[98] **viXra:1207.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-02 02:06:37*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. It is a very important topic, and the "system" outlook suggested is urgent, I think.

The hypothesis is put forward that hooligan behavior is based on some unperceived protest of an individual, or a group, against intellectual overstress, or, equivalently, it is based on the individuals' intuitive fear of such overstress that the society imposes (or "threatens" to impose) on them. The violent actions of the hooligans combine the quick movements that develop (activate) the left hemisphere of the brain, and the cruelty that prevents development (activity) of the right hemisphere, which improves the balance in the development of the hemispheres. Hooliganism indicates an important alarm informing one about the increasing intellectual stress in the society, which indeed is unhealthy for many. The hooligans need help, which, as the recent "days of violence" show, is rather urgent. However, the things to be changed are traditional, not well controlled, and thus hardly can be changed quickly. Some constructive suggestions are formulated.

**Category:** Mind Science

[97] **viXra:1207.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-01 07:05:06*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 9 Pages. References added, discussion clarified.

A preon model is proposed based on spin 1/2 fermion and spin 0 boson constituents. They interact via a massive scalar field which is tentatively considered a phenomenological model of quantum gravity. Implications to generations, heavy boson states and dark matter are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] **viXra:1207.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-30 12:01:13*

**Authors:** Gary R. Heen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The model of this paper states that space-time is another state of matter, and that matter and space-time are composed of identical quantized physical units whose constituent sub-structures are composed of D-branes and Type I strings. The quantum structure of space-time and matter is designated the D-string. The D-strings of matter and space-time differ from one another only in the volumetric state of the D-string. The D-string model presupposes that the universe is composed solely of a finite number of D-stings with physical properties that are quantized with finite limits of range, and are responsible for all physical phenomena. The relationship of the D-string to Planck’s natural constants, gravity, time dilation, and the observed constancy of the speed of light are specifically addressed; a mathematical argument is presented demonstrating the conversion of space-time into matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[95] **viXra:1207.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-07 00:28:37*

**Authors:** Gary V Stephenson

**Comments:** 25 Pages. As presented revision

Abstract. Human rating requirements are explored for space systems associated with the transport of a human crew for missions to and from Mars. Human rating certification requirements guidance is given by NPR 8705.2B and broadly speaking consists of four steps: step 1, comply with human rating certification processes; step 2, develop and comply with a reference mission; step 3, comply with human rating technical requirements; and step 4, prepare and maintain a Human Rating Certification Package (HRCP) that demonstrates compliance with the first three steps.
The design challenges specific to a Missions to Mars (M2M) are described and include long endurance human habitation during interplanetary (IP) space travel, with higher than usual radiation exposure and lower than usual gravitation exposure, crew control requirements with expanded need for autonomous operations and control and operator situational awareness, and contingency operations for survivability. Due to the extreme physical isolation of the crew during missions to Mars there will be the need to trade lifeboat options with in situ survivability options in the case of contingency operations.
These human rating challenges are placed in the context of the design development of mission equipment needed for a Mission to Mars. It is assumed that the M2M equipment suite can be divided into four distinct systems, all of which will require human rating: a launch and LEO operations vehicle, a transhab vehicle for IP travel, a Martian orbital operations vehicle, and a Martian surface habitat. A methodology for flowing human rating requirements to each of these systems is identified and outlined.
Keywords: Human, Rating, Requirements, Certification, NASA, Standards.
PACS: 96.30.Gc, 96.30.Hf, 96.55.+z, 91.62.Fc

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[94] **viXra:1207.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-29 18:29:50*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We propose a gauge theory of gravity with heavy gravitons. In this framework, we examine whether renormalization effects can cause Newton’s constant to change dramatically with energy, perhaps even reducing the scale of quantum gravity to the TeV region. For the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson, with mass 125GeV, we derive the invisible width of Higgs boson decay into heavy gravitons and calculate the ratios of partial widths and couplings for the Higgs decays into heavy gravitons and W vector bosons. This proposition may reveal Higgs and graviton properties for new physics Beyond Standard Model (BSM).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[93] **viXra:1207.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-03 04:05:22*

**Authors:** Senin Duranspahic

**Comments:** 43 Pages. 43, English

He says that it is impossible for a human mind to comprehend 4 dimensional space. He is completely wrong. I will put it to you bluntly, we live in a 4 dimensional universe. The fourth dimension is not the dimension of time, like Einstein said, it is simple special dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1207.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 01:49:39*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 6 Figures

Presently, a new force has been determined. It is generated due to interaction between magnetic fields of the interacting particles, e.g., between electrons in electron beams, between protons in proton beams, and between nucleons in deuterons, alpha particles and nuclei etc. It has three very important characteristics: (i) it is strong; (ii) short range; and (iii) charge independent, which are exactly the same as we speculate for nuclear force between nucleons to have. Due to this force, electrons, protons and neutrons etc. are all held together in their respective systems, e.g. in their beams, deuterons, alpha particles and nuclei etc. against the repulsive Coulomb force generated between those due to interaction between their charges. It has also been determined that due to interaction between magnetic fields of two particles, a repulsive force, much stronger than the repulsive Coulomb force, too is generated if the particles are moving parallel to each other but opposite in directions. Due to this repulsive force, the phenomena of alpha and beta decay take place from the nuclei.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[91] **viXra:1207.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-28 14:48:39*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

The unified theory of physics is by the means of the zero-energy universe in the multiverse and the space-object structures. For our universe, the zero-energy universe produced symmetrical positive-energy and negative-energy universes, which then underwent a symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism to generate eventually our baryonic-dark matter and dark energy, respectively. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the space-object structures. The unified theory of physics is divided into five parts: (1) the two physical structures, (2) cosmology, (3) the periodic table of elementary particles, (4) the galaxy formation, and (5) the extreme force field.
(1) The unified theory is based on the two physical structures: the space structure and the object structure. The space structure includes attachment space and detachment space. Relating to rest mass, attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed. Relating to kinetic energy, detachment space detaches from the object at the speed of light. The Higgs boson mediates the transformation between these two space structures. The combination of attachment space and detachment space brings about three different space structures: miscible space, binary lattice space, and binary partition space for special relativity, quantum mechanics, and the extreme force fields, respectively. The object structure consists of 11D membrane, 10D string, variable D particle, and empty object. The transformation among the objects is through the dimensional oscillation that involves the oscillation between high dimensional space-time with high vacuum energy and low dimensional space-time with low vacuum energy. Our observable universe with 4D space-time has zero vacuum energy. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the two physical structures. (2) From the zero-energy universe, our universe starts with the 11-dimensional membrane universe followed by the 10-dimensional string universe and then by the 10-dimensional particle universe, and ends with the asymmetrical dual universe with variable dimensional particle and 4-dimensional particles. This 4-stage process goes on in repetitive cycles. Such 4-stage cosmology accounts for the origins of the four force fields, baryonic-dark matter, and dark energy. (3) The unified theory places all elementary particles in the periodic table of elementary particles with the calculated masses in good agreement with the observed values by using only four known constants: the number of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the mass of Z boson, and the fine structure constant. The LHC Higgs boson is the SM Higgs boson with the hidden lepton condensate. (4) The inhomogeneous structures, such as galaxy, are derived from the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter, like the inhomogeneous structure formed by the incompatibility between oil and water. Cosmic radiation allows dark matter and baryonic matter to be compatible. As the universe expanded, the decreasing density of cosmic radiation increased the incompatibility, resulting in increasing inhomogeneous structures. The five stages of the formation of inhomogeneous structures are baryonic matter, baryonic droplets, the different types of galaxies by the Big Eruption, cluster, and supercluster. (5) Under extreme conditions, such as the zero temperature and extremely high pressure-temperature, gauge boson force field undergoes the phase transition to form extreme force field. Extreme force field explains unusual phenomena such as superconductor, fractional quantum Hall effect, supernova, and gravastar.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1207.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-28 12:05:37*

**Authors:** Jonathan Anon

**Comments:** 80 Pages.

Why does possibility exist and where does it come from? These are questions not usually asked because possibility is so deeply woven into the fabric of the universe we take its existence completely for granted. By exploring a well known, but essentially unexamined absolute first principle, we describe why possibility exists, where it comes from and the form it takes in our universe. We describe the fundamental mechanism which enables possibility to exist and to resolve to choice in context, which means we also generate the existence of context and choice. We discuss a number of examples to demonstrate how this mechanism operates and what it means.

In the late 19th Century, paradoxes revealed that no true universal set, no true set of all sets, can exist. Axiomatic set theory was developed as the solution to the problem this impossibility presented and the impossibility was treated as a failure of the naive conception of set theory and was set aside. We do not address set theory except in passing. Set theory assumes possibility exists to describe which sets are possible. We look instead directly at the meaning of the impossibility uncovered by the paradoxes to uncover why possibility itself can exist. This has never been done. We show that deriving without assumptions from this impossibility generates a specific structure which enables the existence of possibility, context and choice.

We begin by explaining the process by which we focused on this impossibility; we describe the process by which we can answer a question so obvious we take it for granted. We then derive the existence of possibility, context and choice and define the inherent structure we call the Choice Mechanism. To use a metaphor from the paper, we describe a box whose sides are absolute impossibility and which can be filled with all the possibility that can exist. By structure, we mean an actual structure in which possibility occurs and through which all resolution of possibility happens.

The rest of the paper consists of five discussion groups. We present in these a number of illustrative examples all of which cannot currently be explained. To be clear, we use the Choice Mechanism to provide the missing "why" for a number of otherwise unexplainable, fundamental phenomena, with each discussion group covering a major aspect of how this underlying structure for possibility appears and operates.

1. The first group explains how the Choice Mechanism calculates: we explain why numbers exist, meaning both Base 2 and Base 10, why the fundamental analytic constant e, the base of natural logarithms, exists and why functions exist. Again to be clear, we mean we derive the actual existence of numbers, of e and of function. We show in this and other sections how the universe actually calculates possibilities and how those become results.

2. The second group discusses physical examples which literally manifest the Choice Mechanism context structure; we explain why the logarithmic spiral occurs in nature and how the context structure of the Choice Mechanism completely explains certain fundamental behaviors of elementary particles.

3. The third group focuses on how the Choice Mechanism context structure operates, specifically on how coherent resolution to choice of context expresses as a force; we explain why natural selection and economic “markets” exist.

4. The fourth discusses fundamental aspects of how the Choice Mechanism acts on persistent structures, meaning how coherence interacts with things that have a past, present and future. This section contains too many examples to list.

5. The fifth discussion group describes how the Choice Mechanism functions at scale, meaning the effects of coherent resolution of context to choice at various scales of existence: we explain why the arrow of time exists and why the subjective experience of time exists. We also explain why and how constants of infinite depth can exist in a universe in which time exists.

Please understand this work completely agrees with established fact and theory, does not in any way rely on "hidden variables" or new particles or forces, and is not in any way mystical. We do not advance any new paradigms. We merely explain what we in essence already know: that possibilities exist and that somehow these come together to make our universe and all that happens in it. We provide the missing “why”. We understand this is difficult to believe. You have to read it. We can't otherwise persuade you.

The material is presented in a non-technical manner. The math is trivial.

No contact information is provided because we prefer to remain unknown.

[89] **viXra:1207.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-31 09:20:46*

**Authors:** A .Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 35 Pages. Minor bug fixes.

In this paper, we focus on the calculation of the supersymmetric term for obtaining the mass of the lightest Higgs
boson. Thus will provide the scale of supersymmetry. Similarly, entering the exact angle β, ,will allow us to calculate
the masses of the remaining four Higgs bosons ,
mA , mH0 , mH ±
and the stop mass
422.9 Gev.
Was used for this, the well-known model of a one-dimensional string, or a dimensional box. We believe that the
results obtained consistent with the observation, carry a string model mathematically satisfactory of a n-dimensional
string, well known to all physicists. The main novelty of this model is the introduction of dimensionless ratios between
the Planck length and the length n dimensional, as the length of the string. An extension of the Heisenberg principle
to extra dimensions, will derive a principle of equivalence between mass, time and space so that it showed that the
mass is actually another dimension. This principle of equivalence, so described, anger further and allow the equivalence
between spin, probability, fluctuations and dimensions. Successive breaking symmetries-topology geometry involved,
appears to be the cause of the distinguishability between spins, number of particles, dimensions, etc.; to the observer

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[88] **viXra:1207.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-27 19:44:52*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Belief in Information Flow", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CSFW.2005.10.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[87] **viXra:1207.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-27 19:52:59*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

This is a slide presentation that deals with the notion of uncertainty in Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[86] **viXra:1207.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-27 19:59:23*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein, Anastasia Tugaenko, Viktoria Gingina, Kira Matveeva, Mikhail Chupilko

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Presented at the Summer School in Software Engineering and Verification (SSSEV 2011), Moscow, Russia

This is a slide presentation that deals with data anonymization techniques.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[85] **viXra:1207.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-27 20:05:09*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Refining a Quantitative Information Flow Metric", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NTMS.2012.6208689.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[84] **viXra:1207.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-27 20:10:15*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Effective Density Queries on Continuously Moving Objects", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDE.2006.179.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[83] **viXra:1207.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-27 20:15:18*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "An Adaptive Updating Protocol for Reducing Moving Object Database Workload", which can be found at: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1920841.1920935.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[82] **viXra:1207.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-04 19:32:52*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 167 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a lansat un nou gen literar-artistic, adaptat cerinţelor cititorului şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit, numit
FOTOJURNAL INSTANTANEU
bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mȃnă, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine, şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[81] **viXra:1207.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-16 18:25:58*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein, Asif Iqbal Baba, Tanvir Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Presented at the Second European Business Intelligence Summer School (eBISS 2012), Brussels, Belgium

This is a poster that gives an overview of the BagTrack project http://goo.gl/sVngj.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[80] **viXra:1207.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-30 15:47:53*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We propose an alternative understanding of gravity resulting from the extension of N.Wu’s gauge theory of gravity with massive gravitons, which are minimally coupled to general relativity. Based on this, we derive the equations of state for massive gravitons. We study the dynamics of these massive gravitons in a flat, homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We calculate the critical points of the massive graviton dark energy and background perfect fluid. These calculations may have crucial implications for the massive gravitons and dark energy theories. They could, therefore, have important repercussions for current cosmological problems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1207.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 17:28:42*

**Authors:** Ryoji Furui

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A modified framework for special relativity is proposed in which mass is incorporated in the temporal components of the Minkowski metric and a particle may convert between massive and massless states. The speed of such a particle therefore changes between subluminal and luminal. The well-known equations for relativistic energy of massive and massless particles do not conflict with the notion that a massive particle can convert all of its mass into energy, thereby removing the problem of requiring infinite energy to reach the speed of light barrier. This enables the production of gravitons, which in collisions transfer their momentum and energy to matter, thereby giving rise to the gravitational force. The conversion of particles between massive and massless states suggests that time, and hence the universe, is eternal.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[78] **viXra:1207.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-29 05:32:39*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 pages, completely re did the last 3 pages. Document completely re focused after criticism by GRG journal editors

The Mach’s principle as unveiled in this paper is really a statement as to information conservation, with Gravitons and Gravitinos being information carriers. What we wish to know is are there measurable consequences as far as scale factor evolution, spatial distance expansion and cosmological density proportional to a quinessent variant of the cosmological ‘constant’ parameter ?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[77] **viXra:1207.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-19 20:21:37*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

A turning radius in which a wse craft does not collide with a ship is obtained.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[76] **viXra:1207.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-07 09:16:02*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Göran Granqvist

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (September 6, 2012)

We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell’s demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard’s engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[75] **viXra:1207.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-24 13:05:32*

**Authors:** S. Maiti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In order to find a differential representation of the $n$th partial
sum $\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{1}{a+(i-1)d}$ of the general
harmonic series $\displaystyle
\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{a+(i-1)d}$, a theoretical study has been
performed analytically. Moreover, some special cases of it such as
harmonic number have been discussed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1207.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-24 13:15:05*

**Authors:** S. Maiti

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper is focused to find important relations and identities over
some summations for natural numbers such as $\displaystyle
\sum_{\substack{i,j=1\\(i<j)}}^{n}ij,~\sum_{\substack{i,j,k=1\\(i<j<k)}}^{n}ijk,~\sum_{\substack{i,j,k,l=1
\\(i<j<k<l)}}^{n}ijkl,~\cdots $. These relations are believed to
find applications in the various branches of number theory
particularly in the proposed theorems of Maiti
\cite{Maiti1,Maiti2,Maiti3,Maiti4,Maiti5} which help to represent the
factorial $n!$ entirely new way and also help to exhibit the $n$th
partial sum of the general harmonic series $\displaystyle
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{a+(n-1) b}$ and its particular
cases.

**Category:** Number Theory

[73] **viXra:1207.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-24 09:12:14*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Constructive feedback is welcome.

Considerations of the presently held views regarding the synthesis of nucleons from quarks during the nascent stages of our cosmos, when its gravitational hold was so great that no energy or particles could escape its plasmatic core, have led to three alternative schemes for forging quarks into protons by utilizing their mutual attractive electromagnetic potential energy for the forging process. The three models provide the mass and energy of the primary quarks, the resulting forged quarks, the potential energy assimilated by the proton, and its final attractive hold, as deduced and detailed in the body of this paper. The values deduced for the primary quarks (193.845e or 196.98e) suggest that muons (~207e) could be playing the role of the long sought quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[72] **viXra:1207.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-25 03:48:47*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Clifford-space Gravity is revisited and new results are found.
The Clifford space ($ C$-space) generalized gravitational field equations are obtained from a variational principle and which is based on an extension of the Einstein-Hilbert-Cartan action. One of the main results of this work is that the $C$-space connection requires torsion in order to have consistency between the Clifford algebraic structure and the zero nonmetricity condition $ \nabla_K g^{MN} = 0 $. A discussion on the cosmological constant and bi-metric theories of gravity follows. We continue by pointing out the relations of Clifford space gravity to Lanczos-Lovelock-Cartan (LLC) higher curvature gravity with torsion. We finalize by pointing out that $ C$-space gravity involves higher-spins beyond spin $ 2 $ and argue why one could view the LLC higher curvature actions, and
other extended gravitational theories based on $ f ( R ), f ( R_{\mu \nu} ), ... $ actions, for polynomial-valued functions, as mere $effective$ actions after integrating the $C$-space gravitational action with respect to all the poly-coordinates, except the vectorial ones $ x^\mu$.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1207.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-30 16:45:30*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 9 Pages. author's email: micheal@msu.edu

Seven related papers develop a novel approach toward elucidating irrational density from a non-standard perspective. The notion of countability is explored in a precise new way. This new definition of countability clearly relates irrational to rational density and sets the stage for a more accessible understanding of the reals. Also, two implications in set theory are discovered. Constructive evaluation, criticism, and collaboration is invited.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1207.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-23 15:12:20*

**Authors:** S Maiti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

New Expression of the factorial of $n$ ($n!$, $n\in N$) is given in
this article. The general expression of it has been proved with help
of the Principle of Mathematical Induction. It is found in the form
\begin{equation}
1+\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i
+\sum_{\substack{i,j=1 \\(i<j)}}^{n}a_ia_j +
\sum_{\substack{i,j,k=1 \\(i<j<k)}}^{n}a_ia_ja_k +\cdots
+a_1a_2\cdots a_{n},
\label{factorial_expression}
\end{equation}
where $a_i=i-1$ for $i=1,~2,~\cdots ,~n$. More convenient expression
of this form is provided in Appendix.

**Category:** Number Theory

[69] **viXra:1207.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-23 05:42:51*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 46 Pages. These are NDES 2012 (11-13 July, 2012, Wolfenbuttel) conference slides of one of the two my lectures given there. Actually, I had not time for all of the slides, and their content also strongly extends that of the associated Proceedings paper.

In his book (brochure) [1] “What is life?” Erwin Schrödinger widely uses the terms of “entropy” and “structure”, trying to simply define the physical essence of life.
Though [1] is a problematic work with internal corrections and numerous apologies, i.e. not formal science, just some ideas, the most important concepts involved, structure and complexity, are sufficiently clear for drawing the attention of system specialists to [1], and even for continuing the line of [1].

**Category:** Mind Science

[68] **viXra:1207.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 08:49:46*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Most of my effort has been expended on bringing gravitation into the fold with the other forces, and on the details of the weak force mechanism. I think I have been successful in both these areas. However, I only claim a conceptual qualitative unification, not a mathematical quantitative unification. I have tried to understand unification from the perspective of the most general physical conservation laws and inclusive principles (I have especially used General Systems ideas regarding fractal patterns in nature).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] **viXra:1207.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-21 13:09:03*

**Authors:** Don Reed

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

This paper is a review of the work on Beltrami electromagnetic fields. It examines the subject histoically from its inception in Beltrami fluid flow, to the more recent embodiment of this same topology in force-free magnetic fields (FFMF).. Properties of FFMF are compared to to those of other novel electromagnetic modes. Solutions to the solenoidal FFMF equation (also termed Trkalian fields) are given in cylindrical polar coordinates for both axisymmetric and toroidal configurations. Empirical justification for Beltrami modes are revealed in specific non-linear plasma configurations. An imperative for new perspectives on classical vortex dynamics and fluid turbulence is surveyed in light of these developments, in connection with possible application to both theoretical and empirical science. Finally, related research is examined demonstrating the need to extend Maxwell's theory to biquaternion or higher SU(2) symmetries in order to adequately describe energy dynamics of screw-like Beltrami fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[66] **viXra:1207.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-21 04:48:43*

**Authors:** Yu. N. Bratkov

**Comments:** 108 pages + cover page. Russian. Published: MAX Press, Moscow, 2001.

By topological modelling some indications of a global cult of ancient priests were detected. Further studying of the cult gives discovering of some important objects. Among others very nontrivial results in tectogenesis are obtained.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[65] **viXra:1207.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-22 18:33:16*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is described a process for creating new atoms starting from pre-existing atoms. We show that all the elements of the periodic table can be synthesized, at room temperature, by a gravitational process based on the intensification of the gravitational interaction by means of electromagnetic fields.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[64] **viXra:1207.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-21 02:34:22*

**Authors:** A. W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper uses the “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability. The point is that it does not apply in the vicinity of the big bang. We apply this theorem to what is called by T. Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which becomes would be unstable if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism has to be appealed to. In the case of vacuum nucleation, we argue that conditions exist for the nucleation of particles as of the electroweak regime. Due to injecting material from a node point, in spacetime. This regime of early universe creation, coexits with the failure of applications of “Fjortoft” theorem in such a way as to give necessary and sufficient conditons for matter creation, in a way similar to the Higgs Boson.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[63] **viXra:1207.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-19 20:57:11*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

In this book we explore the possibility of extending the natural operations on reals to intervals and matrices. The extension to intervals makes us define a natural class of intervals in which we accept [a, b], a > b. Further, we introduce a complex modulo integer in Zn (n, a positive integer) and denote it by i_F with i_F^2 = n-1.

**Category:** Algebra

[62] **viXra:1207.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-19 14:40:16*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between main parameters in a given field of nature. He applied this theory for estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of the energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1207.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-24 11:37:58*

**Authors:** Hosein Nasrolahpour

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Fractional calculus represents a natural tool for describing relativistic phenomena in pseudo-Euclidean space-time. In this study, fractional modified special relativity is presented. We obtain fractional generalized relation for the time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1207.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-18 19:49:09*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Hubble volume and Hubble mass play a key role in understanding the fundamental interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1207.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-18 04:00:00*

**Authors:** Hu Chang-Wei

**Comments:** 260 Pages.

The vacuum is not void, in which there is infinite mysteries. The matter in vacuum state is called the ether, whose macroscopic effects, microscopic representation and cosmoscopic interaction are researched and discussed, is like the unmatter or unparticles called by Prof. Smarandache. In the absolute space-time theory, the ether is a compressible superfluid, a point of maximal value of its density is the mass center of an object. A change in the ether density causes a change in the actual space-time standard, and thus leads up to quantitative effects which include the effects of relativity and quantum etc.. The theory of relativity is a quantitative theory with light as the measure of space-time, where the distribution of ether is always homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, which is just so-called Lorentz symmetry, it is only a practicable mathematical model, and is not applicable to faster than light velocity. The gravitational field is a ether density wave-packet, whose interaction is not infinite. The cosmoscopic interaction of ether will surpass gravitational interaction and is about its ten times in cosmoscopic system of galaxies and galaxy clusters, so that describing cosmos can not use only the gravitational field equation. The methodology and related concepts proposed by Prof. Smarandache are applied, and Smarandache geometry models of relativity, macro-physics, interval field ether theory and infinite order and hierarchical cosmology are described in this book.
真空不空，奥妙无穷。真空态物质被称为以太，它好比Smarandache教授所说的Unmatter 或Unparticles。对以太的宏观效应，微观表现和宇观作用进行了探讨。在绝对时空观中，以太是可压缩的超流体，它的密度的极大值点是实物的质心。以太密度的变化，会引起现实的时空标准的变化，从而导致了定量效应，这包括相对论性效应和量子效应等等。相对论是以光作为时空衡量标准的一种定量描述理论，在这里，以太的分布永远是处处均匀，各向一致的，这就是所谓的洛伦兹对称性，它只是一种可行的数学模型，对超光速是无效的。引力场是以太密度波包，它的作用不是无限的。在星系、星系团的世界里，以太的宇观作用，将超过并达到引力作用的10倍左右。因此，不能只用引力场方程来描述宇宙。书中运用了Smarandache教授提出的方法论和有关概念，描绘了相对论、宏观物理学、区间场以太论和无穷阶等级式宇宙学的Smarandache几何模型。

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[58] **viXra:1207.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-18 21:53:37*

**Authors:** Russell Letkeman

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Submitted to Cambridge University Sigma

The sequence of sets of Z_n on multiplication where n is a primorial gives us a surprisingly simple and elegant tool to investigate many properties of the prime numbers and their distributions through analysis of their gaps. A natural reason to study multiplication on these boundaries is a construction exists which evolves these sets from one primorial boundary to the next, via the sieve of Eratosthenes, giving us Just In Time prime sieving. To this we add a parallel study of gap sets of various lengths and their evolution all of which together informs what we call the S model.
We show by construction there exists for each prime number P a local finite probability distribution and it is surprisingly well behaved. That is we show the vacuum; ie the gaps, has deep structure.
We use this framework to prove conjectured distributional properties of the prime numbers by Legendre, Hardy and Littlewood and others. We also demonstrate a novel proof of the Green-Tao theorem. Furthermore we prove the Riemann hypothesis and show the results are perhaps surprising.
We go on to use the S model to predict novel structure within the prime gaps which leads to a new Chebyshev type bias we honorifically name the Chebyshev gap bias. We also probe deeper behavior of the distribution of prime numbers via ultra long scale oscillations about the scale of numbers known as Skewes numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[57] **viXra:1207.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-01 01:00:04*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 6 pages

We propose two new novel techniques for detecting gravitational waves. First technique is based on detecting variation in angular speed of the system of two circular disks connected by a light rod, kept perpendicularly to incoming gravitational wave, in the y-z plane say. This dumbbell-like system is kept in y-z plane in free rotational motion with constant speed, and further in vacuum to avoid any dissipation, and with as much high speed as possible, such that it will be revolving around the axis of rotation parallel to say x axis that passes through the center of mass of this assembly of two disks connected by light rod. The idea to achieve variation in angular speed is based on the principle of conservation of angular momentum. The synchronization is arranged so that there will be elongation when the centers of circular disks are along the line parallel to y axis as well as when the centers of circular disks are along line parallel to z axis. Thus, the synchronization is to be so arranged that we take advantage of periodically switching of direction of elongation and contraction in such a way that there will be always elongation along the direction in line with the resonant dumbbell shaped antenna, i.e. when the antenna is aligned with y-axis there will be elongation along y-direction and when the antenna is aligned with z-axis there will also be elongation along z-direction. Due to conservation of angular momentum this must result in detectable slowing down in the otherwise constant angular speed in absence of any gravitational waves passing through this apparatus. This lowering in the value of angular speed will result in lowering of the number of turns made by the dumbbell shaped antenna per second around the axis of rotation. This lowered rotational frequency is to be measured to conclude the arrival of gravitational waves! The second technique that we propose is based on combination of Weber-like setup using single cylindrical bar to act as a resonant antenna as per the idea of Joseph Weber [1] and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) based upon idea of generating current by tunneling [2]. This tunneling current is managed by setting up suitable potential difference between sharp tips of suitably fixed probes and surface of suspended Weber bar or its spherical version [3]. We propose to keep the STM probes rigidly fixed at a predefined suitable locations and at constant distance between tips and surface of suspended Weber bar or its spherical version. Now, STM works on simple idea of applying potential difference between surface to be scanned and the probe having a sharp tip producing tunneling current from tip of probe to surface or surface to tip of probe depending upon polarity. This current is further amplified for using it as input for image producing software. We give here a proposal to use this arrangement for the process of detecting gravitational waves. Even with very small change in size (length) of Weber bar or its spherical version on passing of gravitational waves we hope to get detectable change in the amplitude of amplified current. Due to contractions and expansions encountered with suspended Weber bar upon the passing of gravitational waves there can be detectable change in the quantity of tunneling electrons. responsible for quantity of current flowing between tip of probes and Weber bar or its spherical version. This idea of achieving detectable change in the amplitude of tunneling current on arrival and passing of gravitational waves, essentially because of variation in distance between probes fixed suitably at different locations and resonating Weber bar, may lead us to successful detection of gravitational waves!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[56] **viXra:1207.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-17 11:28:15*

**Authors:** Lawrence B. Crowell

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Paper also appears in http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.1046v1

In this short paper the noncommutative geometry and quantization of branes and the AdS is discussed. The question in part addresses an open problem left by this author in [1] on how branes are generated by stringy physics. The breaking of an open type I string into two strings generates a nascent brane at the new endpoints with inflationary cosmologies. This was left as a conjecture at the end of this paper on the role of quantum critical points in the onset of inflationary cosmology. The noncommutative geometry of the clock and lapse functions for the AdS-brane are derived as is the number of degrees of freedom which appear. The role of the AdS spacetime, or in particular its boundary, in cosmology is discussed in an elementary regularization scheme of the cosmological constant on the boundary. This is compared to schemes of conformal compactification of the AdS spacetime and the Heisenberg group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1207.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-17 22:58:15*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we show how to using the extension transformation in I Ching in order to transforming a hexagram to another one. Each binary hexagram (and similarly the previous trigram) has a degree of Yang and a degree of Yin. As in neutrosophic logic and set, for each hexagram

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[54] **viXra:1207.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-18 02:17:26*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let a be an element of a finite dimensional C-algebra with 1. Then there is a unique polynomial f_a such that f_a(a) = exp(a) and deg f_a < dim C[a]. We give an explicit formula for f_a.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[53] **viXra:1207.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-17 02:27:13*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We give a short proof of Zorn's Lemma.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[52] **viXra:1207.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-17 14:18:43*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages, puts in reference to July 2012 Physics today article about difference between Frequentist analysis and Bayesian statistics.

Recently, the author read the Alicki-Van Ryn test as to behavior of photons in a test of violations of classicality. The same thing is propoosed via use of a spin two graviton, using typical spin 2 matrices. While the technology currently does not exist to perform such an analysis yet, the same sort of thought experiment is proposed in a way to allow for a first principle test of the either classical or quantum foundations of gravity. The reason for the present manuscript topic is due to a specific argument presented in a prior document as to how Planck's constant is formed from semiclassical reasoning. We referred to a procedure as to how to use Maxwell’s equations involving a closed boundary regime, in the boundary regime between Octonionic Geometry and quantum flat space. Conceivably, a similar argument could be made for gravitons, pending further investigations. Also the anlysis of if gravitons are constructed by a similar semiclassical argument is pending if gravitons as by the Alicki-Van Ryn test result in semiclassical A and B matrix observable eigenvalue behavior. This paper also indirectly raises the question of if Baysian statistics would be the optimal way to differentiate between A and B matrix observable eigenvalue behavior for reasons brought up in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1207.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-16 23:17:12*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we extend Prof. Yang Chunyan and Prof. Cai Wen’s dependent function of a point P with respect to two nested sets X0 X, for the case the sets X0 and X have common ending points, from 1D-space to n-D-space. We give several examples in 2D- and 3D-spaces. When computing the dependent function value k(.) of the optimal point O, we take its maximum possible value.
Formulas for computing k(O), and the geometrical determination the Critical Zone are also given.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[50] **viXra:1207.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-15 19:44:38*

**Authors:** Pal Asija

**Comments:** 38 Pages. Keep up the good work

A Systems View of One Reality of the Universe (FTPRDNBU) within Universe (IEVACXUU) delineating its Size, Structure and Soul and Our Special Status on the Privileged Planet.
This paper and concomitant presentation comprise a Systems View of One Reality of the Universe (FTPRDNBU) within Universe (IEVACXUU) delineating its Size, Structure and Soul and Our Special Status on the Privileged Planet. It build upon a previously presented and published paper at an NPA forum by the author with a similar title. As the title implies, it is based on the premise that there is only one reality in-here and out-there notwithstanding multitudes of perceptions thereof. Accordingly problems in theory and practice of sciences cannot be solved without solving the problems in theory and practice of spirituality and vice versa. At the top level it begins with a systems view of the universe which by definition is one (Universe = All that there is) within what existed prior to its creation ex nihilo and sua sponte. An essential aspect of our universe is gravity which is created by combined effect of three motions in 3D Euclidian absolute space in three orthogonal frames of reference which are fed all the way back to earth via Virgo Cluster(s), Milky Way and the Solar System each in three different orthogonal planes. 1) Orbit of the earth around the Sun in the plane of the planets in the first frame of reference (horizontal plane along vertical axis) 2) Solar system around Milky Way Black Hole in the plane of the Milky Way which is perpendicular to the plane of the solar system in the second orthogonal frame of reference (Vertical plane along horizontal axis) 3) Orbit of the Milky Way and local group and perhaps some other galaxies around Black Hole of the Virgo cluster in the third Frame of Reference (Lateral vertical plane along lateral horizontal axis) which is orthogonal to both the previous planes Solar system plane and Milky Way Planes. In further detail it is a potpourri of One Reality NOW (Nuggets of Wisdom). There are no taboo topics or sacred cows. One Reality ignores man made boundaries of knowledge domains or credentials of the originator of a particular perception of reality. Any contradictions are purged from One Reality by employing familiar mathematical techniques such as LCM (Lowest Common Multiple) and HCF (Highest Common Factor) amongst other. The author supports his position by examples from a wide range and variety of sciences and spirituality. The only chance for solving the one reality jigsaw puzzle is by sharing the pieces of the puzzle from all sources of one and only one reality.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[49] **viXra:1207.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-15 19:59:25*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation, find new solution of the self-accelerated matter(ex.rocket) in the general relativity theory. The new solution has the acceleration’s term. Therefore according to the new solution, treat that the matter self-accelerates continuously in the gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1207.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-16 02:49:37*

**Authors:** Xiong Wang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Memristor was postulated by Chua in 1971 by analyzing mathematical relations
between pairs of fundamental circuit variables and realized by HP laboratory in 2008. This
relation can be generalized to include any class of two-terminal devices whose properties
depend on the state and history of the system. These are called memristive systems, including
current-voltage for the memristor, charge-voltage for the memcapacitor, and current-flux for the
meminductor. This paper further enlarge the family of elementary circuit elements, in order to
model many irregular and exotic nondifferentiable phenomena which are common and dominant
to the nonlinear dynamics of many biological, molecular and nanodevices.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[47] **viXra:1207.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-16 05:14:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the indeterminate models in
information fusion, which are due either to the existence of some
indeterminate elements in the fusion space or to some
indeterminate masses. The best approach for dealing with such
models is the neutrosophic logic.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[46] **viXra:1207.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-16 05:15:50*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In most of classical fusion problems modeled from
belief functions, the frame of discernment is considered as static.
This means that the set of elements in the frame and the
underlying integrity constraints of the frame are fixed forever
and they do not change with time. In some applications, like in
target tracking for example, the use of such invariant frame is
not very appropriate because it can truly change with time. So it
is necessary to adapt the Proportional Conflict Redistribution
fusion rules (PCR5 and PCR6) for working with dynamical
frames. In this paper, we propose an extension of PCR5 and
PCR6 rules for working in a frame having some non-existential
integrity constraints. Such constraints on the frame can arise in
tracking applications by the destruction of targets for example.
We show through very simple examples how these new rules can
be used for the belief revision process.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[45] **viXra:1207.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-16 05:17:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Deqiang Han, Arnaud Martin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Uncertainty measures in the theory of belief functions
are important for the uncertainty representation and
reasoning. Many measures of uncertainty in the theory of belief
functions have been introduced. The degree of discord (or
conflict) inside a body of evidence is an important index for
measuring uncertainty degree. Recently, distance of evidence
is used to define a contradiction measure for quantifying the
degree of discord inside a body of evidence. The contradiction
measure is actually the weighted summation of the distance
values between a given basic belief assignment (bba) and the
categorical bba’s defined on each focal element of the given bba
redefined in this paper. It has normalized value and can well
characterize the self-discord incorporated in bodies of evidence.
We propose here, some numerical examples with comparisons
among different uncertainty measures are provided, together
with related analyses, to show the rationality of the proposed
contradiction measure.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[44] **viXra:1207.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-14 13:32:16*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The special relativity theory (SRT) can only be accepted as a curios mathematical game having nothing in common with the physical reality as well as correct logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1207.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-14 03:23:06*

**Authors:** V.A. Etkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that interaction of substance with a field has power and wave character.
Thanks to it selective interaction is presented as consequence its resonant nature.
(Показано, что взаимодействие вещества с полем носит силовой и волновой характер. Благодаря этому избирательное взаимодействие представлено как следствие его резонансной природы).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[42] **viXra:1207.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-12 17:22:18*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The mathematics of analogues to the Koide formula is explored. In this context, a naturally occurring alternative to the Koide formula is shown to fit not only the tau-electron mass ratio, but also the muon-electron mass ratio.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[41] **viXra:1207.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-13 00:51:32*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We give a short and self-contained proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory for finite degree extensions.

**Category:** Algebra

[40] **viXra:1207.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-13 05:02:51*

**Authors:** A Khrennikov, E E Rosinger, A van Zyl

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We consider a non-negative integer valued grading function on tensor products which aims to measure the extent of
entanglement. This grading, unlike most of the other measures of entanglement, is defined exclusively in terms of the
tensor product. It gives a possibility to approach the notion of entanglement in a more refined manner, as the
non-entangled elements are those of grade zero or one, while the rest of elements with grade at least two are entangled,
and the higher its grade, the more entangled an element of the tensor product is. The problem of computing and reducing
the grade is studied in products of arbitrary vector spaces over arbitrary fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1207.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-12 08:11:10*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a space mission which used a satellite with 4 super-accurate gyroscopes to test the frame-dragging effect predicted by general relativity theory. The satellite was launched on April 20, 2004, and the spaceflight phase of the mission lasted until 2005. The GP-B science team alleges that highly predictable and systematic malfunctions in the gyroscopes created signal noise, and when the signal noise is removed from the empirical data, then Gravity Probe B confirms the precise frame-dragging effect predicted by general relativity theory without the Rañada-Milgrom effect. However, if the gyroscopes functioned within design specification, then the alleged defects in the gyroscopes might be confirmations of the Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:1207.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-12 05:21:14*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** Accepted for online publication in GJSFR(A). Please sponsor the page charges (78 USD)

It is noticed that, in the accelerating universe, proton mass, proton size and the strong coupling constant are cosmic variable constants. Independent of the cosmic red shift and CMBR observations, cosmic acceleration can be verifified by measuring the `rate of decrease' in the
proton mass. Cosmic initial conditions can be addressed with the Planck mass(Mp) and the coulomb
mass(MC). Based on the Mach's principle and the characteristic Hubble mass (M0) of the present
universe, it is noticed that, in the Hubble
volume, critical density, observed matter density and the thermal energy density are in geometric series and the geometric ratio is 1 + ln (M0/MC) : In this connection, it can be suggested that - in understanding the basics of grand unification and cosmology, cosmic Hubble volume can be given a chance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1207.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-08 09:05:21*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let a be a square matrix with complex entries and f a function holomorphic on an open subset U of the complex plane. It is well known that f can be evaluated on a if the spectrum of a is contained in U. We show that, for a fixed f, the resulting matrix depends holomorphically on a.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[36] **viXra:1207.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-16 19:25:41*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Appeared in the 5th International Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development (EESD 2010), Gothenburg, Sweden

People of various interests talk about Sustainable Development (SD) and in their talks they understand SD very differently. A lexicographer for example may define SD according to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary as "the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment". While a passer-by may happily dub her society as sustainable if it is providing her with her life needs while considering the needs of generations to come over a very long time. To take it to an extreme edge, the philosopher Luc Ferry [1] defines SD by saying: "I know that this term is obligatory, but I find it also absurd, or rather so vague that it says nothing!". In this paper we try to define and measure SD in Scandinavian countries using a novel mathematical approach. We rely on a non-concrete model for this purpose; namely the SAFE model, which is based on concepts derived from fuzzy logic. It is widely believed that the application of fuzzy logic brings powerful reasoning abilities in disciplines where concrete mathematical models do not exist; and SD is one such discipline. In fact, fuzzy logic is an outstanding tool for mimicking human thinking and foresight. Based on the SAFE model, we give a careful assessments of sustainability in each of the Scandinavian countries. We also undergo a trend monitoring combined with a sensitivity analysis in order to stand on the most important sustainability factors in each of these countries.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1207.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-12 04:59:26*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** Accepted for online publication in IOSR journals. Please sponsor the page charges ( 3200 INR ).

In modern cosmology, the shape of the universe is
flat. In between the closed space and at space, there is one compromise. That is `Hubble volume'. Note that Hubble volume is only a theoretical and spherical expanding volume and is virtual. From Hubble volume one can estimate the Hubble mass. By coupling the Hubble mass with the Mach's principle, one can understand the origin of cosmic and atomic physical parameters. Considering the Mach's principle and the Hubble mass, in this paper an attempt is made to understand the origin of the strong and electromagnetic interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1207.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 07:21:03*

**Authors:** Akindele O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 64 Pages. Article from volume one of The Fundamental Theory ... monograph series on an evolving fundamental theory of physics by the author.

An analytical approach to the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR) and combined theory of gravitational relativity and special theory of relativity (TGR+SR) on the flat spacetime of TGR in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength is developed to complement the graphical approach developed in the first part of this paper. The analytical approach to TGR bears an interesting analogy to the analytical approach to SR developed by Albert Einstein. Relations for (or transformations of) mass, force, energy, gravitational potential, gravitational field (or acceleration), gravitational velocity, frequency and other parameters, are derived on flat spacetime in the context of TGR. These are relations that incorporate the effect of gravitational relativity into the classical and special-relativistic values of parameters at every point on flat spacetime in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength. Local Lorentz invariance (LLI) is validated on the flat spacetime of TGR. The weak equivalence principle (WEP) is shown to be valid in the context of TGR as long as it is valid in classical gravitation. The modified (or gravitational-relativistic) form of the Newtonian gravitational force law on flat spacetime in the context of TGR is derived. The non-trivial relationships among the various mass concepts in physics namely, the inertial mass, the passive gravitational mass, the active gravitational mass and the rest mass, which the derived mass relation in the context of TGR implies, are highlighted and the elusive rest mass and classical radius of a gravitational field source are calculated from the observed (or inertial) mass and the observed radius of the field source. The exterior Schwarzschild line element in the general theory of relativity is shown to pertain to the measurable sub-space of TGR (which is a fictitious curved spacetime with sub-Riemannian metric tensor), whereas the total space of TGR is the observed flat spacetime with constant Lorentzian metric tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1207.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 07:27:27*

**Authors:** Alindele O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 37 Pages. Article from volume one of The Fundamental Theory ... monograph series on an evolving fundamental theory of physics by the author.

Having validated local Lorentz invariance (LLI) on flat spacetime in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR), and having shown that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) is valid in the context of TGR, in so far as it is valid at the classical (or Newtonian) gravitation limit in previous articles, the invariance with position on flat spacetime in every gravitational field of the non-gravitational and gravitational laws (in their usual instantaneous differential forms), are demonstrated in every gravitational field and consequently in the entire universe. This thereby validates the strong equivalence principle (SEP) in the context of TGR. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) that embodies LLI, WEP and SEP has thus been validated theoretically in the context of TGR in this and previous articles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1207.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 05:23:44*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is the intention here to examine in detail the way in which purely physical ideas are introduced into General Relativity to enable the initially pure mathematical theory to be applied to physical problems. The intention is to examine the approach used frequently in undergraduate presentations since this is the point in life when so many are crucially influenced by thoughts and ideas put before them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1207.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 05:41:10*

**Authors:** Gurpinder Singh

**Comments:** 1 Page. this is only existing proof of this problem

t

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[30] **viXra:1207.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 06:01:20*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The book "Categories and Sheaves" by Kashiwara and Schapira starts with a few statements which are not proved, a reference being given instead. We spell out the proofs in a short and self-contained way.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[29] **viXra:1207.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 07:09:58*

**Authors:** Akindele O Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 79 Pages. Article from volume one of The Fundamental Theory ... monograph series on an evolving fundamental theory of physics by the author.

The theory of gravitational relativity and intrinsic theory of gravitational relativity (TGR/øTGR), the special theory of relativity and intrinsic special theory of relativity (SR/øSR), and their union, on flat four-dimensional spacetime (Σ , ct) and its underlying flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime (øρ , øcøt), at the second stage of evolutions of spacetime/intrinisic spacetime and parameters/intrinsic parameters in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength, isolated in the previous papers, are developed fully in the first two parts of this paper. Mass and other parameter relations in the context of TGR and the implied modification of Newton's law of universal gravity in the context of TGR are derived. Local Lorentz invariance is validated on flat spacetime in the context of TGR. This first part is devoted to the graphical approaches in the four-world picture to these flat spacetime/intrinsic spacetime theories, while analytical approaches shall be developed in the second part to complement the graphical approaches.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1207.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-11 03:11:19*

**Authors:** Leonardo Ruiz González

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The empirical violation of Bell’s inequality shows that the relativistic speed limit is incompatible with the quantum entanglement. ‘Proper Present Interpretation’ shows a local relativistic theory without using hidden variables that is consistent with quantum entanglement. The method used is a change of present. For every observer, his present in each moment is the universe he observes. It involves a change of coordinates. It is explained quantum problems related to quantum entanglement such as Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox, ‘Schr¨odinger’s cat’ and the Young’s double-slit experiment. Are obtained simpler equations for the relativistic transformations of physical magnitudes by using the same transformation in all cases. With this new concept, quantum and relativistic mathematics keep being both valid and stop being mutually exclusive in relation to the concept of locality. The results suggest a relational space-time reality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1207.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 00:23:09*

**Authors:** Alexander Egoyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this work a conceptual basis for multidimensional physics (MD physics) is proposed. The new physics is based on the elastic model of multidimensional geometry [1]. Reality may be considered as the process of time evolution of holistic macro objects - elastic membranes. An embedded membrane in this multidimensional world will look different for the external and internal observers: from the outside it will look like a material object with smooth infinitesimal geometry, while from the inside our Universe-like space-time fabric. When interacting with elementary particles and other membranes, a membrane will transform their energy into its elastic energy (a new form of energy) - the energy of stretching of the infinitesimal segments. For example, living organisms play the role of internal observers of the Universe, and at the same time they serve as external observers for 2D membranes embedded into our Universe. A new explanation of gravity and cosmological aspects are also discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[26] **viXra:1207.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-11 00:16:49*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 pages, addition of a useful reference, 5, plus elaborations

The structural formation and baryonic fluctutations being presented initially come from an article by Chechin as to perturbation growth in the early universe. Due to a set of notes as written up by Sahoo, and Misra the author has reviewed what would be the consequences of adding in strange quark matter, cosmic strings and also domain walls, which change the nature of the initial baryonic model perturbations. The conclusion which jumps out, via what is the consequences for domain walls and galaxy formation , after the electro weak, is that the initial perturbations are heavily influenced by domain wall tension. I.e. almost as a free parameter, which is troubling since there is no experimental way to quantify what sort of domain wall tension is suitable at/ before the electro-weak regime.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[25] **viXra:1207.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-09 04:04:07*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This short paper prove that mathematically, Reality is not real . This short paper is not about Heisenberg's uncertainty principle of quantum physics. There is another uncertainty principle that depends solely on mathematical arguments and explains why our world can't be easily equated. Or more accurately can be describe in infinitely different ways all of those representations are mathematically correct. Which mean that the representation of any physical phenomena is not unique.
. Given an example how to use it to solve complicate problems in engineering

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[24] **viXra:1207.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-08 06:53:00*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This essay was submitted to the FQXI Essay Contest "Questioning the Foundations: Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?" http://fqxi.org/community/forum/category/31418

A paradigm shift in physics is now overdue, Physics is founded on mismatched assumptions including three by Einstein such as the photon-as-particle, which has led to the assumption of the physical reality of quantum probability. Others such as a fixed speed of light and flexible spacetime need to be recast in a more physically realistic way. Physics is likened to a badly designed building that is hard to use, impossible to build on, and in danger of collapse in some sections. Seven foundational questions are discussed related to the 'stuff' making up the universe, the unreality of time, a variable speed of light in an ether, gravity warping spacetime, the photon as a particle, and the nature of a particle's wave field, the physical reality behind probability uncertainty and entanglement, and the Standard Model

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[23] **viXra:1207.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-07 17:27:34*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The absurdities on superluminal neutrinos and on Higgs boson are proved by the later denial of the news, for the formers and by the large number of questions (rather than answers) brought by the news, for the latter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22] **viXra:1207.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-07 17:41:36*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Magnetic force is simply a Coulomb’s electric force(!).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1207.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-08 10:29:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In July 2012 the LHC announced observation of a state of the Standard Model Higgs boson around 125 GeV. In view of the detailed LHC histograms for the Higgs to ZZ to 4l Golden Channel, I remain in favor of a Standard Model Higgs with 3 Mass States: 126.257 GeV; around 200 GeV; and around 250 GeV. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.) Revised version 2 added more details about Higgs mass states and their cross-sections. Version 3 reorganizes expository material and includes LHC results at Moriond 2013. Version 4 adds more detailed ATLAS ZZ to 4l histogram from animated gif.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:1207.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-06 10:56:56*

**Authors:** Mitra Ganguly, Timothy Eller

**Comments:** 5 Pages. technical report in NUI, #551

In this paper, we address consensus seeking problem of dynamical agents on random sector graphs. Random sector graphs are directed
geometric graphs and have been investigated extensively. Each agent randomly walks on these graphs and communicates with each other if
and only if they coincide on a node at the same time. Extensive simulations are performed to show that global consensus can be reached.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[19] **viXra:1207.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-06 23:20:34*

**Authors:** Cetin Dincer

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In bare space, outside the context of matter, speed of the light has much bigger values from ''c'' and increases in direct proportion to the frequency of the light. But we always measure the speed of light fixed. The reason for this is that all masses have motion in two dimensions. One of these dimensions is the universe and the speed is ''c''. This speed creates the time. Wavelength of our universe is 299,792.458. km. This wavelength causes a ‘’tunnel Effect’’. We can not see and measure the movements outside of this wavelength. We can measure the greatest values within this wavelength. This wavelength is our cosmic horizon field. For this reason, the speed of light is always measured fixed. The Universe moves in the fourth dimension with the speed ''c'' (Time). This motion in two dimensions brings appear two different concept of time. These are Macro Time and Micro Time. One of the components of the speed of light within the material is smaller than‘’c''.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1207.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-07 00:05:32*

**Authors:** Stephan J.G. Gift

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The one-way speed of light is determined using the range equations employed in the tracking of planets and spacecrafts moving within our solar system. These equations are based on the observation that light travels in the sun-centered inertial frame at a constant speed c and have been extensively tested and rigorously verified. For light reflected from an object moving in space the light speed detected on the surface of the moving Earth is found to be c+v and c-v relative to the receiving antenna for the Earth moving at orbital speed v in directions toward and away from the reflector. This finding is consistent with results first presented by Wallace and later by Tolchel'nikova but is at variance with the postulate of light speed constancy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1207.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-26 11:09:42*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 5 Pages. corrected photon energy in figure 2

The discovery of exact impedance quantization in the quantum Hall effect was greatly facilitated by scale invariance. This letter explores the possibility that quantum impedances may be generalized, defined not just for the Lorentz force and the quantum Hall effect, but rather for all forces, resulting in a precisely structured network of scale dependent and scale invariant impedances. If the concept of generalized quantum impedances correctly describes the physical world, then such impedances govern how energy is transmitted and reflected, how the hydrogen atom is ionized by a 13.6eV photon, or why the pizero branching ratio is what it is. An impedance model of the electron is presented, and explored as a model for the unstable particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[16] **viXra:1207.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-01 17:31:42*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Argument that basic scientific research is of value is a strong one, but may not be always communicated very well to the public. As a result, even though the public overwhelmingly supports science, it may not always support important basic physics research projects. This can have definite consequences on policy decisions, as happened when the superconducting supercollider was shut down after pouring 2 billion dollars into it. This article makes six recommendations, directed primarily at physicists, but also more generally applicable to all scientists, to help communicate the value of basic physics research to the public more effectively. Doing this is especially important now, as basic research budgets are facing ever increasing threats of budget cuts.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[15] **viXra:1207.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-29 01:46:15*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published: Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Physics and Space Science Volume 12 Issue 4 Version 1.0 June 2012

The black hole, gravitational waves, and the Big Bang cosmology have no valid basis in science. It is demonstrated herein that Einstein’s field equations violate the usual conservation of energy and momentum and are therefore in conflict with experiment on a deep level, so that General Relativity is invalid. This fact alone proves the invalidity of the black hole, gravitational
waves, the Big Bang cosmology and Einstein’s conception of the gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1207.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-05 05:42:18*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 14 Pages. To be submitted to a peer review journal

he general consensus feeling amongst researchers is that it is generally difficult to obtain a position space Lorentz invariant Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) theory. In this reading, we propose such a theory. The Lorentz transformations are modified such that the resultant theory has not one, but two invariants -- the speed of light c = 2.99792458e 8 m/s, and a minimum length. Actually, we achieve our desire by infusing Heisenberg's quantum mechanical uncertainty principle into the fabric of Minkowiski spacetime. In this new theory, it is seen that under extreme quantum conditions, it should be possible to exceed the light-speed-barrier without any limit. It should be stated that this theory has been developed more as a mathematical exercise to obtain a physically reasonable as is possible a position space DSR theory that is Lorentz invariant. In the low energy regime, the theory gives the same predictions as Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1207.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-04 12:23:29*

**Authors:** Lyndon Ashmore

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Accepted for publication at the 19th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Albuquerque. N.M. 2012

High redshift broadening of supernovae light curves, taken at face value, is the only direct evidence for expansion and is often used to discount Tired Light Theories. However, the authors of these papers look at high redshifts since these results are said to give “conclusive evidence for expansion.” But what of the smaller redshifts?, what do they show? This paper reviews supernovae aging data and shows that if we ignore Malmquist biases and that fact that brighter supernova Ia do have intrinsically broader light curves, then the main stream super-novae evidence is that whilst there may be expansion at high redshifts, there is no time dilation and therefore no expansion at low redshifts. That is, if we are to believe the main stream version of supernovae light curves then we must believe that the Universe is presently static.
These results are then compared to average Hydrogen cloud separation in the Lyman alpha forest in qua-sar spectra. These also show that at high redshifts the average spacing between Hydrogen clouds reduces as the redshift increases – showing evidence that the clouds are moving further apart with time and therefore expan-sion. However, at low redshifts the average spacing is constant - again showing a static Universe in the region. Is it just coincidence that both sets of data show expansion at high redshifts and a static Universe at low red-shifts?
Together, both sets of data are consistent with a Universe that did expand in the past but stopped ex-panding some time ago. The density of the Universe would then be equal to the critical density and we would have reached the point where the expansion has been arrested. There is then no need for inflation, ‘dark energy' or ‘dark matter.' However, in this static epoch of the Universe the Hydrogen clouds and supernovae at low red-shifts have differing redshifts dependent on distance. It is proposed that in this scenario, redshifts are due to the New Tired Light theory alone.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1207.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-19 05:51:01*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 pages. Extensively re done due to criticism of an editor in classical and quantum gravity

The lowest order mass for a KK graviton, as a non zero product of two branes interacting via a situation similar to Steinhardt’s ekpyrotic universe is obtained, as to an alternative to the present dogma specifying that gravitons must be massless. The relative positions as to the branes gives a dynamical picture as to how lowest order KK gravitons could be affected by contraction and then subsequent expansion. And the solution picked is for with a non zero lowest order mass for a KK graviton permits modeling of gravitons via a dynamical Casmir effect which we generalize using Durrer’s 2007 work. Anti-de-Sitter braneworld.construction is what is used to model the Casmir effect. This analysis is taken in AdS5 geometry while assuming that blue spectrum treatment of gravitons no longer holds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1207.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-04 16:13:09*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, shmuel Neumann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Authors offer the new anti-bunker bombs which reach 80-150 m and more of the Earth depth. They can destroy armor protected underground bunkers. This bomb is named as “Self-propelled Bomb” because after conventional kinetic penetration, multiple cumulative charges creates a narrow canal, then injects into this canal explosives which upon detonation pushes the bomb deeper into the Earth by special rocket explosions and reaches a deep location. The other feature of Burn Bomb is the use of liquid explosive which makes it more comfortable, easy for design, safety and operates more effective than current bunker buster bomb. The same method may be used for super-fast very deep oil/gas drilling because the liquid explosive may be delivered to same apparatus by a long tube line.
Key words: Penetration bomb, anti-bunker bomb, Earth depth bomb.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1207.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-04 16:33:43*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Authors offer the new method for deliver the asteroid to Earth. That method is cheaper in a lot of times than a conventional method. In our method for braking apparatus and asteroid are used the kinetic energy of apparatus. This energy is used also for charging the apparatus energy storage. The small control parachute allows multiple using the Earth atmosphere for the braking the asteroid without high heating, deliver the asteroid in given point and to avoid the asteroid impact to Earth.
In recent years, industry has produced high-temperature fiber and whiskers. The authors examined and proposed the use of high temperature tolerant parachute for atmospheric air braking. Though it is not large, a light parachute decreases asyeroid speed from 11 km/s to 50 m/s and a heat flow by tens times. The parachute surface is opened with backside so that it can emit the heat radiation efficiently to Earth-atmosphere. The temperature of parachute may be about 1000 1300o C. The carbon fiber is able to keep its functionality up to a temperature of 1500 2000o C. There is no conceivable problem to manufacture the parachute from carbon fiber. The proposed new method of braking may be also applied to the old Space Ship as well as to newer spacecraft designs.
Key words: Asteroid delivery to Earth, Atmospheric reentry, Space Ships, thermal protection of asteroid and space apparatus, parachute braking.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1207.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-03 16:40:45*

**Authors:** Jin He, Bo He

**Comments:** 4 Pages

Do you believe you live in some state of darkness, full of worry and uncertainty? Do you want to make a change of your life? Scientific progress may help you. The simplest way to achieve this change is for you to forget the misery that comes from the miniature world of your immediate life, zoom out of this world, look at the large natural structure of the universe, and find its meaning. As you know, the large scale structure is not relevant to humans' activity. Unfortunately, the meaning has not been identified. Now, with Dr. He's study on galaxies, the meaning of the universe may emerge. The good news is that people, whatever their origin (politician, lawyer, doctor, musician, or beggar), could claim a big discovery on the meaning by playing a computer software of galaxy anatomy. This article is a simple instruction for the design of such a program.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8] **viXra:1207.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-09 00:35:18*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We unsuccessfully try to give definitions in the spirit of Bourbaki's set theory for the basic notions of category theory. The goal is to avoid using either Grothendieck's universes axiom, or "classes" (or "collections") of sets which are not sets. We explain why our attempt fails.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[7] **viXra:1207.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-19 11:40:40*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[6] **viXra:1207.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-12 15:43:28*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work we show a gravitational separator of isotopes which can be much more effective than those used in the conventional processes of isotopes separation. It is based on intensification of the gravitational acceleration, and can generate accelerations tens of times more intense than those generated in the most powerful centrifuges used for Uranium enrichment.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] **viXra:1207.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-03 11:54:40*

**Authors:** Constantine Tynyansky

**Comments:** 141 Pages.

This is a slide show version of the Conceptual Physics, which studies the concept of nonmathematical EVERYTHING. The way to introduce the concept of EVERYTHING requires other – is not based on neglect, that is nonmathematical consideration. Such comprehensive consideration is not arbitrary – does not allowing variants (models). It is obvious that the production of popular versions of theoretical modeling with the requirement to identify the "correct" for the comparison with observation (certainly not inclusive) and/or aesthetic criteria (rather arbitrary) is not a comprehensive consideration. In other words, the "correctness" that, understands what is seen cannot be obtained in the examination, but needed some additional actions. Thus, a comprehensive consideration (Conceptual Physics) cannot be other, as well as what considered is seen – EVERYTHING.
RUSSIAN
Это слайд-шоу версия Концептуальной физики, которая изучает нематематическое понятие ВСЁ. То, как ввести в рассмотрение понятие ВСЁ, требует иного – не основанного на пренебрежении, то есть нематематического рассмотрения. Такое, всеобъемлющее рассмотрение оказывается непроизвольным – не допускающим варианты (модели). Очевидно, что популярное производство вариантов теоретического моделирования с требованием выявления «правильного» по сопоставлению с наблюдением (заведомо не всеохватным) и/или эстетическим критериям (достаточно произвольным) не является всеобъемлющим рассмотрением. Иначе говоря, «правильность», то есть понимание того, что рассматривается, не может быть получена в самом рассмотрении, а нуждается в каких-то дополнительных действиях. Таким образом, всеобъемлющее рассмотрение (Концептуальная физика) не может быть иным, как и то, что рассматривается – ВСЁ.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1207.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 05:07:05*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 576 Pages. Updating

The book is intended to be a concise summary about the applications of TGD in consciousness theory, living matter, and remote mental interactions. The book begins with a very concise summary about TGD in the hope that it might help the mathematically oriented reader to gain an overall view: the notion of many-sheeted space-time and topological field quantization are of special importance for understanding biology in TGD Universe.

Quantum jump identified as moment of consciousness, the notion of self reducing to that of quantum jump, Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP), zero energy ontology (ZEO), and the new view about relationship between subjective and experienced time are essential pieces of the vision. The identification of p-adic physics as correlate for cognition, the view about life as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds -matter and cognition - , and the notion of number theoretic negentropy are central in biological applications.

Magnetic body carrying dark matter and forming an onion-like structure with layers characterized by large values of Planck constant is a key concept of TGD inspired biology. Magnetic body is identified as intentional agent using biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument. The role of magnetic body in various biological functions, and the new view about metabolism and its relationship to the generation of negentropic entanglement are discussed.

The applications to neuroscience are touched. The general model for the sensory qualia and for generation of attention and qualia leads to a view resembling the Orch OR of Penrose and Hameroff. Models for nerve pulse generation and EEG - or rather a fractal hierarchy of XEGs generalizing it serving as a communication tool in commutations between biological body and magnetic body - are proposed.

The mechanisms making possible for the magnetic body to control and receive sensory information from biological body apply can be regarded as those for remote mental interactions. Therefore also remote mental interactions are briefly considered in the proposed conceptual framework. Also tests for the general vision are also considered.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[3] **viXra:1207.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-02 00:32:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Today’s hard drives require about a million atoms to store one bit. Nanotechnology is testing methods to store an electronic 1 or 0 using a cluster of 12 iron atoms or a molecule created from two uranium atoms. These paragraphs go way beyond present technology. The first step suggests technology of the extremely distant future will manipulate quarks to store 3 bytes in a single helium atom. The second step suggests helium is united with atoms of iron, uranium, etc. via wave-particle duality and has a potential information content, thanks to cosmic wormholes, equal to the universe's (here, that data content is limited to the observable universe's and estimated as 3x10 exponent 80 bytes). Since there were originally 8 bits in a byte, an alternative way of viewing a helium atom would be to regard it as being composed of eight times 3 times 10 exp. 80 bits or BInary digiTS (again underestimating the true data content since this value is based on the observable universe, and I believe the universe is actually infinite).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1207.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-01 05:45:25*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The physical importance of the stress-energy tensor is twofold: at the one hand, it is a fundamental quantity appearing on the equations of mechanics; at the other hand, this tensor is the source of the gravitational field.
Due to this importance, two different procedures have been developed to find this tensor for a given physical system. The first of the systematic procedures gives the canonical tensor, but this tensor is not usually symmetric and it is repaired, via the Belifante and Rosenfeld formula, to give the Hilbert tensor associated to the second procedure.
After showing the physical deficiencies of the canonical and Hilbert tensors, we introduce a new and generalized tensor $\Theta^{\mu\nu}$ without such deficiencies. This $\Theta^{\mu\nu}$ is (i) symmetric, (ii) conserved, (iii) in agreement with the energy and momentum of a system of charges interacting via NILI potentials $\Lambda^\mu(R(t))$, and (\textbf{iv}) properly generalizes the Belifante and Rosenfeld formula, with the Hilbert tensor being a special case of $\Theta^{\mu\nu}$.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1207.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-01 05:33:33*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Appeared in the International Conference on Educational and Information Technology (ICEIT 2010), Chongqing, China

This paper will describe the implementation of competitively based and highly structured scientific programs in a framework of a science school at Chalmers University of Technology. We discuss the implementation, advantages and disadvantages of those programs, the requirements students and supervisors should fulfill, whether from the academia or from the industry, and we present the selection method of participants. We also reflect on the results of a survey conducted recently among Chalmers academic staff. We believe that the installation of this science school at Chalmers brings many advantages to students, starting with a better understanding of industry practices and ending with an easier path to recruitment. It further helps employers in efficiently administering the process of hiring students and in discovering technological breakthroughs. Moreover, it enables the university to establish better connections with the industry and later use its feedback to enhance academic courses and the content of those courses. Our method derives from the successful practices of a pioneering science school at the Israeli Weizmann Institute of Science; namely the Kupcinet-Getz Science School for Israeli and International Students. The method further acquires practices from published literature of relevance to our discussion. We aspire Chalmers Science School to be a blueprint for any emerging or evolving science school at any educational institute worldwide.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy