in obstetric. The choice is whether to continue the pregnancy or to terminate it, being aware that there are no guarantees regarding the survival and prognosis of the unborn. We will see how medical humanities are crucial to improve the quality of care with the help of narrative medicine. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Physics of Biology

[292] viXra:1708.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:41:23

Monitoring Surgical Performance: Current Models and Limitations

Authors: Agostino Pozzi, Laetitia F Colombo, Francesca De Stefano, Alessandra Sala, Marco Bartolucci, Fabio Villa
Comments: 3 Pages.

Purpose: The article aims to evaluate methods currently used to monitor surgical performance. Different model’s advantages and limitations are analyzed to possibly identify the best model of assessment. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extensive online research took place, looking in particular for articles containing terms such as ‘surgical performance monitoring’, ‘forced ranking’, and ‘surgical outcomes’. The search was independently carried out by three medical doctors. References were screened to find more articles on this particular topic. A conceptual review was then performed. Findings: Among the current available methods, the RiskAdjusted Bernoulli Cumulative Sum (RA-CUSUM), set on a real time prospective monitoring, is preferred and might improve surgical outcomes. This is especially true when the RA-CUSUM is compared with the Variable Life Adjusted Display (VLAD) retrospective model, although VLAD is easier to interpret and it is more frequently used by surgeons. Practical Implications: Applying a standardized surgical performance assessment model identifies and manages practice variations in the same institution and among hospitals. Originality/value: RA-CUSUM applied to surgical practice can be an effective tool to determine variations in performance. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[291] viXra:1708.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:43:26

Conservative Treatment for Subungal Hematoma with Tuft Fracture

Authors: Zohair Al Aseri
Comments: 2 Pages.

Management of simple nail bed lacerations and subungual hematomas has remained somewhat controversial. This article presents a 30-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED) due to subungual hematoma with tuft fracture. The nail was partially loose, and the nail bed seemed more or the less intact. Rest of hand examination was normal. Plain radiographs showed fracture of the distal phalanx. Decision was made not to remove the nail bed and only to release the pressure by trephine technique under sterile condition. The patient was scheduled for ED follow up appointment after one week. During follow-up no complications were encountered. The nail bed recovered completely and the nail plate seemed to develop without any deformities. Eight months after the ED visit there are no complaints about pain, shape or loss of function during daily activities. Since there are no agreed upon protocol or algorithm for subungual hematoma and distal phalanx fracture, the author believe that conservative treatment is still an option for treating tuft fracture with subungual hematoma. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[290] viXra:1708.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:46:04

Laparoscopic Acute Care Surgery in Liver Disease: A Regression Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

Authors: Sri Ram Pentakota, Punam Patel, Aziz M. Merchant
Comments: 11 Pages.

Introduction: Patients with liver disease are being more frequently undergoing urgent and emergent surgery. There is sparse literature comparing outcomes based on modality of surgery (laparoscopic versus open) in this important cohort of patients. Our study examines surgical outcomes by liver disease status and surgical modality in acute care surgery setting. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing acute care abdominal surgery between 2006 and 2010 extracted from the National Inpatient Sample database. Surgical outcomes examined were in-hospital mortality, surgical, and medical complications, length of stay, and total hospital charges. Sequential multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to compare the outcomes across surgical modality and type of liver disease. Results: Unadjusted and adjusted analyses revealed that laparoscopic surgery was associated with marked reduction in mortality (92%) and surgical complications (86%) compared to open surgery, as well as a moderate yet significant reduction (60%) for medical complications, length of stay and total hospital charges. Patients with cirrhotic liver disease fared worse compared to those with non-cirrhotic and no liver disease, as expected. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery provides a feasible alternative for patients with liver disease undergoing acute care surgery. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[289] viXra:1708.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:48:29

Lvads: A Two-Sided Dilemma when Buying Time for Heart Transplantation

Authors: Binks M
Comments: 3 Pages.

Our ageing population is experiencing an unprecedented level of heart disease. Medical therapy is often inadequate in those with endstage heart failure. Mechanical cardiac support devices are becoming increasingly utilized as a means of both bridging these patients to heart transplant and as destination therapy. However, they are far from risk-free. This review encompasses the complications associated with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), including their often-unpredictable effects on the right ventricle. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[288] viXra:1708.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:05:11

Data Storage at the Molecular Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now scientists at the University of Manchester have proved that storing data with a class of molecules known as single-molecule magnets is more feasible than previously thought. [22] The new work shows that collections of ultracold molecules can retain the information stored in them, for hundreds of times longer than researchers have previously achieved in these materials. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[287] viXra:1708.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:51:33

Outbreak of Kyasanur Forest Disease in Shivamogga, Karnataka State, India, During 2015

Authors: NB Thippeswamy, SK Kiran
Comments: 3 Pages.

KFD is a Tick born viral disease with seasonal outbreak between the months of December to May. The number of cases of Kyasanur Forest Disease was investigated in Karnataka state, India, during January to July 2015. Reported incidences in 2015 were relatively less with 124 suspected and 41 RT-PCR or IgM Elisa positive cases when compared to 400 suspected and 166 positive cases reported in 2014. Majority of suspected KFD cases (124) in 2015 were reported from Shivamogga District, with only few cases reported from remaining endemic districts of KFD and one death was recorded. The number of KFD cases reported every year even after regular vaccination program in its original endemic area. KFD spreads from the zone of first outbreak along the belt of Western Ghats continuously to the newer area. New diagnostic techniques for quick diagnosis and more effective and specific drug to treat KFD patients is the need of the hour in the light of available vaccine which is not so readily accepted by the people in the endemic area. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[286] viXra:1708.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:54:34

The Application of Acoustic Myography in Canine Muscle Function and Performance Testing

Authors: Christina Fenger, Adrian P. Harrison
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is generally known that muscles have the ability to store and convert energy making certain types of movement highly efficient with regard to muscle work. The principle behind this concept is summarized in what has become known as the “spring-mass” model. Whilst evidence of a change in gait from walk to trot has been documented for more than 35 years, quantitative measurements of comparable changes in muscle function remain elusive. In a study involving 11 Labrador dogs, looking at muscle function as assessed by acoustic myography, changes in muscle efficiency/coordination as well as both spatial-(fiber recruitment) and temporal-(firing rate) summation were made for both walk and trot for m.longissimus lumborum and m.gluteus superficialis. In m.gluteus superficialis a 35% decrease (P < 0.05) in efficiency was noted when dogs changed gait from walk to trot, and both muscles showed a slight yet significant increase in fiber recruitment. However, both muscles showed a significant decrease in firing rate (36% and 76% for m.gluteus superficialis and m.longissimus lumborum; P < 0.05 & P < 0.01, respectively) when changing pace from walk to trot. It is concluded that acoustic myography not only enables quantifiable assessment of gait changes with regard to the “spring-mass” model, but that the observed changes in the two muscles measured confirm, as well as advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which reductions in muscle work during steady level movements are achieved. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[285] viXra:1708.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:57:00

Seroprevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease in Backyard Chickens of Six Districts of North Shewa Zones of Oromia and Amhara Regions, Ethiopia

Authors: Mitike Girma, Bedaso Kebede, Bekele Megarsa
Comments: 9 Pages.

A cross-sectional study and questionnaire survey was carried from November 2009 up to April 2010 in North Shewa zone of Oromia and Amhara regions to determine prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in unvaccinated backyard chickens using commercial ELISA kit. The study revealed that IBD was prevalent 84.2% (95% CI= 80.6 - 87.8, n=399) in the study areas. Seroprevalence distribution of IBD were 96.2% (95% CI= 93.5-99.0) and 73.8% (95% CI= 67.9-79.8) in Amhara and Oromia regions, respectively. Chickens in the Amhara region were nine times susceptible for IBD than Chickens of Oromia region. There is no significant difference among sex and age groups of study animals. The study revealed that IBD were common in district of Kewet 98.6% (95% CI= 95.7-101.4), Basena Werena 95.1% ( 95% CI= 88.4-101.8), Debre Brehan 94.7 %( 95% CI= 89.5-99.8), W\ Jarso 78.0% (95% CI= 69.4-86.6), Dagam 71.2% (95% CI= 58.7-83.6) and Kuyu 70.4% (95% CI= 59.7-81.1). It indicates that IBD virus is extensively circulating throughout the study areas. Questionnaire survey revealed that backyard poultry production was suffered from multifaceted diseases which contributed 61% death losses of the chickens at age of a day old to market age. Generally, IBD prevalence among the indigenous chicken was escalated with a possible devastated effect on the vulnerable population of backyard poultry. Therefore, it warrants the vaccine development and implementation for control mechanisms. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[284] viXra:1708.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:59:06

Bordetella Bronchiseptica Vaccines in Pet Guinea Pigs? A Review of the Literature

Authors: Gallego M
Comments: 3 Pages.

Bordetella bronchiseptica causes severe respiratory disease in guinea pigs and it has been associated with stillbirths, abortions, infertility and infections of the reproductive system and tympanic bullae. Disease caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in pet guinea pigs is mostly a poor understood disease; studies about this pathogen has been conducted mostly in laboratory guinea pigs. The objective of this review is to condense published information about the disease caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in guinea pigs for the veterinarian who attends pet guinea pigs, with special emphasis on the prevention of this disease. The author concludes that vaccination in pet guinea pigs against Bordetella bronchiseptica needs to be considered for future studies. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[283] viXra:1708.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 11:31:01

Nanoparticle Ink Produces Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers at ITMO University unveiled a new approach for printing luminescent structures based on nanoparticle ink. The unique optical properties of the ink were achieved by means of europium-doped zirconia. [14] A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast and complex hologram. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[282] viXra:1708.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 12:13:38

X-Rays from Mystery Supernovas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[281] viXra:1708.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 12:37:54

The Origin of “Ultra Diffuse Galaxies”in Galaxy Cluster Centers.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages.

The origin of “Ultra Diffuse Galaxies” ( UDGs) in galaxy cluster centers, according to Quantum FFF Theory, is assumed to be based on very stable concentrations of multiple external electric dark matter black hole (EDMBH) configuration . "We asked ourselves how the sensitive ultra-diffuse galaxies could survive at all in an environment as unsettled as a galaxy cluster," explains Carolin Wittmann. Quantum FFF Theory seems to have the answer: by Fermion repelling Black Holes called EDMBHs ( Electric Dark Matter Black Holes.) crowded over the centers of these galaxy clusters. All galaxies are equipped with external so called GABHs (new physics Galaxy Ancho Black Holes). Thus, in the center of galaxy clusters, these GABHs are crowding all around and they seem to form a geometrical network of Dark Matter Galaxy Anchor Black Holes, polarizing the vacuum in between into multiple directions leading to Ultra Diffuse galaxies in the centers. In contrast, between TWO BHs there is a vacuum sucking for plasma to form spiral galaxy formation, as we learned in the early universe by Herbig Haro systems with only two GABHs. However in between three of more BHs there is a much more complex vacuum present sucking for plasma creating UDGs, diffuse open galaxies, just like our Magellan dwarf galaxies. According to Quantum FFF Theory, ( Function Follows Form) early Galaxies have growing potential by the number and size of external primordial dark matter black holes initially formed as big bang splinters able to pair into Quasars with stars-galaxies in between the dual black hole hotspots, called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs) which can merge with other galaxy-systems into complex spirals and elliptical. Irregular galaxies and Dwarf galaxies are supposed to be the result of secondary star forming interaction between GABHs after a merging process.. Later after Supernova black hole production these smaller black holes are able to pair as hotspots or “bow shocks” into Herbig Haro open star cluster systems,. If no galaxy merger candidates are available in the neighborhood, the galaxy will soon reach a maximum size and die by the merging of smaller black holes into the central black hole..
Category: Astrophysics

[280] viXra:1708.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 07:08:02

Magnetoelectric RAM

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

MIPT researchers teamed up with collaborators for a successful demonstration of magnetoelectric random access memory (MELRAM). [22] Concepts for information storage and logical processing based on magnetic domain walls have great potential for implementation in future information and communications technologies." [21] Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests it also may be true in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[279] viXra:1708.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 09:00:19

Hyperentanglement and Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[278] viXra:1708.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 09:24:37

Understanding Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[277] viXra:1708.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 10:08:28

KIC 8462852—Windows of Opportunity: Cyclic Periodicities, Light Dimming Episodes and the Star’s 0.88-day Rotational Period

Authors: "Andrew Collins" "Rodney Hale"
Comments: 16 Pages.

KIC 8462862, an F-type main sequence star in the constellation of Cygnus, experienced strange light dimming episodes during the initial Kepler mission between 2009 and 2013. These continue with further events in 2017. The authors use Kepler and post-Kepler data to create folding plots to examine the relationship between the star’s reported 0.88-day rotational period and suspected periodicities noted in connection with the light dimming episodes. This reveals a new possible periodicity of 9.68 days (11 stellar rotations). Confirmation of a mathematical relationship between suspected periodicities and the star’s rotational period would begin to eliminate some of the proposed explanations for the star’s strange fluctuations in light, while at the same time bringing to the fore other possible theories to account for both the short term and long term dimming events.
Category: Astrophysics

[276] viXra:1708.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:05:26

Formulation and Evaluation of Misoprostal by Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery System

Authors: Musfeera Adeel, Sana Begum, Shaik Gouse, Shanti Kumar
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this present study it has been aimed to develop Spray Coated tablets of Misoprostol with a view of minimizing the drug release in the physiological ecology of stomach and small intestine and to ensure maximum drug release in the colon. This study was conducted to develop colon targeted Misoprostal delivery for the treatment of Colonic Bacterial Infections and to study the influence of coating thickness and ratios of lag time polymers (Eudragit L 100 and Eudragit S 100) on drug release and lag time.
Category: Biochemistry

[275] viXra:1708.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:09:58

Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Ondansetron with Natural and Synthetic SuperDisintegrating Agents

Authors: Latha Uppala1, Palle Pranusha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Ondansetron a widely prescribed anti-ulcer drug belongs to BCS class II and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor solubility and dissolution rate and having high permeation rate. In the present work, oral disintegrating tablets of Ondansetron were developed with a view to enhance the patient compliance and provide quick onset of action. Ondansetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an anti-emetic (to treat nausea and vomiting). It affects both peripheral and central nerves. Ondansetron reduces the action of the vagus nerve, which deactivate the vomiting centre, and also block serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It has slight effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness, since drug is highly bitter. The drug solid dispersed coated granules showed no bitterness in the taste. Oral disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compression method using super disintegrants like cross povidone, cross carmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate, in different concentrations and evaluated for the pre-compression parameters such as bulk density, compressibility and angle of repose. The arranged batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, thickness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and invitro dissolution profile and found satisfactory. Aim: The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate fast disintegrating tablets of Ondansetron by direct compression method employing super disintegrating agents. The objective of present study: • The purpose of this research was to mask the strongly bitter taste of Ondansetron HCL and to formulate a rapid - disintegrating tablet. • To formulate an orally disintegrating tablet so that it can be administered to paediatric and geriatric patients.
Category: Biochemistry

[274] viXra:1708.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:18:55

A Review on Active Ingredients from Marine Sources used in Cosmetics

Authors: Latha Uppala
Comments: 3 Pages.

The word cosmetic represents a specific product containing active ingredients. These cosmetics products with biologically active ingredients purporting to have medical benefit. They are formulated not only to improve the skin appearance but also to improve positive physiological effects at the cellular level. Simultaneously, it is necessary to discover new bioactive substances with resourceful, safe and stable properties from natural sources for cosmetic development. Recently marine resources have been demonstrated with great cosmetic prospective. It is a productive source of cosmetics.
Category: Biochemistry

[273] viXra:1708.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:42:25

Stafne’s Defect: Diagnosis with Cone Beam Computed Tomography: Case Report

Authors: Gisele Pavão Spaulonci, Emerson Eli Nunes Cunha, Luciano Lauria Dib, Elcio Magdalena Giovani
Comments: 3 Pages.

Stafne’s Defect is an asymptomatic bone lesion, most common in men between the fifth and seventh decade of life. It is characterized as radiolucent, delimited and well-defined image in the posterior region of the mandible and is usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In this case, the patient is in the third decade of life and clinical and radiographic characteristics described were consistent with those found in academic literature. Cone beam computed tomography was used to diagnose the defect and enabled the differential diagnosis with other pathologies, avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures. Considering that it is a non-progressive change, its conservative therapy is based on the periodic control of the lesion. In this case report, it was possible to confirm that cone beam computed tomography acts as an important tool in the diagnosis of Stafne’sDefect, as it enabled the differential diagnosis in regards to other diseases, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures.
Category: Biochemistry

[272] viXra:1708.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:54:40

Oral Health in a Cognitive and Behavioral Unit

Authors: Lucie Rapp, Pascal Saidlitz, Thierry Voisin, Marie-Hélène Lacoste-Ferré
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the 2000’s, there are approximately 860 000french persons affected by Alzheimer’s diseases and dementia (ADD). This number is increasing constant because of the ageing of the population and the progress of the diagnosis. Today, about 165 000 new patients a year are diagnosed. These diseases engender later an important physical, intellectual and social dependence which impacts on the social life of the patient and people around him. It is the main cause of heavy dependence of elderly and of admission in nursing homes; at present 40% of ADD-patients live there.
Category: Biochemistry

[271] viXra:1708.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:56:46

The Rehabilitation of Permanent Teeth with Complicated Crown Fracture by MTA Pulpotomy and Re-Attachment: Case Series Report Study and Literature Review

Authors: Mehmet Sinan Doğan, Anton Rahardjo, Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani, Izzet Yavuz
Comments: 6 Pages.

Following dental trauma, dental injuries may be seen from cracked enamel to avulsion in the teeth. In this clinical study, are presented restoration of fractured dental fragments after the proper treatment of 5 pediatric patients aged 8, 9, 11, 11, and 11 years who occurred complicated crown fracture and exposure to dental trauma in the anterior group of teeth between 2009 and 2013. In the same session complicated crown fracture in the anterior group of teeth were amputated with mineral trioxide agent (MTA) and it was closed with glass ionomer cement. The restoration was completed by attaching the fractured dental fragment with composite resin. This emergency treatment has special importance. Because complicated crown fractures occurring after dental trauma to the anterior group of teeth can lead to pain and complications of functions, aesthetics and psychological problems.
Category: Biochemistry

[270] viXra:1708.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:58:15

Prevalence of Gum Disease in Preterm and Term Adolescents

Authors: Sergio Spezzia1, Rosa Maria Eid Weiler, Fernanda Malheiro Santos, Liliana A. M. V. Takaoka1, Stella M. C. P. A. C. Vieira, Maria Sylvia De Souza Vitalle, Benjamin I. Kopelman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Aim: Assess and compare the prevalence of gum disease in preterm and term-born adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross section study was conducted involving adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. One group of 120 preterm-born adolescents and a g roup of 149 term-born adolescents (control). Physicians conducted physical exams in these groups to measure pubertal stages, dividing the patients into 3 subgroups according to Tanner’s stages. The dental exam was conducted by four specialist dentist examiners. The community periodontal index of treatment need and measurements of plaque index were conducted. Results: Comparing the preterm-born adolescents to the termborn ones, it was verified that the term group presented a higher prevalence of gum disease than the preterm group and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of gum disease when comparing the preterm-born adolescents with weight at birth < 1500 to the ones weighing ≥ 1500 grams. The preterm-born adolescent group did not present significant difference in the prevalence of gum disease in relation to Tanner’s subgroups; however, when both groups were assessed together, it was verified that females, after the growth spurt, present a 3.7 times higher risk of gum disease. Conclusion: The ranges of weight upon birth, low weight and very low weight did not impact the prevalence of gum disease in premature adolescents. Growth spurt increases the risk of developing periodontal disease in the female gender. Girls, after the spurt, tend to have more gum disease than girls before the spurt.
Category: Biochemistry

[269] viXra:1708.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:59:40

Kabuki Syndrome: Case Study Report

Authors: Giovanna Franco Tini1, Amanda Caramel Juvino, Markus Algayer Atmanspacher, Carolina Algayer Atmanspacher, Caroline Berne Pereira, Rodolfo Georgevich Neto, Marina Struncova Fernandes, Ruth Andia-Merlin, Gilberto Araújo Noro Filho, Elcio Magdalena Giovan
Comments: 3 Pages.

Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, in which such (optional) patients present mild to moderate mental deficits and are characterized by unusual facial expressions. In addition, they may also manifest cardiac anomalies, urinary tract anomaly, hearing loss, hypotonia and also postnatal growth deficit. These fundamental characteristics are called “Pentad of Niikawa”, which correspond to dysmorphic face, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental deficit, and postnatal growth deficiency. It also includes scoliosis, malformation of spinal column and ribs, delay in skeletal maturation, dislocation of the hip and patellar. The aim of this case study report is to present the diagnosis of a patient with this syndrome, evidencing, in the light of knowledge, to the Dental Surgeons of how to conduct dental treatment with effectiveness and safety. It also shows the need for an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of these patients, highlighting all of the complexity of the syndrome, making it easier future diagnoses, with a purpose of promoting integral health and improvements in the quality of life.
Category: Biochemistry

[268] viXra:1708.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:03:08

Significance of CD30 Expression by Epidermotropic T Cells in Lymphomatoid Papulosis and Lymphomatoid Pityriasis Lichenoides

Authors: Eric C Vonderheid, Marshall E Kadin, Gladys H Telang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Background: The T cell activation antigen CD30 is widely used to differentiate lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) from pityriasis lichenoides. However, CD30 has recently been reported to be expressed by CD8+ cells in the epidermis and dermis of some cases of pityiasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA). Methods: This observation prompted us to review our experience with cases initially diagnosed as LyP or “lymphomatoid” pityriasis lichenoides for CD30 expression by epidermotropic T cells. Results: CD30 expression by more than 20% of the epidermotropic T cells was observed in a group of 10 cases characterized clinically by self-healing papulonodules (two cases also with infiltrated plaques) and pathologically by atypical lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei within the epidermis and dermal infiltrate. Conclusions: CD30 can be expressed by either CD4+ or CD8+ cells in cases of LyP with epidermotropic T cells (so-called mixed LyP type A/B), but three of our cases appear to be examples of lymphomatoid CD30+ PLEVA. In addition, three cases had serologic manifestations suggestive of a lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disorder. We hypothesize that CD30+ lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei in some cases result in accumulation of benign activated CD8+ and CD4+ T cells rather than neoplastic cells.
Category: Biochemistry

[267] viXra:1708.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:04:56

The Effect of Smoking on Facial Aging Among Females in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Basem T Jamal, Alaa Bokhari, Bushra Aljahdali, Baraa Alsayed, Hanan Filemban, Razan Baabdullah, Mahmoud Fakiha
Comments: 4 Pages.

Background: Cigarettes smoking has been shown by several studies to be one of the significant causes of facial aging and wrinkling. Smoking also worsen the scores for upper eyelid skin redundancy, lower lid bags, malar bags, nasolabial folds, upper and lower lip wrinkles. The prevalence rate of smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% in the past two decades. Up to date, there is no study in Saudi Arabia regarding smoking and facial aging and so the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between smoking and facial aging among females in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional comparative study consisting of 107 female participants aged 30-60 years old was performed. A questionnaire was used to obtain a comprehensive medical and lifestyle histories. Also, clinical examination of the perioral and peri-orbital regions in relaxed and smiling positions was also charted using the Fitzpatrick scale. Results: 52.3% of the individuals surveyed were either smokers or past smokers with a mean smoking duration of 12.6 years. While there was no significant difference between the smoking status and its relation to the grade of peri-oral and peri-orbital wrinkles, it was noted that the length of smoking in years was correlated with advanced skin aging scores with higher peri-oral and peri-orbital wrinkles. Conclusion: The sample size is not sufficient to establish the comparison between smokers and nonsmokers in relation to facial aging, the length of smoking in years showed a statistical significant difference in correlation to peri-oral and peri-orbital wrinkles.
Category: Biochemistry

[266] viXra:1708.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:06:21

G-CSF Administration Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing Accompanied With Increased Pro-Hyp Production In db/db Mice

Authors: Shiro Jimi, Kenji Sato, Masahiko kimura, Junji Suzumiya, Shuuji Hara, Francesco De Francesco, Hiroyuki Ohjimi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Objective: Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is a clinical concern. However, exacerbation factors in diabetic wounds are still not clear. Inflammatory cell infiltrates after skin wounding and subsequent healing responses were investigated using diabetic mice. Methods: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), neutrophil infiltration and peptides from degraded collagen in wounded tissue were examined using db/db and wild-type mice. Results: The collagen peptides Pro-Hyp and Hyp-Gly in wounded tissue were quantified. G-CSF was transiently secreted from wounded tissue immediately after excision and then appeared in peripheral blood. G-CSF levels were significantly lower in db/ db mice than in wild-type mice, and neutrophil infiltration into the granulation tissue was lower in db/db mice. In wound tissue, only Pro-Hyp increased during the 7-day study, and Pro-Hyp levels were significantly lower in db/db mice. Wound closure was severely impaired in db/db mice. However, topical recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) administration accelerated healing, accompanied with increased neutrophil infiltration and Pro-Hyp production. Conclusion: The results show that decreased G-CSF secretion in wound tissue may trigger delayed healing in diabetic mice and that topical rhG-CSF administration increased Pro-Hyp production and accelerated healing. Therefore, G-CSF-induced Pro-Hyp may play an important role in wound healing.
Category: Biochemistry

[265] viXra:1708.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:08:08

New Approaches to Melanoma Treatment: Checkpoint Inhibition with Novel Targeted Therapy

Authors: Suzie Chen, Ann Robinson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, largely due to its propensity for recurrence and metastasis, even after removal of malignant tissue. When melanoma reaches advanced stages, the disease becomes refractory to many types of therapy, which has created a need for novel therapeutic strategies to combat the disease. Our group focuses on the oncogenic function of a neuronal receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1). When mGluR1 is aberrantly expressed in melanocytes, elevated levels of extracellular glutamate mediate the constitutive activation of the receptor to promote cell proliferation. We are exploring the potential synergistic efficacy when combining a glutamatergic signaling inhibitor with a checkpoint inhibitor antibody
Category: Biochemistry

[264] viXra:1708.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:09:12

The Treatment of Solar Lentigo Using Dr. Hoon Hur’s Optimal Melanocytic Suicide-2 Parameter with a High Fluence 1064nm Nd:yag Laser Without Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation

Authors: Hoon Hur, Yu Ri Kim
Comments: 5 Pages.

A solar lentigo is a small, well-circumscribed, pigmented macule surrounded by normal-appearing skin. Histopathlogic findings may show epidermal hyperplasia and increased melanin pigmentation of the basal layer. A variable number of melanocytes are present; these melanocytes may be increased in number, but they do not form nests. In the most cases, treatment is not necessary for solar lentigo. However treating the solar lentigo without postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is very difficult and treatment for solar lentigo without side effects such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, scars and recurrences cannot be found in any literature yet. Therefore the authors introduce the new treatment of solar lentigo using optimal melanocytic suicide-2 parameter with a high fluence 1064nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser without side effects or recurrences.
Category: Biochemistry

[263] viXra:1708.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:16:41

Long-Term Outcome Of Patients With Functional Dyspepsia Infected With A Cag-Positive Helicobacter Pylori Strain. A Descriptive Study

Authors: L Kemps, RJLF Loffeld
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: An important virulence factor of H.pylori is the Cagpathogenicity island. The clinical sequel in patients with functional dyspepsia treated for H.pylori on the long-term is not known. Aim: Establish long-term outcome and relate this to the initial H.pylori status (CagA- positive or negative). Patients and Methods: In 1994/1995 a study on presence of H.pylori was done. IgG antibodies against cagA were determined. Three groups of patients were made: group 1: H.pylori + and CagA+; group 2: H.pylori + and CagA-; and group 3: H.pylori -patients. An extensive chart review and several questionnaires were used (a general questionnaire, the GerdQ, theSAI, and, the GSRS). Use of acid suppressive drugs was assessed. Results: 411 patients were included. New upper GI-endoscopies were significantly more often done in patients of group 1 (p<0.001). Reflux disease was significantly more often diagnosed in group 1 patients (p=0.02). After exclusions 239 patients (58.2%) received the questionnaires, 101 respondents were evaluable. Patients in group 1 reported significantly more often complaints. There was no significant difference in the overall presentation when patients of group 1 were compared with patients of group 2. However, there was a significant difference between the scores in H.pylori+ patients when compared with patients of group 3. Patients of group 1 significantly used more often acid suppressive therapy. Conclusion: functional dyspeptics with H.pylori CagA+strain, may develop more often complaints in the future necessitating a new endoscopic investigations. Signs of reflux disease are more often present.
Category: Biochemistry

[262] viXra:1708.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:21:38

Perturbation of Igf2bp1 Transcriptome Upon the Interplay Between Mir-486-5p and Let-7a

Authors: Mourad HA, Assal RA, Youness RA, El Tayebi HM, Abdelaziz AI
Comments: 4 Pages.

Background: Activation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling cascade is a hallmark in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our previous work, we showed that miR-486-5p acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA in HCC mainly by vertically blocking IGF-1/IGF-1R axis and its downstream signaling mediators STAT3, mTOR and c-Myc. Recently, it was reported that the proto-oncogene c-Myc directly down-regulates the tumor suppressor miRNA, let-7a, especially in HCC and that let-7 directly targets the oncogenic RNA binding protein IGF2BP1. Aim: Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the indirect interplay between microRNAs; miR-486-5p and miR-let- 7a through c-MYC thereby its effect on a vital member of IGF-axis, IGF2BP1, in HCC. Methods: Huh-7 cell lines were cultured and transfected using miR-486-5p mimics using lipofection technique. Forty-eight hours post transfection, total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and finally amplified and quantified using q-RT-PCR. Impact of miR-486-5p on cell cycle was assessed using cell cycle vectors carrying response elements for the cell cycle protein c-Myc. Results: Efficient delivery of miR-486-5p in Huh-7 cells was obtained, where mimicked cells showed more than 8000 folds increase in miR-486-5p expression level. Ectopic expression of miR- 486-5p in Huh-7 cells resulted in a significant decrease in c-Myc protein expression, an increase in the expression level of the tumor suppressor, let-7a and finally forcing the expression of miR-486-5p showed a significant repression of the oncogenic validated target of let-7a, IGF2BP1. Conclusions: This study shows a novel mechanism of action of the tumor suppressor miR-486-5p. MiR-486-5p was found to indirectly repress an essential member of IGF-axis, the oncogenic RNA binding protein IGF2BP1, mainly through decreasing c-MYC expression and up regulating let-7a expression.
Category: Biochemistry

[261] viXra:1708.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:23:04

Management Of Localised Postoperative Bile Collections

Authors: Hrbatý Boris, Shilova Nataliya1, Mižičková Magdaléna, Reis Richard1, Vrtík Luděk, Čambal Marek, Labaš Peter, Kostka Vladimír, Javorka Vladimír
Comments: 7 Pages.

The authors deal with their experience with conservative management of a rare compliction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy – formation of biloma. Biloma is to be expected, when a patient after uneventfull cholecystectomy starts to have mild temperatures, persisting upper abdominal pain and elevation of leukocytes number and level of CRP. It depends on the dynamics of the clinical picture and the size of bile collection, what kind of management would be the most appropriate in each specific case. Not always, the reoperation is necessary. It depends on the summary of all above mentioned results (CRP, Leukocytes count, temperature, evidence of peritoneal irritation or peritonitis, size of collection on US – CT imaging studies, interdisplinary cooperation and discussion with radiologists and endoscopists). Of course when necessary, the invasive therapy is indicated with following possibilities: US or CT guided suction drainage, endoscopic stent or surgical approach – i. e. reoperation.
Category: Biochemistry

[260] viXra:1708.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:26:47

Technical Challenges During Therapeutic Ercp in a Patient with Situs Inversus Totalis

Authors: Shruti Khurana, Hani Zamil, Erik Rahimi, Sushovan Guha, Nirav Thosani
Comments: 1 Page.

Situs inversus totalis is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 0.01% of the population. The reversal of visceral organs poses technical difficulties for therapeutic intervention during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We describe a unique case of a patient with situs inversus who underwent therapeutic ERCP for management of choledocholithiasis.
Category: Biochemistry

[259] viXra:1708.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:36:27

Emerging Insights into the Moonlighting Functions and Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondrial RNA Methyltransferases

Authors: Sam Manna, Ashley Harman
Comments: 2 Pages.

RNA methyltransferases mediate the addition of methyl groups to ribonucleotides. Such modifications have implications for the structure and function of RNA. While methylation is reported in mitochondrial RNAs, the enzymes that catalyze these reactions often remain elusive; however with advances in sequencing technologies, genomic analysis is beginning to uncover their identities. Due to the complex evolutionary history of mitochondria, little is known about the origin and function of methyltransferases. This article explores two emerging families of mitochondrial RNA methyltransferases. We discuss the evidence suggesting they possess diverse bacterial (endosymbiotic and non-endosymbiotic) origins and have acquired functions in addition to methylation
Category: Biochemistry

[258] viXra:1708.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:39:13

Increasing Breeding Without Breeding (BwB) Efficiency: Full Vs. Partial-Pedigree Reconstruction in Lodgepole Pine

Authors: Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Tomas Funda, Cherdsak Liewlaksaneeyanawin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The advantage of paternity assignment in assembling structured pedigree for breeding is investigated using two sampling methods; namely, family array (known maternal parent) and random offspring (unknown maternal and paternal parents) collected from an openpollinated lodgepole pine experimental population with known parents (N = 74) using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Offspring of equivalent sample sizes representing the family array (n = 619) and random offspring (n = 635) were genotyped and subjected to partial and full pedigree reconstruction, respectively. The full pedigree reconstruction assembled substantially larger number of full-sib families than the partial (446 vs. 268) and interestingly the two methods detected equivalent amount of external gene flow to the experimental population. The superiority of the random offspring over the family array sampling in producing more full-sib families was attributed to its better representation of the parental population, as random sampling included offspring from most parents as compared to the parent-limited family array. Owing to the observed advantages, the full pedigree reconstruction could be employed as an alternative to the breeding phase commonly required in conventional breeding programs for the development of structured pedigree needed for genetic parameters estimation.
Category: Biochemistry

[257] viXra:1708.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:40:56

A Young Man Dying Of Fulminant Hepato-Renal Syndrome The Tagging To Alcohol Addiction Obscured the Diagnosis and Precluded the Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis (HBV, HCV, HDV) As the Cause of His Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Kari Syrjänen, Pentti Sipponen, Matti Härkönen, Hannes Tamm
Comments: 7 Pages.

Discourse: The present report describes a 47-year-old man who was referred to hospital due to liver cirrhosis and acute hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) that rapidly progressed, and of which he died within two months. As a result of a sequence of unfortunate events in his management, including an inaccurate and in part erroneous record of the patient’s past history, alcohol was considered as the sole cause of the liver failure (ALD), importantly, without taking a liver biopsy. The patient was ranked outside curative therapy, including renal replacement therapy (RRT) as the bridge to eventual liver transplantation. Instead, he received two courses of corticosteroids (for ALD). The negative serology for hepatitis viruses was not controlled, until in the other hospital during the final days before death, when the patient tested positive for HBV (HBsAb). Autopsy: At autopsy, the liver was large (2.800 g) with micronodular cirrhosis but no typical signs of ALD. When examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC), liver cells were extensively loaded with HBV, HCV and HDV, implicating an activation of a latent chronic viral hepatitis during the hospitalization, and massive replication of all three hepatotrophic viruses. This activation, remaining unnoticed by the clinicians, obviously resulted in acute-on-chronic fulminant viral hepatitis with rapid and fatal liver failure. Conclusions: By labeling the patient’s liver failure as ALD obscured adequate search for other potential causative factors for the patient´s HRS. This is most unfortunate, because standard curative medical treatments (DAA, direct acting antivirals) are available for viral hepatitis, and their diagnosis by biopsy should be straightforward. In contrast, treatment with steroids is contraindicated in viral hepatitis.
Category: Biochemistry

[256] viXra:1708.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:43:07

Elejalde Syndrome: The Silvery Hair Syndrom

Authors: Fehmida Najmuddin, Rajesh Rai, Keya Lahiri, Priya Patil Cholera
Comments: 2 Pages.

Elejalde Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The characteristic features are silvery hair and profound central nervous system dysfunction. Unevenly distributed melanin granules are observed on hair analysis. We hereby describe, a two and half year old female child with neuroregression, diffuse hypopigmentation and silvery hair who was diagnosed to have this syndrome.
Category: Biochemistry

[255] viXra:1708.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:46:17

Engineering or Biology?

Authors: Miguel Burgos
Comments: 2 Pages.

About ten thousand years ago, after the climate change at the end of the last glacial period, humans started producing their own food by farming instead of being nomadic hunters. This was the beginning of a long period in which artificial selection led to the domestication of many animal, vegetal, and even microbial species by indirectly manipulating their genotypes through phenotypic selection of traits of interest. Thus, we unconsciously started to genetically modify other species at the “neolithic revolution”.
Category: Biochemistry

[254] viXra:1708.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 13:40:30

Quantum Dot Biosensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Quantum dots (QDs) have found so many applications in recent years, they can now be purchased with a variety of composite structures and configurations. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[253] viXra:1708.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 22:54:52

The Map is not the Territory

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 24 Pages. Includes one coloured diagram and coloured variable group identifiers.

The important difference between variables in Object reality, reality existing independently of the mind, sometimes called physical reality has been discussed. Variables have been divided into terrain (t) and Map (M) variables. There has been categorization of terrain and Map variable groups. The groups have been given colour identifiers so that each variable representation can be accompanied by a tally or chart showing the variable groups to which it belongs. Variable profiles (single variable type profile ) and Terrain profiles ( Multiple variable type profile) have been introduced. Variation in Terrain profile over time has been likened to and contrasted with a wave-function and outcome probability distribution. The changing Terrain profile associated with the object under consideration provides a new way of thinking about what is happening. The concepts of truth, logic and knowledge have been discussed and it has been shown that old ways of thinking need to change in order to accommodate the expanded non partial perspective of Object reality. Including superficially contradictory states and non unitary 'property' values and states, at all scales not just the quantum scale. A measurable in physics is a relationship and not a property possessed by an object of itself.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[252] viXra:1708.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 23:03:33

Density Matrices and the Standard Model

Authors: C A Brannen
Comments: 59 Pages. As submitted to Foundations of Physics

We use density matrices to explore the possibility that the various flavors of quarks and leptons are linear superpositions over a single particle whose symmetry follows the finite subgroup $S_4$ of the simple Lie group SO(3). We use density matrices which allow modeling of symmetry breaking over temperature, and can incorporate superselection sectors. We obtain three generations each consisting of the quarks and leptons and an SU(2) dark matter doublet. We apply the model to the Koide mass equations and propose extensions of the theory to other parts of the Standard Model and gravitation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[251] viXra:1708.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 02:02:36

Silent Dark Matter Search

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[250] viXra:1708.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-15 04:32:28

Michelson and Morley Experiment’s Hidden Error Overlooked for 130 Years

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper shows why the Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and that the disappointment was due to a hidden error in Michelson’s assumptions.
Category: Classical Physics

[249] viXra:1708.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 07:38:16

Refuting Special Relativity by General Relativity

Authors: Azzam Almosallami
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I’ll propose a thought experiment proving that special relativity of Einstein is impossible to be applied in physics and the Einstein view point of simultaneity is wrong physically, and the synchronization of clocks is impossible even if the train is stationary by using the general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[248] viXra:1708.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 07:43:26

Graphene Viscous Conductance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A new understanding of the physics of conductive materials has been uncovered by scientists observing the unusual movement of electrons in graphene. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[247] viXra:1708.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 08:57:46

PT-Symmetric Quantum Walk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The system is called a "PT-symmetric quantum walk," since it consists of single photons that occupy a superposition of states, called quantum walks, that obey parity-time (PT) symmetry—the property in which a system's coordinates in space and time can have their signs reversed without inherently changing the system. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[246] viXra:1708.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 09:08:06

Entanglement of Large Sized Objects – Part 2

Authors: Jeffrey S Keen
Comments: Pages 5, Figures 1, Tables 2

The objective of this paper is to copy quantum entanglement into the everyday macro world. Entanglement is usually associated with, say, 2 electrons emitted from the same atom remaining in contact with each other when separated by vast distances. This paper shows how it is possible for 2 large physical bodies to communicate information to each other over considerable distances, without any apparent intermediate medium. One sheet of A4 paper, torn in half, is all that is required to generate 2-body entanglement, provided that the 2 sheets of paper are sufficiently far apart so they create a psi-line with nodes, that mediates the entanglement. Quantitative experiments involving auras are detailed and demonstrate that the mind is intrinsically connected to psi-lines and quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[245] viXra:1708.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 09:39:57

Quantum Interference with Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[244] viXra:1708.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 05:16:50

A New Hypothesis About the Nature of Time by Anupam Kumar

Authors: Anupam Kumar
Comments: 1 Page.

This is a new hypothesis about time which accepts freewill and randomness and attempts to solve the Time Paradox. It assumes that the universe itself has a time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[243] viXra:1708.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 14:47:37

What if the Graviton Had a Negative Mass?

Authors: Sundar Narayan
Comments: 7 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Gravitons are the as-yet undiscovered particles that convey gravity. “Massive gravity” – the idea that gravitons may have a tiny positive mass mg - has recently been revived. The equations of massive gravity contain the quantity mg2 but not mg itself. Yet, the possibility that mg could be negative has never been explored. This paper shows that negative mass gravitons can 1) explain the actual mechanism of gravity in terms of Newtonian mechanics, 2) be used to derive Milgrom’s constant in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), a theory that obviates the need for Dark Matter, 3) identify Dark Energy as being equivalent to the momentum flux of negative mass gravitons, 4) suggest why a vacuum has a far lower density than what quantum field theory predicts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[242] viXra:1708.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 15:10:36

Some Insight into Relativity Principle, Covariant Equations, and the Use of Abduction in Physics

Authors: Jerzy Hanckowiak
Comments: 12 Pages.

We show relations of the Relativity Principle (RP) to the linear features of space(time), Sec 1. In Sec.2 RP is written in Minkowski’s space. Sec. 3 is devoted to Einstein’s relativity principle. The covariant form of equation and the RP in the free Fock space (FFS) are discussed in Sec.4.In Sec.5 are also discussed a possible trace of the quantum features in classical mechanics and possible sources of nonlinearity of basic equations of nature. The final comments are contained in Sec.6.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[241] viXra:1708.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 18:38:34

Discussion Sur Les Structures Algébriques Des Infinis Réels et L’irrationalité de la Constante D’Euler-Mascheroni

Authors: F.L.B.Périat
Comments: 3 Pages.

Proposition sur l'infini imaginé comme un espace vectoriel, permettant par distribution des vecteurs de démontrer l'irrationalité de certaines valeurs.
Category: Algebra

[240] viXra:1708.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 21:17:24

New Idea of the Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Jun Chen
Comments: 5 Pages.

A new idea of the Goldbach conjecture has been studied, it is that the even number is more bigger, the average form of the sum of two primes are more larger too. And then, we prove that every sufficiently large even number is the sum of two primes.
Category: Number Theory

[239] viXra:1708.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 21:54:53

Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra for General Quadric Surfaces in Space-Time

Authors: Robert B. Easter
Comments: 24 pages. Written as an invited extended paper, extending the 10-page conference paper Double Conformal Geometric Algebra (ICNPAA 2016), for possible later submission to the journal Mathematics in Engineering, Science and Aerospace (MESA).

The G(4,8) Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA) is a high-dimensional 12D Geometric Algebra that extends the concepts introduced with the G(8,2) Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA) with entities for Darboux cyclides (incl. parabolic and Dupin cyclides, general quadrics, and ring torus) in spacetime with a new boost operator. The base algebra in which spacetime geometry is modeled is the G(1,3) Space-Time Algebra (STA). Two G(2,4) Conformal Space-Time subalgebras (CSTA) provide spacetime entities for points, hypercones, hyperplanes, hyperpseudospheres (and their intersections) and a complete set of versors for their spacetime transformations that includes rotation, translation, isotropic dilation, hyperbolic rotation (boost), planar reflection, and (pseudo)spherical inversion. G(4,8) DCSTA is a doubling product of two orthogonal G(2,4) CSTA subalgebras that inherits doubled CSTA entities and versors from CSTA and adds new 2-vector entities for general (pseudo)quadrics and Darboux (pseudo)cyclides in spacetime that are also transformed by the doubled versors. The "pseudo" surface entities are spacetime surface entities that use the time axis as a pseudospatial dimension. The (pseudo)cyclides are the inversions of (pseudo)quadrics in hyperpseudospheres. An operation for the directed non-uniform scaling (anisotropic dilation) of the 2-vector general quadric entities is defined using the boost operator and a spatial projection. Quadric surface entities can be boosted into moving surfaces with constant velocities that display the Thomas-Wigner rotation and length contraction of special relativity. DCSTA is an algebra for computing with general quadrics and their inversive geometry in spacetime. For applications or testing, G(4,8) DCSTA can be computed using various software packages, such as the symbolic computer algebra system SymPy with the GAlgebra module.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[238] viXra:1708.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 01:05:50

Effect of Aobo Celebral Rehabilitation Medical Apparatus Treatment on Cerebral Circulation and Cerebral Function

Authors: Mingde Jiao Zuodong Sun
Comments: 4 Pages.

[Objective] To observe the clinical effect of Aobo Cerebral Rehabilitation Medical Apparatus instrument on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral function. [Methods] 180 patients with cerebrovascular disease were divided into cerebral infarction group (CAI), cerebral arteriosclerosis group (CAS), vertebral basilar artery insufficiency group (VBI), each group of 60 cases, according to the order of treatment, the patients were divided into two groups: drug treatment group and treatment group, each group of 30 cases. The drug therapy group according to the disease treatment of conventional dosage, the treatment group were treated with Aobo Cerebral Rehabilitation Medical Apparatus , continuous treatment for 30 days. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasound to reflect changes in cerebral hemodynamics (TCD) EEG and reflect the brain functional changes (BEAM) as the observation index. [Results] The average blood flow velocity in cerebral infarction group, cerebral arteriosclerosis group, vertebral basilar artery insufficiency group using the instrument after treatment than before treatment, TCD increased by 23.9% (P<0.01), 18.3% (P<0.05), 28.3% (P<0.01), estimation of cerebral blood flow were increased by 50.6% (P<0.01), 25.3% (P<0.05), 43.2% (P< 0.01), decreased by 7.9% respectively slow wave power spectrum of BEAM (P<0.05), 4.5% (P<0.05), 7.8% (P<0.01), its therapeutic effect is far better than the drug treatment group superior. [Conclusions] Aobo Cerebral Rehabilitation Medical Apparatus treatment for the cerebral blood flow in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were significantly increased, and significantly improve brain function, activation of brain cells in the inhibitory state, to accelerate the rehabilitation of patients with brain function.
Category: Physics of Biology

[237] viXra:1708.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 01:08:26

Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (Bfra) Effect on Cerebral Hemodynamics and Cerebral Function

Authors: Congmin Yu Ying Zhao Caiwa Zhang Guilan Wang Xiuhua Zhang Shufang Mu Zuodong Sun
Comments: 7 Pages.

[Objective] Clinical observation of Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (BFRA)effects on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral function. [Methods] The patients with cerebrovascular disease in 120 cases, divided into vascular dementia and vertebrobasilar insufficiency two group 60 patients in each group and control group (drug treatment) and experimental group (drug and brain health apparatus in the treatment of 30 cases each) according to their treatment of conventional medicine, experimental group at the same time the application of Weinaokang daily treatment instrument 1 times, 20 minutes each time, for 30 consecutive days. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and brain evoked potentials (BEAM) were used to detect the indexes. [Results] Vascular dementia group and vertebrobasilar insufficiency group in the clinical trials, experimental group Vm and ECBF compared with the control group, the rate of increase was higher than the control group, the two groups showed significant difference (P < 0.01); theta power value of BEAM in the experimental group were significantly lower than that of control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). The latency of event-related potentials (P300) in vascular dementia group was better than that of the control group, and there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). [Conclusions] Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (BFRA) can improve cerebral circulation, increase cerebral blood flow, increase the source of energy for the brain, activation of brain cells is inhibited, thereby strengthening the functional activities of the brain. It can be used in the treatment of cerebral infarction, cerebral arteriosclerosis, vascular dementia, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and brain dysfunction due to enhanced memory.
Category: Physics of Biology

[236] viXra:1708.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 01:11:18

Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (Bfra) Effect on Cerebral Circulation and Cerebral Function

Authors: Mingde Jiao Danfeng Xu Lanying Li Bo Yu Zuodong Sun
Comments: 6 Pages.

[Objective] Clinical observation of Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (BFRA) effect on cerebral circulation and cerebral function. [Methods] The patients with cerebrovascular disease in 180 cases, divided into cerebral infarction group and cerebral arteriosclerosis group, vertebrobasilar insufficiency group, 60 cases in each group, according to the visiting sequence is divided into drug treatment group and treatment group, 30 cases in each instrument.The drug therapy group according to the disease treatment of conventional dosage, the treatment group used instruments Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus, continuous treatment for 30 days. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM), which reflect the changes of cerebral blood flow, were used as observation indexes. [Results] In patients with cerebral infarction curative effect of experimental group was significantly better than the control group (P < 0.01), and TCD and BEAM in the two groups showed significant difference (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis in the curative effect of experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05) Moreover, TCD and BEAM in the two groups showed significant difference (P < 0.01) or < 0.05); in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency, the curative effect of experimental group was significantly better than the control group (P < 0.05), and TCD, BEAM in the two groups also showed significant differences for the newspaper (P < 0.01). [Conclusions] the application of BFRA can significantly improve the cerebral hemodynamics, increase cerebral blood flow, strengthen the functional activities of the brain, remove brain lesions around tissue edema and swelling, alleviate cerebral vasospasm, improve cerebral blood supply and hypoxia, improve brain tissue and promote The new supersedes the old. ipsilateral to the lesion, or on the side the formation of collateral circulation, activation in the inhibitory state of brain cells, enhance the brain's comprehensive analysis ability and memory function. It can be used for the treatment of cerebral infarction, cerebral arteriosclerosis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and brain dysfunction due to enhanced memory.
Category: Physics of Biology

[235] viXra:1708.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 08:20:48

Heating Up a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An international team led by Prof. Nathan Goldman, Faculty of Science, Université libre de Bruxelles, predicts a novel form of quantization law, which involves a distinct type of physical observable: the heating rate of a quantum system upon external shaking. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[234] viXra:1708.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 09:02:44

The Conservation of Kinetic Energy in Elastic Collisions

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 'conservation of energy' is a postulated law that implies the transformation of different forms of 'energy' into one another, while the total amount of 'energy' remains constant. In this paper I demonstrate that the conservation of 'kinetic energy' in perfectly elastic collisions, as well in its macroscopic form as 'kinetic energy of bulk motion' as in its microscopic form as 'kinetic energy of internal motion', is a quantitative expression of which the numerical value remains constant when the total amount of motion of the particle system at the given velocity level is physically conserved.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[233] viXra:1708.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 09:04:47

The Physical Nature of Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 13 Pages.

The kinetic theory defines the temperature of an ideal monatomic gas as a measure for the average translational kinetic energy of its particles. This definition ignores the fact that temperature is inevitably characterized by an isotropic distribution of the velocities of the particles over all possible directions and the continuous collisions and thermal radiation that this brings about. In this paper I first demonstrate that 'the thermal energy' of an ideal gas is in fact a mathematical expression of the total amount of momentum flow of its isotropic motion. This allows me to conclude that the pressure in an ideal gas is a measure for the average twosided momentum flow across any unit area of the particle system and that the temperature of an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of that gas, for a unit number density of its molecules. In that way I am able to demonstrate that the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution is a statistical representation of the speeds produced by repetitive isotropic collisions between perfectly elastic monatomic articles.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[232] viXra:1708.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 09:25:45

Understanding Molecular Conductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Nagoya University-led team of physicists use a synchrotron radiation X-ray source to probe a so-called "structure-less" transition and develop a new understanding of molecular conductors. [16] A first step in this field is for researchers to demonstrate that single molecules can function as reproducible circuit elements such as transistors or diodes that can easily operate at room temperature. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[231] viXra:1708.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 10:02:18

AI that can Understand Us

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Computing pioneer Alan Turing's most pertinent thoughts on machine intelligence come from a neglected paragraph of the same paper that first proposed his famous test for whether a computer could be considered as smart as a human. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[230] viXra:1708.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 14:40:40

Decimal-by-Decimal Analysis of the Gravitational Constant Value as Exemplified by Torsion Balance

Authors: D.G. Kiryan, G.V. Kiryan
Comments: 13 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables

Term "gravitational constant" was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts are still being made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology, all indirect measurements of the "gravitational constant" obtained by various research groups exhibit equality of two first decimals in the SI system and spread of subsequent decimals. We have found an explanation for this situation by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the required measurement accuracies of each torsion balance parameter from the preset accuracy of the "gravitational constant" value, based on the torsion balance mathematical model. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the "gravitational constant" values obtained at different experimental setups may be explained by the absence of appropriate planning of the final result accuracy.
Category: Classical Physics

[229] viXra:1708.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 19:39:10

Time

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 1 Page.

In the article "On the Influence of Gravitation on Propagation of Light" 1911, Einstein uses as a basis a homogeneous gravitational field in which there is equal (absolute) gravitational acceleration everywhere. Consequently, in this field there must be also a homogeneous time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[228] viXra:1708.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 23:59:45

Brain Stimulation with Neutrinos

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 2 Pages.

A possibility of brain stimulation with neutrinos is discussed.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[227] viXra:1708.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 07:35:07

Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory

Authors: Edward J Steele
Comments: 13 Pages.

The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
Category: Biochemistry

[226] viXra:1708.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 11:29:40

Self-Sterilization vs. Host Sterilization in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis a star can self-sterilize while keeping its atmosphere, or become sterilized by a host. This is in reference to life, as stellar metamorphosis is a life centered worldview, in that stars cool and evolve, forming life on them.
Category: Astrophysics

[225] viXra:1708.0240 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-01 12:50:17

Counting Complexity by Using Partial Circuit Independency

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper describes about complexity of NP problems by using “Effective circuit” independency, and apply SAT problem. Inputs of circuit family that compute P problem have some explicit symmetry that indicated circuit structure. To clarify this explict symmetry, we define “Effective circuit” as partial circuit which are necessary to compute target inputs. Effective circuit set divide problem to some symmetric partial problems. The other hand, inputs of NTM that compute NP problem have extra implicit symmetry that indicated nondeterministic transition functions. To clarify this implicit symmetry, we define special DTM “Concrete DTM”which index i correspond to selection of nondeterministic transition functions. That is, NTM split many different asymmetry DTM and compute all DTM in same time. Consider concrete DTM and effective circuit set, circuit family [SAT] that solve SAT problem have to include all effective circuit set [CVPi] that correspond to concrete DTM as Circuit Value Problem. [CVPi] have unique gate and [SAT] must include all [CVPi]. Number of [CVPi] is over polynomial size of input. Therefore, [SAT] is over polynomial size.
Category: General Mathematics

[224] viXra:1708.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 09:31:39

Artificial Intelligence Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[223] viXra:1708.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 14:27:54

Machine-Learning Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In what could be a small step for science potentially leading to a breakthrough, an engineer at Washington University in St. Louis has taken steps toward using nanocrystal networks for artificial intelligence applications. [16] Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[222] viXra:1708.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 16:25:48

Cosmologists and Their Problem with Equivocation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Cosmologists use equivocation, which confuses the public and even themselves. They do this to make sure they can never be wrong in any situation, by never taking a stance one way or the other. Their intent is to deceive to protect their careers and to sell books that say nothing. It is essentially a political tactic that does not belong in science, and neither does cosmology (which is a quasi-religion) as a whole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[221] viXra:1708.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 17:45:13

Property of a Curve Connecting Any Two Points in Space that Are at Different Differences from a Third Point

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: In this paper we prove that any two points A and B in space that are at different distances from a third point C, when connected by any curve in three dimensional space, must contain points such as D that are at intermediate distances from the third point C (length DC is intermediate to length AC and length BC).
Category: Geometry

[220] viXra:1708.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 22:45:29

Is Quantum Physics Really Strange?

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 10 Pages. Includes two coloured diagrams

The conclusions from investigations of physics at the quantum realm, and theoretical models fitting the results, have presented that scale of reality as a realm utterly unlike macroscopic material reality, as we 'know' it. The aim of this paper is to show that some the difference between the scales is due to the way in which the quantum scale is considered and portrayed, not actually a difference in the way phenomena are happening.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[219] viXra:1708.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:06:29

Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan
Comments: 3 Pages.

This proof is based on an assumption that value of an infinite series cannot be obtained from a finite number of terms of the series. For all possible factors of (x + y -z) which are not factors of x or y or z, 3 infinite series can be developed, 2 convergent and 1 divergent. In all the 3 cases, the value of the infinite series can be obtained by considering only a finite number of terms. This gives the value for (x + y -z) = p to to the power of alpha * (p1) (p2) (p3). Thus proving Fermat's last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[218] viXra:1708.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-29 10:15:34

Basic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the eighteenth century, scientists discovered the ingredients of basic quantum field theory. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored. This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. Observers cannot perceive these objects as individual items. The objects are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing. The LHC and its successors will never be able to detect them.
Category: Quantum Physics

[217] viXra:1708.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:51:51

A Relation for Q-Pochhammer Symbol, Q-Bracket, Q-Factorial and Q-Binomial Coefficient.

Authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we construct a relation involving q-Pochhammer symbol, q-bracket, q-factorial and q-binomial coefficient among other things.
Category: Number Theory

[216] viXra:1708.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:56:45

An Identity for a Q-Hypergeometric Series

Authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we construct a identity for a q-hypergeometric series.
Category: Number Theory

[215] viXra:1708.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 12:49:36

Regarding Three Points in a Plane Such that Two Points Are Non-Equidistant from the Third Point and a Predicted Property of Any Curve in that Plane Connecting the Two Non-Equidistant Points

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we give a simple proof that if there are two points A and B that are at distinct linear distances from a third point C (AC is not equal to BC), then any curve connecting the points A and B (this curve lies within the same plane containing A,B,C) must contain points such as D that lie at an intermediate distance from C, (DC is of length intermediate to AC and BC).
Category: Geometry

[214] viXra:1708.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 10:48:58

Astronomical Pseudoscience Via Linguistics and Culture

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Since the mystery of planet formation is solved by the discovery that planets are older stars (stellar evolution is planet formation), the continued mystery of planet formation as accepted by establishment dogma is pseudoscientific. Thus a different type of pseudoscience is present, the ignoring of discoveries. The only problem now with getting the discovery recognized is a deep culturally rooted belief that they are mutually exclusive, regardless if the facts of nature are in direct contradiction of the culture.
Category: Astrophysics

[213] viXra:1708.0227 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-24 14:04:12

Dark and Bright-State Polaritons in Triple-Λ Eit System

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan
Comments: 7 Pages.

Properties of polaritons in triple-Λ EIT system are investigated using Sawada-Brout-Chong method. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is studied in detail by including the decay of excited atomic levels. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is shown to support this study.
Category: Quantum Physics

[212] viXra:1708.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 17:46:16

On the Principle of Least Action

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

Investigations into the nature of the principle of least action have shown that there is an intrinsic relationship between geometrical and topological methods and the variational principle in classical mechanics. In this work, we follow and extend this kind of mathematical analysis into the domain of quantum mechanics. First, we show that the identification of the momentum of a quantum particle with the de Broglie wavelength in 2-dimensional space would lead to an interesting feature; namely the action principle δS=0 would be satisfied not only by the stationary path, corresponding to the classical motion, but also by any path. Thereupon the Bohr quantum condition possesses a topological character in the sense that the principal quantum number n is identified with the winding number, which is used to represent the fundamental group of paths. We extend our discussions into 3-dimensional space and show that the charge of a particle also possesses a topological character and is quantised and classified by the homotopy group of closed surfaces. We then discuss the possibility to extend our discussions into spaces with higher dimensions and show that there exist physical quantities that can be quantised by the higher homotopy groups. Finally we note that if Einstein’s field equations of general relativity are derived from Hilbert’s action through the principle of least action then for the case of n=2 the field equations are satisfied by any metric if the energy-momentum tensor is identified with the metric tensor, similar to the case when the momentum of a particle is identified with the curvature of the particle’s path.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[211] viXra:1708.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 19:18:40

Time Dilation Can be Emerged from Newtonian Space in One Case

Authors: Mohamed Abdelwhab
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[210] viXra:1708.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 20:48:18

Factoring any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differenial Equation

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 2 Pages.

Elementary ordinary differential equations texts often present factorization of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients by linear operators. The theorem, here, demonstrates that any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differential Equation with differentiable coefficients may be factored via two linear differential operators, by way of the reduction of order formula. Since the reduction of order formula applies at any order, this theorem may be generalized to any order.
Category: General Mathematics

[209] viXra:1708.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:21:54

Bioimaging Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[208] viXra:1708.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:46:20

Generalization of a Ramanujan Formula

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 6 Pages.

I found a formula due to Ramanjan, I have given a generalization in this article
Category: Number Theory

[207] viXra:1708.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-23 05:44:34

Equation for Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 2 Pages.

An equation for distribution of prime numbers is found that agree well with actual values of prime numbers in the range x. We find that Riemann hypothesis may be wrong. We need to study the variation of new variable r with the given number x.
Category: Number Theory

[206] viXra:1708.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:56:44

Instabilities in Fusion Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a remarkably simple way to suppress a common instability that can halt fusion reactions and damage the walls of reactors built to create a "star in a jar." [12] Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[205] viXra:1708.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 12:48:11

A Quantum Phenomenon that Forces the Extra Energy Shift in Mossbauer Rotor Experiment

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a quantum phenomenon that forces a rapid additional increase in the coefficient k which defines the Mossbauer rotor experiment (k increases from 0.5 predicted within the General Theory of Relativity to 0.714). The extra energy shift follows from the interactions of photons with virtual charged pairs produced at the cost of the relativistic mass. Production of such pairs results from the atom-like structure of baryons described within SST. We as well answered following question: Why are there so many different theories of gravity?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[204] viXra:1708.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-23 10:11:17

Light-By-Light Scattering as a Proof of at Least Incompleteness of the Perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. The ATLAS background events decrease the observed maximum width to less than +-44.4 nb (it does not concern uncertainties). On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) of the cross-section is inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We can say only that the ATLAS result is compatible with Standard-Model predictions only within experimental uncertainties. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[203] viXra:1708.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 07:54:16

Duality of Time and Perpetual Re-creation of Space

Authors: Mohamed Haj Yousef
Comments: 28 Pages. The concept of the Duality of Time is based on a previous research published in The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos (www.amazon.com/dp/1499779844).

Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[202] viXra:1708.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 08:08:14

Mysterious Behavior of Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[201] viXra:1708.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 10:22:54

Fluorescent Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
Category: Physics of Biology

[200] viXra:1708.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 13:59:26

Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Stable Neutrinos

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces and expels from the hot places the first generation of "ordinary" massive fermions, with are identified with neutrinos. It explains the stability of all three neutrinos, which was a puzzle in the Standard Model. The mass of neutrino, estimated in terms of a new scaling in Qmoger, satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The situation with neutrinos is an example of interface between dark and ordinary matter (Idom), introduced before in explanation of the phenomena of subjectivity.
Category: Astrophysics

[199] viXra:1708.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-18 23:54:36

On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin, Mohsin Ilahi
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics ) that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$. This is well documented in current literature. However, here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one. Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore. This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented this being taught to the students. As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[198] viXra:1708.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 03:27:59

Images Tiny Quasicrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"—Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[197] viXra:1708.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 05:43:55

X-ray from Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team around Kilian Heeg from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg has now found a way to make the spectrum of the x-ray pulses emitted by these sources even narrower. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[196] viXra:1708.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 05:45:49

Error Concealment by Means of Motion Refinement and Regularized Bregman Divergence

Authors: Alessandra M. Coelho, Vania V. Estrela, Felipe P. do Carmo, Sandro R. Fernandes, V. V. Estrela, Vania Vieira Estrela
Comments: 8 Pages. Proceedings of the IDEAL 2012, Springer Verlag, 2012

This work addresses the problem of error concealment in video transmission systems over noisy channels employing Bregman divergences along with regularization. Error concealment intends to improve the effects of disturbances at the reception due to bit-errors or cell loss in packet networks. Bregman regularization gives accurate answers after just some iterations with fast convergence, better accuracy, and stability. This technique has an adaptive nature: the regularization functional is updated according to Bregman functions that change from iteration to iteration according to the nature of the neighborhood under study at iteration n. Numerical experiments show that high-quality regularization parameter estimates can be obtained. The convergence is sped up while turning the regularization parameter estimation less empiric, and more automatic.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[195] viXra:1708.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 05:19:11

2 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed for Any Prime 'p'

Authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan
Comments: 3 Pages. Title has been changed a little bit. Instead of mod p, it should be mod p cubed

If\quad { 2 }^{ p-1 }\quad \equiv \quad 1\quad mod\quad ({ p }^{ 3 })\quad then\quad 2,-1,{ 2 }^{ p-2 }\quad are\quad solutions\quad to\quad the\quad equation\\ f(a)\quad =\quad 1\quad -\quad { a }^{ p }\quad -\quad { (1-a) }^{ p\quad \quad }\equiv \quad o\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 }).\quad Using\quad this\quad fact\quad and\quad an\quad expression\quad for\\ { (x+y) }^{ n }\quad \quad in\quad terms\quad of\quad xy\quad ,\quad (x+y)\quad ,\quad ({ x }^{ 2 }+xy+{ y }^{ 2 })\quad it\quad is\quad prooved\quad that\\ { 2 }^{ p-1 }\quad \ncong \quad 1\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad for\quad any\quad prime\quad 'p'.
Category: Number Theory

[194] viXra:1708.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 05:20:01

Accuracy Analysis of Tool Deflection Error Modeling in Prediction of Milled Surfaces by a Virtual Machining System

Authors: Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi
Comments: 14 Pages.

Accuracy of produced parts in machining process is influenced by many errors such as tool deflection as well as geometrical deviations of machine tool structure. To increase accuracy and productivity in part manufacturing, the errors are modelled by using mathematical concepts. This paper presents an application for the virtual machining systems to analyse accuracy in modelling of tool deflection error. A virtual machining system is used to create actual parts in virtual environments. Then, a comparison for different methods of tool deflection error such as cantilever beam model of the cutting tool, Finite Element Method (FEM) of the cutting tool and workpiece and geometrical model of the cutting tool effects on the workpiece is presented to show accuracy and reliability of the methods in prediction of milled surfaces. So, capabilities and difficulties of the methods in the error modelling are presented to increase accuracy and efficiency in part manufacturing.
Category: General Mathematics

[193] viXra:1708.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 05:25:20

3 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed if P is Congruent to 1 Mod 6

Authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan
Comments: 2 Pages.

If\quad f(a)\quad =\quad 1\quad -\quad { a }^{ p }\quad -\quad { (1-a) }^{ p }\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad and\quad even\quad if\quad { a }^{ 2 }-a+1\quad \ncong \quad 0\quad mod(p)\\ it\quad is\quad prooved\quad that\quad f({ a }_{ r })\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad .Then\quad using\quad the\quad fact\quad that\quad if\\ { 3 }^{ p-1 }\quad \equiv \quad 1\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad ,\quad { a }^{ 2 }+a+1\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad is\quad also\quad a\quad solution\quad to\quad \\ f(a)\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 }).
Category: Number Theory

[192] viXra:1708.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 10:16:48

Terahertz Skin Cancer Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new terahertz imaging approach that, for the first time, can acquire micron-scale resolution images while retaining computational approaches designed to speed up image acquisition. This combination could allow terahertz imaging to be useful for detecting early-stage skin cancer without requiring a tissue biopsy from the patient. [19] A new system developed by UCLA researchers could make it easier and less expensive to diagnose chronic diseases, particularly in remote areas without expensive lab equipment. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Physics of Biology

[191] viXra:1708.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 11:07:19

Redshift in Lattice-Cellular Models of the Universe: Lindquist-Wheeler and Beyond

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Open Physics J.

Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad Ranzan’s cellular model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[190] viXra:1708.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:29:25

On the Universal Speed in Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment has been considered as a verification of the validity of Einstein’s postulate of the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, it has been shown that the special theory of relativity can be developed by applying only the principle of relativity without the need to postulate the universal constancy of the speed of light and, as a consequence, this raises the question of what role the Michelson-Morley experiment would play in special relativity. In this work we show that the Michelson-Morley experiment can be used to verify the fact that the speed of light is not universal as postulated in Einstein’s special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[189] viXra:1708.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:42:13

A Temporal Dynamics: a Generalised Newtonian and Wave Mechanics

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility of reconciling quantum mechanics with classical mechanics by formulating a temporal dynamics, which is a dynamics caused by the rate of change of time with respect to distance. First, we show that a temporal dynamics can be derived from the time dilation formula in Einstein’s theory of special relativity. Then we show that a short-lived time-dependent force derived from a dynamical equation that is obtained from the temporal dynamics in a 1-dimensional temporal manifold can be used to describe Bohr’s postulates of quantum radiation and quantum transition between stable orbits in terms of classical dynamics and differential geometry. We extend our discussions on formulating a temporal dynamics to a 3-dimensional temporal manifold. With this generalisation we are able to demonstrate that a sub-quantum dynamics is a classical dynamics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[188] viXra:1708.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:50:44

On the Stationary Orbits of a Hydrogen-Like Atom

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility of combining the Coulomb potential with the Yukawa’s potential to form a mixed potential and then investigate whether this combination can be used to explain why the electron does not radiate when it manifests in the form of circular motions around the nucleus. We show that the mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential can yield stationary orbits with zero net force, therefore if the electron moves around the nucleus in these orbits it will not radiate according to classical electrodynamics. We also show that in these stationary orbits, the kinetic energy of the electron is converted into potential energy, therefore the radiation process of a hydrogen-like atom does not related to the transition of the electron as a classical particle between the energy levels. The radial distribution functions of the wave equation determine the energy density rather than the electron density at a distance r along a given direction from the nucleus. It is shown in the appendix that the mixed potential used in this work can be derived from Einstein’s general theory of relativity by choosing a suitable energy-momentum tensor. Even though such derivation is not essential in our discussions, it shows that there is a possible connection between general relativity and quantum physics at the quantum level.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[187] viXra:1708.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:54:09

A Theory of Temporal Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this work we develop a theory of temporal relativity, which includes a temporal special relativity and a temporal general relativity, on the basis of a generalised Newtonian temporal dynamics. We then show that a temporal relativity can be used to study the dynamics of quantum radiation of an elementary particle from a quantum system.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[186] viXra:1708.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:58:54

A Special Relativity of Circular Reference Frame

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 3 Pages.

Similar to Einstein’s method to formulate a special relativity for inertial reference systems in classical physics, we show that a special relativity can also be formulated for systems of circular reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1708.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 02:06:26

Superconductivity New State of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[184] viXra:1708.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 03:51:07

Spacetime Structures of Quantum Particles

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this work we propose a covariant formulation for the gravitational field and derive equations that can be used to construct the spacetime structures for short-lived and stable quantum particles. We also show that Schrödinger wavefunctions can be used to construct spacetime structures for the quantum states of a quantum system, such as the hydrogen atom. Even though our discussions in this work are focused on the microscopic objects, the results obtained can be applied equally to the macroscopic phenomena.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[183] viXra:1708.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 03:54:59

A Derivation of the Ricci Flow

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work we show that by restricting the coordinate transformations to the group of time-independent coordinate transformations it is possible to derive the Ricci flow from the contracted Bianchi identities.
Category: Geometry

[182] viXra:1708.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 11:30:26

Universal Theory of General Invariance

Authors: M.P. Benowitz
Comments: 29 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics

Through the introduction of a new principle of physics, we extend quantum mechanics by proposing three additional postulates. With them we construct a quantum theory where gravitation emerges from the thermodynamics of an entangled vacuum. This new quantum theory reproduces the observations of the $\Lambda$CDM model of cosmology, predicting the existence of massive vacua $ M_{\text{on}} = \sqrt{\dfrac{\hbar c}{G}}$ and $M_{\text{off}} = \sqrt{\dfrac{ \Lambda^{2} \hbar^{3}G}{c^{5}}}$. Finally, we propose an experiment for the formers direct detection.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[181] viXra:1708.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:07:35

Solving Numerically Ermakov-type Equation for Newtonian Cosmology Model with Vortex

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law”. More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vertical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review a Riccati-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[180] viXra:1708.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:49:22

Real Roots of the Equation: X^6-3x^4-2x^3+9x^2+3x-26=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents the real roots (in radicals)of the equation:x^6-3x^4-2x^3+9x^2+3x-26=0.
Category: Algebra

[179] viXra:1708.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:56:13

Question 273: Nonlinear Equation,Bernoulli Numbers,Number Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.
Category: Number Theory

[178] viXra:1708.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 07:52:52

Drug-Delivering Micromotors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have demonstrated for the first time using micromotors to treat a bacterial infection in the stomach. [12] The ability to stimulate neural circuits with very high precision light to control cells—optogenetics—is key to exciting advances in the study and mapping of the living brain. [11] A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10] New research from Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
Category: Physics of Biology

[177] viXra:1708.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 10:30:48

Quantum Clones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[176] viXra:1708.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 07:37:47

A One Page Derivation of the Theory of Everything

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 11 Pages.

In a previous work I have derived the theory of everything (ToE) in a 74 pages paper. To make the theory more accessible, in this work, I derive the equation for the ToE on one page. I then follow the derivation with a few pages of discussion.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[175] viXra:1708.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 06:01:40

New Gravitational Theory of Time

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 6 Pages.

What is the source of the gravity? Why the zero point energy didn't lead the curvature of space-time to infinite? How to describe the gravity in a very short length? Why the proton almost can't decay? Who is the first cause? To answer those questions, I wrote this paper and I hope my ideas can give us a right answer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[174] viXra:1708.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 06:41:19

Levitate Liquids at Home

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Levitation techniques are no longer confined to the laboratory thanks to University of Bristol engineers who have developed an easier way for suspending matter in mid-air by developing a 3D-printed acoustic levitator. [19] Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have found a material used for decades to color food items ranging from corn chips to ice creams could potentially have uses far beyond food dyes. [18] Liquid droplets are natural magnifiers. Look inside a single drop of water, and you are likely to see a reflection of the world around you, close up and distended as you'd see in a crystal ball. [17] MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[173] viXra:1708.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 06:53:04

The Proof of the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: Kurmet Sultan
Comments: 29 pages, Written in Russian

The article presents the proof of the lonely runner conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[172] viXra:1708.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 18:10:58

Some Views of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants and a New Physical Philosophy

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 9 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments proved that the fundamental constants are changing by the evolution of the universe, this paper tries to give some explanations. We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time. Some scientists think the vacuum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing, too. I agree them. So I finish this paper to explain those experiments and develop those guesses. The constants are changing over time. They are different from early universe. We can't understand why them change now, maybe they change because the change of the entropy because entropy is very closed with time (to know the relation between time and entropy, you can see the note under this paper), I want to prove that in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[171] viXra:1708.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:18:46

From Memristor Theory: for the Missing Links in Electrical and Mechanical System (The First Draft)

Authors: Youngdae Seo
Comments: 16 Pages.

The memristor is a kind of resistor with memory characteristic, not new fourth circuit element. The relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage represents the resistor. The linear resistor has linear relationship between charge and magnetic flux, and the non-linear resistor has nonlinear relationship between them. The memristor has non-volatile and memory characteristic as well as non-linear characteristic. In addition, from the viewpoint of the mechanical system instead of the electrical system, it can be seen that the relationship between the momentum and the displacement represents the drag coefficient. This implies that there is a new term associated with consumption, not the momentum mv we usually think of. Generally, total energy is expressed as the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. This may be due to stereotypes, and it has to be corrected because we have not considered the concept of consumption enough. It may be too far ahead, but these ideas may be the key to solving many contradictions arising from relativity, quantum mechanics, and dark energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[170] viXra:1708.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 00:48:13

The Proof of the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Kurmet Sultan
Comments: 49 Pages.

The article provides with the evidence of the Collatz conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[169] viXra:1708.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:32:34

Machine Learning Quantum Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[168] viXra:1708.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:51:29

Heuristic Approach to Einsteins Field Equation Theory

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations (Fig. 1), mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. Based on the interpretation today of the Einstein’s field equations the curvature of space time causes a smaller mass B to move towards a greater mass A since it is the shortest geodesic path in the curved space-time. This article tries to analyze the Einstein field equations in a new heuristic approach in which curvature of space-time and geodesic path is replaced by an equivalent dynamic flow of space –time model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[167] viXra:1708.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 02:54:44

Brain Machine Interface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Brain Machine Interface Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are basically gimmicks. The reason you don't hear so much about them these days is because, in the fullness of time, significant tangible benefit to a user has flat out failed to materialize. [9] How does the brain-a lump of 'pinkish gray meat'-produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's subconscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[166] viXra:1708.0173 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 16:39:28

Newton’s Gravitational Constant is not a Constant

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 8 pages. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite of one of the longest history of measurements in physics, a definite value of Newton's gravitational constant γ is still not in sight. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thought experiment is performed to analyze the log- ical structure of the claim that Newton's gravitational constant γ is a constant. Two masses in deep space are accelerated (non-inertial frames of reference). After a period of time the acceleration stops. The behavior of Newton's gravitational constant γ is ana- lyzed. RESULTS: The assumption of the constancy of Newton's gravitational constant γ leads straightforward to a logical contradiction. Thus far, if we accept that Newton's gravita- tional constant γ we must accept too that +1=+0.
Category: Astrophysics

[165] viXra:1708.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 07:17:13

Evidence of Light-by-Light Scattering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[164] viXra:1708.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:14:24

Lensless Computational Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Lensless computational microscopy makes it possible to visualize transparent objects or measure their shape in three dimensions. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[163] viXra:1708.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:27:43

Action Without Reaction Symmetry for em Space Propulsion Thruster Technology.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF model (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different rigid string shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South ( N+S) vector field component. Two different monopole stringy particle are also suggested for the dual electric quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components. Based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the oscillating Axion-Higgs field. This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. . As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms. As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field formulas around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimization is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone. Three circular anti-Maxwell propulsion systems in triangle configuration, should be enough to create stable piloting and flight Experiments with coiled magnetized iron tubes has already shown this new physics reaction less propulsion effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[162] viXra:1708.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:41:30

X-ray Imaging Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[161] viXra:1708.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-28 18:20:00

Conversion of Kinetic Energy Into an Electromagnetic Pulse by Means of Control of the Gravitational Mass

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 20 Megatons or more.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[160] viXra:1708.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 06:17:08

Organismic Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A new computing technology called "organismoids" mimics some aspects of human thought by learning how to forget unimportant memories while retaining more vital ones. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[159] viXra:1708.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 06:49:15

Regular and Singular Rational Extensions of the Harmonic Oscillator with Two Known Eigenstates

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 50 Pages.

Exactly solvable rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator have been constructed as supersymmetric partner potentials of the harmonic oscillator [1] as well as using the so-called prepotential approach [2]. In this work, we use the factorization property of the energy eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator and a simple integrability condition to construct and examine series of regular and singular rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator with two known eigenstates, one of which is the ground state. Special emphasis is given to the interrelation between the special zeros of the wave function, the poles of the potential, and the excitation of the non-ground state. In the last section, we analyze specific examples.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[158] viXra:1708.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 16:32:10

Review of Weyl Tensor as an Aid to Reviewing the Penrose Weyl Tensor Conjecture Near Start of Inflation. I.e. that no Need to Suppose it is Always Zero at Start of Inflation

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 14 Pages.

We review, using our prior work the Weyl tensor as an aid to reviewing the Penrose Weyl Tensor Conjecture near start of Inflation. Our supposition is that this Weyl tensor will not vanish, and this is in tandem with a non- zero initial entropy. In doing so, we make use of two representations of the scale factor, one with , and another in terms of , with the time, scaled as . The second representation of the derivative of will yield a not equal to zero due to initial time step not being zero, i.e. a quantization of time, whereas the first representation of depends upon the initial value assumed and picked. We then afterwards, say something as to Malek’s doctoral thesis rendition of , for n general dimensions as a way to buttress our conclusion, that indeed is non-zero at start of inflation provided certain assumptions are made. Which in turn affects entropy production at the start of the universe. Note . in the case of a Pre Planckian imaginary time , i.e. to have real valued, but nonzero, we have to restrict = 1, as a way of making sense of what happens if we do use purely imaginary time. If not, then the Weyl tensor could be complex valued. If we have real time for , we have far less restrictive conditions, as is given in our document. i.e. This idea of use of a much larger initial value of the cosmological constant in line with [16] leads to a closed form solution for the if we have real time for . We conclude with our buildup to the future works section by the end of our conclusion, which has that a Pre Planckian may be linked to the inverse of the Planckian value of the initial Hubble parameter. With future input from reference [13] of our paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[157] viXra:1708.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-07 18:10:32

Electrostatic Force and Charge Structure

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 10 Pages.

In our previous report, Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity, we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity by showing 11 significant digits of correspondence between the maximum value of rotation minus precession and the fine structure constant. We now provide the theoretical basis for the correspondence and its relationship to the previously derived electron and proton structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[156] viXra:1708.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-16 02:10:47

Traveling Salesman Problem Solved with Zero Error

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The traveling salesman can determine by hand, with zero or negligible error, the shortest route from home base city to visit once, each of three cities, 10 cities, 20 cities, 100 cities, or 1000 cities, and return to the home base city. The general approach to solving the different types of NP problems is the same, except that sometimes, specific techniques may differ from each other according to the process involved in the problem. In the salesman problem, the first step is to arrange the data in the problem in increasing order, since one's interest is in the shortest distances. The main principle here is that the shortest route is the sum of the shortest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city. The approach in this paper is different from the author's previous approach (viXra:1505.0167) in which the needed distances not among the least ten distances were added to the least ten distances before route construction began. In this paper, one starts with only the least ten distances and only if a needed distance is not among the set of the least ten distances, would one consider distances greater than those in the set of the ten least distances. The shortest route to visit nine cities and return to the starting city was found in this paper. It was also found out that even though the length of the shortest route is unique, the sequence of the cities involved is not unique. The approach used in this paper can be applied in workforce project management and hiring, as well as in a country's workforce needs and immigration quota determination. Since an approach that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems, and the traveling salesman problem has been solved, all NP problems can be solved, provided that one has an open mind and continues to think. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[155] viXra:1708.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 03:04:33

Networks Trophic Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

"Demonstrating that trophic coherence is a property found in a wide range and scale of ecosystems and networks was actually easier than we had expected," Johnson tells Phys.org. [16] A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[154] viXra:1708.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 03:52:52

Single Molecules Transistors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A first step in this field is for researchers to demonstrate that single molecules can function as reproducible circuit elements such as transistors or diodes that can easily operate at room temperature. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[153] viXra:1708.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 07:09:58

Laser on High-Energy-Density

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Those are among the reasons the University of Rochester has turned its attention to the relatively new field of high-energy-density physics. [15] Using ultrashort laser pulses an international team at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has managed to manipulate the positions of atoms in hydrocarbon molecules in a targeted fashion. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[152] viXra:1708.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 07:45:29

Freeform Optical Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The device is a type of spectrometer—an optical instrument that takes light and breaks it down into components to reveal a catalogue of information about an object. [24] When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[151] viXra:1708.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 08:00:35

On the Pythagorean Triples (12,y,z)

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 3 Pages.

I found a pattern in the Pythagorean triples formed of the natural number12;{(12,5,13), (12,9,15), (12,16, 20), (12,35,37)}. The pattern is the decreasing value of the difference z - y for the triples such that the differences form a sequence of the even numbers {8,6,4,2} in that order. The existence of such sequence for other natural numbers transforms the Pythagorean equation into a linear equation in y .
Category: Number Theory

[150] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-11 07:19:33

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:1708.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-24 10:23:39

Some Critical Notes on the Cantor Diagonal Argument

Authors: Philip Molyneux
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper critically examines the Cantor Diagonal Argument (CDA) that is used in set theory to draw a distinction between the cardinality of the natural numbers and that of the real numbers. In the absence of a verified English translation of the original 1891 Cantor paper from which it is said to be derived, the CDA is discussed here using a consensus from the forms found in a range of published sources (from "popular" to "professional"). Some general comments are made on these sources. The discussion then focusses on the CDA as applied to the correspondence between the set of the natural numbers, and the set of real numbers in the open range (0,1) in their expansion from decimal digits (0.123… etc.). Four points critical of the CDA are raised: (1) The conventional presentation of the CDA forms a putative new real number (X) from the "diagonal" of the chosen list of real numbers and which is therefore not on this initial list; however, it omits to consider that it may indeed be on the later part of the list, which is never exhausted however far the "diagonal" list is extended. (2) This aspect, combined with the fact that X is still composed of decimal digits, that is, it is a real number as defined, indicates that it must be on the later part of the list, that is, it is not a "new" number at all. (3) The conventional application of the CDA leads to one putative "new" real number (X); however, the logical extension of this in its "exhaustive" application, that is, by using all possible different methods of alteration of the decimal digits on the "diagonal", and by reordering the list in all possible ways, leads to a list of putative "new" real numbers that become orders of magnitude longer than the chosen "diagonal" list. (4) The CDA is apparently considered to be a method that is applicable generally; however, testing this applicability with the natural numbers themselves leads to a contradiction. Following on from this, it is found that it indeed is possible to set up a one-to-one correspondence between the natural numbers and the real numbers in (0,1), that is, ℕ ⇔ ℝ; this takes the form: … a3 a2 a1 ⇔ 0. a1 a2 a3 …, where the right hand extension of the natural number is intended to be a mirror image of the left hand extension of the real number. It is also shown how this may be extended to real numbers outside the range (0,1). Additionally, a form of the CDA was presented by Wilfred Hodges in his 1998 critical review of "hopeless papers" dealing with the CDA; this form is also examined from the same viewpoints, and to the same conclusions. Finally, some comments are made on the concept of "infinity", pointing out that to consider this as an entity is a category error, since it simply represents an absence, that is, the absence of a termination to a process.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[148] viXra:1708.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 11:23:00

Exotic Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[147] viXra:1708.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 11:54:09

Gravity

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

This talks about gravity is produced in the universe and how to induce gravitational fields
Category: Classical Physics

[146] viXra:1708.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 21:49:12

An Integrated Pattern of Behavior Consistent with an Unprecedented Cult of the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A review summary.
Category: Social Science

[145] viXra:1708.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 05:00:16

Hologram Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A new system developed by UCLA researchers could make it easier and less expensive to diagnose chronic diseases, particularly in remote areas without expensive lab equipment. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[144] viXra:1708.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-14 06:17:59

On the Relationship of Seismic Activity to Lunar Motion.

Authors: Mikhail Kovalyov
Comments: 21 Pages.

We discuss the correlation of seismic activity on Earth with the closest/2nd closest perigees and New/Full Moon. We show that the time and nature of correlation depend on the type of earthquakes and on the time interval considered.
Category: Geophysics

[143] viXra:1708.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 06:44:27

Smartphone Tracking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Youth spend less time in their neighborhoods if area residents have a high fear of crime, according to a new study that used smartphones to track kids' whereabouts. [31] Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich neurobiologists present a new theory for the origin of the grid cells required for spatial orientation in the mammalian brain, which assigns a vital role to the timing of trains of signals they receive from neurons called place cells. [30] During the last decade, commercial brain-training programs have risen in popularity, offering people the hope of improving their cognitive abilities through the routine performance of various "brain games" that tap cognitive functions such as memory, attention and cognitive flexibility. [29] The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Mind Science

[142] viXra:1708.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-09 17:23:30

On an Entropic Universal Turing Machine Isomorphic to Physics (draft)

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 39 Pages.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, a physical system will tend to increase its entropy over time. In this paper, I investigate a universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Ω, the system will follow the laws of physics. Specifically, I show that the computation will obey algorithmic information theory (AIT) analogues to general relativity, entropic dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, a maximum computation speed analogous to the speed of light, the Lorentz's transformation, light cone, the Dirac equation for relativistic quantum mechanics, spins, polarization, etc. As the universe follows the second law of thermodynamics, these results would seem to suggest an affinity between an "entropic UTM" and the laws of physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[141] viXra:1708.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-28 07:33:28

Approximation to Higgs Boson

Authors: Harry Watson
Comments: 2 Pages.

Consider the product (4pi)(4pi-1/pi)(4pi-2/pi)(4pi-2/pi)(4pi-4/pi). The product of the first three terms is 1836.15. The product of the last two terms is 134.72. The mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15. We may sharpen the result by letting the last two terms be (4pi-3/pi)(4pi-4/pi) = 131.13. harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[140] viXra:1708.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 22:08:33

Atomic Orbitals: Explained and Derived by Energy Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee, Yingbo Zhu, Guofu Zhou
Comments: 75 pages

The electron’s orbital distance, ionization energy and shape can be modeled based on classical mechanics when the recently-discovered pentaquark structure is used as the model of the proton. This paper accurately models atomic orbital distances based on this five-quark structure of the proton, in which the orbiting electron is both attracted by an anti-quark and repelled by quarks in the proton. The orbital distance is classically defined as the point where the sum of the forces is zero, removing the need for a separate set of laws in physics, known as quantum mechanics, to describe the electron’s position in an atom.
Category: Quantum Physics

[139] viXra:1708.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 01:40:40

Known and Unknown about Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[138] viXra:1708.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 12:51:24

Kepler-438b, Life or No Life?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative diagram

It is well understood that establishment astronomy and astrophysics (the dogma for short) does not understand that planets are evolving, evolved/dead stars. The two objects, planets and stars, were never mutually exclusive. They were assumed to be exclusive in light of the complete absence of data concerning stars in all mass ranges. What they did is claim to understand how stars evolved, while simultaneously ignoring the evolved/evolving stars by calling them “exoplanets/planets”. This essentially means that all their models and theories concerning planet formation/star evolution are built on mountains of false knowledge. They simply do not have good enough theories or data interpretation to explain what is actually happening. We can determine if life is on Kepler 438b by using the life hypothesis of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis and the MVT principles as coupled to the principle of biostellar evolution in the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[137] viXra:1708.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 07:36:46

Hilbert's Forgotten Equation of Velocity Dependent Acceleration in a Gravitational Field

Authors: David L. Berkahn, James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 5 Pages.

The principle of equivalence is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion, in a low acceleration regime, produces the same result as found for a weak gravitational field, with subsequent implications for stronger fields. This result coincides with Hilbert's little explored equation of 1917, regarding the velocity dependence of acceleration under gravity. We derive this result, from first principles exploiting the principle of equivalence, without need for the full general theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[136] viXra:1708.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 13:45:02

Understanding the Limit of Relativity, Dark Matter and the Hubble Shift

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[135] viXra:1708.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 04:27:47

Yet Another Proof that Zeta(2)=pi^2/6

Authors: Hervé G.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Yet another proof that zeta(2)=Pi^2/6
Category: Number Theory

[134] viXra:1708.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 13:46:01

Numbers Added to the Mobility, Volume and Time Principles of the Biostellar Evolution Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Numbers are added to the MVT Principles of the Biostellar evolution principle of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[133] viXra:1708.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 18:40:18

Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Neutrino

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces the first generation of "ordinary" massive particles, with are identified with neutrinos. The estimated in this theory mass of neutrino satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is estimated. A connection of this theory with the Standard Model is discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[132] viXra:1708.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 03:36:47

Approaches Used in Theoretical Physics

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 11 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation. Models are based on approaches which define the nature of the models. The most common approaches used are of mythological, mathematical or physical nature. Examples of mythological approaches are gluons, gravitons, dark matter, dark energy. Examples of mathematical approaches are the MOND theory for gravitation, special relativity and general relativity, the theory of quantum mechanics with the gauge principle. Examples of approaches of physical nature are the String, Vortex and Focal Point theories, the Emission theories, the theory of gravitation as the result of the reintegration of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei, the theory of Galilean relativity with the gamma factor.
Category: Classical Physics

[131] viXra:1708.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 04:05:10

Massive Particles Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[130] viXra:1708.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 04:41:56

Mysteries of Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[129] viXra:1708.0134 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 10:57:31

About Conservation the Angular Momentum for Asymmetric Tensors in Electrodynamics

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 18 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.
Category: Classical Physics

[128] viXra:1708.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 06:12:33

Wearable Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The rapid development of wearable technology has received another boost from a new development using graphene for printed electronic devices. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[127] viXra:1708.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 07:06:34

Moving Objects at the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers report that it is possible to move a nanoparticle on the surface of a graphene sheet by applying a temperature difference at the ends of the membrane—a nanocluster on the surface will drift from the hot region to the cold one. [16] Research from The University of Manchester has thrown new light on the use of miniaturised 'heat engines' that could one day help power nanoscale machines like quantum computers. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[126] viXra:1708.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 13:16:12

Adaptive Plant Propagation Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem

Authors: Sayan Nag
Comments: 11 Pages.

Optimization problems in design engineering are complex by nature, often because of the involvement of critical objective functions accompanied by a number of rigid constraints associated with the products involved. One such problem is Economic Load Dispatch (ED) problem which focuses on the optimization of the fuel cost while satisfying some system constraints. Classical optimization algorithms are not sufficient and also inefficient for the ED problem involving highly nonlinear, and non-convex functions both in the objective and in the constraints. This led to the development of metaheuristic optimization approaches which can solve the ED problem almost efficiently. This paper presents a novel robust plant intelligence based Adaptive Plant Propagation Algorithm (APPA) which is used to solve the classical ED problem. The application of the proposed method to the 3-generator and 6-generator systems shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm. A comparative study with another state-of-the-art algorithm (APSO) demonstrates the quality of the solution achieved by the proposed method along with the convergence characteristics of the proposed approach.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[125] viXra:1708.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 14:05:34

Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (Yark) Gravitation Theory Versus Infantile Harassment and Abuse

Authors: T. Yarman, A. L. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik
Comments: 5 pages

We provide our reply to a new attempt by C. Corda where he calumniates Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory (http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0287v1.pdf.). It therefore becomes incumbent upon us to once more demonstrate that the origin of his criticism is based on his misunderstanding of the basic aspects of YARK theory, as well as on his misinterpretation of the outcomes of Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system. All of this came to be despite the fact that we had drawn a final point to his agitations in our recent papers published in Annals of Physics in 2015 and 2016 in response to his adverse behavior.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[124] viXra:1708.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 20:08:31

Bayesian Networks and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Nikolaos-Modestos Kougioulis
Comments: 135 Pages.

In this report, we present Bayesian networks, a seminal class of graphical models in the Artificial Intelligence field (Pearl, 1982;1988), and as a result Causal Networks (Pearl, 2000), as a natural mathematical theory for modelling dependence relationships between random variables and inference. Algorithms for the construction of these models are presented in an analytic manner. We introduce the fields of Statistical Learning and Bioinformatics, and make emphasis on the microarray technology. Bayesian networks modelling can be applied to construct Gene Regulatory Networks from data. From this, we are able to gain insight on the regulation mechanisms between the genes and-or proteins. As an example, the protein-signaling network constructed by Scutari & Denis (2014) and Nagarajan et al. (2013) using biological data from Sachs et al. (2005) is presented. Using the microarray data from Gordon et al (2002) we propose the Naive Bayes Classifier as a suitable predictor for the diagnosis and distinction of Adenocarcynoma and Mesothelioma based on gene expression Data from tumor samples. The R programming language (R Development Team, 2012) is used for both applications.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[123] viXra:1708.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 00:14:14

Assessment of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Ferrous Sulphate Using PXRD, PSD, DSC, and TGA/DTG Analysis

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ferrous sulphate is an inorganic salt of iron used to treat iron deficiency anaemia and maintain the overall health in our body. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of ferrous sulphate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Ferrous sulphate test item was divided into two parts, one part was considered as control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), whereas the second part received The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD data revealed that the relative intensities and crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -26.74% to 421.23% and from -24.93% to 42.91%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.39% compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90 and D(4, 3) values were significantly increased by 30.43%, 35.94%, 19.49%, and 26.26%, respectively and the surface area was significantly decreased by 53.26% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the treated sample in the 1st and 3rd peaks was increased by 1.61% and 1.04% respectively, whereas decreased by 5.71% and 1.04% in the 2nd and 4th peaks, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the total latent heat of fusion to transition from FeSO4•7H2O to FeSO4 was decreased by 0.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA thermograms of both the samples exhibited four steps of thermal degradation. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 0.62% compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample was increased by 5.81% and 0.26% in the 1st and 4th peak respectively, but the Tmax of 2nd and 3rd peaks were decreased by 2.58% and 2.38%, respectively compared to the control sample. Overall, DSC and TGA/DTG of the treated sample showed that the thermal stability was changed compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of ferrous sulphate, which would have better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the control sample. Alice’s Biofield Energy Treated ferrous sulphate would be useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against iron deficiency anaemia.
Category: Chemistry

[122] viXra:1708.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 01:13:28

Is a Photon Made of Mass and Negative Mass

Authors: Tong Wang
Comments: 3 Pages. The possibility of a photon being made of mass and negative mass

We wish to propose a configuration of a photon. This configuration has novel features which are of considerable physical implications. The potential existence of negative mass has been presented before and some of its unique attributes were discussed. Here we show that a photon is able to be made of mass and negative mass. We have emphasized the importance of an intrinsic distance between mass and negative mass inside a photon. The mass-negative mass interaction can formulate a relationship between the wavelength of a light and the intrinsic distance inside its photon. As a pair of mass and negative mass a photon can have zero active gravitational mass and positive passive gravitational mass at the same time.
Category: Classical Physics

[121] viXra:1708.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 03:10:54

SQUID-Based Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

They overcame the bandwidth barrier by using very cold superconducting microwave circuitry and superconducting quantum interference device amplifiers, known as SQUIDs, capable of boosting the intensity of small signals. [41] Strange electrons break the crystal symmetry of high-temperature superconductors. [40] Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1708.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 08:58:02

Blind Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that clients who possess only classical computers—and no quantum devices—can outsource computing tasks to quantum servers that perform blind quantum computing. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1708.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:32:14

Protons Shock Front

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[118] viXra:1708.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-07 19:37:37

Describing a Fluid in Three-Dimensional Circular Motion with at Most One Spatial Variable by Rectangular Coordinate

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Describe a fluid in three-dimensional circular motion with at most one spatial variable by rectangular coordinate, beyond time, and concludes on the breakdown of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions and the necessity of use of vector pressure.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[117] viXra:1708.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:57:16

Gauge Groups and Wavefunctions - Balancing at the Tipping Point

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: Pages.

“What the Hell is Going On?” is Peter Woit’s ‘Not Even Wrong’ blog post of July 22nd 2017, a commentary on Nima Arkani-Hamed’s view of the present barren state of LHC physics, the long-dreaded Desert. This paper addresses the roots of the quandary which are fundamental, branching deep into the measurement problem and the enigmatic unobservable character of the wavefunction, and the confusion generating an ongoing proliferation of quantum interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[116] viXra:1708.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:58:40

Multilayer Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[115] viXra:1708.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 10:37:34

X-rays Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a less expensive and more efficient way of controlling x-ray beams used to study the intricate details of batteries, solar cells, proteins and all manner of materials. [18] The ESRF Council, representing the 22 partner nations of the ESRF, gave the green light for the construction and commissioning of four new beamlines from 2018-2022. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet
Category: Quantum Physics

[114] viXra:1708.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 04:27:33

Theory of Events, Space and Time

Authors: Corrado La Posta
Comments: 26 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity [1], conceived in 1905 by A. Einstein and now universally applied, involves some theoretical problems as well as some difficulties in the interpretation of experimental facts. Theoretical issues have long been debated [2,4] but have not found a sufficiently good explanation, indeed many interpretations [3,24] appear forceful and prejudicial. The many paradoxes expressed and debated and never clarified are still unresolved. The consequences of adopting a radical point of view, such as the relativistic one, also appear in the Quantum Field Theory, where the Lorentz-covariance formulation of the theory results, with careful analysis, the cause of many of the problems [54, 78]. The experimental point of view, contrary to what is commonly stated, does not undoubtedly support the theory; actually several results [5,42, 78] appear of difficult interpretation and others [6, 75] even in sharp contrast to the theory itself [23, 76]. The analysis of these inconsistencies leads to the assumption that the theory is spoiled by its foundations, that is the postulates, from defective origins that can not be eliminated [40, 77]. An alternative hypothesis, based on different premises, is therefore elaborated in this paper to reach a number of conclusions [81]. Such a different theoretical context recovers certain concepts of classical, mechanical and electrodynamic physics, which are however extended in a relativistic sense. Modifications are introduced in current kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and Quantum field theory. The theory thus developed is devoid of paradoxical aspects, adhering to experimental facts and free of divergence problems; superluminary motions are especially possible. Electrodynamic equations are extended into a new invariant form, compatible with Newtonian mechanics. Lorentz's force law is rewritten as a force variable with speed while the mass remains constant. A generalization of the equation of the waves is introduced, from which the equations of the superluminal motion and the equations of the material waves (Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon) can be obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[113] viXra:1708.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 06:30:03

Centroid of A Given Set Of Numbers In Any Prime Metric Basis Of Concern

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Novel Technique of finding the Centroid of a given Set of Numbers in Any Prime Metric Basis of concern.
Category: Statistics

[112] viXra:1708.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 13:08:30

Energy Efficient Information Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Concepts for information storage and logical processing based on magnetic domain walls have great potential for implementation in future information and communications technologies." [21] Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests it also may be true in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[111] viXra:1708.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 15:21:33

Feeding the Universe, Qualia and Neutrino

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe and partially merge with it, not unlike an ovary with a fruit. Subjective experiences (qualia) are considered in frames of the Qmoger theory. A relation is found between qualia and the neutrino oscillations.
Category: Mind Science

[110] viXra:1708.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-16 21:03:47

The Higgs Troika

Authors: Wei Lu
Comments: 22 Pages.

Ternary Clifford algebra is connected with three Higgs bosons and three fermion generations, whereas cube roots of time vector are associated with three quark colors and three weak gauge fields. Four-fermion condensations break chiral symmetries, induce axion-like bosons, and dictate fermion mass hierarchies.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[109] viXra:1708.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 21:43:45

The Binary Goldbach Conjecture: A Proof For the Existence of Prime Sums For All 2N

Authors: Joseph Dise
Comments: 3 Pages.

A minimum number of paired composite sums is shown for all 2N. By logical extension, it proves the existence of paired prime sums for all 2N.
Category: Number Theory

[108] viXra:1708.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 00:57:36

Centroid Of A Given Set Of Numbers In Prime Metric Basis

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this Technical Note, the author has detailed the evaluation of the Centroid of a given set of numbers in Prime Metric Basis.
Category: Statistics

[107] viXra:1708.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 11:18:20

The Foundation of Ξ Theory

Authors: douG aka Douglas D Snell
Comments: 62 Pages. Copyrighted, All Rights Reserved

The Foundation of Ξ Theory explains the cosmological redshift is merely due to gravity's affects on light; explaining the lost energy (mass) of the photon, redshifting, occurs during curvature. Ξ Theory uses Einstein's W= withdraw and R= curvature equations to qualify the lost energy unique to the electromagnetic spectrum energies (light etc). With the Sum of the kinetic energy lost from emission to observance quantified, cosmological redshift is merely an 'effect'. Accounting for the effect Ξ Theory presents a Universe that is contracting at an increasing rate, via Gravity, being a sum of its contracting parts; requiring no hypotheticals dark energy opposing gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[106] viXra:1708.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 07:42:36

Plasmons Display Color

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Professor Laura Na Liu at the University of Heidelberg in Germany has created it with magnesium blocks which shine because free electrons inside them perform a kind of Mexican wave known as a plasmon. [17] Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[105] viXra:1708.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 08:08:09

Gravitational Waves Strain Amplitude and Hydrogen Atom Spectrum

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper will introduce a numerical equivalence between the strain amplitude of a gravitational wave and the wavelength of a photon emited when an electron dropps from the energy level 2 to the ground state .
Category: Classical Physics

[104] viXra:1708.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 08:43:47

Quantum Networking Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[103] viXra:1708.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 18:30:40

The P-alic Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We define here a p-adic like field, called the P-alic field. We replace in fact the ring Z by Q[X] and we show a formula of decomposition of a polynomial.
Category: Number Theory

[102] viXra:1708.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 10:07:13

A Simple Explanation of Basic Physical and Spiritual Differences Between Races Based Upon Solar Energy.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages.

I give an explanation for why negros are more spiritual,\lazy", strong and clever than white people are.
Category: Physics of Biology

[101] viXra:1708.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 10:12:14

Way to Detect Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The team's most recent discovery of the sensing capability of microresonators could have impacts in the creation of biomedical devices, electronics and biohazard detection devices. [11] Accordingly, techniques such as the one developed in this study will be very valuable in research on new nano-thin films in which the qualitative consistency of the film across a large area needs to be ensured. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[100] viXra:1708.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 05:11:47

A New Variant on Young’s Double-slit Experiment and Wheeler’s Delayed Choice Experiment

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 2 Pages.

Based on the basic version of the Double-slit experiment, a coherent light source, such as a laser beam, illuminates a plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed on a screen behind the plate.The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen — a result that would not be expected if light consisted of classical particles. Our new variant is as below: We shut one of the two parallel slits once the light passed the slits. Or we keep the two slits shutting and opening randomly in high speed. We believe this variant experiment could lead to a farther fundamental understanding of the Quantum Mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[99] viXra:1708.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 06:38:11

Terahertz Multiplexer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[98] viXra:1708.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 12:48:05

The Infinity of Twin Primes

Authors: Joseph Dise
Comments: 1 Page.

6x±1 are twin primes where x=6nm±(n±m) has no solution for positive integers x, n, and m. This paper follows that definition to its conclusion.
Category: Number Theory

[97] viXra:1708.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 13:30:28

Question 765: Polynomials , Number pi , Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 15 Pages.

This note presents some results related with fractals,polynomials and number pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[96] viXra:1708.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 14:30:07

Coronal Heating Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

It is known that the sun's corona—the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere—is roughly 100 times hotter than its photosphere—the sun's visible layer. [16] A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[95] viXra:1708.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 04:34:23

Racism Amongst the Royals

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A shattered institution.
Category: Social Science

[94] viXra:1708.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 11:20:20

Pulsating Blue Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[93] viXra:1708.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 12:03:10

Venus' Surface

Authors: Taylor Jones
Comments: 1 Page. Venus, Surface

.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[92] viXra:1708.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 12:36:40

MEANING’S Negotiation and SIGN’S Image

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Our study investigates how the negotiation of the meaning of the world takes place throughout history in the poem "Memento mori" by Mihai Eminescu. The method used is a thematic-linguistic one. It is noted that the initial gesture, the impulse to trigger the poetic imagination is the understanding of history as a book; This makes it possible, with the mechanism of opening the book by preference, to stop the wheel of history in relation to the preference for one called the level of development of human civilization. Understanding the stages of the evolution of society takes place on the basis of signs that predict the future; The change of civilizations is a change of signs, a change of languages, a change of explanation and comprehension ofsigns. On the other hand, the system of signs change when the signs explain and their understanding contradict each other. There is a moment when, the explanation of old signs and their understanding contradicts: thus emerges in the negotiation of the meaning of explanation / understanding a segregation, a contradiction. When the contradiction is incomprehensible and unexplained, the jump leads to a higher level of civilization. With contradiction being permanent, civilizations will prove to be precarious, fragile, perishable, vain. Everything passes, the torrent perishes, eternal is the contradiction of signs, the negotiation of meaning, the change of systems of signs.
Category: Social Science

[91] viXra:1708.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 12:44:07

Message and Image in a Parable of Romania's Last Decades

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study brings into a Romanian and universal diachronic perspective the parable ”The three hundred days rain” by Gabriel Chifu. The method used is a mix of comparisons, thematics and hermeneutics. There are three significant horizons: a realistic horizon, a biblical horizon, and a parabolic horizon. It is understood that in the articulation of this three horizons a distinctive parabolic realism is invented, a realism of parabolical fission of meanings. It is argued that the parable of Gabriel Chifu finds his place in universal literature, at the intersection of two groups of paradigm parables, the line of biblical parables and the line of parables with real incidence, myth or magic of the series ”The Plague” (A. Camus) and ”One Hundred Years of Solitude” (G. G. Márquez) and that, through the role of substantiation of the word, this parable shows clear Borgesian inflections. The novel ”The three hundred days rain” is qualified as a parable of Romania’s last years and is considered to be the most valuable parabolic novel of the present Romanian literature.
Category: Social Science

[90] viXra:1708.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 08:36:56

Flash Memory Successor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[89] viXra:1708.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 05:48:21

Black Holes Pervade the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

After conducting a cosmic inventory of sorts to calculate and categorize stellar-remnant black holes, astronomers from the University of California, Irvine have concluded that there are probably tens of millions of the enigmatic, dark objects in the Milky Way-far more than expected. [17] Astrophysicists at the University of Birmingham have made progress in understanding a key mystery of gravitational-wave astrophysics: how two black holes can come together and merge. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[88] viXra:1708.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 14:25:48

Laser Imaging, Chemical Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Terahertz radiation—the band of the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and visible light—has promising applications in medical and industrial imaging and chemical detection, among other uses. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[87] viXra:1708.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 10:25:08

Mass of Photons

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

Mass of photons from big photons to small photons
Category: Classical Physics

[86] viXra:1708.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 01:33:39

A Generalization of the Thomas Precession, Part I

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 4 pages, no figures

The time shown by a moving clock depends on its history. The Lorentz transform does not distinguish between the history of an accelerated clock and a constant velocity clock. The history of the clock can be assimilated by integrating the first derivative of the Thomas precession from the time t=0. A definite integral is required because the unknown trajectory of the clock in the distant past affects its displayed time. The coordinates are spinning in the second frame of reference during the integration, but in the definite integral from time t=0 to time t the spin accumulates to a specific angle. The integral is equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by a space rotation. A space rotation does not affect the invariant quantity r2 - c2 t2. The history of a jerked clock is different than that of an accelerated clock. The solution in that order is equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by two consecutive space rotations in different directions. Similarly, there are three rotations in the ä solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[85] viXra:1708.0089 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 02:29:39

Lessons We Can Learn from Post-Keynesian Theory and Nonlinear Dynamics for Macroeconomics Modelling: A Toy Model for Indonesia Case

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati, Thee Houw Liong
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper has been submitted to RBE (Review of Behavioral Economics)

It has been known for long time that most macroeconomics models normally used for economics forecast are based on neoclassical paradigm, which relies on certain assumptions such as Efficient Market Hypothesis and Near to Equilibrium condition. But in recent years, there is growing awareness that world economy is getting more unstable and unpredictable. This condition is more appropriate for Keynesian and Hyman Minsky’s idea of FIH (financial instability hypothesis).Therefore it seems better for this unstable situation to consider what lessons we can learn from Post-Keynesian theory and also nonlinear dynamics for macroeconomics modelling. In this paper we will discuss one of the most discussed PK author, Steve Keen who is able to offer a mathematical model of Hyman Minsky’s ideas. We will discuss a toy model for Indonesia case, but of course this toy model needs to be verified with more robust model such as MINSKY software.
Category: Economics and Finance

[84] viXra:1708.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 03:16:30

Origin of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[83] viXra:1708.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 14:42:32

Velocity of Cosmic Muons Most Likely Much Higher Than C

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

It seems to be the most attractive experiment for physicists, who strongly believe in the validity of the STR, to refer to: the supposed half-life time, in combination with their supposed velocity, of muons entering the atmosphere. The crucial part of the experiment is the application of the equation E=mc2. This article shows that, by applying this equation, the one error in STR is used to prove the apparent validity of another error in this theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[82] viXra:1708.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 01:55:24

Conditions of Stellar Interiors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have conducted thermonuclear measurements of nuclear reaction cross-sections under extreme conditions like those of stellar interiors. [19] Astronomers like to say we are the byproducts of stars, stellar furnaces that long ago fused hydrogen and helium into the elements needed for life through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[81] viXra:1708.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 02:28:31

Analogies of Genetic and Chemical Code

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 33 Pages. This is a preprint paper about the unity of genetic and chemical code.

Starting from the previously established hypothesis on the existence of the coherence of the chemical and genetic code, new facts and new insights on the existence of essential analogies between the genetic and chemical code are presented, whereby the chemical code is derived from the original Mendeleev work on the periodic system of chemical elements. When, namely, all elements are scheduled into adequate groups of Periodic system of chemical elements, in accordance to Mendeleev original manuscript tables, then are revealed some very specific mathematical and chemical regularities; among others, Periodic system appears to be a code – the chemical code – in an entity analogy with the terrestrial genetic code. These regularities correspond to the mathematical regularities within the genetic code. Between others relations, it appears also a correspondence between the distribution of codons in the Genetic Code Table and the distribution of chemical elements in the Periodic system with respect to their even/odd parity and stability/instability of the isotopes.
Category: Chemistry

[80] viXra:1708.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 04:15:26

Dipole Repeller Gravity Effects at Different Universal Scales as the Origin of Large Scale and Local Quantum Gravity and Hubble Redshift.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 36 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum dark energy particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the large scale repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. This seems to be a great support for the dual Quantum gravity proposal of Quantum FFF Theory, as opposing quantum push effects between vacuum particles and gravitons on Fermion around massive objects. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[79] viXra:1708.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:09:33

New Formulas for Transcendent Functions

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 12 Pages.

I propose new formulas for the transcendent functions that I discovered.
Category: Number Theory

[78] viXra:1708.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:20:31

Optical Fiber Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[77] viXra:1708.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:28:05

Einstein Bent the Time, Ferent Unbent the Time

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 76 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained Gravitational time dilation! “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time” Adrian Ferent Einstein’s geometric gravity is not a force like in Newton’s theory, but a consequence of the distortion of space and time. “Gravitational field strength is smaller at higher altitude, because the flux of gravitons to the same surface is smaller at higher altitude, this means fewer interactions.” Adrian Ferent “Interactions in my Gravitation theory, curvature in Einstein Gravitation theory” Adrian Ferent Because of fewer interactions with gravitons, clocks that are far from massive bodies run more quickly and clocks close to massive bodies run more slowly. “Scientists are more rigorous to indoctrinate people, than clerics. Clerics need a thousand years to indoctrinate population with a new religion, scientists needed one hundred years to indoctrinate the whole world with Einstein's Gravitation theory, a wrong theory.” Adrian Ferent All Gravitation theories based on Einstein gravitation theory are wrong, from example the String theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[76] viXra:1708.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:42:36

Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1708.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 06:04:11

Microscope of Live Embryos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Physics of Biology

[74] viXra:1708.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:03:16

Classify Positive Integers to Prove Collatz Conjecture by Mathematical Induction

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 22 Pages.

Positive integers which are able to be operated to 1 by set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture and positive integers got via operations by the operational rule versus the set operational rule are one-to-one the same, thus we refer to converse operational routes, apply the mathematical induction, next classify positive integers to prove the Collatz conjecture by substeps according to beforehand prepared two theorems concerned.
Category: Number Theory

[73] viXra:1708.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 05:49:26

Euler-Lagrange Equations of the Einstein-Hilbert Action

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[72] viXra:1708.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:16:24

Quantum Sensors Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Quantum sensors are highly sensitive and among their many promising applications they are ushering in a new era of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) that is making visible the tiny details inside cells and proteins. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1708.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 08:09:02

Digital-to-Biological Converter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of researchers at Synthetic Genomics (SG) has unveiled a machine they call a digital-to-biological converter—it sends digitized information describing DNA, RNA or a protein to a device that prints out synthesized versions of the original material. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[70] viXra:1708.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 09:13:48

Coherent Terahertz Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1708.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 09:50:48

Color of LED Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The color of the light emitted by an LED can be tuned by altering the size of their semiconductor crystals. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1708.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 10:35:39

Previously Unknown Protein

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

University of Georgia researchers have discovered a new way that iron is stored in microorganisms, a finding that provides new insights into the fundamental nature of how biological systems work. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[67] viXra:1708.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 11:02:50

Synaptic Junction Reinforcement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

At the cellular level, learning and memory require continuous readjustment of the strength of synaptic junctions – the functional connections between nerve cells. [17] University of Georgia researchers have discovered a new way that iron is stored in microorganisms, a finding that provides new insights into the fundamental nature of how biological systems work. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[66] viXra:1708.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 06:06:35

It’s Déjà Vu All Over Again: A Classical Interpretation of Syntropy and Precognitive Interdiction Based on Wheeler-Feynman’s Absorber Theory

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that intuition plays significant role in many professions and human life, including in entrepreneurship, government, and also in detective or law enforcement activities. Even women are known to possess better intuitive feelings or “hunch” compared to men. Despite these examples, such a precognitive interdiction is hardly accepted in established science. In this paper, we discuss briefly the advanced solutions of Maxwell equations, and then make connection between syntropy and precognition from classical perspective. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with experimental data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Mind Science

[65] viXra:1708.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-26 18:29:49

Is the Chemical Bond Consistent with the Theory of Relativity?

Authors: Omar Yepez
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electrons participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with the current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. As a consequence, a probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics

[64] viXra:1708.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 17:11:22

Meta Mass Function

Authors: Yong Deng
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, a meta mass function (MMF) is presented. A new evidence theory with complex numbers is developed. Different with existing evidence theory, the new mass function in complex evidence theory is modelled as complex numbers and named as meta mass function. The classical evidence theory is the special case under the condition that the mass function is degenerated from complex number as real number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[63] viXra:1708.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 18:01:26

Setting Time as Purely Imaginary in Regime of Space-Time Before Causal Barrier and Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages. Asks if imaginary time is derigor in the Pre Plankian universe

We start where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor min ~ a a t  . In doing so, using the approximations brought up in the case of an early universe generation of a magnetic field, we come up with the stunning datum of a Pre Planckian space-time with purely imaginary time. The consequences of such are brought up in our document. We use what is brought up in a prior article as to Pre Planckian to Planckian generation of Magnetic fields to make our point. Here, we assume, in the Pre Planckian spacetime, a singular injection of space-time. Which we argue, if there is no spatial variation of the Inflaton field, so used, and we just have ONE Pre Planckian time instant, that this will be imaginary valued time, hence leading to pure Tunneling behavior. To whatever we are channeling from say a Penrose cosmology style CCC universe recycling, in terms of energy, is transferred to Planckian space-time
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[62] viXra:1708.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 18:22:13

A Strange Natural Logarithmm Formula

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 1 Page.

A strange formula for the calculation of the natural logarithm of any real number which I guessed almost effortlessly. This formula has the advantage of being very efficient for the calculation of the logarithm of large numbers
Category: Number Theory

[61] viXra:1708.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 19:00:46

Universe (Part 4). Relations Between Charge, Time, Matter, Volume, Distance, and Energy.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 8 Pages.

- In given article author has summarized and corrected a theory [1 -3] which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, charge, distance, volume, matter) in the Universe. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, charge, distance, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations. Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, charge, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations. Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[60] viXra:1708.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 00:45:43

The Ether Space-Textbook of the Future Science Institute, a Teaching Guide for Its Exercises, Notes and Open Problems(volume Two 2017-8-10—English Chinese Mixed Version)

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 346 Pages.

This is a series of science textbook written by Professor Jeff, which focus on mathematics and physics only in this volume. a person who has professional research level or a student being educated in a graduate school can read our textbook without much difficulty. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this textbook, it is better for you to study all the open problems mentioned in this textbook carefully. To write down your unique solutions and opening thought for these problems after your reading. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this series can be mailed to the author cheng.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[59] viXra:1708.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 07:26:04

Make Aged Cells Younger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

By taking a different approach, however, researchers at Houston Methodist made a surprising discovery leading to the development of technology with the ability to rejuvenate human cells. [21] The stiffness or elasticity of a cell can reveal much about whether the cell is healthy or diseased. Cancer cells, for instance, are known to be softer than normal, while asthma-affected cells can be rather stiff. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[58] viXra:1708.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 07:40:55

Symmetry and Asymmetry in the MENDELEEV’s Periodic Table Predictive EQUATION

Authors: Jean Claude Perez
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article demonstrates that: -1- Structure of the periodic table of Elements is predictable. It is structured by a numerical structure of whole numbers. -2- This structure is deterministic and predictive, then, for any period p, it can be calculated by applying "the generic equation of Mendeleev" which we discovered. -3- The generic equation is completely controlled by the four quantum Numbers. -4- This generic equation makes it possible to check the regularity of the common table of Mendeleev, but it can also "predict" and anticipate the existence of hypothetical Elements now unknown, of which it makes it possible to determine the quantum properties, then electronic and chemical hypothetical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[57] viXra:1708.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 09:10:22

Dominance of Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice.
Category: Astrophysics

[56] viXra:1708.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 09:21:13

Quantum-Interference Phenomena in the Femtometer Scale of Baryons. Inclusion of all Baryon Octet and Decuplet Particles

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

Evidence for quantum interference due to internal currents is presented for all baryons of the octet and decuplet, through the joint analysis of their rest energy and magnetic moments data. This work supplements the paper vixra: 1706.0040, and corrects the approximate equation used to fit data in a Figure in that paper( and in vixra:1706.0287). The fully correct expression, plotted here in a new Figure, clearly displays instability and the tendency of the number of flux quanta n to “reach for” integer values whenever the magnetic moment of a particle ( in nuclear magneton units) becomes an integer number. The overall conclusion of this set of papers in vixra is that mass is essentially determined by kinetic( and magnetic) energies associated with angular momentum. The fine details, however, depend upon the magnetic moments ( consistent with SU(3) symmetry), their self-magnetic fields, and the resulting currents whose intereference will determine the correct energies that consitute the so-called rest masses.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[55] viXra:1708.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-10 09:38:40

π-Mesons and μ-Mesons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the relationship of the Pion and the Muon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[54] viXra:1708.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 17:07:22

Special Relativity: its Inconsistency with the Standard Wave Equation

Authors: Stephen J Crothers
Comments: 3 Pages. v.2 corrects a typo in one of the eqs. 5

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1708.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:14:26

Entropy as a Bound for Expectation Values and Variances of a General Quantum Mechanical Observable

Authors: Shubhayan Sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages. open to comments

Quantum information-theoretic approach has been identied as a way to understand the foundations of quantum mechanics as early as 1950 due to Shannon. However there hasn't been enough advancement or rigorous development of the subject. In the following paper we try to find relationship between a general quantum mechanical observable and von Neumann entropy. We find that the expectation values and the uncertainties of the observables have bounds which depend on the entropy. The results also show that von Neumann entropy is not just the uncertainty of the state but also encompasses the information about expectation values and uncertainties of any observable which depends on the observers choice for a particular measurement. Also a reverese uncertainty relation is derived for n quantum mechanical observables.
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1708.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:31:47

Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission: What Happens When a Law of Physics Fails an Experimental Test?

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Joseph Luc Robitaille
Comments: 6 Pages.

Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission asserts that, given sufficient dimensions to neglect diffraction, the radiation contained within arbitrary cavities must always be black, or normal, dependent only upon the frequency of observation and the temperature, while independent of the nature of the walls. With this in mind, simple tests were devised to demonstrate that Kirchhoff’s Law is invalid. It is readily apparent that all cavities appear black at room temperature within the laboratory. However, two completely different causes are responsible: 1) cavities made from good emitters self-generate the appropriate radiation and 2) cavities made from poor emitters are filled with radiation already contained in the room, completely independent of the temperature of the cavity. The distinction between these two scenarios can be made by placing a heated object near either type of cavity. In the first case, the cavity emission will remain essentially undisturbed. That is because a real blackbody can do work, instantly converting incoming radiation to an emission which corresponds to the temperature of its walls. In the second case, the cavity becomes filled with radiation which is not characteristic of its own temperature. Contrary to current belief, cavity radiation is entirely dependent on the nature of the walls. When considering a perfect reflector, the radiation will not be black but, rather, will reflect any radiation which was previously incident upon the cavity from the surroundings. This explains why microwave cavities are resonant, not black, and why it is possible to acquire Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (UHFMRI) images using cavity resonators. Conversely, real blackbodies cannot contain any radiation other than that which is characteristic of the temperature of their walls, as shown in Planck’s equation. Blackbody radiation is not universal, Kirchhoff’s Law is false, and cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the walls at every frequency of observation. Since they were derived from this law, the concepts of Planck time, Planck temperature, Planck length, and Planck mass are not universal and are devoid of any fundamental meaning in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[51] viXra:1708.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:36:49

The First Five Minutes in the Universe

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 1 Page. 1

From about 14 billions years ago all of the universe was contained in a single point called singularity, the point had infinite temperature and density and smaller than the size of a proton, space-time in the laws of physics didn't exist in this singularity and then it expands to form space and time.
Category: Astrophysics

[50] viXra:1708.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-11 01:26:45

Crispr Technology Challenge Facing the Numerical Integrity of Whole Human Genome DNA

Authors: Jean Claude Perez
Comments: 10 Pages. updated release

Background : Global analysis of 3 human genomes of increasing levels of evolution (Neanderthal / Sapiens Build34 / Sapiens hg38) reveals 2 levels of numerical constraints controlling, structuring and optimizing these genome's DNA sequences. A global constraint - called "HGO" for "Human Genome Optimum" - optimizes the genome at its global scale. The same operator applied to each of the 24 individual chromosomes reveals a hierarchical structure of these 24 chromosomes. Results : Then analysing the single strand DNA CG / TA proportions at whole chromosomes and genome scale reveals strong fine-tuned numerical ratios evidencing the "closure" nature (Varela's autopoiesis theory) of whole human genome.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[49] viXra:1708.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 05:59:42

Quantum Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

In general, solid state physicists are not able to separate the two processes, so they cannot answer the question, whether the magnetic order is indeed reduced, or whether it is just hidden. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[48] viXra:1708.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 02:19:02

About Asymmetric, Symmetric and Antisymmetric Tensors of the Electromagnetic Field and Maxwell's Equations

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 8 Pages.

The asymmetric and symmetric tensors can be associated with to the electromagnetic field (EMF) canonical antisymmetric tensor. From these tensors, in the form of their divergences, new EMF equations of follow. The introduction of field sources into Maxwell's equations is mathematically incorrect, since these equations are a four-dimensional divergence with respect to one of the indices of the four-dimensional rotor (antisymmetric tensor). The total divergence of the antisymmetric EMF tensor is equal to the sum of divergences for each of its indices. These divergences have different signs, and their sum is identically zero. Thus, EMF sources can only be attributed to the total divergence of asymmetric or symmetric EMF tensors, the full divergences of which can be non-zero. As a result, it can be argued that Maxwell's equations do not carry a real physical meaning and should be replaced by field equations that follow in the form of a four-dimensional divergence from the symmetric EMF tensor. Only these EMF equations can be attributed to the field sources. These equations represent a new complete system of EMF equations, replacing the system of Maxwell's equations. From the symmetric EMF tensor follows the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation for the vector potential showing the unity of the field and the continuum.
Category: Classical Physics

[47] viXra:1708.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 15:49:56

François Mendzina Essomba Phy Formulae

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 3 Pages.

I present some formulas found for the calculation of phy. Some of these formulas accelerate the calculation of decimals and others are written as a function of e and pi by continuous fractions
Category: Number Theory

[46] viXra:1708.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 20:21:10

The Theory of Quantum Relativity

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 5 Pages.

IN THIS PAPER I LAY DOWN THE THEORY OF QUANTUM RELATIVITY
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] viXra:1708.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-05 03:08:52

François Mendzina Essomba pi-3.14 Formulae

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 2 Pages.

some of my many pi formulae
Category: Number Theory

[44] viXra:1708.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-05 04:59:02

Stellar Nucleosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Astronomers like to say we are the byproducts of stars, stellar furnaces that long ago fused hydrogen and helium into the elements needed for life through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[43] viXra:1708.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 11:37:00

Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 6 pages, written in french

Foundations of numbers theory are reviewed and some basic definitions are studied.
Category: Number Theory

[42] viXra:1708.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 08:29:21

A Request for Proposal

Authors: Philip Maulion
Comments: 4 Pages. philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr

Abstract: The purpose of the proposed experiment is to evaluate the validity of the fundamental assumption that space-time is a human being’s own (characteristic of human being). The recent highlight, of cognitive properties of humans under situation of specific interactions with the outside world, allows to think that with this experiment we will be able to identify the reasons for some specific quantum mechanics oddities. 7 quotations
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1708.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 09:15:56

Limits of Quantum Engines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Quantum engines are known to operate differently than—and in some cases, outperform—their classical counterparts. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[40] viXra:1708.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 10:03:35

Psi-Lines and the Golden Ratio

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 3 Pages, 3 Tables

Abstract This paper builds on published research regarding psi-lines. Quantitative experiments that are detailed here, demonstrate that psi-lines and the mind are intrinsically connected to the Golden Ratio (1.6180). As this is a universal constant, the conclusion strongly suggests that mind created psi-lines are connected to the structure of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[39] viXra:1708.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 10:29:25

Dark Energy Survey

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1708.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 04:30:39

Holistic Unique Clustering. {File Clsoing Version 4} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[37] viXra:1708.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 05:21:30

Extra Dimensions in Bose–Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Evidence for the extra space-like dimensions predicted by string theory could be found within Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) – according to Sergio Gutiérrez, Abel Camacho and Héctor Hernández of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa in Mexico City. [11] University of Cincinnati theoretical physicists are about to report on a controversial discovery that they say contradicts the work of researchers over the decades. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[36] viXra:1708.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 14:15:11

Smallest Neutrino Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[35] viXra:1708.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 22:51:09

Relative and Absolute Ages in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Relative and absolute ages are mentioned in stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1708.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-11 04:03:46

Comprehensive P vs NP Or, P as She is NP; the New Guide of the Conversion in Polynomial-Time and Exponential-Time.

Authors: Nicholas R. Wright
Comments: 8 Pages. Cambria Math font

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] viXra:1708.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 03:19:40

High-Performance Optical Receivers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Thanks to IBM scientists, replacing copper wires with light to transfer data at improved speeds and with optimal energy efficiency is within reach. [19] A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Australia has developed an optical high-bitrate nanoantenna that they used with an optical waveguide. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:1708.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 04:00:26

Brain Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A spintronic device measuring just 375 nm across has been used to recognize human speech. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[31] viXra:1708.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 22:28:49

Diamond Operator as a Spinless Square Root of d' Alembertian

Authors: Hideki Mutoh
Comments: 6 Pages.

Dirac equation includes the 4 x 4 complex differential operator matrix, which is one of square roots of d' Alembertian with spin. We found another 4 x 4 complex differential matrix as a spinless square root of d' Alembertian, which we call diamond operator. The extended Maxwell's equations including charge creation-annihilation field and the linear gravitational field equations including energy creation-annihilation field can be simply written by using the diamond operator. It is shown that the linear gravitational field equations derive Klein-Gordon equation, time independent Schrödinger equation, and the principle of quantum mechanics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[30] viXra:1708.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 10:30:43

Machine Learning for Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29] viXra:1708.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 10:54:39

Future Search Engines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The outcome is the result of two powerful forces in the evolution of information retrieval: artificial intelligence—especially natural language processing—and crowdsourcing. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[28] viXra:1708.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 13:28:09

Liquid Quark-Gluon Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27] viXra:1708.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 13:40:27

The Quaternionic Manifolds

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

The pseudo-quaternionic manifolds are studied. Several tensors are defined.
Category: Geometry

[26] viXra:1708.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 14:15:53

New Evidence of Majorana Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Rendering of the electronic device in which Majorana particles were observed. The device is made up of a superconductor (blue bar) and a magnetic topological insulator (gray strip). [20] Now a team including Stanford scientists says it has found the first firm evidence of such a Majorana fermion. [19] Majorana fermions are particles that could potentially be used as information units for a quantum computer. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1708.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 23:22:10

Similarity Measure Of Any Two Vectors Of Same Size

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors of the same size.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[24] viXra:1708.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 02:27:51

Quantum Electron Traps

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[23] viXra:1708.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 03:01:14

Spin Dynamics of Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

In a previous study, researchers found evidence to suggest that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) was greater in graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures than in regular graphene. [28] Assistant Professor Taichi Goto at Toyohashi University of Technology elucidated the noise generation mechanism of the spin wave (SW), the wave of a magnetic moment transmitted through magnetic oxide, and established a way to suppress it. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[22] viXra:1708.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 04:30:04

Quantum Physics Revolutionize Biochemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1708.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 05:21:48

Hyperfine Spectrum of Antihydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In a study published today in Nature, the ALPHA Collaboration, which includes 50 physicists from 17 institutions, reports the first detailed observation of spectral lines from an antimatter atom. [15] In a study published in Physics Review Letters and highlighted by APS Physics, ICFO researchers demonstrate a new technique for the coherent detection of radio frequency magnetic fields using an atomic magnetometer. [14] The peculiar characteristics demonstrated by quantum critical points at absolute zero remain one of the great unsolved mysteries of science. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1708.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 06:29:30

Probing Cells Reveal Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19] viXra:1708.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 06:42:09

Holistic Unique Clustering. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18] viXra:1708.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 11:23:06

Riding Nanoquakes Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Exeter have pioneered a new technique to control high frequency sound waves, commonly found within everyday devices such as mobile phones. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[17] viXra:1708.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 12:05:38

Ferroelectric Disproving Predictions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Flux-closure domain (FCD) structures are microscopic topological phenomena found in ferroelectric thin films that feature distinct electric polarization properties. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16] viXra:1708.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 07:13:52

Radio Waves with Entangled Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a study published in Physics Review Letters and highlighted by APS Physics, ICFO researchers demonstrate a new technique for the coherent detection of radio frequency magnetic fields using an atomic magnetometer. [14] The peculiar characteristics demonstrated by quantum critical points at absolute zero remain one of the great unsolved mysteries of science. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1708.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 07:29:13

The Cyclic Universe Through the Origins

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 4 pages

I report the result of the cyclic universe theory and connect it to the origin of science and God showing some discussions about the cyclic model and the string theory, the cyclic model and the cosmological constant. And discussing the equation of Albert Einstein of the relation between mass and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1708.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 07:37:51

The Taylor Threshold

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It was mentioned by Baz Taylor that life could have existing on the Moon. A threshold for the formation of life, given it has had enough time to evolve on any individual star is presented. In short, the star had to have evolved on long enough timescales to host life. If it evolves too fast, then no life will form, regardless of the chemicals present.
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1708.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-31 04:48:39

Dual Natures of Light and Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to ether theory and emission theory. The speed of light is both constant (c) and variable ( c ± V). The phase velocity of light is independent of source and observer velocity and is always constant c, while the group velocity of light varies with observer velocity but is independent of source velocity. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1708.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 10:47:41

Induce Chemical Reactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[11] viXra:1708.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-03 00:04:34

General Solutions of Mathematical Physics Equations

Authors: Hong Lai Zhu
Comments: 53 Pages.

In this paper, using proposed three new transformation methods we have solved general solutions and exact solutions of the problems of definite solutions of the Laplace equation, Poisson equation, Schrödinger equation, the homogeneous and non-homogeneous wave equations, Helmholtz equation and heat equation. In the process of solving, we find that in the more general case, general solutions of partial differential equations have various forms such as basic general solution, series general solution, transformational general solution, generalized series general solution and so on.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10] viXra:1708.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 04:36:45

A Generalized Similarity Measure {File Closing Version 3} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[9] viXra:1708.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-12 12:15:20

E=mc2

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1708.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 17:13:46

Special Relativity in Complex Space-Time. Part 2. Basic Problems of Electrodynamics.

Authors: Jozef Radomanski
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article discusses an electric field in complex space-time. Using an orthogonal paravector transformation that preserves the invariance of the wave equation and does not belong to the Lorentz group, the Gaussian equation has been transformed to obtain the relationships corresponding to the Maxwell equations. These equations are analysed for compliance with classic electrodynamics. Although, the Lorenz gauge condition has been abandoned and two of the modified Maxwell's equations are different from the classical ones, the obtained results are not inconsistent with the experience because they preserve the classical laws of the theory of electricity and magnetism contained therein. In conjunction with the previous papers our purpose is to show that space-time of high velocity has a complex structure that differently orders the laws of classical physics but does not change them.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1708.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 02:01:12

Quantum Critical Points

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The peculiar characteristics demonstrated by quantum critical points at absolute zero remain one of the great unsolved mysteries of science. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1708.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 03:18:34

Two Compartmental Mathematical Analysis of the Diffusion of a Therapeutic Agent in Human Tissues

Authors: E. U. Agom, M. S. Atureta
Comments: 4 Pages. ijsr.net publication

In this paper, we present a unified minimal compartmental model to estimate mathematically the concentration of a Therapeutic Agent injected intravenously in a steady state into Human tissues divided into two compartments; the blood and tissues. The model takes into consideration most, if not all physiological factors of the Human system in conformity with the physical realities vis-a-vis the Therapeutic Agent concentration before uptake by the compartments. The models were a system of first order non-homogeneous ordinary differential equations. And, the result from the models gives a zero concentration in both the blood and the tissues before the advent of the Therapeutic agent.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[5] viXra:1708.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 03:37:25

Application of Adomian Decomposition Method in Solving Second Order Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: E. U. Agom, A. M. Badmus
Comments: 6 Pages. ijesi.org paper

In this paper, we use Adomian Decomposition Method to numerically analyse second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations and implement the continuous algorithm in a discrete domain. This is facilitated by Maple package. And, the results from the two test problems used shows that the Adomian Decomposition Method is almost as the classical solutions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[4] viXra:1708.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 07:49:45

Faraday Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team of researchers from Thailand, the U.S. and Japan has conducted a thorough study of an exotic behavior of material called a noncentrosymmetric antiferromagnet. [16] So-called spatial light modulators that serve as a base for all LCDs, among other things, can be arranged so that each pixel can switch the light quickly, making it brighter or weaker by rotating the polarization of light. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1708.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 04:14:32

Thermoelectric Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1708.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 06:43:13

Sedeonic Duality-Invariant Field Equations for Dyons

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 11 Pages.

We discuss the theoretical description of dyons having simultaneously both electric and magnetic charges on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We show that the sedeonic equations for electromagnetic field of dyons can be reformulated in equivalent form as the equations for renormalized field potentials, field strengths and single renormalized source. The relations for energy and momentum as well as the relations for Lorentz invariants of renormalized electromagnetic field are derived. Additionally, we discuss the sedeonic second-order Klein-Gordon and first-order Dirac wave equations describing the quantum behavior of dyons in an external electromagnetic field.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:1708.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 01:33:19

Single-Photon Quantum Info-Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics