Authors: Arturo Tozzi
The assessment of hidden causal relationships, e.g., adverse drug reactions in pharmacovigilance, is currently based on rather qualitative parameters. In order to find more quantifiable parameters able to establish the validity of the alleged correlations between drug intake and onset of symptoms, we introduce the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference projects to two points on a sphere. The BUT stands for a general principle that describes issues from neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, chaotic systems, group theory, cosmology. Here we introduce a novel BUT variant, termed operational-BUT, that evaluates causal relationships. Further, we demonstrate that the BUT is correlated with graph theory and in particular with the so-called Kneser graphs: this means that the combinatory features of observables, such as the bodily responses to drug intake, can be described in terms of dynamical mappings and paths taking place on well-established abstract structures. Therefore, physical and biological dynamical systems (including alleged causes and their unknown effects) make predictable moves into peculiar phase spaces, giving rise to constrained trajectories that can be quantified.
Comments: 10 Pages.
[v1] 2018-01-09 13:10:24
Unique-IP document downloads: 60 times
Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.
Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.