[388] **viXra:1801.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 08:23:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11]
Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10]
The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[387] **viXra:1801.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 10:03:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[386] **viXra:1801.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 10:42:07*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Draft Chapter 2 for SI Brochure, following redefinition of the base units states, that the XXth CGPM adopted a new definition of the mole. A committee is set to redefine four base units – the ampere, the kilogram, the Kelvin and the mole. We find inconsistencies in the units of molar mass, molecular mass and the relation connecting them through Avogadro constant. There are also problems with the symbols and the terms ‘entity’ used in the definition of mole and the role of isotopes in the specification of an entity X. We give a critical analysis of these issues in this article.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[385] **viXra:1801.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 11:29:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

A new detection system directly observes a type of entanglement in which a photon's energy is correlated with the time its partner is detected. [35] As cloud storage becomes more common, data security is an increasing concern. [34] Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[384] **viXra:1801.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 11:33:22*

**Authors:** Mario COCCIA

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This study here suggests a classification of technologies based on taxonomic characteristics of interaction between technologies in complex systems that is not a studied research field in economics of technical change. The proposed taxonomy here categorizes technologies in four typologies, in a broad analogy with the ecology: 1) technological parasitism is a relationship between two technologies T1 and T2 in a complex system S where one technology T1 benefits from the interaction with T2, whereas T2 has a negative side from interaction with T1; 2) technological commensalism is a relationship between two technologies in S where one technology benefits from the other without affecting it; 3) technological mutualism is a relationship in which each technology benefits from the activity of the other within complex systems; 4) technological symbiosis is a long-term interaction between two (or more) technologies that evolve together in complex systems. This taxonomy systematizes the typologies of interactive technologies within complex systems and predicts their evolutionary pathways that generate stepwise coevolutionary processes of complex systems of technology. This study here begins the process of generalizing, as far as possible, critical typologies of interactive technologies that explain the long-run evolution of technology. The theoretical framework developed here opens the black box of the interaction between technologies that affects, with different types of technologies, the evolutionary pathways of complex systems of technology over time and space. Overall, then, this new theoretical framework may be useful for bringing a new perspective to categorize the gradient of benefit to technologies from interaction with other technologies that can be a ground work for development of more sophisticated concepts to clarify technological and economic change in human society.

**Category:** Social Science

[383] **viXra:1801.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 12:05:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Antiferromagnets have generated significant interest for future computing technologies due to their fast dynamics, their ability to generate and detect spin-polarized electric currents, and their robustness against external magnetic fields. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[382] **viXra:1801.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 14:44:21*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The idea that electromagnetic radiation is a stream of punctiform "photons" proves to be a well-suited model at wavelengths below a few nanometers. This picture is worthless at wavelengths beyond a few millimeters, because only the wave model can explain the observations. The question of how to imagine the generation of a photon is discussed using examples from the metrologically easily accessible radio area.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[381] **viXra:1801.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 15:05:32*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 28 Pages. pp. 28. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: Parvovirus B19 appears to be associated with several diseases, one among those appears to be systemic sclerosis. Still, there is no evidence of a causal link be-tween parvovirus B19 and systemic sclerosis.
Methods: To explore the cause-effect relationship between Parvovirus B19 and sys-temic sclerosis, a systematic review and re-analysis of studies available and suitable was performed. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis without Parvovirus B19 infection no systemic sclerosis. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Parvovirus B19 and systemic sclerosis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05
Result: The data analyzed support the Null-hypothesis that without Parvovirus B19 infection no systemic sclerosis. In the same respect, the studies analyzed provide evi-dence of a (highly) significant cause effect relationship between Parvovirus B19 and systemic sclerosis.
Conclusion: This study supports the conclusion that Parvovirus B19 is the cause of systemic sclerosis.
Keywords
Parvovirus B19, systemic sclerosis, causal relationship

**Category:** Statistics

[380] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 01:01:40*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century after it was published. If General Relativity truly does eliminate Dark Energy and Dark Matter plus Universal Expansion, then its treatment of gravitation as a push must necessarily be reflected in every encounter with gravity. The author has developed possible solutions (hypotheses) about this in the second section - which has topics ranging from M-sigma through geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus and the Law of Falling Bodies to planetary magnetism and tides. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.
Science admires General Relativity. However, respect for tradition seems to prevent science from embracing Einstein's theory completely. General Relativity says gravity is a push exerted by the curvature of space-time. But the world still holds to the Newtonian view that gravity is a pull. Since Isaac Newton's mathematics works so well, it's understandable that his gravitational pull is accepted. It's time to explore ways in which gravitation as a push could produce identical physical results. The second part of this article proposes hypotheses – not formal theories – to this end. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[379] **viXra:1801.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 06:56:51*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Instead of repelling sunrays, geoengineers should pay attention to advanced electro-magnetism. In theory this approach should offer less dangerous methods for long-range balancing of astrogeophysics.

**Category:** Climate Research

[378] **viXra:1801.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 07:20:18*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Famous dissident physicist, Bill Gaede, has a unique theory as to the nature of light. He postulates that light consists of electromagnetic “ropes” where electric and magnetic “threads” intertwine to connect all atoms in the universe. This is akin to a concept I have entertained that the “aether,” if it exists, can be viewed as standing waves making similar connections. Such “waves” may consist of contiguous “aether particles,” each the size of the electron or smaller (neutrino?). At least on a cursory level, it appears that these two independent concepts may be consistent with light speed being constant with respect to its source, but variable with respect to an observer when the observer or the source (or both) are in motion. Of course, in the presence of an all-pervading aether whose perturbation constitutes light itself and limits its speed to c, this variation in light speed would not occur, but would be manifest instead as Doppler shifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[377] **viXra:1801.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 07:57:47*

**Authors:** Sivasamy Soundararajan

**Comments:** 06 Pages. na

32 social services performed by me have been listed.

**Category:** Social Science

[376] **viXra:1801.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 08:10:10*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

When a body emits a light, its speed decreases due to the gravity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[375] **viXra:1801.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 09:07:40*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The author used to think that the only representation of prime numbers, etc. was the prime number double helix
representation. However, in 2011, the author published a paper which puzzled him and it eventually dawned upon him that
there was more than one representation of prime numbers. The second representation will be referred to as the hyperbolic
representation. The third representation will be called the parabolic representation and is related to the hyperbolic
representation. The fourth representation is the triangular representation and is related to the hyperbolic representation.
Both of the primary representations, the double helix and the hyperbolic both reject that 2 and 3 are prime numbers. The
hyperbolic representation is shown to be related to Lorentz-like transformations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[374] **viXra:1801.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 10:29:06*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This suggests an entirely different angle on traditional number theory.

A phenomenon is described for analytic number theory. The purpose is to coordinate number theory and to give it a specific goal of modeling the phenomenon.

**Category:** Number Theory

[373] **viXra:1801.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-01 10:22:54*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

in the paper a number of existent solutions of the twin paradox are considered. It is shown,
that any solutions aren’t and cannot be principally the solutions, if they are in accordance with the
special relativity theory; the unique correct solution is possible only provided that Matter’s spacetime
is absolute, when in this case the paradox simply doesn’t appear. The file contains two versions of the
paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[372] **viXra:1801.0414 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-01 01:46:02*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short paper we look at some interesting relationships between Zeno's paradox, the Planck length, the speed of light, and the fine structure constant. Did you know it takes 144 Zeno steps to reduce the speed of light to Planck length speed? Did you know it takes 137 Zeno steps to go from alpha*c to Planck length speed? And interestingly it is 7 steps between 144 and 137. We assume this is merely a coincidence, but it is often assumed that there are likely a maximum of 137 elements, the last one being the ``Feynmanium." And there are considered to be 7 orbital shells.
We do not claim this explains anything particular in physics, but we also do not exclude the possibility that there could be something meaningful in it. Are these patterns purely numerically coincidences, or could they be a link to deeper understanding of other patterns related to physics, like the periodic table? Whatever the answer may be, it is interesting to look at Zeno's paradox in relation to the Planck length.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[371] **viXra:1801.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 20:38:58*

**Authors:** John Olafenwa, Moses Olafenwa

**Comments:** 9 Pages. An investigation of the concepts of thought, imagination and consciousness in learning machines

68 years ago, Alan Turing proposed the question "Can Machines Think" in his seminal paper [1] titled "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" and he formulated the "Imitation Game" also known as the Turing test as a way to answer this question without referring to a rather ambiguous dictionary definition of the word "Think"
We have come a long way to building intelligent machines, in fact, the rate of progress in Deep Learning and Reinforcement Learning, the two corner stones of artificial intelligence, is unprecedented. Alan Turing would have been proud of our achievements in computer vision, speech, natural language processing and autonomous systems. However, there are still many challenges and we are still some distance from building machines that can pass the Turing test. In this paper, we discuss some of the biggest questions concerning intelligent machines and we attempt to answer them, as much as can be explained by modern AI.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[370] **viXra:1801.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 21:56:30*

**Authors:** Yatin Saraiya

**Comments:** 6 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables

The training of deep neural nets is expensive. We present a predictor-corrector method for the training of deep neural nets. It alternates a predictor pass with a corrector pass using stochastic gradient descent with backpropagation such that there is no loss in validation accuracy. No special modifications to SGD with backpropagation is required by this methodology. Our experiments showed a time improvement of 9% on the CIFAR-10 dataset.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[369] **viXra:1801.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 22:00:29*

**Authors:** Yatin Saraiya

**Comments:** 7 pages, 6 figures, 1 table

Residual Neural Networks [1] won first place in all five main tracks of the ImageNet and COCO 2015 competitions. This kind of network involves the creation of pluggable modules such that the output contains a residual from the input. The residual in that paper is the identity function. We propose to include residuals from all lower layers, suitably normalized, to create the residual. This way, all previous layers contribute equally to the output of a layer. We show that our approach is an improvement on [1] for the CIFAR-10 dataset.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[368] **viXra:1801.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 01:55:39*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claims that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. This paper shows that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modeled this way. The model can even explain the results of the most recent supposed loophole-free Quantum Steering experiments – giving a clear violation of the Steering Inequality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[367] **viXra:1801.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 05:55:07*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 30 Pages. In Russian\ \ Robert Yusupov © Theory of Nature in Definitions and Formulas 30.01.2018

In this article, an attempt is made to present in a single article the author's view on the axiomatic construction of the foundations of physics. "Theory of Nature" of the author, the first version of which was ready 6 years ago in 2013, in its essence, is an axiomatic theory of the foundations of the universe, nature and the Universe. "Theory of Nature" actually, and not in words, puts matter at the center of all physics. Matter is introduced into the bosom of physics as the main physical quantity. Because of this, it is possible to build a building of physics, as a strictly axiomatic theory. "Theory of Nature" is a revolution in physics.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ В настоящей статье предпринята попытка изложить в единой статье взгляд автора на аксиоматическое построение основ физики. «Теория Природы» (ТП) автора, первый вариант которой был готов 6 лет назад в 2013 году, по своей сути, представляет собой аксиоматическую теорию основ мироздания, природы и Вселенной. «Теория Природы» фактически, а не на словах, ставит материю во главу угла во всей физике. Материя вводится в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины. Вследствие этого и удаётся построить здание физики, как строго аксиоматическую теорию. «Теория Природы» - это революция в физике.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[366] **viXra:1801.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 06:15:32*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating nth day of the Date in a Year for any given
Date in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of ten algebraic 6 for
Julian expression, eight of which are integer function by substituting the year, month and day.
This formula will calculate the nth day which gives a number from 1 to 366 that determines the
exact nth day in a given Date. This algorithm has no condition even during leap‐year and 400‐
year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[365] **viXra:1801.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 13:36:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

A country that thinks its adversaries have or will get AI weapons will want to get them too. Wide use of AI-powered cyberattacks may still be some time away. [28] Following the old saying that "knowledge is power", companies are seeking to infer increasingly intimate properties about their customers as a way to gain an edge over their competitors. [27] Researchers from Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) have published a study in which individual faces and other physical traits were predicted using whole genome sequencing data and machine learning. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[364] **viXra:1801.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 18:13:27*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The quantum operator of interest is not tautologous.
This means is not bivalent, but rather an operator for a probabilistic vector space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[363] **viXra:1801.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 22:53:58*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Blue educations on Mercury are similar to "blueberry" on Mars and are confirmation of exclusive hypotheses of a structure and origin of satellites and planets of Solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[362] **viXra:1801.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 23:02:03*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mercury in the future will turn into the satellite of Venus

**Category:** Astrophysics

[361] **viXra:1801.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 23:10:09*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Interaction of material objects needs to be considered taking into account a possibility of existence of a horizontal component of gravitation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[360] **viXra:1801.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 23:18:41*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Magnetic field of objects of the Universe can be internal.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[359] **viXra:1801.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 23:36:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Exclusive hypothesis of the cause of a tsunami as result of emergence and movement of gravitational educations in the top layers of a cloak concerning the Earth's surface, solves also the mystery of existence of waves of the satellite of Saturn of Prometheus.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[358] **viXra:1801.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 23:59:20*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Gegenüberstellung zweier technischer Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie

**Category:** Astrophysics

[357] **viXra:1801.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 01:54:47*

**Authors:** V.N.Nikitin, I.V.Nikitin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The steady growth of the number of arcanas of the mysterious universe is a sign of imperfection of existing theories and ideas about the surrounding world, which contributes to the creation of radically new alternative ideas and theories. New ideas should be piercing and understandable to everyone, to promote an adequate perception of reality and to be as much as possible interconnected with each other and with existing scientific knowledge. In this case, alternative ideas will inevitably become punchy! The results of long-term theoretical studies of abnormal physical phenomena of the processes of the origin and evolution of the universe are embodied in the exclusive hypotheses of the creative collective "NIKI" and are set forth here in a logical sequence, from the moment the Universe emerged to its transformation into "nothing."

**Category:** Astrophysics

[356] **viXra:1801.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 02:27:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[355] **viXra:1801.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 02:48:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[354] **viXra:1801.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 05:49:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

An international collaboration of quantum physicists from the University of Bristol, Microsoft, Google, Imperial College, Max Planck Institute, and the Sun Yat-sen University have introduced a new algorithm to solve the energy structure of quantum systems on quantum computers. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[353] **viXra:1801.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 07:32:23*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Originally published in FQXi essay contest

Abstract: Mathematical deductions are nothing but exercises of human mind. Mathematical equations or laws have no mind of their own. Human minds manipulate information from various ‘cause and effect’ relations to form and interpret various mathematical laws and derive suitable equations. Therefore, it is the human minds that give rise to aims and intentions rather than mindless mathematics. Without human intelligence to formulate them from cause and effect relations, mathematical laws and equations remain mere sequential arrangements of notations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[352] **viXra:1801.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 07:50:55*

**Authors:** Nikitina N.N., Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

God has lodged disobedient вселенян on the Earth's surface where various cataclysms and space threats rage.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[351] **viXra:1801.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 08:48:47*

**Authors:** Pavel Sladkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The fundamental flaws of the Standard Model are considered.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[350] **viXra:1801.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 09:33:30*

**Authors:** Florent Gheeraert

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

A theory that describes the photons of light as electrical dipoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[349] **viXra:1801.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 11:26:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[348] **viXra:1801.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 12:17:16*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Building upon certain very convincing historical evidences that are hard to dismiss as mere heresy, this article reconciles our understanding of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ with the historical evidences. In each of these cases we use ample references from the Bible and find that the Gospels of the Bible seamlessly blend with historical evidences.
As the Bible says, Jesus is the chosen Messenger of God. God indeed raised Him from the dead and Jesus did ascend to heaven to be seated with God. If these events, the cornerstone of Christianity are seen in the correct perspective given by Luke 17:21(The kingdom of God is within you), then it is clearly understood that the Ressurection is a testimony to good triumphing over evil while the Ascension is the confirmation of Self-Realization. Neither of these have anything to do with what happened physically to Jesus after surviving crucifixion, and thus reconciling with historical evidences about Christ's travels after crucifixion neither violates the fundamental beliefs of Christianity nor poses a threat to the faith.
The historical and biblical references blend seamlessly indicating how the teachings of Jesus encapsulate the highest concepts of Kundalini Yoga, Advaita Vedanta as well as Buddhism, a result of His lost years in India. After crucifixion, Escaping Roman persecution, Jesus travelled to India and was known as Yuz Asaf, where He preached to the Bene Israel people, who have been confirmed to be the Lost Israeli Tribes by DNA tests. Eventually, Jesus shed His mortal coil and His tomb rests in the Rozabal Shrine of Srinagar in Kashmir, India. A smooth narrative seamlessly blending biblical and historical references are testimony you the veracity of this article. We conclude with the following statement improvising on the famous verse John 3:14:
For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. He took upon himself the sins of his people bearing the ordeal of the cross, but so great was the Lord's glory that he emerged victorious, showing the world that his path is the path of truth. The Son of God was the true Good Shepherd travelling far and wide to collect the lost lambs and show them the path of light. His tomb rests in the mountain valley; he sits beside the Throne of God and will give his Throne to those who follow him and emerge victorious.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[347] **viXra:1801.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-28 17:35:59*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Originally published on www.researchgate.net

Entire universe (and everything in it, including us) exists. Its existence is not one of many conjectural activities of human mind. Irrespective of presence of human race, the universe existed, is existing and will continue to exist in more or less in similar state. Generally considering, there are two levels of existence. First level of existence is that which does not depend on others for existence. Universe as a whole and its material constituents form this group. These are real entities. They are there because of their objectivity. Second level of existence is that which depends on others for existence. These are functional entities. Functional entities are born out of real entities and their relations. They are created by intellect of real entities for definite purposes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[346] **viXra:1801.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 02:05:06*

**Authors:** John E. Miller

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Astro-Physics from Tycho Braha ; Kepler (1571-1630); Newton (1643-1727) are not in agreement. Further the Antikythera MOON Mechanism, a two thousand year old Greek mechanism, required thirty seven (37) gears to reproduce Sun-Moon ellipse cycles, but ignored by the ‘Standard Model’ for a few lines of corrupt mathematics, (approximations in lieu of correctness). Newton’s gravitational hypothesis fails everywhere as it relies on a two dimensional theory to describe a three dimensional System.
In this paper spherical “Models” will be constructed from cross sections of orbiting ‘charge’ spheres, becoming the mechanics to match existing data. i.e. constructing an elliptical orbit from circling spheres. A function in opposition to both Newton and Kepler’s theories. Gears are cross sections of circling spheres.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[345] **viXra:1801.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-28 10:33:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover and from the Institute for Gravitational Physics at Leibniz Universität Hannover has developed an advanced squeezed-light source for the gravitational-wave detector Virgo near Pisa. [19]
Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18]
Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17]
Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]
The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton
Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7]
A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[344] **viXra:1801.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 13:01:47*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is explained that endosymbiosis happened as a result of the collapse of "bioclines" in the interior of a star as it loses its thick atmosphere in later stages of evolution. This paper is meant to combine both endosymbiosis with the general theory's principles which include life evolving on stars as they evolve.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[343] **viXra:1801.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 13:29:23*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper is a brief summary of some useful facts about Spacetime for E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[342] **viXra:1801.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 16:15:50*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article develops a formula for calculating the simple prime numbers-7 and the simple composite numbers-7 of the Golden Pattern.

**Category:** Number Theory

[341] **viXra:1801.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 22:55:45*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

These quantum gates do not directly correspond to reversible classical gates: CNOT (XOR, Feynman); Toffoli (AND); X (NOT); and n-qubit Toffoli (AND). Hence quantum gates cannot map to bivalent logic. This paper demonstrates the shortest refutation.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[340] **viXra:1801.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 06:21:53*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A new interpretation of one of the central concepts of quantum mechanics -- the reduction of the wave function in the measurement -- is proposed. The application of this approach to various phenomena of the microworld is discussed. The main provisions of this article were previously described in the article "Субквантовая чехарда», published (in Russian) in the Russian popular science journal «Chemistry and Life» (Химия и жизнь, 2005, No. 9).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[339] **viXra:1801.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 12:52:53*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 190 Pages

"Historia Fizyki – Szkic rozwoju fizyki w XVIII wieku" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Physics – A sketch of the development of physics in the 18th century" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[338] **viXra:1801.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 12:57:34*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 66 Pages

"Historia Fizyki – Wkład Einsteina do fizyki" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Physics – Einstein's contribution to physics" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[337] **viXra:1801.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 12:59:37*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 102 Pages

"Historia Fizyki – Współpracownicy Einsteina" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Physics – Einstein's collaborators" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[336] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-31 10:34:40*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** Pages.

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether and led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative assumption, that simply gravity itself is the “luminiferous ether”, is able to explain all the notorious phenomena, if rotational effects are properly interpreted. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic classic subjects as there are: Michelson/Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson experiment, stellar and terrestrial aberration as well as anomaly of Mercury orbit shift. A series of fateful and fundamental misinterpretations will be disclosed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[335] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-25 11:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton’s theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton’s gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton’s gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton’s gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton’s theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton’s gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton’s theory of universal gravitation is all about.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[334] **viXra:1801.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 18:51:30*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Why The Light Velocity Is The Highest In The Universe?
Because our bodies (Matters = Bright Fringes) are created from the Light beams coherence, So our bodies are connected with this specific light beams from which were created, so any other light beams (for example the original light beam) we can't discover it by our 5 senses because we connected to the bright fringes only
So,
Even if there's light higher velocity, we can't discover it

**Category:** Astrophysics

[333] **viXra:1801.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 03:06:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have built a superconducting switch that "learns" like a biological system and could connect processors and store memories in future computers operating like the human brain. [17]
Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]
The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton
Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7]
A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[332] **viXra:1801.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 05:02:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[331] **viXra:1801.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 05:18:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present seven sequences of Poulet numbers selected by some properties of their digits product: (1) - (5) Poulet numbers for which the product of their digits is equal to (1) q^2 – 1, where q prime; (2) q^2 – 9, where q prime; (3) 9*q^2 – 9, where q prime; (4) 2^n, where n natural; (5) Q – 1, where Q is also a Poulet number and (6) – (7) Poulet numbers divisible by 5 for which the product of their digits taken without the last one is equal to (6) q^2 – 1, where q prime; (7) Q – 1, where Q is also a Poulet number. Finally, I conjecture that all these seven sequences have an infinity of terms.

**Category:** Number Theory

[330] **viXra:1801.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 07:23:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[329] **viXra:1801.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 07:55:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[328] **viXra:1801.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 08:41:16*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The magnetomechanical anomaly for electron leads to mass of electric charge equal to half the mass of the bare electron. On the other hand, the ratio of the spin magnetic moment to the Bohr magneton and the invariance of electric charge from the running fine structure constant show that only the mass is the sum of the bare mass and anomalous mass. The model of electron presented within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows the origin of the three different masses of electric charge of electron. Due to the fact that the bare electron is a closed system, it transforms as a four vector. More efficient energy source using a nuclear fusion depends on the true structure of the electrons and nucleons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[327] **viXra:1801.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 09:19:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a highly cost-efficient hyperspectral imaging technology, which enables the introduction of new artificial intelligence applications into consumer devices. [19]
Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18]
Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17]
Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]
The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton
Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7]
A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[326] **viXra:1801.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 11:33:21*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 106 Pages

"Historia Fizyki – O tym, jak w 17 wieku fizyka stała się nauką" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Physics – About how in the 17th century physics became a science" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[325] **viXra:1801.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 11:46:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

A team of researchers at Pfizer, the pharmaceutical giant, has developed an automated flow chemistry system that is capable of carrying out 1500 reactions over a 24-hour period. [29]
Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28]
Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27]
Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26]
This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations.
[25]
The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for
Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23]
For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]

**Category:** Biochemistry

[324] **viXra:1801.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 12:10:38*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 66 Pages

"Teoria Względności – Testy" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Tests" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[323] **viXra:1801.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 12:13:45*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 56 Pages

"Teoria Względności – Błędne Interpretacje" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Wrong Interpretations" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[322] **viXra:1801.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 12:15:58*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 206 Pages

"Teoria Względności – Prekursorzy" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Precursors" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[321] **viXra:1801.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 05:55:06*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 568 Pages.

"Teoria Względności – Twórcy" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Creators" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[320] **viXra:1801.0354 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-12 10:16:08*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

"Teoria Względności – Kulisy" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Little Known Facts" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[319] **viXra:1801.0353 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-10 07:51:45*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

"Teoria Względności – Kosmologia Relatywistyczna" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Theory of Relativity – Relativistic Cosmology" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[318] **viXra:1801.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-10 08:03:34*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

"Teoria Względności – Czarne Dziury" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Theory of Relativity – Black Holes" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[317] **viXra:1801.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 12:28:49*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 76 Pages

"Teoria Względności – Fale Grawitacyjne" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Gravitational Waves" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[316] **viXra:1801.0350 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 05:53:28*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 130 Pages.

"Teoria Względności – Kalendarium" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Relativity Theory – Calendar" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[315] **viXra:1801.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 13:16:09*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Russian

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (by coordinates) are in phase, only one from system of Maxwell's equations is satisfied, the solution is not wave solution, there is no flow of energy with real value. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла, решение не является волновым, отсутствует поток энергии с реальным значением. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[314] **viXra:1801.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 13:18:27*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (by coordinates) are in phase, only one from system of Maxwell's equations is satisfied, the solution is not wave solution, there is no flow of energy with real value. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[313] **viXra:1801.0347 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-27 07:26:09*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

The flow of Ricci-Schrödinger is defined from the Ricci flow, like the Schrödinger equation with respect to the heat equation.

**Category:** Geometry

[312] **viXra:1801.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 19:30:34*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Why there's No velocity higher than Light Velocity C =300000km/sec?
Because
-The Matter is created from light beams coherence (according to Young Experiment- The Main Hypothesis)
-The Time is created as the Matter Changing measurement
-Our body (matter) is produced by the same method, from this light beams coherence
-Our bodies are connected with specific Light velocity and specific time rate because our bodies are produced by specific Light Beams coherence
What does that mean? ..i.e.
-If there's a light velocity higher than C we can't realize it, why? Because Our Body defines only this specific time which is produced from this specific light
Now we can see much better
-Why we can't understand easily the solar System geometry? Because NOT all data is available for us! And why NOT? Because Our Body Connected Us To Specific Category Of Data…
oSo we connected to specific light beam (standard velocity C)
And
oWe connected to specific time defined by our body changes
So the Special Theory of Relativity is Correct
No Velocity higher than C is available in our Universe

**Category:** Astrophysics

[311] **viXra:1801.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-01 11:59:08*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Theorems and conjectures about prime numbers .

**Category:** Number Theory

[310] **viXra:1801.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-10 22:10:45*

**Authors:** Gunn QuznetsovHere we consider some results of RUNII.

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Here we consider some results of RUNII.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[309] **viXra:1801.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 05:21:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

A groundbreaking quantum physics professor was named "Australian of the Year" on Thursday for her work heralded as ushering in a new era for computer science. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[308] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 02:53:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[307] **viXra:1801.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 07:43:04*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 109 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitons kill people”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational radiation is gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
People ask, what is a Black Hole?
“Black holes are Ferent matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent matter is matter with density higher than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
“The majority of Ferent matter is the core of the supermassive black hole, in the center of each galaxy”
Adrian Ferent
“During the Big Bang first emerged the gravitational force with the speed of the gravitons: v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m / s”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitons speed is v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s, how I explained in my Gravitation theory close to the speed of light squared, v = c^2.
Energy of the gravitons: E = m × v^2
Energy of the gravitons: E = m × c^4
At high frequency, gravitons have high energy:
Energy of the gravitons: E = a × f
Graviton energy emitted by Black holes:
Graviton momentum > Photon momentum
The graviton energy emitted by black holes:
E = 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV
This means:
“Gravitons emitted by Black holes are harmful”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Inside the black holes, Gravitation force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, anyone can get cancer at any age, but the risk goes up with age”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitons emitted by a black hole do not follow the curvature created by the black hole, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
Today it is accepted that the center of almost every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole.
“The source for Gravitational radiation: from 100 million black holes from our galaxy and from black holes outside the Milky Way galaxy”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitational radiation is gravitational waves.
“Gravitational waves are gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The gravitons have no electrical charge and no measurable mass.
“Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation”
Adrian Ferent
Anyway today at least 1300 diseases are known to be caused by a mutation. This means Gravitational Radiation can cause a lot of diseases not only cancer.
From my Gravitation theory:
Graviton’s frequency emitted by a planet, by Earth:
E = a×ν
E = 0.414559 eV
“Graviton energy emitted by Earth is much smaller than 1 eV”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
“Gravitons from Earth are harmless”
Adrian Ferent
“Nobody in lectures say ‘I discovered these things’, that is why nobody understands what the contributions to the lecture by the speaker are!”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[306] **viXra:1801.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 08:04:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[305] **viXra:1801.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 08:56:46*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We address historical circumstances surrounding the absence of two essential tools - geometric interpretation of Clifford algebra and generalization of impedance quantization - from the particle physicist’s tool kit, and present details of the new perspective that follows from their inclusion. The resulting geometric wavefunction model permits one to examine the interface between fundamental and emergent.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[304] **viXra:1801.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 10:09:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

As cloud storage becomes more common, data security is an increasing concern. [34] Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[303] **viXra:1801.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 11:58:29*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 62 Pages

"Teoria Względności – Podstawy" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Theory of Relativity – Basics" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[302] **viXra:1801.0332 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 05:57:10*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 126 Pages.

"Teoria Względności – Wyniki" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do wykładu wygłoszonego przeze mnie dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "Theory of Relativity – Results" contains auxiliary materials for the lecture given by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[301] **viXra:1801.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 13:20:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[300] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-02 19:57:38*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Minor revisions to Figure 2 and various wording improvements.

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception is empirically testable. The test would involve probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[299] **viXra:1801.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 13:42:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22]
New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21]
Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20]
In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
But for rotating black holes, there’s a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
"There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[298] **viXra:1801.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 16:39:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time in an inertial reference frame can be obtained from the definition of velocity
in that inertial reference frame.
Velocity depends on coordinate and time. Therefore, coordinate transformation and
velocity transformation between inertial reference frames can lead to
time transformation.
Based on this approach, the time transformation between two arbitrary inertial
reference frames in one dimensional space is derived. The result shows that the
elapsed time is identical in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[297] **viXra:1801.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-10 12:52:24*

**Authors:** Sarkadi Dezső

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short article, we investigate the origin of Planck constant, assuming that a clearly defined frequency can be ordered for the physical mass. The square of the mass-frequency is proportional to the physical mass. Dezso Sarkadi Hungary

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[296] **viXra:1801.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 23:57:24*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Added derivation of complex numbers in QM and minor changes. As submitted to journal.

The simplest measurements in physics are binary; that is, they have only two possible
results. An example is a beam splitter. One can take the output
of a beam splitter and use it as the input of another beam splitter. The compound measurement
is described by the product of the Hermitian matrices that describe the beam splitters.
In the classical case the Hermitian matrices commute (are diagonal) and the measurements
can be taken in any order. The general quantum situation was described by Julian Schwinger
with what is now known as ``Schwinger's Measurement Algebra''. We simplify his results
by restriction to binary measurements and extend it to include classical as
well as imperfect and thermal beam splitters. We use elementary methods to introduce
advanced subjects such as geometric phase, Berry-Pancharatnam phase, superselection sectors,
symmetries and applications to the identities of the Standard Model fermions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[295] **viXra:1801.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 04:55:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[294] **viXra:1801.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 05:37:46*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

"Historia Teorii Względności – Od Kopernika do Newtona" jest pierwszym z pięciu tomów pomocniczych materiałów do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Relativity – From Copernicus to Newton" is the first of five volumes of auxiliary materials for my seminar for students of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[293] **viXra:1801.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 06:05:29*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

"Historia Teorii Względności – Od Newtona do Maxwella" jest drugim z pięciu tomów pomocniczych materiałów do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Relativity – From Newton to Maxwell" is the second of five volumes of auxiliary materials for my seminar for students of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wrocław.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[292] **viXra:1801.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 06:32:01*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 140 Pages

"Historia Teorii Względności – Od Maxwella do Einsteina" jest trzecim z pięciu tomów pomocniczych materiałów do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Relativity – From Maxwell to Einstein" is the third of five volumes of auxiliary materials for my seminar for students of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[291] **viXra:1801.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 06:46:00*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 292 Pages.

"Historia Teorii Względności – Era Einsteina 1905-1955" jest czwartym z pięciu tomów pomocniczych materiałów do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Relativity – Einstein Era 1905-1955" is the fourth of five volumes of auxiliary materials for my seminar for students of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[290] **viXra:1801.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 05:58:10*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 396 Pages.

"Historia Teorii Względności – Ciekawe wyniki po 1955" jest piątym z pięciu tomów pomocniczych materiałów do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The "History of Relativity – Interesting results after 1955" is the fifth of five volumes of auxiliary materials for my seminar for students of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[289] **viXra:1801.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 07:45:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[288] **viXra:1801.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 08:46:13*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Here, I present the discovery of a derivation of the laws of physics -along with a resulting massive simplification thereof- from pure reason, showing that the laws of physics are connected to the limits of logic. So far, I have explicitly obtained many of the most fundamental laws, including: the Dirac equation, the Schrödinger equation, special relativity, general relativity, and dark energy. In this derivation, the world is represented as a very simple Gibbs ensemble of statistical physics that has only time and space as its quantities. This equation is, to my knowledge, the simplest equation in the literature with such a wide physical scope.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[287] **viXra:1801.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 08:47:15*

**Authors:** V. Anantha Padmanabhan

**Comments:** 28 Pages. NA

In this part 1, one drop of nectar has been introduced.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[286] **viXra:1801.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 08:49:22*

**Authors:** V. Anantha Padmanabhan

**Comments:** 30 Pages. NA

IN THIS PART 2, ONE DROP OF NECTAR HAS BEEN INTRODUCED

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[285] **viXra:1801.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 08:57:16*

**Authors:** V. Anantha Padmanabhan

**Comments:** 30 Pages. NA

iN THIS PART 4, ONE DROP OF NECTAR HAS BEEN SHOWN

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[284] **viXra:1801.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 08:59:35*

**Authors:** V. Anantha Padmanabhan

**Comments:** 30 Pages. NA

In this third part, one drop of nectar has been continued.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[283] **viXra:1801.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 10:03:25*

**Authors:** Dezso Sarkadi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Hungarian

The physical constants play important role in physics. It is fact that the accuracy of the physical con-stants grows year by year. Special attention is paying to the dimensionless constants; the most familiars among them are the fine structure constant, the proton/electron mass-ratio, the cosmological constant of Einstein’s general relativity, the Weinberg angle in the electro-weak interaction theory, etc. The one of the most important questions is for a long time: are there any physical and/or mathematical relations between the fundamental physical constants. The paper gives a recently explored simple math relation between them. The precise theoretical explanation of this amazing finding need more detailed investigations related to the physical background.
Keywords: physical constants, exponential relations between physical constants, Bode-Titius rule, mass formula of neutral-atoms, mass formula of leptons.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[282] **viXra:1801.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 11:27:10*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper I presented seven sequences of numbers of the form 2*k*P – (30 + 290*n)*k – 315, where P is Poulet number, and I conjectured that two of them have all the terms odd abundant numbers and the other five have an infinity of terms odd abundant numbers. Because it is known that all the smaller numbers of amicable pairs are abundant numbers (see A002025 in OEIS), in this paper I revert the relation from above and I conjecture that all Poulet numbers P divisible by 5 can be written as P = (A + 315 + (30 + 290*n)*k)/(2*k), where A is a smaller of an amicable pair and n and k naturals. For example: 645 = (12285 + 315 + 30*10)/(2*10); also 1105 = (12285 + 315 + 2060*84)/(2*84) or 1105 = (69615 + 315 + 320*37)/(2*37). Note that for the first 17 such Poulet numbers there exist at least a combination [n, k] for A = 12285, the first smaller of an amicable pair divisible by 5!

**Category:** Number Theory

[281] **viXra:1801.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 17:13:34*

**Authors:** Jean BENICHOU

**Comments:** 1 Page. jean.benichou@icloud.com

All curves defined by x^n + y^n = z^n should intersect the circle x^2 + y^2 but are contained in it and no common point exists when x, y, z, n are integers. This contradiction forbid x^n + y^n = z^n for n>2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[280] **viXra:1801.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 19:52:26*

**Authors:** Songting Yin, Pan Zhang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we give a gradient estimate of positive solution to the equation
$$\Delta u=-\lambda^2u, \ \ \lambda\geq 0$$
on a complete non-compact Finsler manifold. Then we obtain the corresponding Liouville-type theorem and Harnack inequality for the solution.
Moreover, on a complete non-compact Finsler manifold we also prove a Liouville-type theorem for a $C^2$-nonegative function $f$ satisfying
$$\Delta f\geq cf^d, c>0, d>1, $$
which improves a result obtained by Yin and He.

**Category:** Geometry

[279] **viXra:1801.0308 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 03:13:37*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. A contradiction between Apparent Source Theory and the phenomenon of stellar aberration has been found. The contradiction if found to be due to a conflict between conventional stellar aberration theory and the unconventional nature of Apparent Source Theory and hence is only an apparent contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[278] **viXra:1801.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 02:06:11*

**Authors:** Feng Zhang, Jianjun Wang, Wendong Wang, Jianwen Huang, Changan Yuan

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a novel nonconvex penalty function for compressed sensing using integral convolution approximation. It is well known that an unconstrained optimization criterion based on $\ell_1$-norm easily underestimates the large component in signal recovery. Moreover, most methods either perform well only under the measurement matrix satisfied restricted isometry property (RIP) or the highly coherent measurement matrix, which both can not be established at the same time. We introduce a new solver to address both of these concerns by adopting a frame of the difference between two convex functions with integral convolution approximation. What's more, to better boost the recovery performance, a weighted version of it is also provided. Experimental results suggest the effectiveness and robustness of our methods through several signal reconstruction examples in term of success rate and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

**Category:** Statistics

[277] **viXra:1801.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 05:19:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[276] **viXra:1801.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 06:14:40*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In the brochure (in Russian) "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and Unified Field Theory" (2000)it is shown that the generally accepted Lorentz transformations have an erroneous form: they lack a scale factor (therefore the whole SRT is incorrect). It is well known, that at first Lorentz considered a more general form of transformations (with a scale factor), but then he, and after him, Poincare and Einstein equated it 1 without due cause. We have revealed the physical meaning of the scale factor -- it characterizes the Doppler effect.
A new kind of transformations (with Doppler factor) immediately removes paradox of twins and Ehrenfest's paradox. The interval is no longer an invariant -- only the condition that the interval is zero rests invariant. As a consequence, we get that the laws of nature are scale invariants.
In GR there will be a grandiose simplification: the gravitational equation will be reduced to the d'Alembert equation. It seems that the way to the construction of a unified field theory is opening

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[275] **viXra:1801.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 06:46:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[274] **viXra:1801.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 07:02:21*

**Authors:** Hee Sik Kim, Young Hee Kim, J. Neggers

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we indroduce the notion of a (pre)-Coxeter algebra and show that a Coxeter algebra is equivalent to an abelian group all of whose elements have order 2, i.e., Boolean group.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[273] **viXra:1801.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 07:03:24*

**Authors:** Hee Sik Kim, Hyo Jin Kim

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we show that the class of PC-algebras and the class of B-Algebras with condition (D) are Smarandache disjoint.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[272] **viXra:1801.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 07:04:19*

**Authors:** P. J. Allen, H. S. Kim, J. Neggers

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we define Smarandache algebras and show that every finite group can be found in some Smarandache algebra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[271] **viXra:1801.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 07:05:14*

**Authors:** P. J. Allen, H. S. Kim, J. Neggers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we include several new families of Smarandache-type P-algebras and we study some of their properties in relation to the properties of previously defined Smarandache-types.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[270] **viXra:1801.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 07:06:04*

**Authors:** P. J. Allen, H. S. Kim, J. Neggers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of Super Commutative D-Algebra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[269] **viXra:1801.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 07:29:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[268] **viXra:1801.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 08:51:22*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present seven sequences of numbers of the form 2*k*P – (30 + 290*n)*k – 315, where P is Poulet number and n and k naturals; I conjecture that two of them have all the terms odd abundant numbers (corresponding to [P, n] = [645, 0] and [1105, 1]) and the other five (corresponding to [P, n] = [11305, 4], [16705, 13], [11305, 25], [10585, 28] and [16705, 34]) have an infinity of terms odd abundant numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[267] **viXra:1801.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 09:05:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Currently, physicists at Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (TUK) are working on a more efficient variation, where specific quasiparticles named magnons instead of electrons are being used. [29] For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics. [28] By exploiting the properties of neutrons to probe electrons in a metal, a team of researchers led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has gained new insight into the behavior of correlated electron systems, which are materials that have useful properties such as magnetism or superconductivity. [27] By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[266] **viXra:1801.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 09:57:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I present three sequences of numbers of the form (4*k + 2)*P + n*(2002*k + 1001), where P is Poulet number, k natural and n integer (corresponding to [P, n] = [41041, -1], [101101, 5] and [401401, 35]); I conjecture that they have all the terms odd abundant numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[265] **viXra:1801.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-07 06:37:00*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Spherical shock fronts deform and expand their carrier. These excitations form the footprints of the particles that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[264] **viXra:1801.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 14:57:33*

**Authors:** Padlock Harlenstein

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article is written to proof finally that newton was wrong about thermodynamic laws

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[263] **viXra:1801.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 15:19:04*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The universal covering problem as posed by Henri Lebesgue in 1914 seeks to find the convex planar shape of smallest area that contains a subset congruent to any point set of unit diameter in the Euclidean plane. Methods used previously to construct such a cover can be refined and extended to provide an improved upper bound for the optimal area. An upper bound of 0.8440935944 is found.

**Category:** Geometry

[262] **viXra:1801.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-25 15:11:40*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sphere Theory has shown that Planck Pressure(1) is the gravitational force between two Hubble Universes on Planck Area. This paper shows that the perceived change in acceleration of the universe, at about 5 billion light years, can be explained by the gravity between two universes. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is at 5.27 billion light years from the center of the universe. It is hypothesized here, that if the observed change in the rate of expansion of the universe occurs at exactly 5.27 billion light years from earth, that the earth is near the center of the universe, that there are multiple equal sized universes, and the boundary of the universe is the Hubble sphere at approximately 13.8 billion light years in radius. Since there will be 12 spheres surrounding the one sphere, there should actually be some spherical shape to the appearance of a rate of expansion with dimples and points. It should be pointed out that there should be other mechanisms that are much larger contributors to the appearance of a rate of expansion to the universe, but as more data is gathered the shape of the change in rate of expansion, from the external universes, should become evident.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[261] **viXra:1801.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-31 04:04:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The Golden Ratio

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[260] **viXra:1801.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 22:40:08*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 20 Pages. addressing possible issues of priority

An approximate chronology (original dates) of my papers is presented, with some biographical notes. A chronology of translation requests is also given.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[259] **viXra:1801.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 03:26:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

An axion is a hypothetical elementary particle whose existence was postulated in order to explain why certain subatomic reactions appear to violate basic symmetry constraints, in particular symmetry in time. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[258] **viXra:1801.0287 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-01 12:35:58*

**Authors:** Renzun Lian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we generalize Huygens' principle (HP), extinction theorem (ET), and Franz-Harrington formulation (FHF) in two parts. In Part I, the traditional HP, ET, and FHF in homogeneous isotropic environment are generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic lossy environment; the traditional FHF of homogeneous isotropic material system is generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic lossy material system and then to piecewise inhomogeneous anisotropic lossy material system; the traditional HP, ET, and FHF of simply connected material system are generalized to multiply connected system and then to non-connected system; the traditional FHF of external scattering field and internal total field are generalized to internal scattering field and internal incident field. In Part I, it is proved that the generalized HP (GHP) and generalized ET (GET) are equivalent to each other; the GHP, GET, and generalized FHF (GFHF) satisfy so-called topological additivity, i.e., the GHP/GET/GFHF of whole electromagnetic (EM) system equals to the superposition of the GHP/GET/GFHF corresponding to all sub-systems. In this Part II, the above results obtained in previous Part I, which focuses on the EM system constructed by material bodies, are further generalized to the metal-material combined EM system in inhomogeneous anisotropic lossy environment, and traditional surface equivalence principle is generalized to line-surface equivalence principle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[257] **viXra:1801.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:50:28*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

this note presents certain clases of integrals containing trigonometric and hyperbolic trigonometric functions in their integrands.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[256] **viXra:1801.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:57:56*

**Authors:** Dezső Sarkadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Hungarian

In today's physics, there is an increased interest in the supposed properties of a future Quantum Gravity in the fields of theoretical foundation and as well as experimental verification. The ultimate goal of this re-search is the creation of a definitive, universally accepted theory of Quantum Gravity. In the present work, the two hundred and fifty years of history Titius-Bode rule is investigated, under the assumption that this empirical fact is a key evidence of the quantized feature of the already long known classical gravity.
Keywords: Titius-Bode rule, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, de Broglie matter wave, Quantum Gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[255] **viXra:1801.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:53:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note presents some series for pi^2

**Category:** General Mathematics

[254] **viXra:1801.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:53:48*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Stellar rotation and factors from palette of Tesla/Alfven have obviously caused mentioned errors. Shortcomings of astrospectroscopy are highlighted.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[253] **viXra:1801.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:56:03*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This note presents a double integral for pi^2

**Category:** General Mathematics

[252] **viXra:1801.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 07:44:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

An international group of researchers, including UvA physicist Michael Walter, have devised new methods to create interesting input states for quantum computations and simulations. [29] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[251] **viXra:1801.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 08:16:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Behind every self-driving car, self-learning robot and smart building hides a variety of advanced algorithms that control learning and decision making. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[250] **viXra:1801.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 09:06:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[249] **viXra:1801.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 10:28:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[248] **viXra:1801.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 11:07:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

New model connects the origins of very high-energy neutrinos, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, and high-energy gamma rays with black-hole jets embedded in their environments. [15] Gamma ray bursts, intense explosions of light, are the brightest events ever observed in the universe – lasting no longer than seconds or minutes. [14] X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[247] **viXra:1801.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 13:58:08*

**Authors:** Zhengjun Cao, Jeffrey Uhlmann, Lihua Liu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We remark that Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has confused two unitary transformations: one is performed on a pure state, the other is performed on a superposition. In the past decades, no constructive specifications on the essential unitary operator performed on the superposition have been found. We think the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm needs more constructive specifications so as to check its correctness.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[246] **viXra:1801.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 14:48:51*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I can place the older stars of K2-138 and Io on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[245] **viXra:1801.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 21:08:14*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We map the neutrosophic logical values of truth, falsity, and indeterminacy on intervals "]0,1[" and "]-0,1+[" in equations for the Meth8/VL4 apparatus. We test the summation of the those values. The result is not tautologous, meaning neutrosophic logic is refuted and hence its use as a generalization of intuitionistic, fuzzy logic is likewise unworkable.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[244] **viXra:1801.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 23:20:12*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of predicting the day of Christmas Day for any given year in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of five algebraic (2 for Julian) expression, three of which are integer function by substituting the year. This formula will calculate the modulo 7 which gives a number from 0 to 6, i.e., 0=Saturday, 1=Sunday, and so on, that determines the exact day of Christmas. This algorithm has no condition even during leap-year and 400-year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[243] **viXra:1801.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 00:16:21*

**Authors:** Morgan Weinberg

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Inspired by the continued success of MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) in the prediction of galactic rotation curves, an attempt to derive the deep-MOND equation from known mechanics has resulted in a third explanation apart from MOND and dark matter. It is proposed that particle velocities follow the relation v = √(GM)r ^{-1/2 }+ √(a_{x})r^{1/2}, where a_{x} is a scalar accelerating field that is independent of mass. This yields the following relation for centripetal acceleration: a = (GM)r^{-2 }+ 2√(a_{x}GM)r^{-1 }+ a_{x}, which, at large radii, is nearly identical to the deep-MOND equation a = √(a_{0}GM)r^{-1}. When applied to a handful of galaxies, the velocity equation prefers an a_{x} on the order of 10^{-14} (km s^{-2}), which gives a good fit of velocity curves to observed values. It is posited that scalar field a_{x} is a result of local galactic expansion, such that a_{x} = cH_{g}, where H_{g} is the rate of expansion. For the Milky Way, it is estimated that H_{g} ≈ 9.3 E-4 (km s^{-1} kpc^{-1}). This rate would predict an increase of the astronomical unit of 14 (cm yr^{-1}), which compares well with the recently reported measurement of 15 ±4 (cm yr^{-1}).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[242] **viXra:1801.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 00:27:33*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 3 Pages. No comment

The paper covers applicability areas of the Euler – Mascheroni constant in General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[241] **viXra:1801.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 01:55:25*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

A formula is obtained that relates the mass (energy) of a lok (1,0) with the parameters of the elasticity of a Gukuum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[240] **viXra:1801.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-30 10:04:14*

**Authors:** Renzun Lian

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Huygens' principle (HP), extinction theorem (ET), and Franz's / Franz-Harrington formulation (FHF, which is a mathematical expression of surface equivalence principle) are the important components of electromagnetic (EM) theory, and they are generalized from the following aspects.
1) Traditional HP, ET, and FHF in homogeneous isotropic environment are generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic lossy environment. 2) Traditional FHF for homogeneous isotropic material system is generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic lossy material system in this Part I, and will be further generalized to metal-material combined system in future Part II. 3) The Huygens' surface in traditional HP and ET is a single closed surface. In Part I, it is generalized to the "Huygens' surface" which is constructed by multiple closed surfaces. In Part II, it will be further generalized to the "Huygens' boundary" which includes some lines and open surfaces. 4) For a material body, traditional FHF has only ability to express the external scattering field and the internal total field (the summation of scattering and incident fields) in terms of the equivalent sources on material boundary, and it is generalized to formulating the internal scattering and incident fields in this paper.
In addition, the relationships among HP, ET, and FHF are studied, and it is proved that HP and ET are equivalent to each other.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[239] **viXra:1801.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 06:15:25*

**Authors:** X. Negrea, A. C. Strungă, Ș. Vlăduțescu

**Comments:** 286 Pages.

[The Proceedings of CIL 2017: Forth Edition of International
Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences – Creativity,
Imaginary, Language, Craiova, Romania, 19-20 May 2017
(www.cilconference.ro)]

**Category:** Social Science

[238] **viXra:1801.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 11:43:12*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The Dirac equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[237] **viXra:1801.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 09:57:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[236] **viXra:1801.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 10:24:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[235] **viXra:1801.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 14:20:30*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article section 1 and 2 of Einstein’s article about his Special Theory of Relativity have been scrutinized. The conclusion is that Einstein spent a lot of text on the concepts simultaneousness, synchronousness and time, without bringing forth any relevant information. Besides that he made two fundamental mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[234] **viXra:1801.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 15:56:22*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 32 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © YRA-model of the universe

This article presents the author's YRA model of the universe. This model emerged as a result of research and analysis of the essence of nature. This model is the core of the author's "Theory of Nature". At the heart of this theory and the YRA-model of the universe lie the concepts of the philosophy of dialectical materialism. This is primarily the categories of matter and movement. "Theory of Nature" includes also the basics of physics and cosmology. These are the basic physical quantities and the concept of the Universe. At the heart of the materialistic YRA-model of the universe under consideration is moving matter. But this matter is not an abstract category of the philosophy, is matter in its concrete manifestation, as an entity, as a substance of nature. Within the framework of the YRA-model of the universe, the structure of the Universe on the Planck scale is represented by the quanta of matter that pulsate in the rhythm of nature. The quanta bursts (flashes) of matter quanta is the real picture of being on the Planck scale. The quantum of matter is represented in the form of atom (crupitsa) of matter or in the form of fundamental particle. Quantum of matter in its minimum manifestation (quantum collapse) is an atom (crupitsa) of matter. Quantum of matter in its maximum manifestation (quantum burst, flash) is a fundamental particle. One can imagine a quantum of matter as a matter ball with a diameter varying in the rhythm of nature. One can imagine a quantum of matter as a matter tandem "atom (crupitsa) of matter - fundamental particle" pulsating in the rhythm of nature. The matter pulsing in the rhythm of nature, the quantum of matter pulsating in the rhythm of nature - that is what lies at the basis of our universe.
Key words: nature, matter, universe, dialectics, dialectical materialism, atom (crupitsa) of matter, Singularity, Universe, pulsation, rhythm of nature, frequency, time, physics, cosmology.
++++++++++++++++++++++++++
В настоящей статье представлена авторская YRA-модель мироздания. Эта модель появилась в результате исследований и анализа сущности природы. Эта модель является ядром авторской «Теории Природы» (ТП). В основе этой теории и модели мироздания лежат понятия философии диалектического материализма. Это в первую очередь категории материя и движение. ТП включает в себя также основы физики и космологии. Это основные физические величины и понятие Вселенной. В основе рассматриваемой материалистической YRA-модели мироздания лежит движущаяся материя. Но это не абстрактная категория философии, это материя в ее конкретном проявлении, как сущность, как субстанция природы. В рамках модели мироздания структура Вселенной на планковском масштабе представлена пульсирующими в ритме природы квантами материи. Квантовые всплески квантов материи – вот реальная картина бытия на планковском масштабе. Квант материи представлен в форме крупиц материи и элементарных частиц. Квант материи в своём минимальном проявлении (квантовый схлоп) представляет собой крупицу материи. Квант материи в своём максимальном проявлении (квантовый всплеск) представляет собой элементарную частицу. Можно представить себе квант материи, как изменяющийся в ритме природы в размерах (в диаметре) материальный шарик, или как пульсирующий в ритме природы материальный тандем «крупица материи – элементарная частица». Пульсирующая в ритме природы материя, пульсирующий в ритме природы квант материи – вот что лежит в основе мироздания.
Ключевые слова: природа, материя, мироздание, диалектика, диалектический материализм, крупица материи, Сингулярность, Вселенная, пульсация, ритм природы, частота, время, физика, космология

**Category:** Classical Physics

[233] **viXra:1801.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 07:34:44*

**Authors:** Akash Kumar Saha

**Comments:** Pages.

Maxwell's equations in Classical Electrodynamics do not contain any magnetic monopole. As a matter of fact there is no experimental evidence of the magnetic monopoles till now. But still the presence of magnetic monopoles explore a wonderful symmetry in Maxwell's Equations and modern theories like String Theory,Grand Unified Theory(GUT) agree with the presence of monopoles. Paul Dirac tried to introduce magnetic monopoles through the idea of 'Dirac String'.In this paper we will find that magnetic monopoles can be introduced without affecting the classical framework just by defining two auxiliary fields which behave just like electric(E)and magnetic(B) fields. Besides these auxiliary fields can also make Maxwell's Equations symmetric under time reversal.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[232] **viXra:1801.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 09:33:26*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

A theoretical calculation is made of the total energy of the wave vortex in a vacuum, for the general case.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[231] **viXra:1801.0257 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-06 10:22:40*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Further derivations added.

This article seeks to give a clear and motivated proof of Euler's formula for zeta(2n) using known proofs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[230] **viXra:1801.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 12:23:10*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 14 pages. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.6 No.4, April 25, 2018

Abstract
Objective: Accumulating evidence indicates that zero divided by zero equal one. Still it is not clear what number theory is saying about this.
Methods: To explore relationship between the problem of the division of zero by zero and number theory, a systematic approach is used while analyzing the relationship between number theory and independence.
Result: The theorems developed in this publication support the thesis that zero divided by zero equals one. It is possible to define the law of independence under conditions of number theory.
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that zero divided by zero equals one.
Keywords
Zero, One, Zero divide by zero, Independence, Number theory

**Category:** Number Theory

[229] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 06:00:36*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new conception of relativism is offered, providing a breakthrough development of physics in the new millenium. This new conception is based upon new relativistic space-time theory, founded only on the single relativity principle of Galileo, stating that condition of translational straightforward motion is completely equivalent to the condition of resting, and the Einstein’s second principle is cut-off by Occams sickle as superfluous. A theorem is proven, that is a consequence from the relativity principle, that units of time measurements by clocks of identical design, that are moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, are absolutely preciously equal each with other. Its proof is founded on a newly introduced concept “light speed in vacuum of a moving inertial reference frame”. The proven equality of time measurement units for light clocks of identical design, moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, transforms Einstein’s theorem about retardation of moving clock with respect to a stationary clock into an antiscientific statement. A transformation is offered for events space-time coordinates from one inertial reference frame to another with noninvariant speed of light. It is proven that in the new space-time theory the causality principle does not forbid motion with superlight speed, mass of moving particles and bodies does not depend but their electrical charge does depend upon their speed of motion. The new conception of relativism offers absolutely new explanation to causes of supernovas and pulsars light flashes, to red shift of far stars spectrums, to microwave background radiation and to Olbers’ paradox. Such explanation results in refusal from Big Bang hypothesis, from accelerated expansion of the Universe, from «dark matter» and from «dark energy». In the new conception of relativism the experiments of 1938 year with cosmic ray particles are explained with superlight speeds and dependence of charge upon speed, but not with existence of particles with masses intermediate between the masses of protons and electrons. In this conception the “neutrino” is excluded from the assembly of particles existing in the Nature

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[228] **viXra:1801.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-20 05:36:08*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

To work efficiently with objects, it is not necessary to know the detailed structure of objects. It is sufficient to know the behavior of these objects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[227] **viXra:1801.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 16:14:43*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Papers by and relating to Florentin Smaradnache span many areas at viXra, but the appropriate field is Set Theory and Logic. Many of them are translated as crude ruse to garner publicity. The study neutrosohic logic is mostly specious.

We evaluate the neutrosophic logic based on its most atomic level of soft latices, as published by Springer-Verlag in 2016.
We refute the theorem "Every neutrosophic soft lattice is a one-sided distributive neutrosophic soft lattice."
This brief evaluation implies that the field of soft set theory as originally introduced by D. Molodtsov is suspicious and specifically that the field of neutrosophic logic, as evidenced in its basis of soft set theory, is unworkable.
This conclusion is multitudinal because of the plethora of duplicated papers as translations in multiple fields at vixra.org regarding the neutrosophic logic system of Florentin Smarandache.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[226] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 20:06:20*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation) indicates that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[225] **viXra:1801.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 22:21:43*

**Authors:** Oleg G. Verin

**Comments:** Pages.

The experimental data analysis overturns «modern scientific representation» of the atomic structure. In articles [1-3] is shown, that atomic electrons do not form stochastic orbitals «spread» in space, but «are condensed» in ring or spherical electron shells, and do not behave as independent particles, but demonstrate collective properties.
Besides in atom the nonlinear nature of a microcosm becomes evident: the main quantum number of electron states, alongside with integer numbers, gets also fractional values - due to interactions on harmonic components. The weighty confirmation of microcosm nonlinearity was obtained at the analysis of a quantum Hall effect [4].
These discoveries have key value not only for physics development, but also for all natural sciences using in varying degree knowledge about substance structure.
Therefore discussion of the experimental regularities showing an inconsistency of the atom theory, which almost century dominated in physics, is extremely important for acceleration of transition to new representations.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[224] **viXra:1801.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 22:30:53*

**Authors:** Oleg G. Verin

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Hall Effect and, in particular, fractional quantum Hall Effect have forced theorists to rack their brains over an explanation of these phenomena. However for past decades since the effect was opened theory has remained in an unsatisfactory state.
Existing explanation of a quantum Hall Effect looks less convincing in connection with the fact that it is simultaneously accompanied by even more «strange and inexplicable» phenomenon - superconductivity.
However, the study of these key problems of physics is important not only from the point of view of adequate theory formation, but also as a way to deepen our knowledge about fundamental bases of substance structure.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[223] **viXra:1801.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 00:45:39*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Canadian Journal of Physics

We revisit the solutions to the nonlinear Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation with relevant cosmological applications. In particular, we obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density and explain the origins of its repulsive gravitational nature. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our 4D spacetime can only be inferred indirectly, but not be detected/observed directly. Solutions to the novel Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy (repulsive gravity). We proceed with a discussion on Asymptotic safety, matter creation from the vacuum, and Finsler relativistic extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation. Finally, we conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[222] **viXra:1801.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 03:16:14*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Quantum mechanics is actually part of Classical mechanics, because the law of conservation of energy is generally valid and - because quanta are everywhere.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[221] **viXra:1801.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 05:17:07*

**Authors:** Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We address to the Pure Bound Field Theory (PBFT) we developed earlier (e.g., Kholmetskii A.L. et al. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126, 33 (2011), Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126, 35 (2011)), which explicitly takes into account the non-radiating nature of electromagnetic field of quantum bound particles in stationary states, and which allows eliminating the available subtle deviations between experimental and theoretical data in precise physics of light hydrogen-like atoms. In the present paper we show that the specific corrections of PBFT, being introduced into the basic equations of atomic physics, allow two different solutions for stationary energy states of electrically bound system “proton plus electron”. One of them corresponds to the ground state of usual hydrogen atom with the averaged radius near the Bohr radius rB, whereas another stationary state is characterized by the much smaller averaged radius of about 2a^2rB=5 fm (where a is the fine structure constant), and the binding energy about –255 keV. We name this bound system as the “neutronic hydrogen” and discuss possible implications of our results. In particular, we show that the interaction of neutronic hydrogen with matter can explain numerous puzzling facts of low temperature nuclear synthesis.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[220] **viXra:1801.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 06:04:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20]
In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
But for rotating black holes, there’s a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
"There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[219] **viXra:1801.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 06:35:03*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 29 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the Fundamentals of Physics

Nature, the world around us is material and discrete at the Planck scale. Natural units of nature such as length, mass and time are inextricably linked among themselves. Their unity is materialized in the atom of matter. Matter, as the physical quantity should be introduced into the bosom of physics. This is requirement of material nature, it is a requirement of our time, it is a requirement of logic progress of development associated with the development of natural science, the sciences of nature and especially physics. But the spirit of materialism pervades not modern physics. "Physical" idealism determines the outlook of physicists. The fundamentals of physics should be based on the matter rather than illusions and ambitions of the vast majority of modern physicists. Matter is the basis of the nature and it should be the basis (the basic physical quantity) of physics, that's the main content of this article.
Keywords: nature, matter, length, mass, time, atom (crupitsa) of matter, fine structure constant, physical quantity, natural system of units, law of nature
====================
Природа, окружающий нас мир материальны и дискретны на планковском масштабе. Натуральные единицы природы длина, масса и время неразрывно связаны между собой. Их единство материализуется в крупице материи. Материя, как физическая величина должна быть введена в лоно физики. Это требование материальной природы, это требование сегодняшнего времени, это требование логики развития прогресса, связанного с развитием естествознания, наук о природе и в первую очередь физики. Но дух материализма не пронизывает современную физику. «Физический» идеализм определяет мировоззрение физиков. В основах физики должна лежать материя, а не иллюзии и амбиции, подавляющего большинства современных физиков. Материя - основа природы и она должна стать основой (основной физической величиной) физики, вот основное содержание настоящей статьи.
Ключевые слова: природа, материя, длина, масса, время, крупица материи, постоянная тонкой структуры, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, закон природы

**Category:** Classical Physics

[218] **viXra:1801.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 06:39:38*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Natural physical units

The idea of the Planck quantities of length, mass and time as the natural units of nature is perceived by the author as a guide to action. The author in present paper describes his approach to solving the problem of natural units of nature. At the heart of the reasoning of the author the defining formulas proposed by the author lie. These are formulas for fundamental physical quantities, such as speed of light in vacuum and the Newtonian constant of gravitation. Such formulas in the modern physics theory (MPT) are not present. These defining formulas naturally and simply are introduced into viewing. One more defining formula is considered in article. This is the momentum formula. In all these defining formulas natural communication between physical quantities of length, mass and time is expressed. This approach proved to be effective and successful, and allowed to solve the problem of natural physical units.
Keywords: nature, matter, length, mass, time, atom (crupitsa) of the matter, fine structure constant, physical quantity, natural system of units, laws of nature
=======================
Идея планковских величин длины, массы и времени, как естественных единиц измерения природы воспринята автором, как руководство к действию. Автор в настоящей статье описывает свой подход к решению проблемы натуральных единиц природы. В основе рассуждений автора лежат определяющие формулы, предложенные автором. Это формулы для фундаментальных физических величин, таких как скорость света в вакууме и гравитационная постоянная Ньютона. Таких формул в теории современной физики (ТСФ) нет. Эти формулы естественным образом и весьма просто вводятся в рассмотрение. Ещё одна определяющая формула рассматривается в статье. Это формула импульса. Во всех этих определяющих формулах выражается натуральная связь между физическими величинами длины, массы и времени. Указанный подход оказался эффективным и удачным и позволил решить проблему натуральных единиц природы.
Ключевые слова: природа, материя, длина, масса, время, крупица материи, постоянная тонкой структуры, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы

**Category:** Classical Physics

[217] **viXra:1801.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 09:05:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. [24]
An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet— one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11]
New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10]
By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9]
Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[216] **viXra:1801.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 09:37:19*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this theory I have described the electricity force as a gravitational force.
For read this article is necessary consulting
Vixra 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Author: Piscedda Giampaolo

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[215] **viXra:1801.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 10:16:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Physicists have experimentally demonstrated an information engine—a device that converts information into work—with an efficiency that exceeds the conventional second law of thermodynamics. [15] Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[214] **viXra:1801.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 10:26:34*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Some solutions of the wave equation in gukuum, possibly creating the whole variety of matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[213] **viXra:1801.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 16:13:30*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the refinement of the meaning and value of elementary charge

In this paper, the natural system of units of mass, length and time, as a further development of the Planck system of units, is supplemented by the introduction of a physical quantity by the electric charge. To do this, we had to slightly modify the formula of Coulomb's law. This entailed the refinement of numerical values for physical quantities of elementary and Planck charges. All this, ultimately, led to an understanding of the relationship between unit of electrical charge and matter. Matter (in the form of a natural unit of matter) is introduced into the bosom of physics as the basic physical quantity. This is truly a revolutionary step. This step returns the physics to the bosom of materialism. This step is a twist of physics to the nature. This step is a rejection of the idealistic illusions and traditions that prevailed in physics during the last century. Physics finally and irrevocably passes to the foundation of dialectical materialism.
Keywords: nature, time, matter, atom (crupitsa) of matter, physical quantity, natural system of units, laws of nature
*************************
В настоящей статье натуральная система единиц массы, длины и времени, как дальнейшее развитие планковской системы единиц, дополняется введением физической величины электрический заряд. Для этого пришлось несколько видоизменить формулу закона Кулона. Это повлекло за собой уточнение числовых значений для физических величин элементарный и планковский заряды. Всё это, в конечном счёте, привело к пониманию взаимосвязи между этими единицами электрического заряда и материей. Материя (в форме натуральной единицы материи) вводится в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины. Это поистине революционный шаг. Это возврат физики в лоно материализма. Это поворот физики к природе. Это отказ от идеалистических иллюзий и традиций, господствовавших в физике на протяжении последнего столетия. Физика окончательно и бесповоротно переходит на фундамент диалектического материализма.
Ключевые слова: природа, время, материя, крупица материи, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы

**Category:** Classical Physics

[212] **viXra:1801.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 16:34:02*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

An attempt is made to explain the features of the Russian people. The main feature is the presence of a significant percentage of externally European people, but with Mongoloid thinking. The reasons for the appearance of narrow-eyedness in the Mongoloid race are also set forth. The hypothesis of the emergence of collective thinking in people is also set forth. Which was the cause of the emergence of communist ideology, socialism and communism as a social system.

**Category:** Social Science

[211] **viXra:1801.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 17:58:09*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 25 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Generalized system of natural units

Natural system of units of mass, length and time is a refinement of the Planck unit system. The natural system is a "natural system of units of measurement", which attracted the attention of Max Planck and other physicists. But this system is incomplete. It is not a unit of the electricity. Unit of the electricity should be added to the natural units of the system. The solution of this problem is addressed in this article. This article presents a solution to another problem. This is problem of the connection between the units of length (m), mass (kg) and time (s). The fine structure constant is a solution to this problem.
Keywords: nature, time, matter, atom (crupitsa) of matter, elementary electric charge, the fine structure constant, physical quantities, natural system of units, laws of nature
*************************
Натуральная система единиц массы, длины и времени является уточнением планковской системы единиц. Натуральная система и является «естественной системой единиц измерения», поисками которой занимался М. Планк и другие физики. Но эта система неполна. В ней отсутствует единица электричества. Единица электричества должна быть добавлена в натуральную систему единиц. Решению этой проблемы и посвящена настоящая статья. Решение этой проблемы затрагивает проблему о соотношении единиц метра, килограмма и секунды. Удалось открыть закономерность, что в основе решения этой второй проблемы лежит постоянная тонкой структуры.
Ключевые слова: природа, время, материя, крупица материи, электрический заряд, постоянная тонкой структуры, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы

**Category:** Classical Physics

[210] **viXra:1801.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 18:52:46*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © The mystery of time (time and its duration)

In this paper we consider the time and duration as its essential attribute. Time is a fact of our existence. Nothing can exist outside of time. Time is a reality. Time is used everywhere in physics. Time as a physical quantity defined in physics. There is a standard unit of time second. However, the second and other possible standards of the time have not been used directly standard of duration. We do not know the actual time duration of our second and any time interval. But the original essence of time lies in its duration. But we somehow manage to ignore the duration of time. In the present paper the author's solution of a problem of duration of time is presented.
Keywords: nature, time, duration of time, atom (crupitsa) of the matter, fine structure constant, physical quantity, natural system of units, laws of nature
*********************
В настоящей статье рассматривается время и его неотъемлемый атрибут длительность. Время это факт нашего существования. Ничто не может существовать вне времени. Время это реальность. Время всюду используется в физике. Время, как физическая величина определена в физике. Есть эталон единицы времени секунда. Но этот и другие возможные эталоны времени не используют напрямую эталон длительности. Мы не знаем реальной длительности единицы нашего времени секунды и любого интервала времени. Но изначальная сущность времени заключена в его длительности. Но мы как-то умудряемся не замечать длительность времени. В настоящей статье представлено авторское решение проблемы длительности времени.
Ключевые слова: природа, время, длительность времени, крупица материи, постоянная тонкой структуры, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы

**Category:** Classical Physics

[209] **viXra:1801.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 03:44:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[208] **viXra:1801.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 05:29:53*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Details on the site http://universe100.narod.ru/

The beginning of a more rigorous exposition of the theory of the elastic universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[207] **viXra:1801.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 05:26:46*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the dependence of physical quantities mass, length and time

In this article the problem of natural physical quantities is considered. This issue was considered by many physicists. You can mention such names as George Stoney and Max Planck. The name of the latter in the physics associated with quantities of the so-called Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time. These quantities are good candidates for the natural unit of nature. On the other hand the physical quantities mass, length and time are considered as independent quantities in the theory of modern physics. The author made the assumption that these values are dependent. In nature, there is a very strong material unbreakable bond that connects them together. This is a fundamental law of nature. Having come to know this law, we will solve the problem of natural physical quantities.
Keywords: nature, time, physical quantities, Planck quantities, natural system of units
===================
В настоящей статье рассматривается проблема натуральных физических величин. Эта проблема рассматривалась многими физиками. Можно назвать такие имена, как Джордж Стони или Макс Планк. С именем последнего в физике связаны так называемые планковские величины массы, длины и времени. Эти величины являются кандидатами в натуральные единицы природы. С другой стороны физические величины масса, длина и время считаются независимыми величинами в теории современной физики. Автор сделал предположение, что эти величины зависимы. В природе есть очень прочная неразрывная материальная связь, которая соединяет их воедино. Это фундаментальный закон природы. Познав этот закон, мы решаем проблему натуральных физических величин.
Ключевые слова: природа, время, физические величины, планковские величины, натуральная система единиц

**Category:** Classical Physics

[206] **viXra:1801.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 05:33:56*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the matter as a physical quantity

In the present article the author considers a hypothetical object of modern physics as Planck elementary particle. But the author expresses confidence in its real existence. But this is more the refined Planck particle. Updates touched quantities such as the Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time. These clarifications are the consequence of the open law of the nature which states that the physical quantities mass, length and time are dependent quantities and the Planck momentum is the dimensionless physical quantity exactly equal to 1. Further progress in this direction leads us to an understanding of what matter and as matter specifically disclosed in the Planck particle. In article it is explained, how the concept of matter should be entered into a bosom of physics as the basic physical quantity.
Keywords: nature, time, matter, particle of matter, physical quantities Planck values, natural system of units
********************
В настоящей статье рассматривается такой гипотетического объект современной физики, как планковская элементарная частица. Причём автор выражает уверенность в её реальном существовании. Но это несколько уточнённая планковская частица. Уточнения коснулись таких величин как планковская масса, планковская длина и планковское время. Эти уточнения являются следствием открытого закона природы, который гласит, что физические величины масса, длина и время являются зависимыми величинами и планковский импульс есть безразмерностная единица. Дальнейшее продвижение в этом направлении приводит нас к пониманию того, что такое материя и как материя конкретно представлена в планковской частице. В статье разъясняется, как понятие материя следует ввести в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины.
Ключевые слова: природа, время, материя, крупица материи, физические величины, планковские величины, натуральная система единиц

**Category:** Classical Physics

[205] **viXra:1801.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 06:20:20*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The “Absolute Time Theory” is the natural result of the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not take in consideration, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, not dependent by arbitrary choice, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
The entire theory is now divided into chapters and translate in English in order to be more clear and readable.
Each chapter can be a theory itself or unexplained scenario, all of them with their conclusion, till to arrive to the final conclusion that means the final theory.
The following first chapter is the analysis of the same experimental data used for the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, the Michelson/Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[204] **viXra:1801.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 06:52:16*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I suggest the following scenario. In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius (14-37), that is late in 28 or early in 29, John began to preach a baptism. Jesus healed and preached and was crucified on the Preparation Day, Friday 3 April 33 during a lunar eclipse. Thereafter the apostles began to preach and raising the number of believers from 120 to 5000. This caused a persecution where Saul converted to Paul late in 33. Afterwards Paul spent three years in Damascus, where Aretas IV was king. Thereafter Paul did his first travel which lasted for fourteen years, that is 36-50. This was followed by the council of the apostles late in 50. Thereafter Paul did his second travel which lasted for at least a year and six months. Then he did his third travel which lasted for at least two years and six months, that is 52-54. Afterwards he was imprisoned for two years by Antonius Felix until Porcius Festus became procurator of Judaea in 56.

**Category:** Archaeology

[203] **viXra:1801.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 08:21:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Physicists from MIPT have teamed up with their colleagues in Russia and Great Britain and developed a superconducting quantum state detector. The new device can detect magnetic fields at low temperatures and is useful to both researchers and quantum computer engineers. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[202] **viXra:1801.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 09:02:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[201] **viXra:1801.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 10:49:50*

**Authors:** Gopi Krishna Vijaya

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The “direct problem” of the inverse-square law is examined, by retracing the derivations of Propositions X-XVI in Newton’s Principia. It is found that transfers of constants of proportionality are inconsistent between the propositions, leading to errors in the derived relations for multiple orbits. Proposition X has to be corrected for the relations of time period to the force law by including the area constants for conic sections. Propositions XI-XIII assume the expression 2h^2/L to be constant, that in turn implicitly assume a modified version of Kepler’s third law, while Propositions XIV-XVI apply this to multiple orbits leading to further “size” inconsistencies with the original form of Kepler’s third law. It has been shown how this relevance of “size” has been missed in the Newtonian literature, leading to a necessity of revising the existence of an exact inverse-square law.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[200] **viXra:1801.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 10:52:05*

**Authors:** Gopi Krishna Vijaya

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The original form of Kepler’s Third Law contains a caveat regarding the requirement of small eccentricities – a fact that has been missed by the traditional Newtonian derivations. This constraint is analyzed, and a re-clarification of the real meaning of “mean distance” in the law is provided, by following up the indications given by Kepler in the Harmonices Mundi. It is shown that the modified expression for the “mean distance” not only clears up conceptual difficulties, but also removes a discrepancy found by Kepler for Mercury. Based on this re-evaluation, the result of ignoring the small-eccentricity constraint is analyzed in the Propositions XXXII-XXXVII in the Principia. It is seen that there are several conceptual and mathematical mistakes that are inevitable with the Newtonian form of Kepler’s Third Law.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[199] **viXra:1801.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 10:53:27*

**Authors:** Gopi Krishna Vijaya

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The understanding of circular motion as being conditioned by a central force coupled to a tangential velocity is questioned, by analyzing the origins of its derivation, and revising it in the light of rotational kinematics. It is shown that one cannot stop the analysis at a force directed to the center, but has to continue it to include an infinite series of higher order rotational forces in four perpendicular directions. The verification of this in terrestrial dynamics, as well as the consequences of its application in celestial dynamics is presented. It is shown that Newton’s Moon Test and inverse-square law, even with the corrections of General Relativity, do not support circular and elliptical motion and lead to an erroneous expression – a problem that has been noticed and remedied by other independent researchers.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[198] **viXra:1801.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 11:08:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A revised and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[197] **viXra:1801.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 12:45:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20]
Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19]
A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18]
Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17]
Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12]
Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10]
Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9]
Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[196] **viXra:1801.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 16:29:46*

**Authors:** Haofeng Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proves that equation 4/(x+y+z)=1/x+1/y+1/z has no positive integer solutions
using the method of solving third order equation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[195] **viXra:1801.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-06 04:21:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we derive a maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The maximum velocity formula we get is in line with the maximum velocity formula suggested by Haug in a series of papers. This supports the assertion that Haug’s maximum velocity formula is useful in considering the path forward in theoretical physics. In particular, it predicts that the Lorentz symmetry will break down at the Planck scale, and shows how and why this happens. Further, it shows that the maximum velocity for a Planck mass particle is zero. At first this may sound illogical, but it is a remarkable result that gives a new and important insight into this research domain. We also show that the common assumed speed limit of v < c for anything with rest-mass is likely incompatible with the assumption of a minimum length equal to the Planck length. So one either has to eliminate the idea of the Planck length as something special, or one has to modify the speed limit of matter slightly to obtain the formula we get from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[194] **viXra:1801.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 21:18:35*

**Authors:** Douglas G Danforth

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Danforth D. G. , "Nonrecurrence and Bell-like Inequalities", Open Physics, vol 15, issue 1, https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2017-0089

The general class, Λ, of Bell hidden variables is composed of two subclasses ΛR and ΛN such that ΛR⋃ΛN=Λ and ΛR∩ΛN={}. The class ΛN is very large and contains random variables whose domain is the continuum, the reals. There are an uncountable infinite number of reals. Every instance of a real random variable is unique. The probability of two instances being equal is zero, exactly zero. ΛN induces sample independence. All correlations are context dependent but not in the usual sense. There is no "spooky action at a distance". Random variables, belonging to ΛN , are independent from one experiment to the next. The existence of the class ΛN makes it impossible to derive any of the standard Bell inequalities used to define quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[193] **viXra:1801.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 22:29:04*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Open Letter to the RAS

This letter was sent to the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in November last year. The letter raises a question before the RAS about the "Theory of Nature" of the author. The author asks authoritative physicists and professionals to give their objective impartial conclusion on the "Theory of Nature", which the author defines and positions as a new materialistic physics and cosmology.
"Theory of Nature" has existed exactly 6 years. "Theory of Nature" is a revolution in physics and cosmology. "The theory of nature" is a new physics, materialistic physics. "Theory of Nature" does not reject indiscriminately existing physics. From the standpoint of dialectical materialism and nature, the foundation of modern physics is being revised.
It is known that in the foundation of modern physics there are seven basic physical quantities: mass, length, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, luminous intensity. Within the framework of the "Theory of Nature" it is shown and explained that as the basic physical quantities underlying the physics, it is enough to take two quantities, one of which must be matter. Thus naturally the matter should be entered into a bosom of physics as the base physical quantity.
==============================
Это письмо было направлено в адрес РАН в ноябре прошлого года. В письме ставится вопрос перед ОФН РАН о «Теории Природы» автора. Автор просит авторитетных физиков, профессионалов дать своё объективное беспристрастное заключение по «Теории Природы», которую автор определяет и позиционирует, как новую материалистическую физику и космологию.
«Теория Природы» существует уже ровно 6 лет. «Теория Природы» – это революция в физике и космологии. «Теория природы» – это новая физика, материалистическая физика. «Теория Природы» не отвергает огульно существующую физику. С позиций диалектического материализма и природы пересматривается фундамент современной физики.
Известно, что в фундаменте современной физики лежат семь основных физических величин: масса, длина, время, сила тока, термодинамическая температура, количество вещества, сила света. В рамках «Теории Природы» показывается и разъясняется, что в качестве основных физических величин, лежащих в основании физики, достаточно взять две величины, одна из которых должна быть материей. При этом естественно материя должна быть введена в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[192] **viXra:1801.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 00:32:43*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notions of Smarandache BCC-algebras and Smarandache BCC-ideals are introduced. Conditions for a (special) subset to be a Smarandache BCC-ideal are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[191] **viXra:1801.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 00:42:37*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache (positive implicative, commutative, implicative) BCI-algebras, Smarandache subalgebras and Smarandache ideals is introduced, examples are given, and related properties are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[190] **viXra:1801.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 00:45:08*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache fresh and clean ideals is introduced, examples are given, and related properties are investigated. Relations between Q-Smarandache fresh ideals and Q-Smarandache clean ideals are given. Extension properties for Q-Smarandache fresh ideals and Q-Smarandache clean ideals are established.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[189] **viXra:1801.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 00:48:39*

**Authors:** Kyung Ho Kim, Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh, Habib Harizavi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We introduce the notion of a Smarandache hyper (∩,∈)-idealand Ω-reflexive in hyper K-algebra, and some related properties are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[188] **viXra:1801.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 00:51:08*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache hyper I-algebra and Smarandache hyper Kalgebra are introduced, and related properties are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[187] **viXra:1801.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 00:54:21*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh, Habiib Harizavi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We introduce the notio of an extention of hyper K-algebra and Smarandache hyper (∩, ∈)-ideals on Smarandache Hyper K-algebras, and investigate its properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[186] **viXra:1801.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 01:03:17*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Seok Zun Song, Kyung Tae Kang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notion of positive immplicative Smarandache BCC-ideals is indroduced, and related properties are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[185] **viXra:1801.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 01:27:50*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Smarandache Stuctures of Generalized BCK-Algebras are considered.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[184] **viXra:1801.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 02:15:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[183] **viXra:1801.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 02:55:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Space gravity look more in line with early thougts of Newton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[182] **viXra:1801.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 03:42:15*

**Authors:** R. Pabisch

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Applying the general, classical Doppler formula (CMB-Doppler formula) of first order for two-way radio Doppler signals in the fundamental
rest frame of the isotropic cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) between earthbound Deep Space Network stations (DSN),
and the Pioneer 10 space probe (P 10) resolves the phenomenon of the residual, so far unexplained annual and diurnal signal
variations on top of the constant acceleration term *Anderson & Laing & Lau & et al. (2002), Anderson & Campbell & Ekelund & et al.
(2008)*. The anomalous annual and diurnal variations of the acceleration term vanish, if instead of the relativistic Standard-Doppler
formula (SRT-Doppler formula) of first and second order the CMB-Doppler formula is used.
That formula contains the absolute velocities u_{e} of Earth, and u_{pio} of P 10, derived from the absolute velocity
u_{sun} of the solar system barycenter in the CMB, with u_{sun} = 369.0 ± 0.9 km/s, and the relative revolution
velocity v_{e} of Earth, and the relative velocity v_{pio} of P 10 in the heliocentric frame from January 1987 until December 1996.
The flyby radio Doppler and ranging data anomalies can be resolved as well by using the CMB-Doppler formula with the absolute, asymptotic
velocities of the inbound and outbound maneuver flights, which have usually slightly different magnitudes, inducing the so far unexplained
frequency shift, and the unexplained difference in the ranging data.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[181] **viXra:1801.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 08:16:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[180] **viXra:1801.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 19:48:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its
preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[179] **viXra:1801.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 12:02:30*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article presents a new interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.
This theory postulates that :

** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c **

**
Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rubs into each other.
**

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the spatial speed of intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then time-sharing between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal state, and therefore does not contribute to measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect the observer only for the duration of its intrinsic motion (i.e. during the relativistic time). During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the spatial advance of light divided by the relativistic time (i.e. the observed relative speed) is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1801.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 05:17:24*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Russian: http://universe100.narod.ru/ English: http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html dubinyansky@mail.ru

In the wave vortices, the energy is capable of winding itself onto itself and at the same time being redistributed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[177] **viXra:1801.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 05:16:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[176] **viXra:1801.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 06:51:43*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the integral: I=int(coth(1+x^3))dx , x=0..1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[175] **viXra:1801.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 06:55:03*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[174] **viXra:1801.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 07:00:17*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we briefly explore the Ramanujan's cubic continued fraction.

**Category:** Number Theory

[173] **viXra:1801.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 07:03:26*

**Authors:** John Olafenwa, Moses Olafenwa

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Inception and the Resnet family of Convolutional Neural Network architectures have broken records in the past few years, but recent state of the
art models have also incurred very high computational cost in terms of training, inference
and model size. Making the deployment of these models on Edge devices, impractical.
In light of this, we present a new novel architecture that is designed for high computational
efficiency on both GPUs and CPUs, and is highly suited for deployment on
Mobile Applications, Smart Cameras, Iot devices and controllers as well as low cost
drones. Our architecture boasts competitive accuracies on standard datasets even outperforming
the original Resnet.
We present below the motivation for this research, the architecture of the network, single
test accuracies on CIFAR 10 and CIFAR 100, a detailed comparison with
other well-known architectures and link to an implementation in Keras.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[172] **viXra:1801.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 07:14:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28]
To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]
Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet— one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11]
New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10]
By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9]
Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[171] **viXra:1801.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 07:44:06*

**Authors:** Ryujin Choe

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Proof of Goldbach's conjecture and twin prime conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[170] **viXra:1801.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 08:06:14*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres.
Professor Adam Riess, from John Hopkins University states “A mathematical discrepancy in the expansion rate of the Universe is now "pretty serious", and could point the way to a major discovery in physics.” His newly calculated value is 73.24.(1) Sphere Theory calculates the value to be 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc (2)
If we look at Evidence for Granulated Space, we that the size of the Hubble Sphere is 13.7659 billion light years(2) If we convert this to a constant Hubble Constant it converts to 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc. This compares to the following Hubble constants calculated from the Wikipedia summary table of 71.027. (km/s)/Mpc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[169] **viXra:1801.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-13 01:45:53*

**Authors:** Juan Moreno Borrallo

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper it is proposed and proved a conjecture of existence of a prime number on the arithmetic progression
S_{a,b}=\left\{ ab+1,ab+2,ab+3,...,ab+(b-1)\right\}
As corollaries of this proof, they are proved many classical prime number’s conjectures and theorems, but mainly Bertrand's theorem, and Oppermann's, Legendre’s, Brocard’s, and Andrica’s conjectures.
It is also defined a new maximum interval between any natural number and the nearest prime number.
Finally, it is stated a corollary which implies some advance on the conjecture of the existence of infinite prime numbers of the form n^{2}+1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[168] **viXra:1801.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-19 07:59:39*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Om efficiënt met objecten te kunnen werken is het niet nodig om de detailstructuur van objecten te kennen. Het is voldoende om het gedrag van deze objecten te kennen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[167] **viXra:1801.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 20:14:48*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith, Asko Mäki-Tanila

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A series of programs are described which calculate the inverse of the extended genomic table. These programs are demonstrated using a pedigree taken from a selection experiment involving egg-laying hens. The calculations are feasible and the inverse matrix was found to be sparse.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[166] **viXra:1801.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 00:20:54*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Submitted to FQXi essay contest 2017

Fundamentalism, the belief that there exists some irreducible basic truths in anything connected with nature, has existed for a very long time. But its significance as a distinct metaphysical concept has not been properly analyzed so far. This essay is an attempt to formalize 'a concept of fundamentalism', which can be defined as follows: “Any field of knowledge has some fundamentals, based on which everything in that field can be logically explained, and so by identifying the fundamentals, we can arrive at the truth”. A fundamentalist approach in physics predicts the existence and the attributes of a Theory of Everything.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[165] **viXra:1801.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 04:02:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[164] **viXra:1801.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-17 12:52:43*

**Authors:** Haofeng Zhang

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this paper for equation Axm+Byn=Czk , where m,n,k > 2, x,y,z > 2, A,B,C≥1 and gcd(Ax,By,Cz)=1, the author proves there are no positive integer solutions for this equation using “Order reducing method for equations” that the author invented for solving high order equations, in which let the equation become two equations, through comparing the two roots to prove there are no positive integer solutions for this equation under the assumption of no positive integer solutions for Ax^3+By^3=Cz^3 when Ax^m-i+By^n-i>Cz^k-i.

**Category:** Number Theory

[163] **viXra:1801.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 06:18:40*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric
Theory, we calculated the threshold energies for the 11 most important breaks in the cosmic-
ray spectra: 5 for the cosmic electrons plus positrons, 1 for positrons and 5 for all cosmic
particles. Obtained results are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[162] **viXra:1801.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 23:17:51*

**Authors:** Thanaphat Srivantana, Kiattisak Maichalernnukul

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we propose various kinds of energy-efficient two-way multi-antenna relaying with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and investigate their performance. Specifically, we first consider a two-way relay network where a pair of single-antenna end nodes communicate with each other through a multi-antenna relay node that is energy constrained. This relay node harvests energy from the two end nodes and use the harvested energy for forwarding their information. Three relaying schemes which support the considered network then build on the power splitting-based relaying protocol. The average bit error rates of these schemes are evaluated and compared by computer simulations considering several network parameters, including the number of relay antennas and the power splitting ratio. Such evaluation and comparison provide useful insights into the performance of SWIPT-based two-way multi-antenna relaying.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[161] **viXra:1801.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 02:38:43*

**Authors:** Vladimir A. Kuz`menko

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There is independent experimental evidence in favor of conspiracy theory in the explanation of the physical nature of quantum interference in experiments with slits and interferometers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[160] **viXra:1801.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 05:10:11*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When Beauty runs deeper than the skin, it’s a truth, if the truth adds up to simplicity that’s elegance. After all complexity is the sun total of repeated simplicity & behind every complex system lays a simple beautiful principle that makes it work. Like tortoise carries shell on its back. Do we carry the universe in our heads? I later invoke U-Duality to examine symmetries on a circle at D=11 and reveal why space-time on a Brane is tantamount to that on a brain.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[159] **viXra:1801.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 23:28:12*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating number of days passed since the introduction of Gregorian Calendar for any given date using simplified formula. It consists of nine algebraic expressions, five of which are integer function by substituting the year, month and day. This formula will calculate the n^th days which gives a number from 1 to ∞ (October 15, 1582 being the day one), that determines the exact number of days passed. This algorithm has no condition even during leap-year and 400-year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1801.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-24 11:44:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on both actual and apparent reduction (equal) of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when the light is transmitted on moving material systems, on which the cohesive pressure of the proximal space is reduced. The apparent reduction of
light speed happens due to the aberration of light, which can be used as a detection
criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor of special relativity is the tool for the mathematical expression of the problem that had arisen from the Michelson-Morley experiment. Of course, the time dilation was an ingenious and pioneering idea, which has been accepted, ignoring, though, the real cause of the slowing of the moving clock, i.e. the phenomenon of motion. However, this same reduction factor appears as well in the unified theory of dynamic space1 with the Galilean transformations, by calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on moving material systems, not based on the second postulate of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[157] **viXra:1801.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 09:47:25*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[156] **viXra:1801.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 08:23:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics. [28] By exploiting the properties of neutrons to probe electrons in a metal, a team of researchers led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has gained new insight into the behavior of correlated electron systems, which are materials that have useful properties such as magnetism or superconductivity. [27] By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[155] **viXra:1801.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 09:13:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Gamma ray bursts, intense explosions of light, are the brightest events ever observed in the universe – lasting no longer than seconds or minutes. [14]
X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13]
Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12]
A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11]
On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10]
It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9]
Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars - highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8]
Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7]
NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[154] **viXra:1801.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 13:19:53*

**Authors:** Lex Neale

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Integral Relativity, as an extension of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Advanced Relativity, has four proposed Tenets: (1) The Equation of Energy with Awareness; (2) The Conservation of Awareness; (3) The Continuum of Energy, Consciousness, Mind and Matter via the Kosmic Constant; (4) The Integral Relativity between Observers and the Observed in Hilbert Spaces as specified Frequency Domains. It is corroborated by the Observer Effect in all the related double slit and interferometer experiments, most notably those of Dean Radin’s Sigma 5.7 rated results (2016); by the Unified Spacememory Network, modeled by Nassim Haramein and William Brown (2016); by Elizabeth Rauscher’s Complex Eight Dimensional Model of Minkowsky Space; and is modeled by an extension of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrants, All Levels (AQAL) Integral model called the “AQAL Cube” (Neale, 2011), which correlates non- physical existence with physical existence.
Integral Relativity predicts that the Observer and observed are a mutually inclusive Consciousness/Mind/Energy/Matter continuum. We propose that the terms Consciousness and Mind be no longer used synonymously in the scientific community, but differentiated as an integral Awareness/Energy continuum between Hilbert Spaces, where Consciousness is non-local or Subtle awareness, and Mind is its correlated local or Concrete awareness and means of en-action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[153] **viXra:1801.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 16:15:21*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 37 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Horandstrasse, Jever, Germany. Published by: Journal of Biosciences and Medicines Vol.6 No.3, March 14, 2018

Objective: Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiome has an increas-ingly important role in human disease and health. Fusobacterium nucleatum has been identified in several studies as the leading gut bacterium which is present in colorectal cancer (CRC). Still it is not clear if Fusobacterium plays a causal role.
Methods: To explore the cause-effect relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer, a systematic review and re-analysis of studies published was performed. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis without Fusobacterium nucleatum infection no colorectal cancer. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05
Result: The data analyzed support the Null-hypothesis that without Fusobacterium nucleatum infection no colorectal cancer. In the same respect, the studies analyzed provide highly significant cause effect relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer.
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Fusobacterium (nucleatum) is the cause of colorectal cancer.

**Category:** Statistics

[152] **viXra:1801.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-04 17:24:51*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

Широко распространено мнение, что эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли с 1887 года и эксперимент Кеннеди-Торндайка с 1932 года показали, что нет универсальной системы отсчета (эфир) и что скорость света в вакууме абсолютно постоянна. Анализ этих экспериментов привел к созданию Специальной Теории Относительности (СТО).
В статье объясняется, почему с помощью экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не могла быть обнаружена универсальная система отсчета.
Кроме того, в этой статье мы выводим на основе геометрического анализа экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка другое преобразование координат и времени, чем преобразование Лоренца. Мы выводим преобразование, предполагая, что существует универсальная система отсчета (universal frame of reference - UFR, эфир). UFR является системой отсчета, которая отличается тем, что скорость света в ней постоянна в любом направлении. В инерциальных системах отсчета, движущихся относительно UFR, скорость света может быть разной.
В статье мы получаем формулу для относительной скорости и формулы для максимальной и минимальной скорости света, которая может быть измерена в инерциальной системе. В конце, используя представленную теорию, объясняется явление анизотропии микроволнового фонового излучения. Согласно модели кинематики тел, представленной в этой статье, аберрация микроволнового фонового излучения для наблюдателя, движущегося относительно UFR, обусловлена эффектом Доплера.
Вся статья содержит только оригинальные исследования авторов публикации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[151] **viXra:1801.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-19 18:10:59*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed (in Russian).

В статье представлен мой новаторский метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности. Этот метод позволяет выводить бесконечно много динамик в релятивистской механике. Я показал пять примеров таких выводов. Таким образом, я доказал, что динамика, известная сегодня как динамика Специальной Теории Относительности, является только одной из бесконечно многих возможных. Также нет никаких оснований, ни по экспериментальным, ни по теоретическим причинам, чтобы считать эту, действующую релятивистскую динамику, исключительной. В связи с этим решение, какая из возможных динамик релятивистской механики является правильной, остаётся открытой проблемой физики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[150] **viXra:1801.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-25 17:09:45*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

String theory is an unrealistic theory because it's based on 11 dimensions, our universe only has 3 dimensions. Those 7 extra dimensions cannot exist in our universe because a dimension is based on the following principle, the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[149] **viXra:1801.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 00:37:04*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Setting the criminal norm.

**Category:** Social Science

[148] **viXra:1801.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 00:42:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) All numbers of the form 2*k*645 – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 945, 2205, 3465, 4725, 5985, 7245, 8505, 9765...(II) All numbers of the form 2*k*1905 – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 3465, 7245, 11025, 14805, 18585, 22365, 26145, 29925...(III) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[147] **viXra:1801.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 03:28:23*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) All numbers of the form 2*k*41041 – 1001*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 81081, 243243, 405405, 567567, 729729, 891891, 1054053, 1216215...(II) All numbers of the form 2*k*101101 + 5005*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 207207, 621621, 1036035, 1450449, 1864863, 2279277, 2693691, 3108105...(III) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P – 1001*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; (IV) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P + 5005*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[146] **viXra:1801.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 04:26:21*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. site http://universe100.narod.ru/index.html

The hypothesis is stated that the whole variety of the material world, the whole variety of elementary particles, the whole variety of physics, can be explained by localized solutions of the three-dimensional wave equation in the elastic continuum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[145] **viXra:1801.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 05:28:47*

**Authors:** Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 1 Page. Details on the site http://universe100.narod.ru/

The universe is a solid elastic continuum - gukuum. This continuum does not contain any numerical parameters or constraints.
All visible and invisible objects of the universe, from large to small, are wave objects in this continuum.
All the wave objects in the gukuum are described by the letter specification of the elasticity parameters of the solid body and the three-dimensional wave equation.
The nonlinearity that exists in the universe is explained by the law of "winding the linear solution on itself." As a result of such winding, or layering, the linear solution becomes non-linear and creates the entire variety of the material world.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[144] **viXra:1801.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 05:43:59*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there exist palindromic abundant numbers P such that n = P – q^2 + 1 is an abundant number for any q prime, q ≥ 5 (of course, for q^2 < P + 1). The first such P is the first palindromic abundant number 66 (with corresponding [q, n] = [5, 42], [7, 18]. Another such palindromic abundant numbers are 222, 252, 282, 414, 444, 474, 606, 636, 666. Up to 666, the palindromic abundant numbers 88, 272, 464, 616 don’t have this property. Questions: are there infinite many such palindromic abundant numbers? What other sets of integers have this property beside palindromic abundant numbers?

**Category:** Number Theory

[143] **viXra:1801.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 11:24:41*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The concept of entropy is generally defined for systems in which there is a heat exchange and it is connected with concepts of temperature and of internal disorder of system. This paper has the aim of examining the possibility of extending entropy to the generality of physical systems through the concept of specific entropy in which not necessarily heat is the only shape of energy that has to be considered. The outcome is that the concept of entropy can be extended from thermodynamic systems to other physical systems, including mechanical, gravitational and elementary electrodynamic systems. While all physical systems show the same behaviour with respect to the specific entropy, only mass electrodynamic particles show a different behaviour in instability conditions.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[142] **viXra:1801.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 12:47:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[141] **viXra:1801.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 13:51:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 3 photocopies of a book with notes, 1 illustrative diagram

A few thoughts as compared to early scientists on white dwarfs, (super)novas and stellar youth in the general theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[140] **viXra:1801.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-31 07:54:47*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[139] **viXra:1801.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 21:02:25*

**Authors:** Xu Chen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this article, we will discuss a localization formulas of equlvariant cohomology about two Killing vector fields on the set of zero points
${\rm{Zero}}(X_{M}-\sqrt{-1}Y_{M})=\{x\in M \mid |Y_{M}(x)|=|X_{M}(x)|=0 \}.$ As application, we use it to get formulas about characteristic numbers and to get a Duistermaat-Heckman type formula on symplectic manifold.

**Category:** Geometry

[138] **viXra:1801.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 21:07:54*

**Authors:** Xu Chen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We extend the reslut about Poincar\'e-Hopf type formula for the difference of the Chern character numbers (cf.[3]) to the non-isolated singularities, and establish a Poincar\'e-Hopf type formula for a pair of vector field with the function $h^{T_{\mathbb{C}}M}(\cdot,\cdot)$ has non-isolated zero points over a closed, oriented smooth manifold
of dimension $2n$.

**Category:** Geometry

[137] **viXra:1801.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 22:25:10*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating days difference between Gregorian & Julian
calendar using simplified formula. It consists of two integer function by substituting the year.
This formula will determine the exact number of days in any given Year as of December 31.
This algorithm has no condition even during leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[136] **viXra:1801.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 03:08:57*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there exist Poulet numbers P such that n = P – q^2 is an abundant number for any q prime, q ≥ 5 (of course, for q^2 < P). The first such P is 1105 (with corresponding [q, n] = [5, 1080], [7, 1056], [11, 984], [13, 936], [17, 816], [19, 744], [23, 576], [29, 264], [31, 144]). Another such Poulet numbers are 1387, 1729, 2047, 2701, 2821. Up to 2821, the Poulet numbers 341, 561, 645, 1905, 2465 don’t have this property. Questions: are there infinite many such Poulet numbers? What other sets of integers have this property beside Poulet numbers?

**Category:** Number Theory

[135] **viXra:1801.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 07:44:59*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Using a length scale, we construct an n-independent, one-dimensional shifted Coulomb potential, which, with the addition of a delta potential with n-dependent coupling, forms a quasi-exactly solvable model. Making a polynomial ansatz for the closed-form eigenfunctions, we obtain a three-term recursion relation, from which the known energies are derived and the polynomial coefficients are factorized. The coupling is then written in terms of a continued fraction, which, as n tends to infinity, reveals a triangular symmetry and converges. Finally, the location of the closed-form eigenfunctions is determined and the first ones are examined.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1801.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 08:02:40*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that D + R(D), where R(D) is the number obtained reversing the digits of D which is the number obtained concatenating the prime factors of P, is a palindromic number (example: such a Poulet number is P = 12801; the prime factors of 12801 are 3, 17 and 251, then D = 317251 and D + R(D) = 317251 + 152713 = 469964, a palindromic number); (II) There is no a number obtained concatenating the prime factors of a Poulet number to be a Lychrel number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[133] **viXra:1801.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 09:58:16*

**Authors:** Daniel Archer

**Comments:** 3 Pages. For my father, in memoriam

A look at the evolution from a Gas Dwarf (Neptune) to a Life Host (Earth) and describing what
happens in each phase; where the real history of how the crust of the Earth formed and evolved is theorized; the first crust a complete shell that expanded.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[132] **viXra:1801.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 23:14:43*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Biased statistics can arise from computational errors, belief in non-existent or unproven correlations ...or acceptance of premises proven invalid scientifically.
It is the latter that will be examined here for the case of human life expectancy, whose values are well-known...and virtually never challenged as to their basic assumptions.
Whether the false premises are accidental, a case of overlooking the obvious...or if they may be deliberate distortions serving a subliminal agenda.... is beyond the scope of this analysis.

**Category:** Statistics

[131] **viXra:1801.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 01:53:56*

**Authors:** Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 03 Pages. Interested people may contact k,me at any time. Tha

The 5th Euclidean postulate is 2300 years old mathematical impossibility. I have worked on this problem for nearly b35 years and found a number of consistent solutions. My findings have been appeared in international peer reviewed research journals.
Generation of power freely from space, space Bombs, Lion’s Tonic and Lemurian Yoga are my ambitious scientific projects.
Interested researchers and people may contact me at +91 8508991577.
My email is math.kalimuthu@gmail.com and arutperunjothi@outlook.com

**Category:** Geometry

[130] **viXra:1801.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 03:48:51*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this work we show that it is possible to formulate quantum mechanics from general relativity in both pseudo-Euclidean and Euclidean metric by showing that the three-dimensional differentiable spacetime structure of a quantum particle can be converted to that of a manifestly Minkowski spacetime or a manifestly Euclidean spacetime. This is equivalent to viewing and describing three-dimensional quantum particles as normal particles in classical and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[129] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 06:29:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a large-scale structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[128] **viXra:1801.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 05:38:28*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The invention of flow-through magnetic ethereal jet engines EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” opens the potential of ether in a new power engineering development.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] **viXra:1801.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 07:42:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

By exploiting the properties of neutrons to probe electrons in a metal, a team of researchers led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has gained new insight into the behavior of correlated electron systems, which are materials that have useful properties such as magnetism or superconductivity. [27] By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[126] **viXra:1801.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 08:08:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In recent years, however, the limits to that technology have become clear: Chip components can only get so small, and be packed only so closely together, before they overlap or short-circuit. If companies are to continue building ever-faster computers, something will need to change. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1801.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-12 04:58:17*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 7 Pages. More details are added to the proof of the main result and the conclusion is re-written.

We prove that partial sums of zeta(n>=2) are not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of their terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that partials are excluded from an ever greater number of rational values. The limit of the partials is zeta(n) and the limit of the exclusions leaves only irrational numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[124] **viXra:1801.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 10:50:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. [18]
Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17]
Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14]
Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[123] **viXra:1801.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 11:09:28*

**Authors:** Preininger Helmut

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is an appendix of Natural Squarefree Numbers: Statistical Properties [PR04]. In this appendix we calculate the probability of c is squarefree, where c=a*b, a is an element of the set X and b is an element of the set Y.

**Category:** Number Theory

[122] **viXra:1801.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 12:03:09*

**Authors:** Rhea Bonnerji, Simanta Sarkar, Krishnendu Rarhi, Abhishek Bhattacharya

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper deals with the merger of the two lightweight stream ciphers – A5/1 and Trivium. The idea is to make the key stream generation more secure and to remove the attacks of the individual algorithms. The bits generated by the Trivium cipher (output) will act as the input of the A5/1 cipher. The registers used in the A5/1 cipher will be filled by the output bits of the Trivium cipher. The three registers will then be connected to generate an output which will be our required key stream. we are using Trivium and A5/1 algorithm and making changes to suit our needs.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[121] **viXra:1801.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 14:06:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A protein involved in cognition and storing long-term memories looks and acts like a protein from viruses. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Mind Science

[120] **viXra:1801.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 14:43:16*

**Authors:** Mark Burgin

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Different thinkers suggested varied images and descriptions of mathematics. Platonists believe that mathematical objects exist as Platonic Ideas and mathematicians only discover them. Nominalists think that mathematics is the contents of mathematical manuscripts, books, papers and lectures, with the increasingly growing net of theorems, definitions, proofs, constructions, and conjectures. Pragmatists assume that mathematics exists in mentality of people and when mathematicians introduce new objects they invent and then build them. An interesting peculiarity of the situation is that all these opinions and some others are true but … incomplete. The goal of this work is to explain this peculiarity presenting a complete vision of mathematics as an interconnected Whole.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1801.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 22:19:15*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract
Newton’s Bucket has been an enigma since being published in the Principia in 1687.
It was the source of debate between Newton’s absolute space and Ernst Mach’s concept of relative rotation with respect to distant objects.
Wikipedia’s rendition of the Bucket argument provides no solution but just confusion by ignoring some basic facts which will be pointed out in the detailed edits below.
•Relativity is assumed true instead of being proven true
•Kinematics and dynamics are not distinguished
•Arguing against discarded theories is pointless
•Switching reference frames during observations is fatal
•Missing the crucial role of the lab frame
•Fictitious forces are symbols of fictitious physics.
The key is to recognize that:
water at rest in the bucket frame => no rotation => no centrifugal force => no covariance => laws of dynamics are invalid in a non-lab frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1801.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 00:20:08*

**Authors:** Fujun Liu, Yongze Yu, Lei Wang, Liting Yi, Jinrong Lu, Bin Yuan, Sicong Tan, Jing Liu

**Comments:** 15 pages, 6 figures

The entirely soft and transformable room-temperature liquid metal battery based on 3D hybrid printing was proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Liquid metal gallium and conductive gel were employed as the negative and positive electrode material, respectively. The discharge process of batteries with different structure, single-cell and multi-cell, were clarified. The results indicated that the obtained battery possessed rather stable and persisted discharge property, but the multi-cell battery presented stair-step decrease overtime. SEM and EDS images were obtained to evaluate the morphological change of the electrode during the discharge process, and the liquid metal was found to be easily exposed and active according to the solubility of the alkaline electrolyte to oxidized gallium. The successful 3D hybrid printing allowed different polymers, including PLA, ABS and TPU, to be precisely patterned in any required battery body structures, with liquid electrodes in appropriate specified positions. The flexibility and practicability of this new generation battery was illustrated through working devices. The present soft battery opens important power supply for future wearable and epidermal electronics.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[117] **viXra:1801.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 23:58:46*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating the number of days in any given Year in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of seven algebraic 3 for Julian expression, six of it are integer function by substituting the year. This formula will calculate the number of days which gives a number from 365 to 366 that determines the exact number of days in a given Year. This algorithm has no condition even during leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1801.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 07:35:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17]
Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14]
Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[115] **viXra:1801.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 09:02:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Searching large, unordered databases for a desired item is a time-consuming task for classical computers, but quantum computers are expected to perform these searches much more quickly. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[114] **viXra:1801.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 10:14:43*

**Authors:** Jean claude Perez

**Comments:** 50 Pages. none

The discovery of a simple numerical formula for the projection of all the atomic mass of life-sustaining CONHSP bioatoms leads to the emergence of a set of Nested CODES unifying all the biological, genetic and genomic components by unifying them from bioatoms up to whole genomes. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a digital meta-code common to the three languages of biology that are RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences. Through this meta-code, genomic and proteomic images appear almost analogous and correlated. The analysis of the textures of these images then reveals a binary code as well as an undulatory code whose analysis on the human genome makes it possible to predict the alternating bands constituting the karyotypes of the chromosomes. The application of these codes to perspectives in astrobiology and the emergence of binary codes and regions of local stability (voting process), whose fractal nature we demonstrate is illustrated.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[113] **viXra:1801.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 11:22:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Rice University scientists have created a toolkit for synthetic biologists who need to precisely tune the input and output levels of genetic circuits. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[112] **viXra:1801.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 12:50:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[111] **viXra:1801.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Jorge Martinez Fernandez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to present a new
cosmological model, based on the union of the Wilhelm
De Sitter Model applying the equations of the Russian
physicist Anatoli Logunov in the Relativistic Theory of
Gravitation (TRG).
The general ideas of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation
(GRT) are based on the ideas of Poincaré, Minkowski,
Einstein and Hilbert, all within the framework of Special
Relativity (SR).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1801.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 13:53:54*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In recent times, there is a substantial debate about the right [or not] of inhabitants of certain regions of Spain 'to decide' whether they wish to continue forming part of Spain or become independent republics / states. Some political parties claim this ‘right to decide’ is a fundamental right of any democracy, while others argue the opposite.
In this text, we review this issue from the Social Choice Theory point of view. We begin by reviewing the arguments of those who desire to change the current situation [those who request this ‘right to decide’], then outline the conditions that would allow for a democratic referendum on the independence [or not] of different regions of Spain.

**Category:** Social Science

[109] **viXra:1801.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 08:00:32*

**Authors:** Gary Osborn

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The cosmological redshift may be explainable with a gravitational version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[108] **viXra:1801.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 05:35:40*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract. This study is an algorithm of calculating the day of the week for any given date in
Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of eight algebraic 6 for Julian
expression, five of which are integer function by substituting the year, month and day. This
formula will calculate the modulo 7 which gives a number from 0 to 6, i.e., 0Saturday,
1Sunday, and so on, that determines the exact day of the week. This algorithm has no
condition even during leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1801.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 01:52:00*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A continuum in sight.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[106] **viXra:1801.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-11 04:52:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This conscious string theory also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical cold Big Bang evaporation into 8 or 12 CP ( Charge Parity) symmetric copy (anti) material universes.
It can be called a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum shaped rigid stringy entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 7 or 11 CP symmetric copy particles located inside the other 7 or 11 CP symmetric universal bubbles at long distance with raspberry shape.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. So each particle has to compete for wavefunction collapse with 7 or 11 anti copy particles and each person’s choice ( free will) also.
So: we live inside 8 or 12 quantum particle based instant entangled pinball machines making choices for our own reptile brain based flash intuition down to single particle slit interference. However our frontal cortex seems to be able to make social corrections ( Vetos) within 300 msec.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for other theories.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1801.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 07:37:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Now University of Rochester researchers have succeeded in creating particles with negative mass in an atomically thin semiconductor, by causing it to interact with confined light in an optical microcavity. [25] The device is a type of spectrometer—an optical instrument that takes light and breaks it down into components to reveal a catalogue of information about an object. [24] When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[104] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-20 17:57:17*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Consider how the meridians of gnomonic projected light waves onto vision receptors are similarly distorted. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[103] **viXra:1801.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 11:13:58*

**Authors:** MENDZINA ESSOMBA François

**Comments:** 03 Pages.

a new continuous fractions...

**Category:** Number Theory

[102] **viXra:1801.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 13:10:24*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The assessment of hidden causal relationships, e.g., adverse drug reactions in pharmacovigilance, is currently based on rather qualitative parameters. In order to find more quantifiable parameters able to establish the validity of the alleged correlations between drug intake and onset of symptoms, we introduce the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference projects to two points on a sphere. The BUT stands for a general principle that describes issues from neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, chaotic systems, group theory, cosmology. Here we introduce a novel BUT variant, termed operational-BUT, that evaluates causal relationships. Further, we demonstrate that the BUT is correlated with graph theory and in particular with the so-called Kneser graphs: this means that the combinatory features of observables, such as the bodily responses to drug intake, can be described in terms of dynamical mappings and paths taking place on well-established abstract structures. Therefore, physical and biological dynamical systems (including alleged causes and their unknown effects) make predictable moves into peculiar phase spaces, giving rise to
constrained trajectories that can be quantified.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[101] **viXra:1801.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-10 08:31:30*

**Authors:** Augustus Prince

**Comments:** 51 Pages. work of Augustus Prince submitted by Roger Anderton and Bill Ryan

Using an analysis from a physical and phenomenological viewpoint employing the renowned and recognized continuity of Boscovich’s force curve, a new paradigm is formulated to explicate various physical phenomena in both the microworld and the macro-world. Within this paradigm, an algorithm is established which produced a functional representation of the atomic spectra of hydrogen and a temperature dependent blackbody energy distribution of radiation which compares very favorably with the experimental data. Further representations afford suggestions for the predictions of the specific heat of solids, photoelectric effect, etc. The Boscovichian points are assumed to move under the action of a force (acceleration) that varies inversely proportional to the cube of the radius from the point center, which leads to an orbit described by an equiangular (logarithmic) spiral. This spiral is subsequently used to simulate the concepts used in phyllotaxis (a constituent of plant morphology) and the gnomonic growth of mollusk shells (e.g. nautilus). The intercepts for the stable and unstable points on the Boscovich curve, which are the roots of the equation used, are calculated via the application of Fibonacci-type sequence of integers. In addition, utilizing the shape of Boscovich's "extended" curve of force (acceleration), the prospect of interpreting the mysterious attractive force beyond the visible Newtonian region of space (e.g. black holes, dark energy, etc.) is proposed. It is hoped that this phenomenological approach will serve as a beginning for description of both the micro-universe and the macrouniverse.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[100] **viXra:1801.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 18:46:32*

**Authors:** Vixraisshit Usearxiv

**Comments:** 85 Pages. why are you still reading this? go to arXiv!!!

viXra is shitt
go use arXiv
if i can publish bs liek dis den why tf shood you trust anything on dis cite
P.S. I'm not illiterate, it's to prove my point.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[99] **viXra:1801.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 19:51:36*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

-The Solar Planets order proves that, the planet orbital distance is defined based on his Diameter and NOT his Mass, which disproves the Gravity Theory..
But
-Planet Diameter and Orbital Distance Relationship Equation is so hard to define…! Why?
Because
-The solar Group has 2 Heads (The Sun and Earth).
The Solar Group is A Dipole….
We need to modify the Solar Group Basic Description to be " A Dipole System"…
-This paper also discusses the Sun nature and Origin…

**Category:** Astrophysics

[98] **viXra:1801.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 22:02:12*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A sudden praecox shock.

**Category:** Social Science

[97] **viXra:1801.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 22:28:28*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 304 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[96] **viXra:1801.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-19 05:34:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 299 Pages. This book will be published by Pons Editions, Brussels. Your comments are welcome

This book is a compilation of some rather old papers and some new papers, by myself and also Prof. Florentin Smarandache. In some papers, we also join working with other colleagues, e.g. Dr. Volodymyr Krasnoholovets from IOP Ukraine, Sergey Ershkov, and Dr. Yunita Umniyati. This compilation is inspired from a series of prophetic seminars by Rev. Jan Friso from Kingdom Impact, and also a discussion with Minister Dr. Robby Chandra. All in all, we are also grateful to a number of colleagues, including Prof. Thee Houw Liong, Prof. Liek Wilardjo, Prof. Atmonobudi Soebagyo, Dr. David Widihandojo, Sujarwo Silas & Linda, Dr. Wonsuk Ma, Minister Gatut Budiyono, Minister Gani Wiyono, Dr. Yonky Karman, Dr. Joas Adiprasetya, Dr. Paskalis Edwin Nyoman Paska, Minister Yulia Oeniyati, Prof. Akira Kanda, Dr. Carmen Wrede, Mrs. Hiroko Morioka, Prof. Jose Carlos Tiago Oliveira and Prof. Gusto Gadama, and many others, who often encouraged and reminded us to keep on being faithful Christians in this darkness time. As a last note, we also thank to Holy Spirit who always guide us in our way, especially whenever we were lost of our path to find the truth. That is why this book with title: "Let The Wind blow" is dedicated to Holy Spirit. Let us pray that the Holy Spirit will be poured to everyone in our time, as prophesied by Joel, one of OT prophets.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[95] **viXra:1801.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 02:13:45*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 100 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Quantized Gravitational Field
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors, from your books that the gravitational field g is a vector at each point of space and time, a vector pointing directly towards the particle.
In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function.
Gravitons do not exist in Einstein’s gravitation theory, because General relativity is not a quantum theory.
“In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not a vector at each point of space and time, where there are not gravitons there is not gravitational field”
Adrian Ferent
“In my Gravitation theory the density of flux lines is replaced by graviton flux”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitation field lines are gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Each graviton in the gravitational field has a speed v and a negative momentum p = -mv”
Adrian Ferent
“The graviton flux is defined as the number of gravitons per second per unit area”
Adrian Ferent
“The power density is the graviton flux multiplied by the energy of a single graviton”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[94] **viXra:1801.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-07 15:48:13*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

A moving object in one inertial reference frame always moves at a different speed in another
inertial reference frame. To determine this different speed, a temporary acceleration
is applied to a duplicate of the first inertial reference frame in order to match
the second inertial reference frame. The velocity transformation between two inertial
reference frames is precisely derived based on the applied acceleration. The result shows that
velocity transformation depends exclusively on the relative motion between inertial
reference frames. Velocity transformation is independent of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[93] **viXra:1801.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 08:24:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1801.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 08:48:03*

**Authors:** A.Polorovskii

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new system of classification that greatly simplifies the task of classifying (or setifying) all finite simple groups (Hereafter referred to as FSGs.) We propose classification of FSGs by identifying each group with the equivalence class of certain groups up to isomorphism. Furthermore, it is shown that every FSG belongs to at least one of the equivalence classes herein.
Using our new classification, the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis is proven.

**Category:** Algebra

[91] **viXra:1801.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 09:48:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have developed a method to visually image the entanglement between electrons. [15] In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[90] **viXra:1801.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 11:34:24*

**Authors:** J. Wohlert, A. M. Munk, S. Sengupta, F. Laumann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose a method for transfer learning for deep networks through Bayesian inference, where an approximate posterior distribution q(w|θ) of model parameters w is learned through variational approximation. Utilizing Bayes by Backprop we optimize the parameters θ associated with the approximate distribution. When performing transfer learning we consider two tasks; A and B. Firstly, an approximate posterior q_A(w|θ) is learned from task A which is afterwards transferred as a prior p(w) → q_A(w|θ) when learning the approximate posterior distribution q_B(w|θ) for task B. Initially, we consider a multivariate normal distribution q(w|θ) = N (µ, Σ), with diagonal covariance matrix Σ. Secondly, we consider the prospects of introducing more expressive approximate distributions - specifically those known as normalizing flows. By investigating these concepts on the MNIST data set we conclude that utilizing normalizing flows does not improve Bayesian inference in the context presented here. Further, we show that transfer learning is not feasible using our proposed architecture and our definition of task A and task B, but no general conclusion regarding rejecting a Bayesian approach to transfer learning can be made.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[89] **viXra:1801.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 14:47:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Spin physicists first observed the tendency of more neutrons to emerge slightly to the right in proton-proton interactions in 2001-2002, during RHIC's first polarized proton experiments. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[88] **viXra:1801.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 22:06:09*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the NP-hard problem of minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points
in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region.
Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron,
solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm.
Finally, as we find a polynomial-time algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem,
we conclude that P = NP

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[87] **viXra:1801.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 23:54:12*

**Authors:** Dave Ryan T. Cariño

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating the number of days of the Month‐Year for any given Month and Year in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of eleven algebraic 6 for Julian expression, all of it are integer function by substituting the year and month. This formula will calculate the number of days which gives a number from 28 to 31 that determines the exact number of days in a given Month‐Year. This algorithm has no condition even during leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[86] **viXra:1801.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 01:18:20*

**Authors:** Georgina Woodward

**Comments:** Pages.

An extended version of the frog and the swarm of flies. With additional explanation of the analogy, and comparison of superposition from the hive mind to quantum physics theoretical superposition of outcome states.
Rather than frog and bird views of the universe as suggested by Max Tegmark, this considers the frog and hive mind of a swarm of super intelligent bees. Arguing that the aggregate view of the hive mind demonstrates the relativity of variables, and that their collective view also represents 'many worlds' of possibility from the point of view of a frog with just a singular viewpoint.This ties together ideas of relativity and QM

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[85] **viXra:1801.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 07:16:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, scientists have provided a bridge, which they call the quantum loop topography technique. This is a machine-learning algorithm based on neural networks. [10] A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[84] **viXra:1801.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-16 06:00:50*

**Authors:** Martin Nicholson

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Presentation is improved, a theorem, a corollary and some references are added

In this brief note, we show how to apply Kummer's and other quadratic transformation formulas for Gauss' and generalized hypergeometric functions in order to obtain transformation and summation formulas for series with harmonic numbers that contain one or two continuous parameters.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[83] **viXra:1801.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 08:18:20*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Abstract: Presently, ‘heat’ is understood as a type of energy and ‘heating’ as a process of transfer of energy. Energy, being ability to do work, is a quality and hence a functional entity. Functional entities have neither objective reality nor positive existence in space. Therefore, energy has neither form, nor structure, nor real existence. However, in contemporary physics, energy (an imaginary entity) is treated almost like a real entity with form, structure, objective reality with ability to transfer and can change forms. It is currently used as cause of actions, where no other cause is obvious.
According to an alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, energy is a functional entity that develops wherever and whenever work is done in association with a three-dimensional matter-body. Heating is a process of reducing three-dimensional matter-content level of a macro body. In any body, its 3D matter-content and work associated with its integrity and state are complimentary and support each other. 3D matter-content of a body is the quantity of matter it contains in the form of basic 3D matter-particles. Energy-content about a body is the strain developed, due to distortions (work-done), in universal medium about the body.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[82] **viXra:1801.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 09:38:06*

**Authors:** Rajalakshmi Heyrovska

**Comments:** 8 pages, one Table and one Fig. 1 (proves total replacement of the idea of complete dissociation by that of partial dissociation as per Arrhenius)

The interpretation of the equilibrium properties (osmotic coefficients) of solutions of sLrong electrolytes in terms of hydration and incomplete dissociation has now been extended to the whole range of concentrations from 0 to saturation. Osmotic pressure, a bulk property is characterized by a bulk hydration number and vapor pressure, a surface property, by a surface hydration number. Supporting data are provided for NaCl. The simple quantitative mathematical relations obtained here replace the complicated expressions based on the assumption of complete dissociation. (Note: This breakthrough paper was submitted originally as Accelerated communication to Coll. Czechosl. Chem. Communs in April 1994, but was not accepted even after revision. Lectures on this topic were received with enthusiasm abroad, e.g., Prof. J.N. Butler of Harvard wrote: Your approach will turn out to be elegant, powerful and even revolutionary. Eventually it was published with praise in JES 1996 and presented as a plenary talk in the Svante Arrhenius Symposium in Uppsala, commemorating the centenary of the award to him of the Nobel Prize: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320021014)

**Category:** Chemistry

[81] **viXra:1801.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 09:25:55*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel Martin

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three, composite numbers and all twin prime numbers greater than three. The conditioning (n) will be the key to make the formula work.

**Category:** Number Theory

[80] **viXra:1801.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 11:01:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[79] **viXra:1801.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 11:14:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Physicists have performed a variation of the famous 200-year-old double-slit experiment that, for the first time, involves "exotic looped trajectories" of photons. These photons travel forward through one slit, then loop around and travel back through another slit, and then sometimes loop around again and travel forward through a third slit. [15]
In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14]
Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13]
Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11]
Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[78] **viXra:1801.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 12:04:26*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1801.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 13:24:37*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Several papers, taking into account the big data outburst and novel, powerful computational tools, are starting to unveil an intricate state of affairs concerning brain dimensions. Indeed, various brain activities and their correlated mental functions can be assessed in terms of trajectories embedded in phase spaces of dimensions higher than the canonical ones. We show how, surprisingly, brain further dimensions may stand not just for methodological devices that allow a better mathematical treatment of otherwise elusive cortical activities, but also for functional or anatomical relationships among real nervous functions. Further, we describe how it is feasible to extract hidden multidimensional information from real or artificial neurodata series, and demonstrate how our mind dilutes, rather than concentrate as currently believed, the inputs coming from its surrounding environment. The principle “the higher the dimensions, the higher the information” might explain the occurrence of our mental activities and elucidate the mechanisms of the human diseases in which dimensionality reduction occurs.

**Category:** Mind Science

[76] **viXra:1801.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 15:06:47*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, predict new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research.
We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.
First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to the three known eras - initial acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe.
Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. We note that extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We propose that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena.
Third, we note that the work unites, extends, and limits aspects of traditional physics. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, and the cosmology timeline. The work provides possible insight regarding foundations of physics topics.
Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply math we use.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1801.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 17:15:09*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: the number n = p – q, where p and q are Poulet numbers, needs very few iterations of “reverse and add” to reach a palindrome. For instance, taking q = 1729 and p = 999986341201, it can be seen that only 3 iterations are needed to reach a palindrome: n = 999986341201 – 1729 = 999986339472 and we have: 999986339472 + 274933689999 = 1274920029471; 1274920029471 + 1749200294721 = 3024120324192 and 3024120324192 + 2914230214203 = 5938350538395, a palindromic number. So, relying on this, I conjecture that there exist an infinity of n, even considering q and p successive, that need just one such iteration to reach a palindrome (see sequence A015976 in OEIS for these numbers) and I also conjecture that there is no a difference between two Poulet numbers to be a Lychrel number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1801.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 19:07:08*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

E8 Physics ( viXra 1602.0319 and 1701.0495 and 1701.0496 ) is based on 26D String Theory with Strings interpreted as World-Lines and spin-2 carriers of Bohm Quantum Potential with Sarfatti Back-Reaction and an Indra’s Net with each Indra’s Jewel being a Schwinger Source. Each Schwinger Source contains about 10^27 virtual particle/antiparticle pairs and interacts with the rest of our Universe through 8 x 10^53 elements of the Monster automorphism group of each 26-dim String Theory cell modulo a Leech lattice so each Schwinger Source can contain full Blockchain information about 10^27 x 8 x 10^53 = 8 x 10^80 other Schwinger Sources in our Universe which is enough capacity to act as an Indra’s Jewel Blockchain Block for our Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[73] **viXra:1801.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-13 21:03:02*

**Authors:** Morio kikuchi

**Comments:** 296 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[72] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-14 20:53:15*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness would emerge (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s proposal of consciousness emerging from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1801.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 02:20:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: the number n = p^2 – q^2, where p and q are primes, needs very few iterations of “reverse and add” to reach a palindrome. For instance, taking q = 563 and p = 104723, it can be seen that only 3 iterations are needed to reach a palindrome: n = 104723^2 – 563^6 = 10966589760 and we have: 10966589760 + 6798566901 = 17765156661; 17765156661 + 16665156771 = 34430313432 and 34430313432 + 23431303443 = 57861616875, a palindromic number. So, relying on this, I conjecture that there exist an infinity of n, even considering q and p successive, that need just one such iteration to reach a palindrome (see sequence A015976 in OEIS for these numbers) and I also conjecture that there is no a difference between two squares of primes to be a Lychrel number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1801.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 03:28:49*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A proposal to humanity,for an inclusive system of faith and spirituality. We name this Venkatesha Nava Darshana, or simply Nava Darshana, the 'New Outlook'.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[69] **viXra:1801.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 05:12:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that (P + 4*196) + R(P + 4*196), where R(n) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n, is a palindromic number; note that I wrote 4*196 instead 784 because 196 is a number known to be related with palindromes: is the first Lychrel number, which gives the name to the “196-algorithm”; (II) For every Poulet number P there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number (P + 16*q^2) + R(P + 16*q^2) is a palindrome. The three sequences (presumed infinite by the conjectures above) mentioned in title of the paper are: (1) Palindromes of the form (P + 4*196) + R(P + 4*196), where P is a Poulet number; (2) Palindromes of the form (P + 16*q^2) + R(P + 16*q^2), where P is a Poulet number and q the least prime for which is obtained such a palindrome; (3) Palindromes of the form (1729 + 16*q^2) + R(1729 + 16*q^2), where q is prime (1729 is a well known Poulet number).

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1801.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 05:41:04*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page. All these items are off the shelf items. Try them and upload a comment with results.

The objective of this paper is to suggest that bullet with a watch battery on it(superglue them on) will have reduced mass and travel more efficiently. Place them in a conventional revolver and in a conventional shot gun.(single or double barrel)

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[67] **viXra:1801.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 07:13:35*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of squares of primes p^2 such that (p^2 + 4*196) + R(p^2 + 4*196), where R(n) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n, is a palindromic number; note that I wrote 4*196 instead 784 because 196 is a number known to be related with palindromes: is the first Lychrel number, which gives the name to the “196-algorithm”; (II) For every square of odd prime p^2 there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number (p^2 + 16*q^2) + R(p^2 + 16*q^2) is a palindrome. The three sequences (presumed infinite by the conjectures above) mentioned in title of the paper are: (1) Palindromes of the form (p^2 + 4*196) + R(p^2 + 4*196), where p^2 is a square of prime; (2) Palindromes of the form (p^2 + 16*q^2) + R(p^2 + 16*q^2), where p^2 is a square of prime and q the least prime for which is obtained such a palindrome; (3) Palindromes of the form (13^2 + 16*q^2) + R(13^2 + 16*q^2), where q is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[66] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-21 09:25:25*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Improvements to text throughout. New material in Section 10.

We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained by applying similar analysis to data from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day.
A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming space flow direction by Reginald Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed wave velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable incoming galactic direction of RA = 4.50 h, dec = -80.6 deg. Probability density plots of speeds indicated a most probable incoming galactic speed of 502 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[65] **viXra:1801.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 14:30:41*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is proposed that particles are not fundamental but arise as symmetries of an infinite dimension random field. Space-Time with signature (3,1) and gravitation arises as a double phase transformation of spinors and scalars. The 3 generations of chiral spinors of quarks and leptons and the scalar doublets of the Standard Model are found from 3d random field. The Schwarzschild space-time has no physical singularity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[64] **viXra:1801.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 18:38:49*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

In this paper we present a table of the values of the masses and diameters of the five fundamental particles (tau particle, neutron, proton, muon, electron) and the crupitsa (atom) of matter underlying all fundamental particles. These calculations are carried out in the framework of "Theory of Nature" by the author. The first version of the "Theory of Nature" was ready in May 2013. "Theory of Nature" is a revolutionary breakthrough in physics, and in our knowledge of nature and its fundamental laws.//======//
В настоящей статье представлена таблица значений масс и диаметров пяти элементарных частиц (тау-частицы, нейтрона, протона, мюона, электрона) и крупицы материи, лежащей в основе всех элементарных частиц. Эти расчёты выполнены в рамках «Теории Природы» автора. Первая версия ТП была готова в мае 2013 года. «Теория Природы» - это революционный прорыв в физике, и в наших знаниях природы и её фундаментальных законов.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:1801.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 00:51:41*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

My article began as a very short 250 words inspired by astrophysicist Jeff Hester's (pro-evolution) pages on entropy (Astronomy magazine - Oct. and Nov. 2017 -
http://www.astronomy.com/magazine/jeff-hester/2017/09/entropys-rainbow
and
http://www.astronomy.com/magazine/jeff-hester/2017/10/entropy-redux).
The letter I wrote pointed out evolution's pluses (eg adaptations) and minuses (regarding origins). It went on to speak of a human, scientific, entirely natural explanation for what is called God. It proposes that the true human condition after death and before birth is as a member of the Elohim - a name used for God in the Old Testament which, according to World Book Encyclopedia, means the PLURAL MAJESTY OF THE ONE GOD. This led to a few hundred more words about why some people call an entirely natural process "supernatural". I speculate that it must be because of the applications in thousands of years of finding a successful theory of quantum gravity (union of quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of gravity - general relativity). Like quantum mechanics and gravitation, those apps would include all space and all time, and would undoubtedly be as mysterious to us as our technology would initially be to the builders of Egypt's first pyramids. In years past, the denial of divine beings by science may have been logical. But times sometimes change radically. Such a paradigm shift seems to be upon us now, with the recent discovery of gravitational waves and the anticipation of quantum gravity. In changing times, scientists and philosophers and everyone must always keep open minds. Of course, proposing that the human condition after death and before birth is as a member of the Elohim means that humans of the far distant future must be capable of the creation attributed to God by many people throughout the centuries. Therefore, a subsection entitled Creation Of The Infinite, Eternal Cosmos Using Electronic BITS, Pi And Imaginary Time has been added to the end of this article.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[62] **viXra:1801.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 07:11:07*

**Authors:** Arsen A. Movsesyan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The questions of completeness and unity of the Gospel are considered in the article. It is soundly shown, that the existing representation of the completeness of Gospel on the basis of the Tetramorph of Ezekiel needs to be expanded with the consideration of the fifth element of prophet's vision, which has a substantial significance. In addition, on the basis of the condition of completeness of the object of cognition of the spiritual level, which is in full conformity with the expanded condition of Ezekiel, is shown, that initially complete Gospel is currently incomplete. Proceeding from these two conditions, it is soundly shown that the Gospel of Thomas is the fifth, the missing part of the Gospel of Christ.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[61] **viXra:1801.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 07:15:45*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 2 Pages. It might help to read "Visualizing Zeta(n>1) and Proving Its Irrationality" by the same author.

In a universe with meteorites on concentric circles equally spaced, spaceships can avoid collisions by every smaller increments of their trajectories. Using this idea, a story conveys the sense that Zeta increments avoid all meteorites and thus converge to an irrational number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1801.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-19 09:17:05*

**Authors:** Haofeng Zhang

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[59] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-26 03:13:33*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the Witten 'moonshine entropy' lnD, with D = 196883 = 59(59²-12²). The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the controversial tabulated one. The monstrous fifth number in the fractional development of pi is clearly involved. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D, implies the string central number 496, very close to the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses, which are connected by an holographic relation, confirming the Eddington tau-proton symmetry and the symmetrical Koide relation. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass, from its approximation 59²me, so directly tied to D, and compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] **viXra:1801.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-06 13:41:52*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages. minor correction - as always..

This paper is an appendix to the article "From Bernoulli to Laplace and Beyond"
(refenced below), and discusses different aspects of it: electromagnetism, field tensors,
general relativity, and probability.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[57] **viXra:1801.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 06:35:44*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three and composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than three. This paper develops formulas to break down the prime numbers and the composite numbers in their reductions, these formulas based on equalities allow to regroup them according to congruence characteristics.

**Category:** Number Theory

[56] **viXra:1801.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 06:38:16*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers (1 to 9), the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the Inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[55] **viXra:1801.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 06:43:09*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three and composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than 3. The key for this formula to work correctly is in the equalities and inequalities. These equalities and inequalities are created from the uncovering of the patterns of the composite numbers. The composite numbers follow very clear and determining patterns, making it possible to find them through a formula.

**Category:** Number Theory

[54] **viXra:1801.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 07:10:28*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This note presents a collection of attractors

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1801.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 07:13:24*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents some Machin-type formulas for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1801.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 07:14:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1801.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 07:20:38*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[50] **viXra:1801.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 08:21:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1801.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 09:29:14*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Equations of the general theory of relativity are derived within the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of gravitation is given. The absence of quantum gravity is predicted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[48] **viXra:1801.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 09:56:59*

**Authors:** Carlos Alejandro Chiappini

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Leonhard Euler demostró que en un poliedro regular convexo hay tres números ue cumplen una ley, expresada en una ecuación conocida como fórmula de Euler. Son el número de caras, el número de vértices y el número de aristas.
Este documento presenta algunas fórmulas más, obtenidas por ensayo y error a partir de una tabla que contiene los datos de los 5 poliedros regulares convexos. Estas fórmulas indemostradas tienen rasgos verosímiles. Buscar el modo de demostrar la invalidez o la validez de esas fórmulas podría ser, para las personas amantes de la topología, una tarea interesante.

**Category:** Geometry

[47] **viXra:1801.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 10:33:29*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let’s say one explodes a Russian TSAR in the cold spot. This would be a literal big bang and create some form of universe. Conversely a hot quantum particle could or may have caused the big bang even at equilibrium because it pops into the cold spot in the universe. Think weather, hot and cold front equals a turbulent thunder storm or violent weather patterns or conditions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[46] **viXra:1801.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 14:16:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[45] **viXra:1801.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 17:28:10*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is explained that GJ 436b is a gas dwarf/pre-ocean world according to the measurement of its radius. A simple illustration offered by an establishment physicist shows this and an explanation for its stage of evolution is provided according to the general theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[44] **viXra:1801.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 00:20:25*

**Authors:** Horea Muresan, Mihai Oltean

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Data can be downloaded from https://github.com/Horea94/Fruit-Images-Dataset

In this paper we introduce a new, high-quality, dataset of images containing fruits. We also present the results of some numerical experiment
for training a neural network to detect fruits. We discuss the reason why we chose to use fruits in this project by proposing a few applications that could use this kind of neural network.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[43] **viXra:1801.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 14:59:36*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

„Geomagnetic pole” shift will weaken Earth’s vortex, this should reduce Earth’s orbital inclination. Orbital distance of the Moon might be also reduced.
Сдвиг “геомагнитных полюсов” должен ослабить земной вихрь. Это должно привести к снижению орбитального наклона Земной орбиты а также к снижению величины орбитальной дистанции Луны.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[42] **viXra:1801.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-07 23:52:44*

**Authors:** YiMing Xia

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Spit-Full node innovative notion is presented;The tradditional discretized model is repaced by the integrated; The rational MRA concept togather with the RL is constructed;The RL defines a uniform node distribution pattern over a structural domain.

A triangular plate-bending element with a new multi-resolution analysis (MRA) is proposed and a novel multiresolution element method is hence presented. The MRA framework is formulated out of a displacement subspace sequence whose basis functions are built out of scaling and shifting on the element domain of basic full node shape function. The basic full node shape function is constructed by means of extending the shape function triangle domain for a split node at the zero coordinates to the hexagon area enclosing the zero coordinates. As a result, a new split-full node notion is presented and a novel rational MRA concept together with the resolution level (RL) is constituted for the element. Via practical examples, it is found that the traditional triangular plate element and method is a mono-resolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The analysis clarity of a plate structure is actually determined by the RL, not by the mesh. Thus, the accuracy of a structural analysis is replaced by the clarity, the irrational MRA by the rational and the mesh model by the RL that is the discretized model by the integrated. The continuous full node shape function unveils secrets behind assembling artificially of node-related items in global matrix formation by the conventional FEM.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[41] **viXra:1801.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 20:47:43*

**Authors:** Hanna Edwards

**Comments:** Pages. Formal publication (Results in Physics, 2017): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.09.053 ; Audio-slides: https://youtu.be/mFgYrEj28Es

The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.
A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.
The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1801.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 23:57:59*

**Authors:** Jason Hou-Liu

**Comments:** Pages.

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a generative model describing the observed data as being composed of a mixture of underlying unobserved topics, as introduced by Blei et al. (2003). A key hyperparameter of LDA is the number of underlying topics *k*, which must be estimated empirically in practice. Selecting the appropriate value of *k* is essentially selecting the correct model to represent the data; an important issue concerning the goodness of fit. We examine in the current work a series of metrics from literature on a quantitative basis by performing benchmarks against a generated dataset with a known value of *k* and evaluate the ability of each metric to recover the true value, varying over multiple levels of topic resolution in the Dirichlet prior distributions. Finally, we introduce a new metric and heuristic for estimating kand demonstrate improved performance over existing metrics from the literature on several benchmarks.

**Category:** Statistics

[39] **viXra:1801.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 04:47:03*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

About Time and Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1801.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 05:07:09*

**Authors:** Huang Weixiong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Confirm photon trajectory is arc line.
What is reason for photon trajectory bend?
Einstein thinks. Gravitation makes photon trajectory bend. Thus created black hole theory.
Magneton constitute substance theory thinks. In magnetic field, photon abide by photon deflect right hand rule.
Due to, photon mass is less than 1/100000 of electron mass. Therefore, it is hard to measure photon trajectory bend.
According to magneton constitute substance theory, design photon new measure. Decrypt photon trajectory bend reason.
Measurement proves, photon trajectory bend is result of photon magnetism and spin and ambient magnetic field interaction, has nothing to do with gravitation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[37] **viXra:1801.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 05:27:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[36] **viXra:1801.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 06:09:53*

**Authors:** Matteo Grella

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the context of the bidirectional-LSTMs neural parser (Kiperwasser and Goldberg, 2016), an idea is proposed to initialize the parsing state without punctuation-tokens but using them for the BiLSTM sentence encoding. The relevant information brought by the punctuation-tokens should be implicitly learned using the errors of the recurrent contributions only.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[35] **viXra:1801.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 11:44:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory.
Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1801.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 07:59:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[33] **viXra:1801.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 10:34:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32] **viXra:1801.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-13 19:24:12*

**Authors:** Udo E. Steinemann

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A contemptuous attempt to understand the phenomenon of turbulence dated back to a theory of L. F. RICHARDSON which later became enhanced by A. N. KOLMOGOROV. By the contents of this theory turbulence is considered as a transfer of energy taking place in forms of cascades between eddies of various orders of magnitude. The transfer becomes started by unspecified disturbance acting on eddies in forms of fibres and is further evaluated on account of their stretching. This principally can explain for eddies of various sizes being created in generations while energy is distributed along these generations from the largest eddies down to the smallest. But it is impossible to determine a specific structure of the cascade and its development in details.
In order to step forward this way, this paper will show, when spinning spheres with surface-tension are models for the eddies and a specifically designed disturbance act on them, eddies of large size will decay in a cascade of hierarchically structured generations into smaller ones. The dynamics of this development is due to the balance between the acting force of the disturbance and the reaction due to sphere-tension on each eddy in a self-organisation mode. All eddies within one step of the hierarchy will obtain same size, life-time and rotation-phase, for follower-generations these quantities will be different in a definite way. Each predecessor-generation will double its number of eddies relative to its follower-generation, while each eddy partitions its rotation-energy for its followers and those will get increased their surface-energy by disturbance. Finally the whole cascade will form a structured route of energy from order into chaos similar to many other dynamical systems.
By ⟨http://vixra.org/abs/1809.0202, "Final-State-Diagram of quadratic Iterator topologically equivalent with an Eddy's Decay-Cascade in turbulent Fluids" publisher Udo E. Steinemann (vixra.org. category: Physics, Classical Physics, 1809[23])⟩ an addendum has been provided for this text. It was intended to put out the decay-cascade of an eddy as a further example for routes from order into chaos observed together with dynamical systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[31] **viXra:1801.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 16:51:21*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages. MIT unknowingly has a dark matter quantum computer. This is the topological computer Krysta Svore is working on at Microsoft but Peter Shor at MIT has unknowingly achieved the dark matter quantum computer that has time reversal. Ref: Hooft,Wilzek.MIT.

The purpose of these 5 papers(paragraphs) is to share my thoughts on Dark Matter, Dark Energy and my observation on Light Theory with respect to different gravities.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[30] **viXra:1801.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 21:20:08*

**Authors:** Georgina Woodward

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Rather than frog and bird views of the universe as suggested by Max Tegmark, this considers the frog and hive mind of a swarm of intelligent flies. Arguing that the aggregate view of the hive mind demonstrates the relativity of variables, and that their collective view also represents 'many worlds' of possibility from the point of view of a frog with just a singular viewpoint.This ties together ideas of relativity and QM

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[29] **viXra:1801.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 01:11:59*

**Authors:** Sergey Sevtsov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The article shows the possibility of self-cleaning of plasma in the variety of Z-pinch - centrifugal Z-pinch. This circumstance leads to a decrease
in the heat loss due to bremsstrahlung from the plasma.
As a result, there are prerequisites for increasing efficiency of plasma cumulating in a new device.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[28] **viXra:1801.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-12 09:38:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1801.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 02:21:27*

**Authors:** S. Soundararajan

**Comments:** 23 Pages. NA

In the previous posting
http://vixra.org/pdf/1801.0011v1.pdf only an antroduction was flashed. In this Part 1 some of the social scientific achievements of the author has been narrated.

**Category:** Social Science

[26] **viXra:1801.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 02:26:32*

**Authors:** S. Soundararajan

**Comments:** 15 Pages. NA

In the part 1, some of the social scientific services of S. soundararajan has been narrated.In this part 2, more and more services and accomplishments have been unlocked.

**Category:** Social Science

[25] **viXra:1801.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 02:29:45*

**Authors:** S. Soundararajan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. NA

The social scientific completion of mission and vission of the author's dreams were performed.

**Category:** Social Science

[24] **viXra:1801.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 02:32:17*

**Authors:** S. Soundararajan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. NA

In this postings, how the author carried out the extra ordinary social services have been explained.

**Category:** Social Science

[23] **viXra:1801.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 02:35:38*

**Authors:** S. Soundararajan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. NA

In this final report [ Part 4] the full particulars and how is it possible for the author have been explicitly explained

**Category:** Social Science

[22] **viXra:1801.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 07:12:58*

**Authors:** Ayan Roy Naskar, Santosh Kumar

**Comments:** Pages: 11, Figures: 06

The prediction of optimized forming parameters viz. the punch force, blank holding force, forming factor, and hydrostatic pressure will contribute to cost reduction of the processed metal through curtailment in material usage and manufacturing time. This article involves modeling of symmetric and axisymmetric sheet forming and hydroforming, rubber forming and axisymmetric incremental sheet forming; followed by numerical simulation using Explicit Finite Element Analysis program in ANSYS and ABAQUS. The present results are validated with previous experimental readings to check the feasibility of simulated analysis. The comparison reveals that both the readings show sound agreement in thickness distribution and load-displacement relationship. The enhanced formability in hydroformed products has been clarified by comparing with the forming factor and thickness variation. The result shows that forming factor increases with friction coefficient; thereby clarifying the need of sufficient friction to overcome cup failure. Moreover, the developed model highlighted wrinkling phenomenon in conventional forming.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[21] **viXra:1801.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 07:16:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1801.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-08 09:10:41*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The last two versions are essential enhancements.

Reviewing Laplace's equation of gravitation from the perspective of D. Bernoulli, known as Poisson-equation, it will be shown that Laplace's equation tacitly assumes the temperature T of the mass system to be approximately 0 degrees of Kelvin. For temperatures greater zero, the gravitational field will have to be given an additive correctional field. Now, temperature is intimately related to the heat, and heat is known to be radiated as an electromagnetic field. It is shown to take two things in order to get at the gravitational field in the low temperature limit: the total square energy density of the source in space-time and a (massless) field, which expresses the equivalence of inert and gravitational mass/energy in a quadratic, Lorentz-invariant form. This field not only necessarily must include electromagnetic interaction, it also will be seen to behave like it.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[19] **viXra:1801.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 06:04:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mathematics is the Heaven of physics but at the same time can often be a hell that leads astray. Here we present a list of the twelve most illogical ideas in particle physics and cosmology accepted by the scientific community. One of the items on the list is the Higgs mechanism. We show that in fact the Higgs mechanism does not explain the origin of the gravitating masses or gravitational fields. The Higgs mechanism is a mathematical hocus-pocus because it does not refer to physical phenomena. The superluminal quantum entanglement causes that in reality quantum physics is classical and statistical. Observers claim that the Uncertainty Principle is valid because detectors can not see the superluminal exchanges. What’s more, the detectors see a statistical picture of a large number of consecutive states that are often the same states. Speed of photons in “vacuum” is invariant/the-same only in relation to the systems with which the photons are entangled.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1801.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 12:23:51*

**Authors:** Peiman Ghasemi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As first year students' cognitive improvement efforts evaluated by eating foods rich in antioxidants, and vitamins; significant increments in eating fast foods, certain vitamins, high amounts of several antioxidants or stimulants consumed just before stressful exam periods, long term overdose on such drugs, breathing toxic air pollutants, caused illness and fatal adverse effects on scientific societies.

**Category:** Mind Science

[17] **viXra:1801.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-10 09:44:26*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

From algorithmic information theory (and using notions of algorithmic thermodynamics), we introduce *feasible mathematics* as distinct from *universal mathematics*. Feasible mathematics formalizes the intuition that theorems with very long proofs are unprovable within the context of limited computing resources. It is formalized by augmenting the standard construction of Omega with a conjugate-pair that suppresses programs with long runtimes. The domain of the new construction defines feasible mathematics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[16] **viXra:1801.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 12:24:50*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Lorentz transformations rotate the vectors of the electric and magnetic fields referring
to the current position of the source. But there is no physical basis for this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1801.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 12:41:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1801.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 13:39:04*

**Authors:** Alexander Yurkin, James Peters, Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here we provide a novel atomic, paraxial model in which a single belt of electrons surrounds the nucleus. The electronic belt is depicted in terms of broken lines and split wavy trajectories that intersect an axis, giving rise to small angles that can be accurately calculated. We demonstrate that the probabilistic electronic cloud of the atom described by quantum mechanics can be depicted in terms of an electronic belt, because its sizes closely match the descriptions given by de Broglie and Heisenberg. In touch with the claims of the two latter Authors, the wavy trajectories around the nucleus come back to a starting point, so that their orbits are stationary.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[13] **viXra:1801.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-05 06:05:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1801.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 14:00:13*

**Authors:** Jason Reaves

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Malware; x509 Certificate; SSL; TLS; Botnet; Security

Malicious actors in the world are using more ingenuity than ever for both data infiltration and exfiltration purposes, also known as command and control communications. In this paper I aim to describe a system that could be used to send or receive data from both a client and a server perspective utilizing research into x509 certificates specifically in areas where you can place arbitrary binary data into the certificate or utilizing them as a covert channel. While lots of attention is given to data infiltration and exfiltration techniques they are commonly done so after they’ve been used in an incident, making this area of cyber security very retroactive in a defensive posture. The aim in presenting this material is to demonstrate that we can take some lessons from the other areas of cyber security research, namely exploitation, and look at potential use cases in how malware authors could utilize technologies outside of their intended purposes to not only accomplish their goals but also end up bypassing common security measures in the process. Doing this sort of research can lead to more advances in defensive security postures by spurring discussions in the community on how a technique either does or doesn’t bypass security measures.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11] **viXra:1801.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-06 12:37:27*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The description of the solar and sunspot cycle is being tagged herein as cargo cult science because it is incomplete. The solar cycle and sunspot cycle are the events that take place over time that alter the visible and dynamic characteristics of the Sun. Two prominent Sun cyclic events are the periodic change in the number of sunspots and the reversal of the Sun's magnetic field. The solar science community know the cyclic events are related but do not consider that an outside influence can cause them. There is evidence that a very long wavelength, multi-year, extremely high magnitude electromagnetic wave is responsible for the readily observable solar and sunspot cycles and much longer solar related cycles identified in Earth strata. All scientists before 1940 were unaware that electromagnetic waves, other than light, were traversing the cosmos. Even before and after 1940, the manner in which the basic characteristics of electromagnetic waves are taught can lead to an improper interpretation of electromagnetic related events when they do not fit the textbook descriptions. Sunspot characteristics identify the probable source of the electromagnetic wave or waves that are causing our Sun's variability. Solar scientists have identified the presence of the electromagnetic wave that causes the Sun's variability but have misidentified it.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:1801.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 23:18:22*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Helps us to understand our universe and the laws of creation.

The BIG BOUNCE CREATED OUR UNIVERSE WITH SUITABLE LAWS AND FUNDAMENTALS .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1801.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 23:37:31*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this variant, the geometry is related to the energy, which is equal to the average langrangian of three-dimensional gravity. The topology of a three-dimensional space generates the energy of a particle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1801.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 03:49:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated that quantum physics might enable communications and mapping in locations where GPS and ordinary cellphones and radios don't work reliably or even at all, such as indoors, in urban canyons, underwater and underground. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1801.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 05:04:57*

**Authors:** S. Soundararajan

**Comments:** 03 Pages. NA

Sivasamy Soundararajan . He lives in Kanjampatti Village, Pollachi Taluk, Coimbatore District, Tamil nadu province i9n India. He has been doing social services for the last 40 long years. Full details of his social services will be found in the upcoming postings part 1, Part2, Part3, Part 3A and Part 4

**Category:** Social Science

[6] **viXra:1801.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 05:40:37*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We embolden the idea that the Dirac 4 × 4 γ-matrices are four-vectors where the space components (γ i) represent spin and the forth component (γ 0) should likewise represent the time component of spin in the usual four-vector formalism of the Special Theory of Relativity. With the γ-matrices as four-vectors, it is seen that the Dirac equation admits two kinds of wavefunctions – (1) the usual four component Dirac bispinor ψ and (2) a scalar four component bispinor φ. Realizing this, and knowing forehand of the existing mystery as to why Leptons and Neutrinos come in pairs, we seize the moment and make the suggestion that the pair (ψ, φ) can be used as a starting point to explain mystery of why in their three generations [(e ± , ν e), (µ ± , ν µ), (τ ± , ν τ)], Leptons and Neutrinos come in doublets. In this suggestion, the scalar-bispinor φ can be thought of as the Neutrino while the usual Dirac bispinor ψ can be thought of as the Lepton.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1801.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 13:12:50*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple principle of crystal formation is offered to explain that rocks and minerals do not form in any significance in vacuum in outer space.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1801.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 13:38:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A new study, published January 1, 2018, in Nature, shows that the mass of the black hole in the center of the galaxy determines how soon this "quenching" of star formation occurs. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1801.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 18:49:13*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll propose an exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby
anomaly. My solution interprets inertia from an asymmetric Casimir effect, and it
interprets why inertial is related to Unruh effect and a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. My
solution of the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby anomaly is depending on my new
transformation and my equivalence principle. According to my transformation, the
reality is observer dependent as a result of translating the retardation according to the
invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the
uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this case by translating the
retardation according to my transformation, it is resulted the relativistic ether as
observer dependent, and thus in this case the reality in my transformation is observer
dependent. This relativistic ether is not classical, but it is depending on the energy of
the vacuum by translating the retardation according to my transformation. My
transformation expresses about field by the vacuum fluctuation, and that explains also
why field is observer dependent, and that explains also why Unruh effect is observer
dependent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1801.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 00:38:54*

**Authors:** Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Distances are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into the macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for relative distances, which is illogical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1801.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 14:57:12*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** 29 pages, 16 figures. Adds step to derivation on page 10.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics