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1801 Submissions

[223] viXra:1801.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 16:13:30

On the Refinement of the Meaning and Value of Elementary Charge (Об уточнении смысла и значения элементарного заряда)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 21 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the refinement of the meaning and value of elementary charge

In this paper, the natural system of units of mass, length and time, as a further development of the Planck system of units, is supplemented by the introduction of a physical quantity by the electric charge. To do this, we had to slightly modify the formula of Coulomb's law. This entailed the refinement of numerical values for physical quantities of elementary and Planck charges. All this, ultimately, led to an understanding of the relationship between unit of electrical charge and matter. Matter (in the form of a natural unit of matter) is introduced into the bosom of physics as the basic physical quantity. This is truly a revolutionary step. This step returns the physics to the bosom of materialism. This step is a twist of physics to the nature. This step is a rejection of the idealistic illusions and traditions that prevailed in physics during the last century. Physics finally and irrevocably passes to the foundation of dialectical materialism. Keywords: nature, time, matter, atom (crupitsa) of matter, physical quantity, natural system of units, laws of nature ************************* В настоящей статье натуральная система единиц массы, длины и времени, как дальнейшее развитие планковской системы единиц, дополняется введением физической величины электрический заряд. Для этого пришлось несколько видоизменить формулу закона Кулона. Это повлекло за собой уточнение числовых значений для физических величин элементарный и планковский заряды. Всё это, в конечном счёте, привело к пониманию взаимосвязи между этими единицами электрического заряда и материей. Материя (в форме натуральной единицы материи) вводится в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины. Это поистине революционный шаг. Это возврат физики в лоно материализма. Это поворот физики к природе. Это отказ от идеалистических иллюзий и традиций, господствовавших в физике на протяжении последнего столетия. Физика окончательно и бесповоротно переходит на фундамент диалектического материализма. Ключевые слова: природа, время, материя, крупица материи, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы
Category: Classical Physics

[222] viXra:1801.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 16:34:02

What is Russian.

Authors: Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 3 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

An attempt is made to explain the features of the Russian people. The main feature is the presence of a significant percentage of externally European people, but with Mongoloid thinking. The reasons for the appearance of narrow-eyedness in the Mongoloid race are also set forth. The hypothesis of the emergence of collective thinking in people is also set forth. Which was the cause of the emergence of communist ideology, socialism and communism as a social system.
Category: Social Science

[221] viXra:1801.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 17:58:09

Generalized System of Natural Units (Обобщённая система натуральных единиц)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 25 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Generalized system of natural units

Natural system of units of mass, length and time is a refinement of the Planck unit system. The natural system is a "natural system of units of measurement", which attracted the attention of Max Planck and other physicists. But this system is incomplete. It is not a unit of the electricity. Unit of the electricity should be added to the natural units of the system. The solution of this problem is addressed in this article. This article presents a solution to another problem. This is problem of the connection between the units of length (m), mass (kg) and time (s). The fine structure constant is a solution to this problem. Keywords: nature, time, matter, atom (crupitsa) of matter, elementary electric charge, the fine structure constant, physical quantities, natural system of units, laws of nature ************************* Натуральная система единиц массы, длины и времени является уточнением планковской системы единиц. Натуральная система и является «естественной системой единиц измерения», поисками которой занимался М. Планк и другие физики. Но эта система неполна. В ней отсутствует единица электричества. Единица электричества должна быть добавлена в натуральную систему единиц. Решению этой проблемы и посвящена настоящая статья. Решение этой проблемы затрагивает проблему о соотношении единиц метра, килограмма и секунды. Удалось открыть закономерность, что в основе решения этой второй проблемы лежит постоянная тонкой структуры. Ключевые слова: природа, время, материя, крупица материи, электрический заряд, постоянная тонкой структуры, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы
Category: Classical Physics

[220] viXra:1801.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 18:52:46

The Mystery of Time (Time and Its Duration)==///==Тайна времени (о времени и его длительности)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 13 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © The mystery of time (time and its duration)

In this paper we consider the time and duration as its essential attribute. Time is a fact of our existence. Nothing can exist outside of time. Time is a reality. Time is used everywhere in physics. Time as a physical quantity defined in physics. There is a standard unit of time second. However, the second and other possible standards of the time have not been used directly standard of duration. We do not know the actual time duration of our second and any time interval. But the original essence of time lies in its duration. But we somehow manage to ignore the duration of time. In the present paper the author's solution of a problem of duration of time is presented. Keywords: nature, time, duration of time, atom (crupitsa) of the matter, fine structure constant, physical quantity, natural system of units, laws of nature ********************* В настоящей статье рассматривается время и его неотъемлемый атрибут длительность. Время это факт нашего существования. Ничто не может существовать вне времени. Время это реальность. Время всюду используется в физике. Время, как физическая величина определена в физике. Есть эталон единицы времени секунда. Но этот и другие возможные эталоны времени не используют напрямую эталон длительности. Мы не знаем реальной длительности единицы нашего времени секунды и любого интервала времени. Но изначальная сущность времени заключена в его длительности. Но мы как-то умудряемся не замечать длительность времени. В настоящей статье представлено авторское решение проблемы длительности времени. Ключевые слова: природа, время, длительность времени, крупица материи, постоянная тонкой структуры, физическая величина, натуральная система единиц, законы природы
Category: Classical Physics

[219] viXra:1801.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 22:09:09

Physics and A Course In Miracles

Authors: Robert Spoljaric
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this brief article we make a connection between science and spirituality, or physics and A Course In Miracles.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[218] viXra:1801.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 03:44:09

Quantum Gravity with Entangled Masses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] viXra:1801.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 05:29:53

Concepts and Definitions of the Theory of Gukuum.

Authors: Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 8 Pages. Details on the site http://universe100.narod.ru/

The beginning of a more rigorous exposition of the theory of the elastic universe.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[216] viXra:1801.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 05:26:46

О зависимости физических величин массы, длины и времени (On the Dependence of Physical Quantities Mass, Length and Time)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 22 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the dependence of physical quantities mass, length and time

In this article the problem of natural physical quantities is considered. This issue was considered by many physicists. You can mention such names as George Stoney and Max Planck. The name of the latter in the physics associated with quantities of the so-called Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time. These quantities are good candidates for the natural unit of nature. On the other hand the physical quantities mass, length and time are considered as independent quantities in the theory of modern physics. The author made the assumption that these values are dependent. In nature, there is a very strong material unbreakable bond that connects them together. This is a fundamental law of nature. Having come to know this law, we will solve the problem of natural physical quantities. Keywords: nature, time, physical quantities, Planck quantities, natural system of units =================== В настоящей статье рассматривается проблема натуральных физических величин. Эта проблема рассматривалась многими физиками. Можно назвать такие имена, как Джордж Стони или Макс Планк. С именем последнего в физике связаны так называемые планковские величины массы, длины и времени. Эти величины являются кандидатами в натуральные единицы природы. С другой стороны физические величины масса, длина и время считаются независимыми величинами в теории современной физики. Автор сделал предположение, что эти величины зависимы. В природе есть очень прочная неразрывная материальная связь, которая соединяет их воедино. Это фундаментальный закон природы. Познав этот закон, мы решаем проблему натуральных физических величин. Ключевые слова: природа, время, физические величины, планковские величины, натуральная система единиц
Category: Classical Physics

[215] viXra:1801.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 05:33:56

On the Matter as a Physical Quantity (О материи, как физической величине)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 17 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © On the matter as a physical quantity

In the present article the author considers a hypothetical object of modern physics as Planck elementary particle. But the author expresses confidence in its real existence. But this is more the refined Planck particle. Updates touched quantities such as the Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time. These clarifications are the consequence of the open law of the nature which states that the physical quantities mass, length and time are dependent quantities and the Planck momentum is the dimensionless physical quantity exactly equal to 1. Further progress in this direction leads us to an understanding of what matter and as matter specifically disclosed in the Planck particle. In article it is explained, how the concept of matter should be entered into a bosom of physics as the basic physical quantity. Keywords: nature, time, matter, particle of matter, physical quantities Planck values, natural system of units ******************** В настоящей статье рассматривается такой гипотетического объект современной физики, как планковская элементарная частица. Причём автор выражает уверенность в её реальном существовании. Но это несколько уточнённая планковская частица. Уточнения коснулись таких величин как планковская масса, планковская длина и планковское время. Эти уточнения являются следствием открытого закона природы, который гласит, что физические величины масса, длина и время являются зависимыми величинами и планковский импульс есть безразмерностная единица. Дальнейшее продвижение в этом направлении приводит нас к пониманию того, что такое материя и как материя конкретно представлена в планковской частице. В статье разъясняется, как понятие материя следует ввести в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины. Ключевые слова: природа, время, материя, крупица материи, физические величины, планковские величины, натуральная система единиц
Category: Classical Physics

[214] viXra:1801.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 06:20:20

An Unexpected Discover About the Time Dilation

Authors: Giacomo Roccaforte
Comments: 9 Pages.

The “Absolute Time Theory” is the natural result of the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not take in consideration, or for which it does not provided information about them. These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself. Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated. We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, not dependent by arbitrary choice, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way. The entire theory is now divided into chapters and translate in English in order to be more clear and readable. Each chapter can be a theory itself or unexplained scenario, all of them with their conclusion, till to arrive to the final conclusion that means the final theory. The following first chapter is the analysis of the same experimental data used for the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, the Michelson/Morley experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[213] viXra:1801.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 06:52:16

Absolute Dating of John the Baptist, the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, and Paul the Apostle

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 4 Pages.

I suggest the following scenario. In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius (14-37), that is late in 28 or early in 29, John began to preach a baptism. Jesus healed and preached and was crucified on the Preparation Day, Friday 3 April 33 during a lunar eclipse. Thereafter the apostles began to preach and raising the number of believers from 120 to 5000. This caused a persecution where Saul converted to Paul late in 33. Afterwards Paul spent three years in Damascus, where Aretas IV was king. Thereafter Paul did his first travel which lasted for fourteen years, that is 36-50. This was followed by the council of the apostles late in 50. Thereafter Paul did his second travel which lasted for at least a year and six months. Then he did his third travel which lasted for at least two years and six months, that is 52-54. Afterwards he was imprisoned for two years by Antonius Felix until Porcius Festus became procurator of Judaea in 56.
Category: Archaeology

[212] viXra:1801.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 08:21:44

Quantum State Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Physicists from MIPT have teamed up with their colleagues in Russia and Great Britain and developed a superconducting quantum state detector. The new device can detect magnetic fields at low temperatures and is useful to both researchers and quantum computer engineers. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[211] viXra:1801.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 09:02:55

Superconductivity Positive Feedback Loop

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[210] viXra:1801.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 10:49:50

Importance of Conic Section “size” in the Derivation of Propositions X-XVI in Newton’s Principia Book I

Authors: Gopi Krishna Vijaya
Comments: 14 Pages.

The “direct problem” of the inverse-square law is examined, by retracing the derivations of Propositions X-XVI in Newton’s Principia. It is found that transfers of constants of proportionality are inconsistent between the propositions, leading to errors in the derived relations for multiple orbits. Proposition X has to be corrected for the relations of time period to the force law by including the area constants for conic sections. Propositions XI-XIII assume the expression 2h^2/L to be constant, that in turn implicitly assume a modified version of Kepler’s third law, while Propositions XIV-XVI apply this to multiple orbits leading to further “size” inconsistencies with the original form of Kepler’s third law. It has been shown how this relevance of “size” has been missed in the Newtonian literature, leading to a necessity of revising the existence of an exact inverse-square law.
Category: Astrophysics

[209] viXra:1801.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 10:52:05

Original Form of Kepler’s Third Law and its Misapplication in Propositions XXXII-XXXVII in Newton’s Principia (Book I)

Authors: Gopi Krishna Vijaya
Comments: 14 Pages.

The original form of Kepler’s Third Law contains a caveat regarding the requirement of small eccentricities – a fact that has been missed by the traditional Newtonian derivations. This constraint is analyzed, and a re-clarification of the real meaning of “mean distance” in the law is provided, by following up the indications given by Kepler in the Harmonices Mundi. It is shown that the modified expression for the “mean distance” not only clears up conceptual difficulties, but also removes a discrepancy found by Kepler for Mercury. Based on this re-evaluation, the result of ignoring the small-eccentricity constraint is analyzed in the Propositions XXXII-XXXVII in the Principia. It is seen that there are several conceptual and mathematical mistakes that are inevitable with the Newtonian form of Kepler’s Third Law.
Category: Astrophysics

[208] viXra:1801.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 10:53:27

Celestial Dynamics and Rotational Forces In Circular and Elliptical Motions

Authors: Gopi Krishna Vijaya
Comments: 14 Pages.

The understanding of circular motion as being conditioned by a central force coupled to a tangential velocity is questioned, by analyzing the origins of its derivation, and revising it in the light of rotational kinematics. It is shown that one cannot stop the analysis at a force directed to the center, but has to continue it to include an infinite series of higher order rotational forces in four perpendicular directions. The verification of this in terrestrial dynamics, as well as the consequences of its application in celestial dynamics is presented. It is shown that Newton’s Moon Test and inverse-square law, even with the corrections of General Relativity, do not support circular and elliptical motion and lead to an erroneous expression – a problem that has been noticed and remedied by other independent researchers.
Category: Astrophysics

[207] viXra:1801.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 11:08:58

A Revised Energy Flow Diagram is Shown for an HCE8S Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: A revised and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[206] viXra:1801.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 12:45:02

Coherent Quantum Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[205] viXra:1801.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 16:29:46

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation 4/(x+y+z)=1/x+1/y+1/z

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proves that equation 4/(x+y+z)=1/x+1/y+1/z has no positive integer solutions using the method of solving third order equation.
Category: Number Theory

[204] viXra:1801.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 18:16:05

Does Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle Predict a Maximum Velocity for Anything with Rest-Mass below the Speed of Light ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we derive a maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The maximum velocity formula we get is in line with the maximum velocity formula suggested by Haug in a series of papers. This supports the assertion that Haug’s maximum velocity formula is useful in reconsidering the path forward in theoretical physics. In particular, it predicts that the Lorentz symmetry will break down at the Planck scale, and shows how and why this happens. Further, it shows that the maximum velocity for a Planck mass particle is zero. At first this may sound illogical, but it is a remarkable result that gives an new and important deep insight in this research domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:1801.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 09:49:18

A Ridiculously-Simple Direct Proof of FLT

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 1 Page.

For any given positive integral value of n, we devise an algebraic identity that holds for positive integral Fermat triples equal to (z,y,x) for which z^n-y^n=x^n holds. This identity does not hold for positive integral Fermat triples when the value of n is greater or equal to three. Consequently, our argument constitutes a direct proof that z^n-y^n=x^n does not hold for positive integral values of (z,y,x) when the value of n is greater or equal to three.
Category: Number Theory

[202] viXra:1801.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 21:18:35

Bell's Inequality Leaks Like a Sieve

Authors: Douglas G Danforth
Comments: 11 Pages. Danforth D. G. , "Nonrecurrence and Bell-like Inequalities", Open Physics, vol 15, issue 1, https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2017-0089

The general class, Λ, of Bell hidden variables is composed of two subclasses ΛR and ΛN such that ΛR⋃ΛN=Λ and ΛR∩ΛN={}. The class ΛN is very large and contains random variables whose domain is the continuum, the reals. There are an uncountable infinite number of reals. Every instance of a real random variable is unique. The probability of two instances being equal is zero, exactly zero. ΛN induces sample independence. All correlations are context dependent but not in the usual sense. There is no "spooky action at a distance". Random variables, belonging to ΛN , are independent from one experiment to the next. The existence of the class ΛN makes it impossible to derive any of the standard Bell inequalities used to define quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[201] viXra:1801.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 22:29:04

Письмо в РАН /open Letter to the Ras

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Open Letter to the RAS

This letter was sent to the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in November last year. The letter raises a question before the RAS about the "Theory of Nature" of the author. The author asks authoritative physicists and professionals to give their objective impartial conclusion on the "Theory of Nature", which the author defines and positions as a new materialistic physics and cosmology. "Theory of Nature" has existed exactly 6 years. "Theory of Nature" is a revolution in physics and cosmology. "The theory of nature" is a new physics, materialistic physics. "Theory of Nature" does not reject indiscriminately existing physics. From the standpoint of dialectical materialism and nature, the foundation of modern physics is being revised. It is known that in the foundation of modern physics there are seven basic physical quantities: mass, length, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, luminous intensity. Within the framework of the "Theory of Nature" it is shown and explained that as the basic physical quantities underlying the physics, it is enough to take two quantities, one of which must be matter. Thus naturally the matter should be entered into a bosom of physics as the base physical quantity. ============================== Это письмо было направлено в адрес РАН в ноябре прошлого года. В письме ставится вопрос перед ОФН РАН о «Теории Природы» автора. Автор просит авторитетных физиков, профессионалов дать своё объективное беспристрастное заключение по «Теории Природы», которую автор определяет и позиционирует, как новую материалистическую физику и космологию. «Теория Природы» существует уже ровно 6 лет. «Теория Природы» – это революция в физике и космологии. «Теория природы» – это новая физика, материалистическая физика. «Теория Природы» не отвергает огульно существующую физику. С позиций диалектического материализма и природы пересматривается фундамент современной физики. Известно, что в фундаменте современной физики лежат семь основных физических величин: масса, длина, время, сила тока, термодинамическая температура, количество вещества, сила света. В рамках «Теории Природы» показывается и разъясняется, что в качестве основных физических величин, лежащих в основании физики, достаточно взять две величины, одна из которых должна быть материей. При этом естественно материя должна быть введена в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины.
Category: Classical Physics

[200] viXra:1801.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 00:32:43

Smarandache BCC-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun
Comments: 8 Pages.

The notions of Smarandache BCC-algebras and Smarandache BCC-ideals are introduced. Conditions for a (special) subset to be a Smarandache BCC-ideal are given.
Category: General Mathematics

[199] viXra:1801.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 00:42:37

Smarandache Bci-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun
Comments: 6 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache (positive implicative, commutative, implicative) BCI-algebras, Smarandache subalgebras and Smarandache ideals is introduced, examples are given, and related properties are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics

[198] viXra:1801.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 00:45:08

Smarandache Fresh and Clean Ideals of Smarandache Bci Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun
Comments: 8 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache fresh and clean ideals is introduced, examples are given, and related properties are investigated. Relations between Q-Smarandache fresh ideals and Q-Smarandache clean ideals are given. Extension properties for Q-Smarandache fresh ideals and Q-Smarandache clean ideals are established.
Category: General Mathematics

[197] viXra:1801.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 00:48:39

Smarandache Hyper (∩, ∈)-Ideals on Smarandache Hyper K-Algebras

Authors: Kyung Ho Kim, Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh, Habib Harizavi
Comments: 6 Pages.

We introduce the notion of a Smarandache hyper (∩,∈)-idealand Ω-reflexive in hyper K-algebra, and some related properties are given.
Category: General Mathematics

[196] viXra:1801.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 00:51:08

Smarandache Hyper Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh
Comments: 6 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache hyper I-algebra and Smarandache hyper Kalgebra are introduced, and related properties are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics

[195] viXra:1801.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 00:54:21

Smarandache Hyper K-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh, Habiib Harizavi
Comments: 8 Pages.

We introduce the notio of an extention of hyper K-algebra and Smarandache hyper (∩, ∈)-ideals on Smarandache Hyper K-algebras, and investigate its properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[194] viXra:1801.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 01:03:17

Positive Implicative Smarandache BCC-Ideals in Smarandache BCC-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun, Seok Zun Song, Kyung Tae Kang
Comments: 8 Pages.

The notion of positive immplicative Smarandache BCC-ideals is indroduced, and related properties are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics

[193] viXra:1801.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 01:27:50

Smarandache Stuctures of Generalized BCK-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Smarandache Stuctures of Generalized BCK-Algebras are considered.
Category: General Mathematics

[192] viXra:1801.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 02:15:14

Atomristors and Memristors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[191] viXra:1801.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 02:55:26

Ether Mediated Space Gravity: Some Considerations

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 6 Pages.

Space gravity look more in line with early thougts of Newton.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[190] viXra:1801.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 03:42:15

Residual Annual and Diurnal Periodicities of the P 10 Acceleration Term Resolved in Absolute CMB Space

Authors: R. Pabisch
Comments: 6 Pages.

Applying the general, classical Doppler formula (CMB-Doppler formula) of first order for two-way radio Doppler signals in the fundamental rest frame of the isotropic cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) between earthbound Deep Space Network stations (DSN), and the Pioneer 10 space probe (P 10) resolves the phenomenon of the residual, so far unexplained annual and diurnal signal variations on top of the constant acceleration term Anderson & Laing & Lau & et al. (2002), Anderson & Campbell & Ekelund & et al. (2008). The anomalous annual and diurnal variations of the acceleration term vanish, if instead of the relativistic Standard-Doppler formula (SRT-Doppler formula) of first and second order the CMB-Doppler formula is used. That formula contains the absolute velocities ue of Earth, and upio of P 10, derived from the absolute velocity usun of the solar system barycenter in the CMB, with usun = 369.0 ± 0.9 km/s, and the relative revolution velocity ve of Earth, and the relative velocity vpio of P 10 in the heliocentric frame from January 1987 until December 1996. The flyby radio Doppler and ranging data anomalies can be resolved as well by using the CMB-Doppler formula with the absolute, asymptotic velocities of the inbound and outbound maneuver flights, which have usually slightly different magnitudes, inducing the so far unexplained frequency shift, and the unexplained difference in the ranging data.
Category: Astrophysics

[189] viXra:1801.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-19 03:40:45

The Scientific Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the long-term
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[188] viXra:1801.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 08:16:32

Quantum Physics Reality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[187] viXra:1801.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 09:08:32

Exploring Both the Shared and the Incompatible Characteristics of the X-Direction Galilean and Lorentz Transformations in a Common Framework

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[186] viXra:1801.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 12:02:30

Reviving Newtonian To Interpret Relativistic Space-Time

Authors: Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article presents a new interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles. This theory postulates that :
The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c
Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rubs into each other.
Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the spatial speed of intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then time-sharing between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal state, and therefore does not contribute to measurable time.
Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect the observer only for the duration of its intrinsic motion (i.e. during the relativistic time). During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the spatial advance of light divided by the relativistic time (i.e. the observed relative speed) is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1801.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 05:17:24

The Law of Stratification in Wave Vortices.

Authors: Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 5 Pages. Russian: http://universe100.narod.ru/ English: http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html dubinyansky@mail.ru

In the wave vortices, the energy is capable of winding itself onto itself and at the same time being redistributed.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[184] viXra:1801.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 05:16:12

Quantum Dance in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[183] viXra:1801.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 06:51:43

On the Integral :I=int(coth(1+x^3))dx , X=0..1

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the integral: I=int(coth(1+x^3))dx , x=0..1.
Category: General Mathematics

[182] viXra:1801.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 06:55:03

Question 420 :Some Formulas Related with pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 7 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with pi
Category: General Mathematics

[181] viXra:1801.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:00:17

Ramanujan's Cubic Continued Fraction , Experimental Mathematics , Maple Experiment , Identify Command

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we briefly explore the Ramanujan's cubic continued fraction.
Category: Number Theory

[180] viXra:1801.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:03:26

FastNet: An Efficient Architecture for Smart Devices

Authors: John Olafenwa, Moses Olafenwa
Comments: 9 Pages.

Inception and the Resnet family of Convolutional Neural Network architectures have broken records in the past few years, but recent state of the art models have also incurred very high computational cost in terms of training, inference and model size. Making the deployment of these models on Edge devices, impractical. In light of this, we present a new novel architecture that is designed for high computational efficiency on both GPUs and CPUs, and is highly suited for deployment on Mobile Applications, Smart Cameras, Iot devices and controllers as well as low cost drones. Our architecture boasts competitive accuracies on standard datasets even outperforming the original Resnet. We present below the motivation for this research, the architecture of the network, single test accuracies on CIFAR 10 and CIFAR 100, a detailed comparison with other well-known architectures and link to an implementation in Keras.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[179] viXra:1801.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:14:43

Chirality for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet— one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
Category: Quantum Physics

[178] viXra:1801.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:44:06

Theorem for Distribution of Prime Pairs

Authors: Ryujin Choe
Comments: 13 Pages.

Proof of Goldbach's conjecture and twin prime conjecture
Category: Number Theory

[177] viXra:1801.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 08:06:14

Sphere Theory Calculates a Hubble Constant in Line with Average of Wikipedia Summary

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. Professor Adam Riess, from John Hopkins University states “A mathematical discrepancy in the expansion rate of the Universe is now "pretty serious", and could point the way to a major discovery in physics.” His newly calculated value is 73.24.(1) Sphere Theory calculates the value to be 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc (2) If we look at Evidence for Granulated Space, we that the size of the Hubble Sphere is 13.7659 billion light years(2) If we convert this to a constant Hubble Constant it converts to 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc. This compares to the following Hubble constants calculated from the Wikipedia summary table of 71.027. (km/s)/Mpc.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[176] viXra:1801.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 09:29:47

Refutation of the Halting Problem: not a Problem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Alan Turing's difficulty was in expressing the halting problem in the format of a two-valued logic which was not as expressive as in a four-valued logic to show nuances of what exactly the equation stated. In comparison to Gödel's incompleteness theorems, Turing's halting problem has no superficial similarities other than being refuted as not a problem. Hence in contrast, both expressions are disparate and ultimately unrelated as to content meaning. Therefore: The assumption that there is a consistent and complete axiomatization of all true first-order logic statements about natural numbers must be tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[175] viXra:1801.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 14:33:02

On the Existence of Prime Numbers in Arithmetic Progressions

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper it is proposed a conjecture of existence of prime numbers on a particular arithmetic progression, and demonstrated a particular case.
Category: Number Theory

[174] viXra:1801.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 14:36:29

Wetenschap Met Oogkleppen

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model Project

Om efficiënt met objecten te kunnen werken is het niet nodig om de detailstructuur van objecten te kennen. Het is voldoende om het gedrag van deze objecten te kennen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[173] viXra:1801.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 20:14:48

Inverting the Extended Genomic Table: a Case Study

Authors: Stephen P. Smith, Asko Mäki-Tanila
Comments: 12 Pages.

A series of programs are described which calculate the inverse of the extended genomic table. These programs are demonstrated using a pedigree taken from a selection experiment involving egg-laying hens. The calculations are feasible and the inverse matrix was found to be sparse.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[172] viXra:1801.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 00:20:54

Fundamentalism as a Metaphysical Concept

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: 7 Pages. Submitted to FQXi essay contest 2017

Fundamentalism, the belief that there exists some irreducible basic truths in anything connected with nature, has existed for a very long time. But its significance as a distinct metaphysical concept has not been properly analyzed so far. This essay is an attempt to formalize 'a concept of fundamentalism', which can be defined as follows: “Any field of knowledge has some fundamentals, based on which everything in that field can be logically explained, and so by identifying the fundamentals, we can arrive at the truth”. A fundamentalist approach in physics predicts the existence and the attributes of a Theory of Everything.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[171] viXra:1801.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 04:02:27

Limits of Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1801.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 06:15:54

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 30 Pages.

In this paper for equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k , where m,n,k > 2, x,y,z > 1, A,B,C≥1 and gcd(Ax,By,Cz)=1, the author proved there are no positive integer solutions for this equation using“Order reducing method for equations” that the author invented for solving high order equations,in which let the equation become two equations, through comparing the two roots to prove there are no positive integer solutions for this equation.
Category: Number Theory

[169] viXra:1801.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 06:18:40

The Origin of the Breaks in the Cosmic-Ray Spectra

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we calculated the threshold energies for the 11 most important breaks in the cosmic- ray spectra: 5 for the cosmic electrons plus positrons, 1 for positrons and 5 for all cosmic particles. Obtained results are consistent with observational data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[168] viXra:1801.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 23:17:51

Energy-Efficient Two-Way Relaying with Multiple Antennas

Authors: Thanaphat Srivantana, Kiattisak Maichalernnukul
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we propose various kinds of energy-efficient two-way multi-antenna relaying with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and investigate their performance. Specifically, we first consider a two-way relay network where a pair of single-antenna end nodes communicate with each other through a multi-antenna relay node that is energy constrained. This relay node harvests energy from the two end nodes and use the harvested energy for forwarding their information. Three relaying schemes which support the considered network then build on the power splitting-based relaying protocol. The average bit error rates of these schemes are evaluated and compared by computer simulations considering several network parameters, including the number of relay antennas and the power splitting ratio. Such evaluation and comparison provide useful insights into the performance of SWIPT-based two-way multi-antenna relaying.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[167] viXra:1801.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 02:38:43

On the Physical Explanation of the Experiments with Double-Slit and with the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.

Authors: Vladimir A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 1 Page.

There is independent experimental evidence in favor of conspiracy theory in the explanation of the physical nature of quantum interference in experiments with slits and interferometers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1801.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 05:10:11

Conquering Strangeness-the Universe in us

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 9 Pages.

When Beauty runs deeper than the skin, it’s a truth, if the truth adds up to simplicity that’s elegance. After all complexity is the sun total of repeated simplicity & behind every complex system lays a simple beautiful principle that makes it work. Like tortoise carries shell on its back. Do we carry the universe in our heads? I later invoke U-Duality to examine symmetries on a circle at D=11 and reveal why space-time on a Brane is tantamount to that on a brain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[165] viXra:1801.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 05:49:07

Calculating Number of Days Passed Since the Introduction of Gregorian Calendar

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating number of days passed since the introduction of Gregorian Calendar for any given date using simplified formula. It consists of nine algebraic expressions, five of which are integer function by substituting the year, month and day. This formula will calculate the n^th days which gives a number from 1 to ∞ (October 15, 1582 being the day one), that determines the exact number of days passed. This algorithm has no condition even during leap-year and 400-year cycle.
Category: General Mathematics

[164] viXra:1801.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 06:26:44

Explanation of Michelson-Morley Experiment not Based on Second Postulate of Relativity

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 10 Pages.

The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on both actual and apparent reduction (equal) of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when the light is transmitted on moving material systems, on which the cohesive pressure of the proximal space is reduced. The apparent reduction of light speed happens due to the aberration of light, which can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor of special relativity is the tool for the mathematical expression of the problem that had arisen from the Michelson-Morley experiment. Of course, the time dilation was an ingenious and pioneering idea, which has been accepted, ignoring, though, the real cause of the slowing of the moving clock, i.e. the phenomenon of motion. However, this same reduction factor appears as well in the unified theory of dynamic space with the Galilean transformations, by calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on moving material systems, not based on the second postulate of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[163] viXra:1801.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-17 09:47:25

On Gravitational Quantum Wavefunctions

Authors: Jean Pierre Rukundo
Comments: 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[162] viXra:1801.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 08:23:04

Single Molecule's Effective Charge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics. [28] By exploiting the properties of neutrons to probe electrons in a metal, a team of researchers led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has gained new insight into the behavior of correlated electron systems, which are materials that have useful properties such as magnetism or superconductivity. [27] By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[161] viXra:1801.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 09:13:17

Mini Gamma Ray Burst in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Gamma ray bursts, intense explosions of light, are the brightest events ever observed in the universe – lasting no longer than seconds or minutes. [14] X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars - highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[160] viXra:1801.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 12:13:07

Integral Relativity of Awareness and Energy

Authors: Lex Neale
Comments: 30 Pages.

Integral Relativity, as an extension of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Advanced Relativity, has four proposed Tenets: (1) The Equation of Energy with Awareness; (2) The Conservation of Awareness; (3) The Continuum of Energy, Consciousness, Mind and Matter via the Kosmic Constant; (4) The Integral Relativity between Observers and the Observed in Hilbert Spaces as specified Frequency Domains. It is corroborated by the Observer Effect in all the related double slit and interferometer experiments, most notably those of Dean Radin’s Sigma 5.7 rated results (2016); by the Unified Spacememory Network, modeled by Nassim Haramein and William Brown (2016); by Elizabeth Rauscher’s Complex Eight Dimensional Model of Minkowsky Space; and is modeled by an extension of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrants, All Levels (AQAL) Integral model called the “AQAL Cube” (Neale, 2011), which correlates non- physical existence with physical existence. Integral Relativity predicts that the Observer and observed are a mutually inclusive Consciousness/Mind/Energy/Matter continuum. We propose that the terms Consciousness and Mind be no longer used synonymously in the scientific community, but differentiated as an integral Awareness/Energy continuum between Hilbert Spaces, where Consciousness is non-local or Subtle awareness, and Mind is its correlated local or Concrete awareness and means of en-action.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[159] viXra:1801.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 16:15:21

Fusobacterium (Nucleatum) the Cause of Human Colorectal Cancer.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 37 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Horandstrasse, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiome has an increas-ingly important role in human disease and health. Fusobacterium nucleatum has been identified in several studies as the leading gut bacterium which is present in colorectal cancer (CRC). Still it is not clear if Fusobacterium plays a causal role. Methods: To explore the cause-effect relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer, a systematic review and re-analysis of studies published was performed. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis without Fusobacterium nucleatum infection no colorectal cancer. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05 Result: The data analyzed support the Null-hypothesis that without Fusobacterium nucleatum infection no colorectal cancer. In the same respect, the studies analyzed provide highly significant cause effect relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Fusobacterium (nucleatum) is the cause of colorectal cancer.
Category: Statistics

[158] viXra:1801.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 17:26:03

Объяснение результатов эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли при помощи универсальной системы отсчета (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

Широко распространено мнение, что эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли с 1887 года и эксперимент Кеннеди-Торндайка с 1932 года показали, что нет универсальной системы отсчета (эфир) и что скорость света в вакууме абсолютно постоянна. Анализ этих экспериментов привел к созданию Специальной Теории Относительности (СТО). В статье объясняется, почему с помощью экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не могла быть обнаружена универсальная система отсчета. Кроме того, в этой статье мы выводим на основе геометрического анализа экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка другое преобразование координат и времени, чем преобразование Лоренца. Мы выводим преобразование, предполагая, что существует универсальная система отсчета (universal frame of reference - UFR, эфир). UFR является системой отсчета, которая отличается тем, что скорость света в ней постоянна в любом направлении. В инерциальных системах отсчета, движущихся относительно UFR, скорость света может быть разной. В статье мы получаем формулу для относительной скорости и формулы для максимальной и минимальной скорости света, которая может быть измерена в инерциальной системе. В конце, используя представленную теорию, объясняется явление анизотропии микроволнового фонового излучения. Согласно модели кинематики тел, представленной в этой статье, аберрация микроволнового фонового излучения для наблюдателя, движущегося относительно UFR, обусловлена эффектом Доплера. Вся статья содержит только оригинальные исследования авторов публикации.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[157] viXra:1801.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 17:34:44

Метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Russian)

В статье представлен наш новаторский метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности. Этот метод позволяет выводить бесконечно много динамик в релятивистской механике. Мы показали пять примеров таких выводов. Таким образом, мы доказали, что динамика, известная сегодня как динамика Специальной Теории Относительности, является только одной из бесконечно многих возможных. Также нет никаких оснований, ни по экспериментальным, ни по теоретическим причинам, чтобы считать эту, действующую релятивистскую динамику, исключительной. В связи с этим решение, какая из возможных динамик релятивистской механики является правильной, остаётся открытой проблемой физики.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[156] viXra:1801.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 19:08:17

String Theory

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists like to use more than 3 dimensions but our universe only contains 3 dimensions, they don't seem to understand how it works. String theory requires 11 dimensions and that includes spacetime, but there can only be 3 dimensions in our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[155] viXra:1801.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 00:37:04

The Sociopathic Norm: An Unprecedented Pattern of Criminal Activity in the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Setting the criminal norm.
Category: Social Science

[154] viXra:1801.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 00:42:03

Odd Abundant Numbers of the Form 2∙k∙P-(345+30∙(k-1)) Where P Are Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) All numbers of the form 2*k*645 – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 945, 2205, 3465, 4725, 5985, 7245, 8505, 9765...(II) All numbers of the form 2*k*1905 – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 3465, 7245, 11025, 14805, 18585, 22365, 26145, 29925...(III) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[153] viXra:1801.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 03:28:23

Odd Abundant Numbers of the Forms 2∙k∙P-1001∙k and 2∙k∙P+5005∙k Where P Are Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) All numbers of the form 2*k*41041 – 1001*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 81081, 243243, 405405, 567567, 729729, 891891, 1054053, 1216215...(II) All numbers of the form 2*k*101101 + 5005*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 207207, 621621, 1036035, 1450449, 1864863, 2279277, 2693691, 3108105...(III) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P – 1001*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; (IV) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P + 5005*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[152] viXra:1801.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 04:26:21

The Hypothesis of an Elastic Universe.

Authors: Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 7 Pages. site http://universe100.narod.ru/index.html

The hypothesis is stated that the whole variety of the material world, the whole variety of elementary particles, the whole variety of physics, can be explained by localized solutions of the three-dimensional wave equation in the elastic continuum.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[151] viXra:1801.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 05:28:47

The Universe is Arranged Very Simply.

Authors: Alexander Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 1 Page. Details on the site http://universe100.narod.ru/

The universe is a solid elastic continuum - gukuum. This continuum does not contain any numerical parameters or constraints. All visible and invisible objects of the universe, from large to small, are wave objects in this continuum. All the wave objects in the gukuum are described by the letter specification of the elasticity parameters of the solid body and the three-dimensional wave equation. The nonlinearity that exists in the universe is explained by the law of "winding the linear solution on itself." As a result of such winding, or layering, the linear solution becomes non-linear and creates the entire variety of the material world.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[150] viXra:1801.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 05:43:59

Palindromic Abundant Numbers P for Which P-Q^2+1 is an Abundant Number for Any Q Prime Greater Than 3

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there exist palindromic abundant numbers P such that n = P – q^2 + 1 is an abundant number for any q prime, q ≥ 5 (of course, for q^2 < P + 1). The first such P is the first palindromic abundant number 66 (with corresponding [q, n] = [5, 42], [7, 18]. Another such palindromic abundant numbers are 222, 252, 282, 414, 444, 474, 606, 636, 666. Up to 666, the palindromic abundant numbers 88, 272, 464, 616 don’t have this property. Questions: are there infinite many such palindromic abundant numbers? What other sets of integers have this property beside palindromic abundant numbers?
Category: Number Theory

[149] viXra:1801.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 11:24:41

Specific Entropy of Physical Systems

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 16 Pages.

The concept of entropy is generally defined for systems in which there is a heat exchange and it is connected with concepts of temperature and of internal disorder of system. This paper has the aim of examining the possibility of extending entropy to the generality of physical systems through the concept of specific entropy in which not necessarily heat is the only shape of energy that has to be considered. The outcome is that the concept of entropy can be extended from thermodynamic systems to other physical systems, including mechanical, gravitational and elementary electrodynamic systems. While all physical systems show the same behaviour with respect to the specific entropy, only mass electrodynamic particles show a different behaviour in instability conditions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[148] viXra:1801.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 12:47:21

Topological Effects of Photonic Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[147] viXra:1801.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 13:51:33

White Dwarfs, Nova and Stellar Youth in the General Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 photocopies of a book with notes, 1 illustrative diagram

A few thoughts as compared to early scientists on white dwarfs, (super)novas and stellar youth in the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[146] viXra:1801.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 08:43:19

The World Constructed as a Simple Partition Function

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 23 Pages.

We propose a simple partition function that unifies a surprisingly large amount of physical laws. The partition function is constructed from two conjugate-pairs: 1) an entropic-force conjugated to a thermal-length and 2) an entropic-power conjugated to a thermal-time. From its equation of state, we derive the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, Newton's law of gravitation, and Newton's law of inertia and show that its Lagrange multipliers are the Planck units. We also propose a solution to the problem of the arrow of time as a natural consequence of the construction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[145] viXra:1801.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 21:02:25

A Remark on the Localization Formulas About Two Killing Vector Fields

Authors: Xu Chen
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this article, we will discuss a localization formulas of equlvariant cohomology about two Killing vector fields on the set of zero points ${\rm{Zero}}(X_{M}-\sqrt{-1}Y_{M})=\{x\in M \mid |Y_{M}(x)|=|X_{M}(x)|=0 \}.$ As application, we use it to get formulas about characteristic numbers and to get a Duistermaat-Heckman type formula on symplectic manifold.
Category: Geometry

[144] viXra:1801.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 21:07:54

A Poincaré-Hopf Type Formula for A Pair of Vector Fields

Authors: Xu Chen
Comments: 7 Pages.

We extend the reslut about Poincar\'e-Hopf type formula for the difference of the Chern character numbers (cf.[3]) to the non-isolated singularities, and establish a Poincar\'e-Hopf type formula for a pair of vector field with the function $h^{T_{\mathbb{C}}M}(\cdot,\cdot)$ has non-isolated zero points over a closed, oriented smooth manifold of dimension $2n$.
Category: Geometry

[143] viXra:1801.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 00:17:25

Calculating Days Difference Between Gregorian and Julian Calendar

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 2 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating days difference between Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of two integer function by substituting the year. This formula will determine the exact number of days in any given Year as of December 31. This algorithm has no condition even during leap-year and 400-year rule.
Category: General Mathematics

[142] viXra:1801.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 03:08:57

Poulet Numbers P for Which P-Q^2 is an Abundant Number for Any Q Prime Greater Than 3

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there exist Poulet numbers P such that n = P – q^2 is an abundant number for any q prime, q ≥ 5 (of course, for q^2 < P). The first such P is 1105 (with corresponding [q, n] = [5, 1080], [7, 1056], [11, 984], [13, 936], [17, 816], [19, 744], [23, 576], [29, 264], [31, 144]). Another such Poulet numbers are 1387, 1729, 2047, 2701, 2821. Up to 2821, the Poulet numbers 341, 561, 645, 1905, 2465 don’t have this property. Questions: are there infinite many such Poulet numbers? What other sets of integers have this property beside Poulet numbers?
Category: Number Theory

[141] viXra:1801.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 07:54:01

A Quasi-Exactly Solvable Non-Polynomial, Non-Confining Potential Well

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 49 Pages.

Using a momentum scale, we construct an n-independent, non-polynomial, symmetrized finite well, which, with the addition of a delta potential with n-dependent coupling, becomes quasi-exactly solvable. Making a polynomial ansatz for the closed-form eigenfunctions, we obtain a three-term recursion relation, from which the known energies are derived and the polynomial coefficients are factorized. The coupling is then written in terms of a continued fraction, which, as n tends to infinity, reveals a triangular symmetry and converges. Finally, the location of the closed-form eigenfunctions is determined and the first ones are examined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[140] viXra:1801.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 08:02:40

Palindromes Obtained Concatenating the Prime Factors of a Poulet Number and Adding to the Number Obtained Its Reversal

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that D + R(D), where R(D) is the number obtained reversing the digits of D which is the number obtained concatenating the prime factors of P, is a palindromic number (example: such a Poulet number is P = 12801; the prime factors of 12801 are 3, 17 and 251, then D = 317251 and D + R(D) = 317251 + 152713 = 469964, a palindromic number); (II) There is no a number obtained concatenating the prime factors of a Poulet number to be a Lychrel number.
Category: Number Theory

[139] viXra:1801.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 09:58:16

Stellar Metamorphosis: From Neptune to Earth

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 3 Pages. For my father, in memoriam

A look at the evolution from a Gas Dwarf (Neptune) to a Life Host (Earth) and describing what happens in each phase; where the real history of how the crust of the Earth formed and evolved is theorized; the first crust a complete shell that expanded.
Category: Astrophysics

[138] viXra:1801.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 23:14:43

Life Expectancy – Lying with Statistics

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 14 Pages.

Biased statistics can arise from computational errors, belief in non-existent or unproven correlations ...or acceptance of premises proven invalid scientifically. It is the latter that will be examined here for the case of human life expectancy, whose values are well-known...and virtually never challenged as to their basic assumptions. Whether the false premises are accidental, a case of overlooking the obvious...or if they may be deliberate distortions serving a subliminal agenda.... is beyond the scope of this analysis.
Category: Statistics

[137] viXra:1801.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 01:53:56

Sennimalai Kalimuthu Publications

Authors: Sennimalai Kalimuthu
Comments: 03 Pages. Interested people may contact k,me at any time. Tha

The 5th Euclidean postulate is 2300 years old mathematical impossibility. I have worked on this problem for nearly b35 years and found a number of consistent solutions. My findings have been appeared in international peer reviewed research journals. Generation of power freely from space, space Bombs, Lion’s Tonic and Lemurian Yoga are my ambitious scientific projects. Interested researchers and people may contact me at +91 8508991577. My email is math.kalimuthu@gmail.com and arutperunjothi@outlook.com
Category: Geometry

[136] viXra:1801.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 03:48:51

General Relativistic Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this work we show that it is possible to formulate quantum mechanics from general relativity in both pseudo-Euclidean and Euclidean metric by showing that the three-dimensional differentiable spacetime structure of a quantum particle can be converted to that of a manifestly Minkowski spacetime or a manifestly Euclidean spacetime. This is equivalent to viewing and describing three-dimensional quantum particles as normal particles in classical and quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[135] viXra:1801.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 04:48:12

Decoding the Dark Energy Enigma

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a cosmic structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[134] viXra:1801.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 05:38:28

Microworld 39. EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” – Outbreak of a New Power Engineering Era in the Contemporary Earth Civilization

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The invention of flow-through magnetic ethereal jet engines EmDrive and “Antigravity Engine” opens the potential of ether in a new power engineering development.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[133] viXra:1801.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 07:42:14

Correlated Electron Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

By exploiting the properties of neutrons to probe electrons in a metal, a team of researchers led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has gained new insight into the behavior of correlated electron systems, which are materials that have useful properties such as magnetism or superconductivity. [27] By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[132] viXra:1801.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 08:08:31

Quantum Speed Limit on Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In recent years, however, the limits to that technology have become clear: Chip components can only get so small, and be packed only so closely together, before they overlap or short-circuit. If companies are to continue building ever-faster computers, something will need to change. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[131] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 15:58:09

A Simple Proof that Zeta(2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 6 Pages. One typo corrected.

We prove that partial sums of zeta(2) are not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of their terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that partials are excluded from an ever greater number of rational values. The limit of the partials is zeta(2) and the limit of the exclusions leaves only irrational numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[130] viXra:1801.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 10:50:03

Light Beams in Curved Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. [18] Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[129] viXra:1801.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 11:09:28

Natural Squarefree Numbers: Statistical Properties II

Authors: Preininger Helmut
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is an appendix of Natural Squarefree Numbers: Statistical Properties [PR04]. In this appendix we calculate the probability of c is squarefree, where c=a*b, a is an element of the set X and b is an element of the set Y.
Category: Number Theory

[128] viXra:1801.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 12:03:09

Cozmo a New Lightweight Stream Cipher

Authors: Rhea Bonnerji, Simanta Sarkar, Krishnendu Rarhi, Abhishek Bhattacharya
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper deals with the merger of the two lightweight stream ciphers – A5/1 and Trivium. The idea is to make the key stream generation more secure and to remove the attacks of the individual algorithms. The bits generated by the Trivium cipher (output) will act as the input of the A5/1 cipher. The registers used in the A5/1 cipher will be filled by the output bits of the Trivium cipher. The three registers will then be connected to generate an output which will be our required key stream. we are using Trivium and A5/1 algorithm and making changes to suit our needs.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[127] viXra:1801.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 14:06:57

Virus-Like Protein for Cognition and Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A protein involved in cognition and storing long-term memories looks and acts like a protein from viruses. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[126] viXra:1801.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 14:43:16

Mathematics as an Interconnected Whole

Authors: Mark Burgin
Comments: 15 Pages.

Different thinkers suggested varied images and descriptions of mathematics. Platonists believe that mathematical objects exist as Platonic Ideas and mathematicians only discover them. Nominalists think that mathematics is the contents of mathematical manuscripts, books, papers and lectures, with the increasingly growing net of theorems, definitions, proofs, constructions, and conjectures. Pragmatists assume that mathematics exists in mentality of people and when mathematicians introduce new objects they invent and then build them. An interesting peculiarity of the situation is that all these opinions and some others are true but … incomplete. The goal of this work is to explain this peculiarity presenting a complete vision of mathematics as an interconnected Whole.
Category: General Mathematics

[125] viXra:1801.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 22:19:15

Review of Newton’s Bucket on Wiki

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract Newton’s Bucket has been an enigma since being published in the Principia in 1687. It was the source of debate between Newton’s absolute space and Ernst Mach’s concept of relative rotation with respect to distant objects. Wikipedia’s rendition of the Bucket argument provides no solution but just confusion by ignoring some basic facts which will be pointed out in the detailed edits below. •Relativity is assumed true instead of being proven true •Kinematics and dynamics are not distinguished •Arguing against discarded theories is pointless •Switching reference frames during observations is fatal •Missing the crucial role of the lab frame •Fictitious forces are symbols of fictitious physics. The key is to recognize that: water at rest in the bucket frame => no rotation => no centrifugal force => no covariance => laws of dynamics are invalid in a non-lab frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[124] viXra:1801.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 00:20:08

3D Printing of Flexible Room-Temperature Liquid Metal Battery

Authors: Fujun Liu, Yongze Yu, Lei Wang, Liting Yi, Jinrong Lu, Bin Yuan, Sicong Tan, Jing Liu
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures

The entirely soft and transformable room-temperature liquid metal battery based on 3D hybrid printing was proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Liquid metal gallium and conductive gel were employed as the negative and positive electrode material, respectively. The discharge process of batteries with different structure, single-cell and multi-cell, were clarified. The results indicated that the obtained battery possessed rather stable and persisted discharge property, but the multi-cell battery presented stair-step decrease overtime. SEM and EDS images were obtained to evaluate the morphological change of the electrode during the discharge process, and the liquid metal was found to be easily exposed and active according to the solubility of the alkaline electrolyte to oxidized gallium. The successful 3D hybrid printing allowed different polymers, including PLA, ABS and TPU, to be precisely patterned in any required battery body structures, with liquid electrodes in appropriate specified positions. The flexibility and practicability of this new generation battery was illustrated through working devices. The present soft battery opens important power supply for future wearable and epidermal electronics.
Category: Condensed Matter

[123] viXra:1801.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 05:28:14

Counting the Number of Days in Any Year

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 3 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating the number of days in any given Year in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of seven algebraic (3 for Julian) expression, six of it are integer function by substituting the year. This formula will calculate the number of days which gives a number from 365 to 366 that determines the exact number of days in a given Year. This algorithm has no condition even during leap-year and 400-year rule.
Category: General Mathematics

[122] viXra:1801.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 07:35:08

Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[121] viXra:1801.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 09:02:38

3-Qubit Grover Search

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Searching large, unordered databases for a desired item is a time-consuming task for classical computers, but quantum computers are expected to perform these searches much more quickly. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1801.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 10:14:43

Six Fractal Codes of Biological Life: Perspectives in Astrobiology and Emergence of Binary Logics

Authors: Jean claude Perez
Comments: 50 Pages. none

The discovery of a simple numerical formula for the projection of all the atomic mass of life-sustaining CONHSP bioatoms leads to the emergence of a set of Nested CODES unifying all the biological, genetic and genomic components by unifying them from bioatoms up to whole genomes. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a digital meta-code common to the three languages ​​of biology that are RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences. Through this meta-code, genomic and proteomic images appear almost analogous and correlated. The analysis of the textures of these images then reveals a binary code as well as an undulatory code whose analysis on the human genome makes it possible to predict the alternating bands constituting the karyotypes of the chromosomes. The application of these codes to perspectives in astrobiology and the emergence of binary codes and regions of local stability (voting process), whose fractal nature we demonstrate is illustrated.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[119] viXra:1801.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 11:22:17

Tuning Genetic Circuits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Rice University scientists have created a toolkit for synthetic biologists who need to precisely tune the input and output levels of genetic circuits. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[118] viXra:1801.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 12:50:33

Everlasting Electric Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. [26] A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[117] viXra:1801.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 13:03:11

A New Cosmological Model

Authors: Jorge Martinez Fernandez
Comments: 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to present a new cosmological model, based on the union of the Wilhelm De Sitter Model applying the equations of the Russian physicist Anatoli Logunov in the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (TRG). The general ideas of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (GRT) are based on the ideas of Poincaré, Minkowski, Einstein and Hilbert, all within the framework of Special Relativity (SR).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[116] viXra:1801.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 13:53:54

On a Possible Democratic Consult for the Independence of Catalonia [or Other Regions of Spain]

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 25 Pages.

In recent times, there is a substantial debate about the right [or not] of inhabitants of certain regions of Spain 'to decide' whether they wish to continue forming part of Spain or become independent republics / states. Some political parties claim this ‘right to decide’ is a fundamental right of any democracy, while others argue the opposite. In this text, we review this issue from the Social Choice Theory point of view. We begin by reviewing the arguments of those who desire to change the current situation [those who request this ‘right to decide’], then outline the conditions that would allow for a democratic referendum on the independence [or not] of different regions of Spain.
Category: Social Science

[115] viXra:1801.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 16:03:06

The Big Bang Fizzled

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 1 Page.

An argument is presented that we cannot see more than about half way back to the beginning of time. The cosmological redshift may be explainable with a gravitational version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[114] viXra:1801.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 05:35:40

Calculating the Day of the Week – Direct Substitution

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract. This study is an algorithm of calculating the day of the week for any given date in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of eight algebraic 6 for Julian expression, five of which are integer function by substituting the year, month and day. This formula will calculate the modulo 7 which gives a number from 0 to 6, i.e., 0Saturday, 1Sunday, and so on, that determines the exact day of the week. This algorithm has no condition even during leap‐year and 400‐year cycle.
Category: General Mathematics

[113] viXra:1801.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 01:52:00

The Incalculable Continuum

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

A continuum in sight.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[112] viXra:1801.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-11 04:52:23

Quantum FFF Theory, a Conscious String Theory with Different Vacuum Trajectories for Axion-Higgs Field/ Photons Respectively Fermions, Gluons and Bosons.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 12 Pages.

This conscious string theory also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical cold Big Bang evaporation into 8 or 12 CP ( Charge Parity) symmetric copy (anti) material universes. It can be called a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum shaped rigid stringy entangled particles. Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 7 or 11 CP symmetric copy particles located inside the other 7 or 11 CP symmetric universal bubbles at long distance with raspberry shape. The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. So each particle has to compete for wavefunction collapse with 7 or 11 anti copy particles and each person’s choice ( free will) also. So: we live inside 8 or 12 quantum particle based instant entangled pinball machines making choices for our own reptile brain based flash intuition down to single particle slit interference. However our frontal cortex seems to be able to make social corrections ( Vetos) within 300 msec. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for other theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[111] viXra:1801.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 07:37:27

Negative Mass Creating Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Now University of Rochester researchers have succeeded in creating particles with negative mass in an atomically thin semiconductor, by causing it to interact with confined light in an optical microcavity. [25] The device is a type of spectrometer—an optical instrument that takes light and breaks it down into components to reveal a catalogue of information about an object. [24] When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[110] viXra:1801.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 13:23:16

Parametric Validation Reinforcement Loops, and the Cosmological Constant Problem

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Considered the meridian distortions of gnomonic projection of light waves in vision. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[109] viXra:1801.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 11:13:58

François Mendzina Essomba Continuous Fraction's

Authors: MENDZINA ESSOMBA François
Comments: 03 Pages.

a new continuous fractions...
Category: Number Theory

[108] viXra:1801.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 13:10:24

Cause/effect Correlations Through the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem and Kneser Graphs

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The assessment of hidden causal relationships, e.g., adverse drug reactions in pharmacovigilance, is currently based on rather qualitative parameters. In order to find more quantifiable parameters able to establish the validity of the alleged correlations between drug intake and onset of symptoms, we introduce the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference projects to two points on a sphere. The BUT stands for a general principle that describes issues from neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, chaotic systems, group theory, cosmology. Here we introduce a novel BUT variant, termed operational-BUT, that evaluates causal relationships. Further, we demonstrate that the BUT is correlated with graph theory and in particular with the so-called Kneser graphs: this means that the combinatory features of observables, such as the bodily responses to drug intake, can be described in terms of dynamical mappings and paths taking place on well-established abstract structures. Therefore, physical and biological dynamical systems (including alleged causes and their unknown effects) make predictable moves into peculiar phase spaces, giving rise to constrained trajectories that can be quantified.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[107] viXra:1801.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-10 08:31:30

An Analytical Form of the Boscovich Curve with Applications

Authors: Augustus Prince
Comments: 51 Pages. work of Augustus Prince submitted by Roger Anderton and Bill Ryan

Using an analysis from a physical and phenomenological viewpoint employing the renowned and recognized continuity of Boscovich’s force curve, a new paradigm is formulated to explicate various physical phenomena in both the microworld and the macro-world. Within this paradigm, an algorithm is established which produced a functional representation of the atomic spectra of hydrogen and a temperature dependent blackbody energy distribution of radiation which compares very favorably with the experimental data. Further representations afford suggestions for the predictions of the specific heat of solids, photoelectric effect, etc. The Boscovichian points are assumed to move under the action of a force (acceleration) that varies inversely proportional to the cube of the radius from the point center, which leads to an orbit described by an equiangular (logarithmic) spiral. This spiral is subsequently used to simulate the concepts used in phyllotaxis (a constituent of plant morphology) and the gnomonic growth of mollusk shells (e.g. nautilus). The intercepts for the stable and unstable points on the Boscovich curve, which are the roots of the equation used, are calculated via the application of Fibonacci-type sequence of integers. In addition, utilizing the shape of Boscovich's "extended" curve of force (acceleration), the prospect of interpreting the mysterious attractive force beyond the visible Newtonian region of space (e.g. black holes, dark energy, etc.) is proposed. It is hoped that this phenomenological approach will serve as a beginning for description of both the micro-universe and the macrouniverse.
Category: Classical Physics

[106] viXra:1801.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 18:46:32

An Inquiry on the Implications of Abandoning Vixra and Using Arxiv on Finding the Shortest Path Within a Graph

Authors: Vixraisshit Usearxiv
Comments: 85 Pages. why are you still reading this? go to arXiv!!!

viXra is shitt go use arXiv if i can publish bs liek dis den why tf shood you trust anything on dis cite P.S. I'm not illiterate, it's to prove my point.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[105] viXra:1801.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 19:51:36

Solar Planets Order Disproves the Gravity Theory

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 59 Pages.

-The Solar Planets order proves that, the planet orbital distance is defined based on his Diameter and NOT his Mass, which disproves the Gravity Theory.. But -Planet Diameter and Orbital Distance Relationship Equation is so hard to define…! Why? Because -The solar Group has 2 Heads (The Sun and Earth). The Solar Group is A Dipole…. We need to modify the Solar Group Basic Description to be " A Dipole System"… -This paper also discusses the Sun nature and Origin…
Category: Astrophysics

[104] viXra:1801.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 22:02:12

Praecox in the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

A sudden praecox shock.
Category: Social Science

[103] viXra:1801.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 22:28:28

The Future Science Institute (Volume two issue 2016-2017)

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 304 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[102] viXra:1801.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 01:09:16

Let the Wind Blows: Physics of Wave and Only Wave

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 221 Pages. This book is distributed freely. Published by the Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com

This book is a compilation of some rather old papers and some new papers, by myself and also Prof. Florentin Smarandache. In some papers, we also join working with other colleagues, e.g. Dr. Volodymyr Krasnoholovets from IOP Ukraine, and Dr. Yunita Umniyati. This compilation is inspired from a series of prophetic seminars by Rev. Jan Friso from Kingdom Impact , and also a discussion with Minister Dr. Robby Chandra. All in all, we are also grateful to a number of colleagues, including Prof. Thee Houw Liong, Prof. Liek Wilardjo, Prof. Atmonobudi Soebagyo, Dr. David Widihandojo, Sujarwo Silas & Linda, Dr. Wonsuk Ma, Minister Gatut Budiyono, Minister Gani Wiyono, Dr. Yonky Karman, Dr. Joas Adiprasetya, Dr. Paskalis Edwin Nyoman Paska, Minister Yulia Oeniyati, Prof. Akira Kanda, Dr. Carmen Wrede, Mrs. Hiroko Morioka, Prof. Jose Carlos Tiago Oliveira and Prof. Gusto Gadama, and many others, who often encouraged and reminded us to keep on being faithful Christians in this darkness time. As a last note, we also thank to Holy Spirit who always guide us in our way, especially whenever we were lost of our path to find the truth. That is why this book with title: Let The Wind blows is dedicated to Holy Spirit. Let us pray that the Holy Spirit will be poured once again in our time, as prophesied by Joel.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[101] viXra:1801.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 02:13:45

Quantized Gravitational Field

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 100 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Quantized Gravitational Field “I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational field is Gravitons” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books that the gravitational field g is a vector at each point of space and time, a vector pointing directly towards the particle. In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function. Gravitons do not exist in Einstein’s gravitation theory, because General relativity is not a quantum theory. “In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not a vector at each point of space and time, where there are not gravitons there is not gravitational field” Adrian Ferent “In my Gravitation theory the density of flux lines is replaced by graviton flux” Adrian Ferent “Gravitation field lines are gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Each graviton in the gravitational field has a speed v and a negative momentum p = -mv” Adrian Ferent “The graviton flux is defined as the number of gravitons per second per unit area” Adrian Ferent “The power density is the graviton flux multiplied by the energy of a single graviton” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[100] viXra:1801.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 02:32:19

Velocity Transformation in Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

A moving object in one inertial reference frame always moves at a different speed in another inertial reference frame. To determine this different speed, a temporary acceleration is applied to a duplicate of the first inertial reference frame in order to match the second inertial reference frame. The velocity transformation between two inertial reference frames is precisely derived based on the applied acceleration. The result shows that velocity transformation depends solely on the relative motion between inertial reference frames. Velocity transformation is independent of the speed of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[99] viXra:1801.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 08:24:27

High-Resolution X-Rays Gratings

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[98] viXra:1801.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 08:48:03

A Simpler Classification Paradigm for Finite Simple Groups and an Application to the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: A.Polorovskii
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new system of classification that greatly simplifies the task of classifying (or setifying) all finite simple groups (Hereafter referred to as FSGs.) We propose classification of FSGs by identifying each group with the equivalence class of certain groups up to isomorphism. Furthermore, it is shown that every FSG belongs to at least one of the equivalence classes herein. Using our new classification, the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis is proven.
Category: Algebra

[97] viXra:1801.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 09:48:51

Images of the Square of the Quantum Wave Function

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have developed a method to visually image the entanglement between electrons. [15] In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1801.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 11:34:24

Bayesian Transfer Learning for Deep Networks

Authors: J. Wohlert, A. M. Munk, S. Sengupta, F. Laumann
Comments: 6 Pages.

We propose a method for transfer learning for deep networks through Bayesian inference, where an approximate posterior distribution q(w|θ) of model parameters w is learned through variational approximation. Utilizing Bayes by Backprop we optimize the parameters θ associated with the approximate distribution. When performing transfer learning we consider two tasks; A and B. Firstly, an approximate posterior q_A(w|θ) is learned from task A which is afterwards transferred as a prior p(w) → q_A(w|θ) when learning the approximate posterior distribution q_B(w|θ) for task B. Initially, we consider a multivariate normal distribution q(w|θ) = N (µ, Σ), with diagonal covariance matrix Σ. Secondly, we consider the prospects of introducing more expressive approximate distributions - specifically those known as normalizing flows. By investigating these concepts on the MNIST data set we conclude that utilizing normalizing flows does not improve Bayesian inference in the context presented here. Further, we show that transfer learning is not feasible using our proposed architecture and our definition of task A and task B, but no general conclusion regarding rejecting a Bayesian approach to transfer learning can be made.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[95] viXra:1801.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 14:47:54

Particles' Directional Preferences

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Spin physicists first observed the tendency of more neutrons to emerge slightly to the right in proton-proton interactions in 2001-2002, during RHIC's first polarized proton experiments. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[94] viXra:1801.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 22:06:09

Final Results on P vs NP Via Integer Factorization and Optimization

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 12 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the NP-hard problem of minimizing a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region. Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron, solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm. Finally, as we find a polynomial-time algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem, we conclude that P = NP
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[93] viXra:1801.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 00:22:48

Counting the Number of Days in a Month-Year

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 4 Pages.

This study is an algorithm of calculating the number of days of the Month-Year for any given Month and Year in Gregorian & Julian calendar using simplified formula. It consists of eleven algebraic (6 for Julian) expression, all of it are integer function by substituting the year and month. This formula will calculate the number of days which gives a number from 28 to 31 that determines the exact number of days in a given Month-Year. This algorithm has no condition even during leap-year and 400-year rule.
Category: General Mathematics

[92] viXra:1801.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 01:18:20

The Frog and the Swarm of Bees, Different Views of the Universe

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: Pages.

An extended version of the frog and the swarm of flies. With additional explanation of the analogy, and comparison of superposition from the hive mind to quantum physics theoretical superposition of outcome states. Rather than frog and bird views of the universe as suggested by Max Tegmark, this considers the frog and hive mind of a swarm of super intelligent bees. Arguing that the aggregate view of the hive mind demonstrates the relativity of variables, and that their collective view also represents 'many worlds' of possibility from the point of view of a frog with just a singular viewpoint.This ties together ideas of relativity and QM
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[91] viXra:1801.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 07:16:40

Quantum Loop Topography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now, scientists have provided a bridge, which they call the quantum loop topography technique. This is a machine-learning algorithm based on neural networks. [10] A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[90] viXra:1801.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-16 06:00:50

Quadratic Transformations of Hypergeometric Function and Series with Harmonic Numbers

Authors: Martin Nicholson
Comments: 8 Pages. Presentation is improved, a theorem, a corollary and some references are added

In this brief note, we show how to apply Kummer's and other quadratic transformation formulas for Gauss' and generalized hypergeometric functions in order to obtain transformation and summation formulas for series with harmonic numbers that contain one or two continuous parameters.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[89] viXra:1801.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 08:18:20

Heat

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 7 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Abstract: Presently, ‘heat’ is understood as a type of energy and ‘heating’ as a process of transfer of energy. Energy, being ability to do work, is a quality and hence a functional entity. Functional entities have neither objective reality nor positive existence in space. Therefore, energy has neither form, nor structure, nor real existence. However, in contemporary physics, energy (an imaginary entity) is treated almost like a real entity with form, structure, objective reality with ability to transfer and can change forms. It is currently used as cause of actions, where no other cause is obvious. According to an alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, energy is a functional entity that develops wherever and whenever work is done in association with a three-dimensional matter-body. Heating is a process of reducing three-dimensional matter-content level of a macro body. In any body, its 3D matter-content and work associated with its integrity and state are complimentary and support each other. 3D matter-content of a body is the quantity of matter it contains in the form of basic 3D matter-particles. Energy-content about a body is the strain developed, due to distortions (work-done), in universal medium about the body.
Category: Classical Physics

[88] viXra:1801.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 09:38:06

Bulk and Surface Hydration Numbers and Degrees of Dissociation of NaCl in Aqueous Solutions at 25oC for all Concentrations

Authors: Rajalakshmi Heyrovska
Comments: 8 pages, one Table and one Fig. 1 (proves total replacement of the idea of complete dissociation by that of partial dissociation as per Arrhenius)

The interpretation of the equilibrium properties (osmotic coefficients) of solutions of sLrong electrolytes in terms of hydration and incomplete dissociation has now been extended to the whole range of concentrations from 0 to saturation. Osmotic pressure, a bulk property is characterized by a bulk hydration number and vapor pressure, a surface property, by a surface hydration number. Supporting data are provided for NaCl. The simple quantitative mathematical relations obtained here replace the complicated expressions based on the assumption of complete dissociation. (Note: This breakthrough paper was submitted originally as Accelerated communication to Coll. Czechosl. Chem. Communs in April 1994, but was not accepted even after revision. Lectures on this topic were received with enthusiasm abroad, e.g., Prof. J.N. Butler of Harvard wrote: Your approach will turn out to be elegant, powerful and even revolutionary. Eventually it was published with praise in JES 1996 and presented as a plenary talk in the Svante Arrhenius Symposium in Uppsala, commemorating the centenary of the award to him of the Nobel Prize: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320021014)
Category: Chemistry

[87] viXra:1801.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 09:25:55

Expression to Get Prime Numbers and Twin Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three, composite numbers and all twin prime numbers greater than three. The conditioning (n) will be the key to make the formula work.
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1801.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 11:01:54

Noise Eating Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[85] viXra:1801.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 11:14:47

Three-Slit Loop Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists have performed a variation of the famous 200-year-old double-slit experiment that, for the first time, involves "exotic looped trajectories" of photons. These photons travel forward through one slit, then loop around and travel back through another slit, and then sometimes loop around again and travel forward through a third slit. [15] In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[84] viXra:1801.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 12:04:26

Einstein Field Equations Obtained Only with Gauss Curvature and Zoom Universe Model Characteristics

Authors: Sergio Garcia Chimeno
Comments: 10 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it. Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics. Gravity in zoom universe model. Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[83] viXra:1801.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 13:24:37

The Hidden Dimensions of the Central Nervous System

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 17 Pages.

Several papers, taking into account the big data outburst and novel, powerful computational tools, are starting to unveil an intricate state of affairs concerning brain dimensions. Indeed, various brain activities and their correlated mental functions can be assessed in terms of trajectories embedded in phase spaces of dimensions higher than the canonical ones. We show how, surprisingly, brain further dimensions may stand not just for methodological devices that allow a better mathematical treatment of otherwise elusive cortical activities, but also for functional or anatomical relationships among real nervous functions. Further, we describe how it is feasible to extract hidden multidimensional information from real or artificial neurodata series, and demonstrate how our mind dilutes, rather than concentrate as currently believed, the inputs coming from its surrounding environment. The principle “the higher the dimensions, the higher the information” might explain the occurrence of our mental activities and elucidate the mechanisms of the human diseases in which dimensionality reduction occurs.
Category: Mind Science

[82] viXra:1801.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 15:06:47

Some Physics United: With Predictions and Models for Much (extract 1)

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 61 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, predict new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research. We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators. First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to the three known eras - initial acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe. Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. We note that extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We propose that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena. Third, we note that the work unites, extends, and limits aspects of traditional physics. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, and the cosmology timeline. The work provides possible insight regarding foundations of physics topics. Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply math we use.
Category: Astrophysics

[81] viXra:1801.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 17:15:09

Number P-Q Where P and Q Poulet Numbers Needs Very Few Iterations of “reverse and Add” to Reach a Palindrome

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: the number n = p – q, where p and q are Poulet numbers, needs very few iterations of “reverse and add” to reach a palindrome. For instance, taking q = 1729 and p = 999986341201, it can be seen that only 3 iterations are needed to reach a palindrome: n = 999986341201 – 1729 = 999986339472 and we have: 999986339472 + 274933689999 = 1274920029471; 1274920029471 + 1749200294721 = 3024120324192 and 3024120324192 + 2914230214203 = 5938350538395, a palindromic number. So, relying on this, I conjecture that there exist an infinity of n, even considering q and p successive, that need just one such iteration to reach a palindrome (see sequence A015976 in OEIS for these numbers) and I also conjecture that there is no a difference between two Poulet numbers to be a Lychrel number.
Category: Number Theory

[80] viXra:1801.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 19:07:08

Bohm Quantum Blockchain and Indra’s Net with Schwinger Source Jewels

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 11 Pages.

E8 Physics ( viXra 1602.0319 and 1701.0495 and 1701.0496 ) is based on 26D String Theory with Strings interpreted as World-Lines and spin-2 carriers of Bohm Quantum Potential with Sarfatti Back-Reaction and an Indra’s Net with each Indra’s Jewel being a Schwinger Source. Each Schwinger Source contains about 10^27 virtual particle/antiparticle pairs and interacts with the rest of our Universe through 8 x 10^53 elements of the Monster automorphism group of each 26-dim String Theory cell modulo a Leech lattice so each Schwinger Source can contain full Blockchain information about 10^27 x 8 x 10^53 = 8 x 10^80 other Schwinger Sources in our Universe which is enough capacity to act as an Indra’s Jewel Blockchain Block for our Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[79] viXra:1801.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-13 21:03:02

Fine Soccer(4)

Authors: Morio kikuchi
Comments: 296 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[78] viXra:1801.0083 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-17 00:53:40

The Relativity of Time

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness emerges (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[77] viXra:1801.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 02:20:51

Number P^2-Q^2 Where P and Q Primes Needs Very Few Iterations of “reverse and Add” to Reach a Palindrome

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: the number n = p^2 – q^2, where p and q are primes, needs very few iterations of “reverse and add” to reach a palindrome. For instance, taking q = 563 and p = 104723, it can be seen that only 3 iterations are needed to reach a palindrome: n = 104723^2 – 563^6 = 10966589760 and we have: 10966589760 + 6798566901 = 17765156661; 17765156661 + 16665156771 = 34430313432 and 34430313432 + 23431303443 = 57861616875, a palindromic number. So, relying on this, I conjecture that there exist an infinity of n, even considering q and p successive, that need just one such iteration to reach a palindrome (see sequence A015976 in OEIS for these numbers) and I also conjecture that there is no a difference between two squares of primes to be a Lychrel number.
Category: Number Theory

[76] viXra:1801.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 03:28:49

Venkatesha Nava Darshana: Proposing An Inclusive Faith for World Peace

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

A proposal to humanity,for an inclusive system of faith and spirituality. We name this Venkatesha Nava Darshana, or simply Nava Darshana, the 'New Outlook'.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[75] viXra:1801.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 05:12:33

Three Sequences of Palindromes Obtained from Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that (P + 4*196) + R(P + 4*196), where R(n) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n, is a palindromic number; note that I wrote 4*196 instead 784 because 196 is a number known to be related with palindromes: is the first Lychrel number, which gives the name to the “196-algorithm”; (II) For every Poulet number P there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number (P + 16*q^2) + R(P + 16*q^2) is a palindrome. The three sequences (presumed infinite by the conjectures above) mentioned in title of the paper are: (1) Palindromes of the form (P + 4*196) + R(P + 4*196), where P is a Poulet number; (2) Palindromes of the form (P + 16*q^2) + R(P + 16*q^2), where P is a Poulet number and q the least prime for which is obtained such a palindrome; (3) Palindromes of the form (1729 + 16*q^2) + R(1729 + 16*q^2), where q is prime (1729 is a well known Poulet number).
Category: Number Theory

[74] viXra:1801.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 05:41:04

Electromagnetic Bullet and Shot Gun Shell

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page. All these items are off the shelf items. Try them and upload a comment with results.

The objective of this paper is to suggest that bullet with a watch battery on it(superglue them on) will have reduced mass and travel more efficiently. Place them in a conventional revolver and in a conventional shot gun.(single or double barrel)
Category: Mathematical Physics

[73] viXra:1801.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 07:13:35

Three Sequences of Palindromes Obtained from Squares of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of squares of primes p^2 such that (p^2 + 4*196) + R(p^2 + 4*196), where R(n) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n, is a palindromic number; note that I wrote 4*196 instead 784 because 196 is a number known to be related with palindromes: is the first Lychrel number, which gives the name to the “196-algorithm”; (II) For every square of odd prime p^2 there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number (p^2 + 16*q^2) + R(p^2 + 16*q^2) is a palindrome. The three sequences (presumed infinite by the conjectures above) mentioned in title of the paper are: (1) Palindromes of the form (p^2 + 4*196) + R(p^2 + 4*196), where p^2 is a square of prime; (2) Palindromes of the form (p^2 + 16*q^2) + R(p^2 + 16*q^2), where p^2 is a square of prime and q the least prime for which is obtained such a palindrome; (3) Palindromes of the form (13^2 + 16*q^2) + R(13^2 + 16*q^2), where q is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[72] viXra:1801.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-10 02:18:28

Perth-Muenster REG-REG Correlations: Remarkable New Evidence for Dynamical Space

Authors: Peter C Morris
Comments: 11 Pages, 11 Figures

We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting. For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day. A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic flow direction of RA = 4.49 h, dec = -80.4 deg, and wave speed of 508 km/s.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[71] viXra:1801.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 14:30:41

Fundamental Theory Of Nature

Authors: Peter Hickman
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is proposed that particles are not fundamental but arise as symmetries of an infinite dimension random field. Space-Time with signature (3,1) and gravitation arises as a double phase transformation of spinors and scalars. The 3 generations of chiral spinors of quarks and leptons and the scalar doublets of the Standard Model are found from 3d random field. The Schwarzschild space-time has no physical singularity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[70] viXra:1801.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 18:38:49

Masses and Diameters of the Five Fundamental Particles

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 6 Pages. In Russian

In this paper we present a table of the values of the masses and diameters of the five fundamental particles (tau particle, neutron, proton, muon, electron) and the crupitsa (atom) of matter underlying all fundamental particles. These calculations are carried out in the framework of "Theory of Nature" by the author. The first version of the "Theory of Nature" was ready in May 2013. "Theory of Nature" is a revolutionary breakthrough in physics, and in our knowledge of nature and its fundamental laws.//======// В настоящей статье представлена таблица значений масс и диаметров пяти элементарных частиц (тау-частицы, нейтрона, протона, мюона, электрона) и крупицы материи, лежащей в основе всех элементарных частиц. Эти расчёты выполнены в рамках «Теории Природы» автора. Первая версия ТП была готова в мае 2013 года. «Теория Природы» - это революционный прорыв в физике, и в наших знаниях природы и её фундаментальных законов.
Category: Classical Physics

[69] viXra:1801.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 22:47:02

The Evolution Revolution

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 15 Pages.

Are you and I here because of evolution? Or are we here because there is a humanistic, rational, scientific and entirely natural explanation for what is called God? If there is, we must ask: how does an "entirely natural" process end up being called "supernatural" by some people? The answer seems to lie with the applications in thousands of years from now of quantum mechanics being unified with general relativity - and the seeming SUPERnaturalness of those apps to today's world (they apparently embrace all of space and time). In years past, the denial of divine beings by science may have been logical. But times sometimes change radically. Such a paradigm shift seems to be upon us now, with the discovery of gravitational waves and the anticipation of quantum gravity. In changing times, scientists must always keep open minds. And if biological evolution explains less than we've come to believe, it is assumed that present theories concerning cosmic evolution might be in some - certainly not total - need of revision. This is explored in topics such as gravitation, infinity, quantum gravity, space-time travel, the universe's binary digits and topology, the reason the Higgs field is actually the gravitational - electromagnetic field, alleged universal expansion, and imaginary time. Many references are from the scientific literature but I do not apologize for those that come from popular science sources. Authors cannot allow these to be inaccurate if they value their reputation at all. And such references are often excellent at communicating ideas. I believe this article will obviously be seen by some as too speculative, and irrelevant to the early 21st century. The theoretical physicist John Wheeler once said some of the original papers on quantum mechanics were also considered extremely speculative. Look how far quantum mechanics has come in less than a century! So speculation is not a bad thing.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[68] viXra:1801.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 07:11:07

The Gospel of Thomas as the Fifth Part of the Gospel of Christ

Authors: Arsen A. Movsesyan
Comments: 8 Pages.

The questions of completeness and unity of the Gospel are considered in the article. It is soundly shown, that the existing representation of the completeness of Gospel on the basis of the Tetramorph of Ezekiel needs to be expanded with the consideration of the fifth element of prophet's vision, which has a substantial significance. In addition, on the basis of the condition of completeness of the object of cognition of the spiritual level, which is in full conformity with the expanded condition of Ezekiel, is shown, that initially complete Gospel is currently incomplete. Proceeding from these two conditions, it is soundly shown that the Gospel of Thomas is the fifth, the missing part of the Gospel of Christ.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[67] viXra:1801.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 07:15:45

The Irrationality of Zeta(n>1): A Proof by Story

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 2 Pages. It might help to read "Visualizing Zeta(n>1) and Proving Its Irrationality" by the same author.

In a universe with meteorites on concentric circles equally spaced, spaceships can avoid collisions by every smaller increments of their trajectories. Using this idea, a story conveys the sense that Zeta increments avoid all meteorites and thus converge to an irrational number.
Category: Number Theory

[66] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-09 10:47:39

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[65] viXra:1801.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 00:12:17

Electrical Moonshine

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 5 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the tabulated one. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, and confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[64] viXra:1801.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-06 13:41:52

The Brighter Sides of Gravity

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 5 Pages. minor correction - as always..

This paper is an appendix to the article "From Bernoulli to Laplace and Beyond" (refenced below), and discusses different aspects of it: electromagnetism, field tensors, general relativity, and probability.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[63] viXra:1801.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:35:44

Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers Congruent to 1,4,7,2,5,8 (Mod 9)

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 27 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three and composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than three. This paper develops formulas to break down the prime numbers and the composite numbers in their reductions, these formulas based on equalities allow to regroup them according to congruence characteristics.
Category: Number Theory

[62] viXra:1801.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:38:16

Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers (1 to 9), the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the Inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[61] viXra:1801.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:43:09

Formula for Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three and composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than 3. The key for this formula to work correctly is in the equalities and inequalities. These equalities and inequalities are created from the uncovering of the patterns of the composite numbers. The composite numbers follow very clear and determining patterns, making it possible to find them through a formula.
Category: Number Theory

[60] viXra:1801.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 07:10:28

A Collection of Attractors

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 39 Pages.

This note presents a collection of attractors
Category: General Mathematics

[59] viXra:1801.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 07:13:24

Machin-Type Formulas for pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents some Machin-type formulas for pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[58] viXra:1801.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 07:14:08

Realistic Nature of Quantum Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1801.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 07:20:38

On Radicals , Polynomials , pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[56] viXra:1801.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 08:21:32

Lattice Gauge Theories

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[55] viXra:1801.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 09:29:14

General Theory of Relativity in the Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Equations of the general theory of relativity are derived within the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of gravitation is given. The absence of quantum gravity is predicted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] viXra:1801.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 09:56:59

Poliedros Fórmulas Indemostradas

Authors: Carlos Alejandro Chiappini
Comments: 7 Pages.

Leonhard Euler demostró que en un poliedro regular convexo hay tres números ue cumplen una ley, expresada en una ecuación conocida como fórmula de Euler. Son el número de caras, el número de vértices y el número de aristas. Este documento presenta algunas fórmulas más, obtenidas por ensayo y error a partir de una tabla que contiene los datos de los 5 poliedros regulares convexos. Estas fórmulas indemostradas tienen rasgos verosímiles. Buscar el modo de demostrar la invalidez o la validez de esas fórmulas podría ser, para las personas amantes de la topología, una tarea interesante.
Category: Geometry

[53] viXra:1801.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 10:33:29

Open Letter To Dr Penrose

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

Let’s say one explodes a Russian TSAR in the cold spot. This would be a literal big bang and create some form of universe. Conversely a hot quantum particle could or may have caused the big bang even at equilibrium because it pops into the cold spot in the universe. Think weather, hot and cold front equals a turbulent thunder storm or violent weather patterns or conditions.
Category: Astrophysics

[52] viXra:1801.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 14:16:36

Quantum Spooky Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1801.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 17:28:10

GJ 436b: A Gas Dwarf/Pre-Ocean World in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is explained that GJ 436b is a gas dwarf/pre-ocean world according to the measurement of its radius. A simple illustration offered by an establishment physicist shows this and an explanation for its stage of evolution is provided according to the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[50] viXra:1801.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 09:56:09

A Trivially Simple Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip A. Bloom
Comments: 1 Page.

For any given positive integral n, we devise an algebraic identity that we show as holding for positive integral Fermat triples equal to (x,y,z) for which x^n+y^n=z^n holds (per our assumption). However, our algebraic identity does not hold for values of n greater or equal to three, thereby contradicting this assumption. Consequently, no positive integral (x,y,z) exists when n has values greater or equal to three.
Category: Number Theory

[49] viXra:1801.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-07 11:57:20

A Lemma on the Minimal Counter-example of Frankl's Conjecture

Authors: Ankush Hore
Comments: 5 Pages.

Frankl's Conjecture, from 1979, states that any finite union-closed family, containing at least one non-empty member set, must have an element which belongs to at least half of the member-sets. In this paper we list out some properties of the hypothetical minimal counter-example to this conjecture. In particular, we discuss the frequency of 3 distinct elements in the minimal counter-example. We also apply these findings to finite bipartite graphs.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[48] viXra:1801.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 00:20:25

Fruit Recognition from Images Using Deep Learning

Authors: Horea Muresan, Mihai Oltean
Comments: 13 Pages. Data can be downloaded from https://github.com/Horea94/Fruit-Images-Dataset

In this paper we introduce a new, high-quality, dataset of images containing fruits. We also present the results of some numerical experiment for training a neural network to detect fruits. We discuss the reason why we chose to use fruits in this project by proposing a few applications that could use this kind of neural network.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[47] viXra:1801.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 14:59:36

"Geomagnetic Pole” Shift Should Reduce Inclination of Earth’s Orbit and Lunar Orbital Distance

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

„Geomagnetic pole” shift will weaken Earth’s vortex, this should reduce Earth’s orbital inclination. Orbital distance of the Moon might be also reduced. Сдвиг “геомагнитных полюсов” должен ослабить земной вихрь. Это должно привести к снижению орбитального наклона Земной орбиты а также к снижению величины орбитальной дистанции Луны.
Category: Classical Physics

[46] viXra:1801.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 20:41:10

A Multiresolution Triangular Plate-Bending Element Method

Authors: YiMing Xia
Comments: 17 Pages. 1.A new split-full node notion is presented and a novel technique is proposed to construct a simple and clear basic full node shape function for a triangular plate-bending element.

A triangular plate-bending element with a new multi-resolution analysis (MRA) is proposed and a novel multiresolution element method is hence presented. The MRA framework is formulated out of a displacement subspace sequence whose basis functions are built out of scaling and shifting on the element domain of basic full node shape function. The basic full node shape function is constructed by means of extending the shape function triangle domain for a split node at the zero coordinates to the hexagon area enclosing the zero coordinates. As a result, a new split-full node notion is presented and a novel rational MRA concept together with the resolution level (RL) is constituted for the element. Via practical examples, it is found that the traditional triangular plate element and method is a mono-resolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The analysis clarity of a plate structure is actually determined by the RL, not by the mesh. Thus, the accuracy of a structural analysis is replaced by the clarity, the irrational MRA by the rational and the mesh model by the RL that is the discretized model by the integrated. The continuous full node shape function unveils secrets behind assembling artificially of node-related items in global matrix formation by the conventional FEM.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[45] viXra:1801.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 20:47:43

On the Absolute Meaning of Motion

Authors: Hanna Edwards
Comments: Pages. Formal publication (Results in Physics, 2017): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.09.053 ; Audio-slides: https://youtu.be/mFgYrEj28Es

The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained. A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks. The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[44] viXra:1801.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 23:57:59

Benchmarking and Improving Recovery of Number of Topics in Latent Dirichlet Allocation Models

Authors: Jason Hou-Liu
Comments: Pages.

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a generative model describing the observed data as being composed of a mixture of underlying unobserved topics, as introduced by Blei et al. (2003). A key hyperparameter of LDA is the number of underlying topics k, which must be estimated empirically in practice. Selecting the appropriate value of k is essentially selecting the correct model to represent the data; an important issue concerning the goodness of fit. We examine in the current work a series of metrics from literature on a quantitative basis by performing benchmarks against a generated dataset with a known value of k and evaluate the ability of each metric to recover the true value, varying over multiple levels of topic resolution in the Dirichlet prior distributions. Finally, we introduce a new metric and heuristic for estimating kand demonstrate improved performance over existing metrics from the literature on several benchmarks.
Category: Statistics

[43] viXra:1801.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 04:47:03

Reflexiones Breves

Authors: Xavier Terri Castañé
Comments: 87 Pages.

About Time and Relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[42] viXra:1801.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 05:07:09

Magneton Constitute Substance Theory -- 11. Photon Trajectory Bend Measure

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Confirm photon trajectory is arc line. What is reason for photon trajectory bend? Einstein thinks. Gravitation makes photon trajectory bend. Thus created black hole theory. Magneton constitute substance theory thinks. In magnetic field, photon abide by photon deflect right hand rule. Due to, photon mass is less than 1/100000 of electron mass. Therefore, it is hard to measure photon trajectory bend. According to magneton constitute substance theory, design photon new measure. Decrypt photon trajectory bend reason. Measurement proves, photon trajectory bend is result of photon magnetism and spin and ambient magnetic field interaction, has nothing to do with gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[41] viXra:1801.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 05:27:07

Neutrons Probe Quantum Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] viXra:1801.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:09:53

Taking Advantage of BiLSTM Encoding to Handle Punctuation in Dependency Parsing: A Brief Idea

Authors: Matteo Grella
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the context of the bidirectional-LSTMs neural parser (Kiperwasser and Goldberg, 2016), an idea is proposed to initialize the parsing state without punctuation-tokens but using them for the BiLSTM sentence encoding. The relevant information brought by the punctuation-tokens should be implicitly learned using the errors of the recurrent contributions only.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[39] viXra:1801.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-04 11:44:23

A Consciousness Theory of Everything based on Rigid Transformable Strings, Instantly Entangled Between 8 or 12 CP Symmetric Universal Bubbles.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 36 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory. Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles. Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance. Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles. The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[38] viXra:1801.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 07:59:33

Quantum Hall Physics in 4-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1801.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 10:34:04

Color of Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[36] viXra:1801.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 13:17:01

Turbulence, a Controlled Route of Energy from Order Into Chaos

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 10 Pages.

One of the earliest attemps to understand turbulence dated back to a theory of L.F. RICHARDSON, later enhanced by A.N. KOLMOGOROV. By this theory turbulence is considered as energy-transfer taking place in cascade-form between eddies of various orders of magnitude. The transfer gets stated by disturbance acting on fibre-eddies and is evaluated by stretching of the fibres. This can explain many topics, but it is impossible this way to determine the cascade-structure and its development more detailed. In order to step forward, one will have to provide e.g. numbers of eddies for every cascade-generation, eddies sizes and their appropriate life-times and a characterization of the disturbance as well. For this reason the eddy- model will be replaced by a spinning sphere with surface-tension and a specified disturbance acting on it. Due to this, decay of an eddy can be explained as a partitioning of a sphere into equal parts in a self-organizing balance between disturbance and a reaction forced by surface-tension. Eeddies life-times as well as increases in phase-speed can then be determined. The disturbance-signal is specified as a sum of resonance-terms, each prepared for acting on a sphere of a proper size. On account of these model-extensions, turbulence comes out as a controlled route of energy from order into chaos, similar to many other dynamical Systems too.
Category: Classical Physics

[35] viXra:1801.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 16:51:21

4 Dark Matter and or Dark Energy Papers and 1 Light Theory Paper

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 3 Pages. MIT unknowingly has a dark matter quantum computer. This is the topological computer Krysta Svore is working on at Microsoft but Peter Shor at MIT has unknowingly achieved the dark matter quantum computer that has time reversal. Ref: Hooft,Wilzek.MIT.

The purpose of these 5 papers(paragraphs) is to share my thoughts on Dark Matter, Dark Energy and my observation on Light Theory with respect to different gravities.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[34] viXra:1801.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 21:20:08

The Frog and the Swarm of Flies

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 2 Pages.

Rather than frog and bird views of the universe as suggested by Max Tegmark, this considers the frog and hive mind of a swarm of intelligent flies. Arguing that the aggregate view of the hive mind demonstrates the relativity of variables, and that their collective view also represents 'many worlds' of possibility from the point of view of a frog with just a singular viewpoint.This ties together ideas of relativity and QM
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[33] viXra:1801.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 01:11:59

On the Possibility of Self-Cleaning Plasma in Centrifugal Z-Pinch

Authors: Sergey Sevtsov
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article shows the possibility of self-cleaning of plasma in the variety of Z-pinch - centrifugal Z-pinch. This circumstance leads to a decrease in the heat loss due to bremsstrahlung from the plasma. As a result, there are prerequisites for increasing efficiency of plasma cumulating in a new device.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32] viXra:1801.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-05 06:07:46

The Incredible Story About the Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1801.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 02:21:27

Social Scientific Services of S. Soundararajan

Authors: S. Soundararajan
Comments: 23 Pages. NA

In the previous posting http://vixra.org/pdf/1801.0011v1.pdf only an antroduction was flashed. In this Part 1 some of the social scientific achievements of the author has been narrated.
Category: Social Science

[30] viXra:1801.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 02:26:32

Social Scientific Services of S. Soundararajan Part 2

Authors: S. Soundararajan
Comments: 15 Pages. NA

In the part 1, some of the social scientific services of S. soundararajan has been narrated.In this part 2, more and more services and accomplishments have been unlocked.
Category: Social Science

[29] viXra:1801.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 02:29:45

The Social Scientific Platform of S. Soundararajan Part 3 a

Authors: S. Soundararajan
Comments: 17 Pages. NA

The social scientific completion of mission and vission of the author's dreams were performed.
Category: Social Science

[28] viXra:1801.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 02:32:17

The Social Services and Performances of S. Soundararajan Part 3

Authors: S. Soundararajan
Comments: 17 Pages. NA

In this postings, how the author carried out the extra ordinary social services have been explained.
Category: Social Science

[27] viXra:1801.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 02:35:38

Thye Compoletion of Social Services by s. Spoundararajan

Authors: S. Soundararajan
Comments: 10 Pages. NA

In this final report [ Part 4] the full particulars and how is it possible for the author have been explicitly explained
Category: Social Science

[26] viXra:1801.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 07:12:58

Simulation of Cup Drawing by Different Methods

Authors: Ayan Roy Naskar, Santosh Kumar
Comments: Pages: 11, Figures: 06

The prediction of optimized forming parameters viz. the punch force, blank holding force, forming factor, and hydrostatic pressure will contribute to cost reduction of the processed metal through curtailment in material usage and manufacturing time. This article involves modeling of symmetric and axisymmetric sheet forming and hydroforming, rubber forming and axisymmetric incremental sheet forming; followed by numerical simulation using Explicit Finite Element Analysis program in ANSYS and ABAQUS. The present results are validated with previous experimental readings to check the feasibility of simulated analysis. The comparison reveals that both the readings show sound agreement in thickness distribution and load-displacement relationship. The enhanced formability in hydroformed products has been clarified by comparing with the forming factor and thickness variation. The result shows that forming factor increases with friction coefficient; thereby clarifying the need of sufficient friction to overcome cup failure. Moreover, the developed model highlighted wrinkling phenomenon in conventional forming.
Category: Condensed Matter

[25] viXra:1801.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 07:16:46

Quantum Consciousness Observer Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1801.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 09:38:11

From Bernoulli to Laplace and Beyond

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 8 Pages. Retracted & now republished: Fixed forgotten factor i.

Reviewing Laplace's equation of gravitation from the perspective of D. Bernoulli, known as Poisson-equation, it will be shown that Laplace's equation tacitly assumes the temperature T of the mass system to be approximately 0 degrees of Kelvin. For temperatures greater zero, the gravitational field will have to be given an additive correctional field. Now, temperature is intimately related to the heat, and heat is known to be radiated as an electromagnetic field. It is shown to take two things in order to get at the gravitational field in the low temperature limit: the total square energy density of the source in space-time and a (massless) field, which expresses the equivalence of inert and gravitational mass/energy in a quadratic, Lorentz-invariant form. This field not only necessarily must include electromagnetic interaction, it also will be seen to behave like it.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23] viXra:1801.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 06:04:25

Dark Decades in Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Mathematics is the Heaven of physics but at the same time can often be a hell that leads astray. Here we present a list of the twelve most illogical ideas in particle physics and cosmology accepted by the scientific community. One of the items on the list is the Higgs mechanism. We show that in fact the Higgs mechanism does not explain the origin of the gravitating masses or gravitational fields. The Higgs mechanism is a mathematical hocus-pocus because it does not refer to physical phenomena. The superluminal quantum entanglement causes that in reality quantum physics is classical and statistical. Observers claim that the Uncertainty Principle is valid because detectors can not see the superluminal exchanges. What’s more, the detectors see a statistical picture of a large number of consecutive states that are often the same states. Speed of photons in “vacuum” is invariant/the-same only in relation to the systems with which the photons are entangled.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] viXra:1801.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 12:23:51

Women Brain Foods: Increased Basal Antioxidant Capacity Effects on Mental Cognition and Carcinogenesis

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 9 Pages.

As first year students' cognitive improvement efforts evaluated by eating foods rich in antioxidants, and vitamins; significant increments in eating fast foods, certain vitamins, high amounts of several antioxidants or stimulants consumed just before stressful exam periods, long term overdose on such drugs, breathing toxic air pollutants, caused illness and fatal adverse effects on scientific societies.
Category: Mind Science

[21] viXra:1801.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-10 09:44:26

Feasible Mathematics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 12 Pages.

From algorithmic information theory (and using notions of algorithmic thermodynamics), we introduce *feasible mathematics* as distinct from *universal mathematics*. Feasible mathematics formalizes the intuition that theorems with very long proofs are unprovable within the context of limited computing resources. It is formalized by augmenting the standard construction of Omega with a conjugate-pair that suppresses programs with long runtimes. The domain of the new construction defines feasible mathematics.
Category: General Mathematics

[20] viXra:1801.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 12:24:50

Radio Waves and Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Walter Orlov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Lorentz transformations rotate the vectors of the electric and magnetic fields referring to the current position of the source. But there is no physical basis for this.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1801.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 12:41:13

Tweaking Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1801.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 13:39:04

A Novel Belt Model of the Atom, Compatible with Quantum Dynamics

Authors: Alexander Yurkin, James Peters, Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we provide a novel atomic, paraxial model in which a single belt of electrons surrounds the nucleus. The electronic belt is depicted in terms of broken lines and split wavy trajectories that intersect an axis, giving rise to small angles that can be accurately calculated. We demonstrate that the probabilistic electronic cloud of the atom described by quantum mechanics can be depicted in terms of an electronic belt, because its sizes closely match the descriptions given by de Broglie and Heisenberg. In touch with the claims of the two latter Authors, the wavy trajectories around the nucleus come back to a starting point, so that their orbits are stationary.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17] viXra:1801.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-05 06:05:52

Het Ongelofelijke Verhaal Over de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1801.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 14:00:13

Covert Channel by Abusing X509 Extensions

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 11 Pages. Malware; x509 Certificate; SSL; TLS; Botnet; Security

Malicious actors in the world are using more ingenuity than ever for both data infiltration and exfiltration purposes, also known as command and control communications. In this paper I aim to describe a system that could be used to send or receive data from both a client and a server perspective utilizing research into x509 certificates specifically in areas where you can place arbitrary binary data into the certificate or utilizing them as a covert channel. While lots of attention is given to data infiltration and exfiltration techniques they are commonly done so after they’ve been used in an incident, making this area of cyber security very retroactive in a defensive posture. The aim in presenting this material is to demonstrate that we can take some lessons from the other areas of cyber security research, namely exploitation, and look at potential use cases in how malware authors could utilize technologies outside of their intended purposes to not only accomplish their goals but also end up bypassing common security measures in the process. Doing this sort of research can lead to more advances in defensive security postures by spurring discussions in the community on how a technique either does or doesn’t bypass security measures.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1801.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 14:38:27

Cargo Cult Science – The Solar and Sunspot Cycles

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 9 Pages.

The description of the solar and sunspot cycle is being tagged herein as cargo cult science because it is incomplete. The solar cycle and sunspot cycle are the events that take place over time that alter the visible and dynamic characteristics of the Sun. Two prominent Sun cyclic events are the periodic change in the number of sunspots and the reversal of the Sun's magnetic field. The solar science community know the cyclic events are related but do not consider that an outside influence can cause them. There is evidence that a very long wavelength, multi-year, extremely high magnitude electromagnetic wave is responsible for the readily observable solar and sunspot cycles and much longer solar related cycles identified in Earth strata. All scientists before 1940 were unaware that electromagnetic waves, other than light, were traversing the cosmos. Even before and after 1940, the manner in which the basic characteristics of electromagnetic waves are taught can lead to an improper interpretation of electromagnetic related events when they do not fit the textbook descriptions. Sunspot characteristics identify the probable source of the electromagnetic wave or waves that are causing our Sun's variability. Solar scientists have identified the presence of the electromagnetic wave that causes the Sun's variability but have misidentified it.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1801.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 23:18:22

Gravity Mechanism and the Source of All Fundamentals.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 4 Pages. Helps us to understand our universe and the laws of creation.

The BIG BOUNCE CREATED OUR UNIVERSE WITH SUITABLE LAWS AND FUNDAMENTALS .
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1801.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 23:37:31

Energy in the Three-Dimensional Gravity Chern-Simons.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 1 Page.

In this variant, the geometry is related to the energy, which is equal to the average langrangian of three-dimensional gravity. The topology of a three-dimensional space generates the energy of a particle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1801.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 03:49:26

Quantum Radio

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated that quantum physics might enable communications and mapping in locations where GPS and ordinary cellphones and radios don't work reliably or even at all, such as indoors, in urban canyons, underwater and underground. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1801.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 05:04:57

A Social Scientist and His Achievements

Authors: S. Soundararajan
Comments: 03 Pages. NA

Sivasamy Soundararajan . He lives in Kanjampatti Village, Pollachi Taluk, Coimbatore District, Tamil nadu province i9n India. He has been doing social services for the last 40 long years. Full details of his social services will be found in the upcoming postings part 1, Part2, Part3, Part 3A and Part 4
Category: Social Science

[10] viXra:1801.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 05:40:37

Concerning the Dirac γ-Matrices Under a Lorentz Transformation of the Dirac Equation

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 7 Pages.

We embolden the idea that the Dirac 4 × 4 γ-matrices are four-vectors where the space components (γ i) represent spin and the forth component (γ 0) should likewise represent the time component of spin in the usual four-vector formalism of the Special Theory of Relativity. With the γ-matrices as four-vectors, it is seen that the Dirac equation admits two kinds of wavefunctions – (1) the usual four component Dirac bispinor ψ and (2) a scalar four component bispinor φ. Realizing this, and knowing forehand of the existing mystery as to why Leptons and Neutrinos come in pairs, we seize the moment and make the suggestion that the pair (ψ, φ) can be used as a starting point to explain mystery of why in their three generations [(e ± , ν e), (µ ± , ν µ), (τ ± , ν τ)], Leptons and Neutrinos come in doublets. In this suggestion, the scalar-bispinor φ can be thought of as the Neutrino while the usual Dirac bispinor ψ can be thought of as the Lepton.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1801.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 13:12:50

The Principle of Crystallization in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of crystal formation is offered to explain that rocks and minerals do not form in any significance in vacuum in outer space.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1801.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 13:38:03

Black Holes Control Star Formation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A new study, published January 1, 2018, in Nature, shows that the mass of the black hole in the center of the galaxy determines how soon this "quenching" of star formation occurs. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1801.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 18:49:13

The Exact Solution of the Pioneer Anomaly and Flyby Anomaly and the Interpretation of Inertia from an Asymmetric Casimir Effect

Authors: Azzam Almosallami
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll propose an exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby anomaly. My solution interprets inertia from an asymmetric Casimir effect, and it interprets why inertial is related to Unruh effect and a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. My solution of the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby anomaly is depending on my new transformation and my equivalence principle. According to my transformation, the reality is observer dependent as a result of translating the retardation according to the invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this case by translating the retardation according to my transformation, it is resulted the relativistic ether as observer dependent, and thus in this case the reality in my transformation is observer dependent. This relativistic ether is not classical, but it is depending on the energy of the vacuum by translating the retardation according to my transformation. My transformation expresses about field by the vacuum fluctuation, and that explains also why field is observer dependent, and that explains also why Unruh effect is observer dependent.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1801.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 20:57:30

Reversibility in Number Theory

Authors: A. Polorovskii
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let |l| ⊂ ℵ0. In [19], the authors extended manifolds. We show that F ≤ M. In this context, the results of [10] are highly relevant. It is not yet known whether there exists a Fourier additive polytope, although [10] does address the issue of uniqueness.
Category: Number Theory

[5] viXra:1801.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 23:06:41

Supersymmetry Resurrected

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages.

The missing standard model superpartners compel one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here includes the photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, gauge symmetries and Higgs fields. The novelty is that supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1801.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 00:38:54

Contraction of Universe with Speed C

Authors: Dan Ivan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Distances are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into the macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for relative distances, which is illogical.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1801.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-08 14:57:12

The Logic of Imaginary Time and Space

Authors: Philip J. Carter
Comments: 29 pages, 16 figures. Adds step to derivation on page 10.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1801.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 11:37:54

The Massive Universe II Functional Gravity

Authors: A.Hughmann
Comments: 4 Pages

Abstract We previously demonstrated that it is possible to describe the Gravitational Constant in terms of a simple mathematical function and in this paper we examine the first order consequences of that fact. We demonstrate that we can successfully model gravitational acceleration, escape velocity and the Schwarzchild radius without employing the Gravitational Constant or indeed any requirement for an external force. We conclude that Gravity is entirely an effect of the presence of mass, and that the applicable quantity of Gravity is directly proportional to both the quantity and density of local mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1801.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-02 13:45:30

Positivity of li Coefficients for N>10^24

Authors: Leonhard Schuster
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we prove the positivity of Li coefficients for n>10^24. We investigate the Riemann Zeta function, in the form (s-1)zeta(s), under the transformation s = 1/(1-z). We apply a generalised Poisson-Jensen formula to show that Riemann Zeta function has only a finite number of zeros not lying the critical line, and that the Li coefficients are positive for n>10^24. This implicitly proves the validity of Riemann Hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory