[238] **viXra:1310.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-31 17:38:36*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The derivation conclusion of Maxwell’s equations is given from the first principles of
nonequilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown, that these equations represent the modified
form of its phenomenological laws and should contain the full derivatives on time from
vectors of electric and magnetic induction

**Category:** Classical Physics

[237] **viXra:1310.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-31 22:10:31*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Dark Matter is rooted in the underlying topology of fractal spacetime above the electroweak scale and may be understood as a manifestation of “Unmatter”.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[236] **viXra:1310.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-31 01:10:53*

**Authors:** Eduard N. Klenov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The distribution law for the values of pairs of the conserved additive quantum numbers of subatomic particles and antiparticles of all generations has been described that has made it possible to advance the hypothesis on the existence of the microcosm object, different states of which can be the mentioned particles. This object, named as bastron, has two very different groups of states. The smaller group in number is easy to be put in correspondence with the weakly interacting particles and antiparticles, and the larger one in number – to the hadrons and their antiparticles. Quarks don’t correspond the bastron states and perhaps due to this fact they don’t exist as free particles outside hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[235] **viXra:1310.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-11 19:51:37*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Does velocity time dilation (clock drift) depend on a body's velocity in the Center of Gravity Frame of the local gravitational system, rather than on relative velocities between bodies? Experiments that have measured differential clock rates have conclusively proven this to be true, and hinted at a gravitational origin of velocity time dilation. Extending this understanding, a generalized form of the velocity time dilation metric (Lorentz factor) including masses is derived. This allows prediction of velocity time dilation between bodies of any mass ratio, including comparable masses such as the Earth-Moon system. This is not possible using the Lorentz factor in its current form. The generalized form of the Lorentz factor remains consistent with results of all experiments conducted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[234] **viXra:1310.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 13:44:56*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I am 89 years old. and earned the PhD in 1954

The Standard model has SU(3)symmetry appearing only once, in the QCD theory of the strong force. A simple argument shows SU(3) symmetry is also the symmetry of life, with its 8=fold representation, and is also the symmetry of 8 stable matter particles. It is only logical to also expect 8 forces of nature but there are only five forces at present: it is proposed that 3 new forces were active only in an epoch prior to the big bang when time was not active. One force enabled the big bang itself and two forces enabled matter to pass from the previous universe into the present cosmos without violating flatness. The new theory accounts for 248 particles of revised Standard Model, in accordance with E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[233] **viXra:1310.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 14:03:07*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 12 Pages. eine deutschsprachige Version kann angefordert werden.

If an electromagnetic wave hits on electrons, so far only their reaction to the electric field component was calculated. By classical physics it can be shown that the electrons do not only perform the well-known transverse movement, but also a movement in the longitudinal direction at twice the frequency. This leads to an energy loss of the original electromagnetic wave without change of direction which was unknown up to now and has nothing to do with elastic or inelastic collision. The "lost" energy is radiated in two very different frequency ranges and the relative energy loss increases with decreasing frequency of the primary wave. An experimental confirmation of this phenomenon could influence the debate about “tired light”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[232] **viXra:1310.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 08:33:31*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram

The most basic assumption in all of geophysics and geology is the consensus that the Earth has always been solid and liquid rock. The reality is that the Earth was not always solid/liquid rocks it was a giant ball of plasma and gas much earlier in its life, much larger than its current diameter.

**Category:** Geophysics

[231] **viXra:1310.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 08:36:53*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

This study offers evidence of diamagnetism of electron and proton, as well as of paramagnetism of neutron.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[230] **viXra:1310.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 09:40:17*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik, Inna S. Doubson

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Hardware algorithms for computing of all elementary complex variable functions are proposed.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[229] **viXra:1310.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 10:13:44*

**Authors:** Alexander M. Gelfand, Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We consider a vector stochastic process with stationary increments of a predetermined order, whose components are linearly dependent, i.e. in the absence of noise vector process components are constrained by a system of linear equations (constraints). The interdependence of stochastic processes can be determined by a static or a dynamic model. The constraints can be maintained rigidly or with a specified error. We offer a method allowing in these conditions synthesis of an optimum filter structure. This method works in cases where no information about signal and noise static properties is available.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[228] **viXra:1310.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-29 20:39:08*

**Authors:** Roxana Bujack, Eckhard Hitzer, Gerik Scheuermann

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In T. Simos, G. Psihoyios and C. Tsitouras (eds.), Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics ICNAAM 2013, AIP Conf. Proc. 1558, pp. 525-528 (2013). DOI: 10.1063/1.4825543, with minor revisions.

As it will turn out in this paper, the recent hype about most of the Clifford Fourier transforms is not worth the pain.
Almost every one that has a real application is separable and these transforms can be decomposed into a sum of real valued
transforms with constant multivector factors. This fact makes their interpretation, their analysis and their implementation
almost trivial.

**Keywords:** geometric algebra, Clifford algebra, Fourier transform, trigonometric transform, convolution theorem.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[227] **viXra:1310.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 17:05:27*

**Authors:** L. Escamilla, J. Torres-Arenas

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fundamental thermodynamic relation, the classical thermodynamics of a black hole with mass and angular momentum is given.
New definitions of the response functions and $TdS$ equations are introduced and mathematical analogous of the Euler equation and Gibbs-Duhem relation are founded.
Thermodynamic stability is studied from concavity conditions, resulting in an unstable equilibrium at all the domain except for a region of local stable equilibrium. The Maxwell relations are written, allowing to build the thermodynamic squares. Our results shown an interesting analogy between thermodynamics of gravitational and magnetic systems.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[226] **viXra:1310.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 19:27:34*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted or published in a journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome

The present paper consists of a dialogue with Jacky Mallett about the Fed's bailout during 2007-2010 and possibility of hyperinflation in the near future. According to the news (10/14/2013), a number of large investors have sold their stocks massively. See http://www.moneynews.com/MKTNews/billionaires-dump-economist-stock/2012/08/29/id/450265?PROMO_CODE=1393F-1. Perhaps we can agree with one thing from this news, that perhaps the Fed has printed too much money in recent years, so its full effect will take place in the form of massive hyperinflation. In other paper, we have reported that the Fed has issued no less than sixteen trillion of us dollars to several banks.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[225] **viXra:1310.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 21:47:16*

**Authors:** Jinhua Fei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper use the results of the value distribution theory , got a significant conclusion by Riemann hypothesis

**Category:** Number Theory

[224] **viXra:1310.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-29 03:30:11*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In T. Simos, G. Psihoyios and C. Tsitouras (eds.), Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics ICNAAM 2013, AIP Conf. Proc. 1558, pp. 529 -532 (2013). DOI: 10.1063/1.4825544. 2 figures.

We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton’s algebra of quaternions. This was initially
motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of
applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton’s algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class
of Clifford’s geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how
Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images,
color images, vector field and climate data.

**Keywords:** Clifford geometric algebra, quaternion Fourier transform, Clifford Fourier transform, Clifford Fourier-Mellin transform,
Mulitvector wavepackets, Spacetime Fourier transform.

AMS Subj. Class. 15A66, 42A38

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[223] **viXra:1310.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-29 03:33:41*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In T. Simos, G. Psihoyios and C. Tsitouras (eds.), Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics ICNAAM 2013, AIP Conf. Proc. 1558, pp. 30-33 (2013). DOI: 10.1063/1.4825413

Conformal geometric algebra is preferred in many applications. Clifford Fourier transforms (CFT) allow holistic signal processing of (multi) vector fields, different from marginal (channel wise) processing: Flow fields, color fields, electromagnetic
fields, ... The Clifford algebra sets (manifolds) of $\sqrt{-1}$ lead to continuous manifolds of CFTs. A frequently asked
question is: What does a Clifford Fourier transform of conformal geometric algebra look like? We try to give a first answer.

**Keywords:** Clifford geometric algebra, Clifford Fourier transform, conformal geometric algebra, horosphere.

AMS Subj. Class. 15A66, 42A38

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[222] **viXra:1310.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 13:22:01*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

This book describes various versions of processors, designed for affine transformations of many-dimensional figures – planar and spatial. This processors is oriented to affine transformation of unstructured geometrical figures with arbitrary points distribution. The type of data presentation used in this book is non-conventional, based on a not well-known theory of vectors and geometrical figures coding. The problems of affine transformation are used widely in science and engineering. The examples of their application are computer tomography and data compression for telecommunication systems.
The book covers the figures coding theory – the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding for planar and spatial figures, arithmetical operations with planar and spatial figures. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples. The arrangement of several versions of geometrical processor is considered – data representation, operating blocks, hardwares realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms. The processor’s internal performance is appraised.
The book is designed for students, engineers and developers, who intend to use the computer arithmetic of geometrical figures in their own research and development in the field of specialized processors.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[221] **viXra:1310.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 15:39:10*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Newton accidentally discovered gravity after observing an apple falling from a tree. What exactly is gravity? This article suggests a solution for the mystery of gravity. Any theory about gravity would have to be confirmed by physical experiments of course.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[220] **viXra:1310.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 11:49:13*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik, Inna S. Doubson

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In book the theory of positional coding of complex numbers and vectors is considered. The method of search of the radix of coding is described and the various radix of coding are offered. Some variants of construction of binary codes of complex numbers and vectors are allocated.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[219] **viXra:1310.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 06:54:07*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A computer for operations with (mathematical) functions (unlike the usual computer) operated with function at the hardware level (i.e. without programming these operations) [1, 2, 3].
The article briefly describes the functions of one and many arguments coding theory - the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding, arithmetical operations. Processor for operations with functions considered - data representation, operating blocks, hardware realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[218] **viXra:1310.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 00:22:34*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Beginning with the Moon’s reflection in water, that reflection is then compared to physicist David Bohm’s holographic universe and holographic brain, and merged with Albert Einstein’s three universes in one cosmos. This results in Professor Max Tegmark’s hypothesis of mathematical formulas creating reality, and the maths is converted into the physical reality of an infinite, steady-state universe made up of finite, “bubble” or “pocket” subuniverses that originate with big bangs (we live in one of these, and the conversion is achieved via “digital” string theory). It’s concluded early on that all these subuniverses contain a 5th-dimensional hyperspace that allows time travel into the past, and a webpage by Dr Adam Riess (2011 Nobel prize in physics) is used to show how this hyperspace results in dark energy and dark matter. Along the way; Einstein’s Unified Field is justified (with Professor Penrose’s error being exposed), gravity is referred to as a repulsive force that causes attraction by pushing a falling apple to the ground (Isaac Newton’s mathematical description remains intact), dark matter’s role as the scaffold for normal matter is interpreted via fractal geometry, and the four forces are accounted for in a new way. The article is presented in the readable style of plain English, leaving the mathematics and scientific language to the above-mentioned scientists. I wonder if the Large Hadron Collider can achieve sufficiently high energies to observe phenomena that will give some support to the existence of another dimension, and therefore of the other concepts in this article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] **viXra:1310.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 04:04:01*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 341 Pages.

The book calls attention to a method of describing and investigating various
physicochemical processes in their inseparable link with the heat form of energy.
The method is based on the law of energy conservation and free of hypotheses and
postulates.
All the basic principles, laws and equations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium
thermodynamics, heat- and mass-exchange theory, thermo-economics
and thermodynamics of finite-time processes are here derived from this method as
particular cases.
The book considers also with much attention phenomena at the interfaces
between heat engineering and other engineering disciplines, elaborates new
applications of the energy transfer and conversion theories, as well as analyzes
paralogisms arising in thermodynamics due to its inconsistent extrapolation.
The book is intended for researches, engineers and university students keen-set
for updating, extension and integration of knowledge in heat engineering
disciplines. It may be useful also for a wide audience interested in issues relating to
perfection of the modern natural science conceptual frameworks.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[216] **viXra:1310.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-27 12:21:16*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A new variational principle extremum of full action is proposed, which extends the Lagrange formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that this principle is applicable in electrical engineering, mechanics, taking into account the friction forces. Its applicability to electrodynamics and hydrodynamics is also indicated. The proposed variational principle may be considered as a new formalism used as an universal method of physical equations derivation, and also as a method for solving these equations. The formalism consists in building a functional with a sole saddle line; the equation that describes it presents the equation with dynamic variables for a certain domain of physics. The solution method consists in a search for global saddle line for given conditions of a physical problem.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[215] **viXra:1310.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-27 12:34:14*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

The discussed experiment demonstrates the preservation of integrity in a prefabricated construction in the absence of visible fastening forces. It is shown that the experiment can be explained by the fact that a flow of electromagnetic energy appears within the construction. We are considering the conditions in which such flow of electromagnetic energy is maintained for an indefinite length of time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[214] **viXra:1310.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-27 10:06:17*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

We are considering some speculative experiments with charges and currents, which demonstrate a breach of Newton's third law, i.e. an opportunity of unsupported movement. It is shown that these experiments do not violate the Law of momentum conservation. We describe a structure in which electric charges are driven into rotation. We show that this structure performs translational unsupported motion. We describe the mathematical model and the experimental results with a mathematical model of this structure. Some recommendations are given for the implementation of the design.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[213] **viXra:1310.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-26 16:15:46*

**Authors:** Paul Stowe, Barry Mingst

**Comments:** Draft Version 10 pages

Evidence is building (if not already overwhelming) that current physics theories are lacking something fundamental, without which unification will never be ossible. Any unification theory must, by definition, seamlessly integrate all known branches and elements of physics. Hopefully it will also both quantify and resolve known paradoxes and anomalies; while providing insight to new relationships and connections. To achieve this at a foundational level, the process
should give rise to all observed physical processes and behavior. We demonstrate that a granular, discrete-entity media consisting of vortices appears to provide just such a basis seamlessly accomidating all branches of physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[212] **viXra:1310.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-26 18:49:55*

**Authors:** Michael Scott Peck

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to JCAP

Several non-fiducial cosmological tests are discussed allowing various models to be conclusively differentiated from one another. The four models tested include ΛCDM, the Friedmann-Lemaitre metric and a recently proposed steady state with and without local expansion. The cosmological tests range from redshift versus distance modulus to the angular size and time dependence of distant objects. Recent observations allow strict constraints on both the size and evolution of faint blue galaxies up to 23B. The solution to the faint blue galaxy problem is further discussed relative to size versus absolute magnitude, number densities and observations of minimal evolution. Models with expanding metrics are ruled out due to incorrect predictions of angular diameter distance and time-dependence. Observations instead depict a steady state universe with asymptotically flat gravitational potential and embedded bulk flows.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[211] **viXra:1310.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-04 09:01:45*

**Authors:** Carsten S.P. Spanheimer

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A framework for calculations in a semi-Riemannian space with the typical metric connection and curvature expressions is developed, with an emphasis on deriving them from an embedding function as a more fundamental object than the metric tensor.
The scale-invariant and 'linearizing' logarithmic nature of an 'infinitesimal embedding' of a tangent space into its neighbourhood is observed, and a composition scheme of spacetime scenarios from 'outer' non-invariant and 'inner' scale-invariant embeddings is briefly outlined.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[210] **viXra:1310.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-26 11:40:40*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages. The rules Clay Mathematics Institute written as follows: "In the case of … the Navier-Stokes problem, the SAB will consider the award of the Millennium Prize for deciding the question in either direction." I suggest my decision of this problem.

In this book we formulate and prove the variational extremum principle for viscous incompressible and compressible fluid, from which principle follows that the Navier-Stokes equations represent the extremum conditions of a certain functional. We describe the method of seeking solution for these equations, which consists in moving along the gradient to this functional extremum. We formulate the conditions of reaching this extremum, which are at the same time necessary and sufficient conditions of this functional global extremum existence.
Then we consider the so-called closed systems. We prove that for them the necessary and sufficient conditions of global extremum for the named functional always exist. Accordingly, the search for global extremum is always successful, and so the unique solution of Naviet-Stokes is found.
We contend that the systems described by Navier-Stokes equations with determined boundary solutions (pressure or speed) on all the boundaries, are closed systems. We show that such type of systems include systems bounded by impermeable walls, by free space under a known pressure, by movable walls under known pressure, by the so-called generating surfaces, through which the fluid flow passes with a known speed.
The book is supplemented by open code programs in the MATLAB system – functions realizing the calculation method and test programs. Links on test programs are given in the text of the book when the examples are described. The programs may be obtained from the author by request at solik@netvision.net.il

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[209] **viXra:1310.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-25 21:29:54*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Mathematical provability , then classification, of Saint-Venant's Principle are discussed. Beginning with the simplest case of Saint-Venant's Principle, four problems of elasticity are discussed mathematically. It is concluded that there exist two categories of elastic problems concerning Saint-Venant's Principle: Experimental Problems, whose Saint-Venant's Principle is established in virtue of supporting experiment, and Analytical Problems, whose Saint-Venant's decay is proved or disproved mathematically, based on fundamental equations of linear elasticity. The boundary-value problems whose stress boundary condition consists of Dirac measure, a "singular distribution ", can not be dealt with by the mathematics of elasticity for " proof " or "disproof " of their Saint-Venant's decay, in
terms of mathematical coverage.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[208] **viXra:1310.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-25 13:24:00*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article addresses the issue of mathematical proof.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[207] **viXra:1310.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-12 01:52:44*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Rivised

We define so called n-delta lattice containing (n-1) lattice points in first (topmost) row, (n-2) lattice points in second row, and so on. Each time the count of lattice points decreases by unity as we move down by one row till we reach the last (bottommost) row containing single lattice point. We label these lattice points in two different ways and obtain two different labeled lattices. In the first kind of labeling we associate vertex pairs in a particular way as labels for points of the lattice and so call it edge-labeled n-delta lattice. In the second kind of labeling we associate integers as labels with lattice points in each row to indicate the position of that lattice point in the row and so call it position-labeled n-delta lattice. This defining of position-labeled n-delta lattice enables us to associate a lexicographic ordering with lattice paths. We define distinct as well as different lattice paths and further see that for proving graceful tree conjecture one needs to show that the count of distinct lattice paths corresponding to trees in the edge-labeled n-delta lattice is same as the count of nonisomorphic trees with n vertices. We verify this for some (small) values of n. We further see that existence of graceful labeling for an unlabeled tree with n vertices follows from the existence of a lattice path representing this same tree in the edge-labeled n-delta lattice. It is possible to generate all (n, n-1)-trees from all (n-1, n-2)-trees by attaching an edge that emerges from each of the inequivalent vertices of (n-1, n-2)-trees and entering in the new vertex taken outside. We show that extending all lattice paths by adding a lattice point in the paths sitting in the sub-lattice of n-delta lattice in all possible ways is same as the above mentioned generation of trees from lower trees.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[206] **viXra:1310.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-25 10:27:56*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There seems to be an identity that relates certain universal constants:
k = sqrt(4πeG) = 8.617(22023) × 10−11
k = Boltzmann Constant; e = Electric Permittivity; G = Gravitational Constant.
There is no real physics that establishes it; it is only discovered accidentally when an attempt is made to combine the two inverse square laws of electrostatic and gravity into one complex inverse square law with complex-valued
fundamental particles. The identity may be a clue that relates the forces of gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[205] **viXra:1310.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-25 10:49:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The most basic assumption in all of astrophysics and astronomy is the consensus that stars and planets are mutually exclusive. There was never any evidence to show this assumption to be true. The reality is that a star is a young planet and a planet is an aging star, they are the exact same objects.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[204] **viXra:1310.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-25 09:15:15*

**Authors:** Alejandro Edera, Federico Schlüter, Facundo Bromberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Learning the Markov network structure from data is a problem that has received considerable attention in machine learning, and in many other application fields. This work focuses on a particular approach for this purpose called independence-based learning. Such approach guarantees the learning of the correct structure efficiently, whenever data is sufficient for representing the underlying distribution. However, an important issue of such approach is that the learned structures are encoded in an undirected graph. The problem with graphs is that they cannot encode some types of independence relations, such as the context-specific independences. They are a particular case of conditional independences that is true only for a certain assignment of its conditioning set, in contrast to conditional independences that must hold for all its assignments. In this work we present CSPC, an independence-based algorithm for learning structures that encode context-specific independences, and encoding them in a log-linear model, instead of a graph. The central idea of CSPC is combining the theoretical guarantees provided by the independence-based approach with the benefits of representing complex structures by using features in a log-linear model. We present experiments in a synthetic case, showing that CSPC is more accurate than the state-of-the-art IB algorithms when the underlying distribution contains CSIs.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[203] **viXra:1310.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 15:44:36*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This paper was rejected by arXiv

The “Project Orion” small fission bomb propulsion concept proposed the one-stage launching of large payloads into low earth orbit, but it was abandoned because of the radioactive fallout into the earth atmosphere. The idea is here revived by the replacement of the small fission bombs with pure deuterium-tritium fusion bombs, and the pusher plate of the Project Orion with a large magnetic mirror. The ignition of the thermonuclear fusion reaction is done by the transient formation of keV super-explosives under the high pressure of a convergent shock wave launched into liquid hydrogen propellant by a conventional high explosive.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[202] **viXra:1310.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 16:37:16*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed eisa, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study the characteristic
function of a neutrosophic set. After given the fundamental definitions of
neutrosophic set operations generated by, we obtain several properties, and discussed
the relationship between neutrosophic sets generated by Ng and others. Finally, we
introduce the neutrosophic topological spaces generated by Ng . Possible application
to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[201] **viXra:1310.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:06:41*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In this paper we generalize the classical topological spaces to the notion of neutrosophic classical set. Finally, we construct the basic concepts of the neutrosophic classical topology and we obtain several properties. Possible application to GIS topolog

In this paper we generalize the classical topological spaces to the notion of neutrosophic classical set. Finally, we construct the basic concepts of the neutrosophic classical topology and we obtain several properties. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[200] **viXra:1310.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:08:56*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In this paper we introduce the notion of filters on neutrosophic classical set which is considered as a generalization of filters studies, the important neutrosophic classical filters has been given. Several relations between different neutrosophic classi

In this paper we introduce the notion of filters on neutrosophic classical set which is considered as a generalization of filters studies, the important neutrosophic classical filters has been given. Several relations between different neutrosophic classical filters and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[199] **viXra:1310.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:13:30*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A. Albolwi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we will introduce and study neutrosophic relations, which can be discussed as generalization of fuzzy relations and intuitionistic fuzzy relations. We will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study the main properties. In addition, we will discuss reflexive, symmetric and transitive neutrosophic relations. Possible applications to database systems are touched upon.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[198] **viXra:1310.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:16:23*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of ideals on neutrosophic set which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy and fuzzy intuitionistic ideals studies in [9,11] , the important topological neutrosophic ideals has been given in [4]. The concept of neutrosophic local function is also introduced for a neutrosophic topological space. These concepts are discussed with a view to find new neutrosophic topology from the original one in [8]. The basic structure, especially a basis for such generated neutrosophic topologies and several relations between different topological neutrosophic ideals and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[197] **viXra:1310.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-07 20:00:43*

**Authors:** Thomas Marshall Eubanks

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Revised version with changes for publication

Compact Composite Objects (CCOs), nuggets of dense Color-Flavor-Locked Superconducting quark matter created before or during the Quantum Chromo- Dynamics phase transition in the early universe, could provide a natural explanation for both Dark Matter (DM) and the observed cosmological baryon asymmetry, without requiring modifications to fundamental physics. This hypothesis implies a relic CCO population in the Solar System, captured during its formation, which would lead to a population of “strange asteroids,” bodies with mm-radii quark matter cores and ordinary matter (rock or ice) mantles. This hypothesis is supported by the observed population of small Very Fast Rotating (VFR) asteroids (bodies with rotation periods as short as 25 sec); the VFR data are consistent with a population of strange asteroids with core masses of order 10^10 - 10^11 kg. If the VFR asteroids are indeed strange asteroids their CCO cores could be mined using the techniques being developed for asteroid mining. Besides being intrinsically of great scientific interest, CCO cores could also serve as very powerful sources of energy, releasing a substantial fraction of the mass energy of incident particles as their quarks are absorbed into the QCD superfluid. Through a process analogous to Andreev reflection in superconductors[7], even normal matter CCOs could be used as antimatter factories, potentially providing as much as 10^9 kg of antimatter per CCO. While of course speculative, this energy source, if realized, would be suitable for propelling starships to a substantial fraction of the speed of light, and could be found, extracted and exploited in our Solar System with existing and near-term developments in technology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[196] **viXra:1310.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:43:42*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

HEUREKA will stimulate the best re-use of digital cultural, scientific and artistic resources coming from Europeana through a double-core environment. The first one, called Heureka Governance Network is based on a corpus of best practices and standards for the creation and the adoption of a unique High Quality Standard for the Cultural Heritage exploitation in the digital creative economy, spread out by networking bodies within the Consortium;
the latter, called Heureka Experimental Hub, is a forge ecosystem where the creative industries (CCIs) could experiment the re-use of Europeana’s cultural resources for creative purposes through new models, applications and innovative services tailored for each cluster creative field. HEUREKA works:
• Setting a High Quality Standard through best practices and case histories coming from the governance activities of the BPN: this will generate an inside networking system among the users and BPN itself, thanks to its social network system, spreading out the standards adoption. • Offering a technological environment for experimentation - perpetually linked to the rules coming from the Governance Network - provided with the most advanced modeling tools, high-tech methods, as well as systemic intelligence turning the test simple, creative and best-rules-driven.
This will allow CCI’s inspiration stimulating new business development. As a result, HEUREKA will represent the ideal prosecution of the successful intentions in harvesting and dissemination actions as well as the concrete implementation of the inspiring ThoughtLab.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[195] **viXra:1310.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:45:36*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombaniaaz

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

PROMETHEUS is a BPN submitted under the Obj. 2.1b, coordinated by CNR, Institute of the Archeological and Monumental Heritage. It is designed to facilitate/promote the use of Europeana by creative industries (CCIs) by participation, upskilling and delivering innovative sector specified mobile apps/web tools for experimentation. CCIs requires a proper knowledge on how to use Europeana contents as well as performing tools for design thinking and creative process. Mobile devices play a key role in this as well as in contributing to the rise of the “single digital market”. e activities will be delivered through: a) a challenging web environment, based on networking, allowing experimentation and competitiveness within the creative process; b) a physical network of open living labs (CREALabs) delivering mentorship services (licensing, business models, use cases) as well as setting f2f competitions for fund rising. is will turn the most disruptive ideas into real business; c) the Europeana “Be Creative Suite”, a powerful regulatory and experimental tool to support CCIs in business strategies, assessing market value, upskilling in licensing, creating products by re-using Europeana’s contents.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[194] **viXra:1310.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 17:47:22*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Within the main goal of supporting an open access strategy in the European Research Area, the specific aim of the TO.ACTION project is to spread - among all the relevant stakeholders and agents in the knowledge circulation process -a culture of open access to scientific results generated by publicly funded research.
The project relies on a circular mechanism that allows a continuous and dynamic updating of the training actions and contents, a mechanism able to persist even after the project completion. TO.ACTION will enable easier access to the research literature and may speed up the progress of science itself. The project will do so through initiatives that will raise awareness of OA among a range of other stakeholder groups who are essentially consumers (rather than producers) of OA information. These groups would benefit from a better understanding of the potential that OA represents for their respective goals and the skills needed to access and exploit OA outputs.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[193] **viXra:1310.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 20:04:51*

**Authors:** Eduardo Calooy Roque

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

All primitive Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse less than or equal to N can be counted with the general formulas for generating sequences of Pythagorean triples ordered by $c-b$. The algorithm calculates the interval $(1,m)$ such that $c=N$ then $\nu$ from each $m$ is calculated to get the interval $(n_1,n_\nu)$ then $(m,n_\nu)=1$ is used for counting. It can be enumerated manually if $N$ is small but for large $N$ the algorithm must be implemented with any computer programming languages.

**Category:** Number Theory

[192] **viXra:1310.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-24 08:47:11*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 10 Figures, 6 Tables

Using the well documented technique of noetics, this paper details the findings for 2-body interactions. As any two bodies separate, several independent observations have confirmed the creation of subtle energy beams, vortices, Cornu spirals, null points, resonance effects, and bifurcation. Currently, the mind is far superior to machines in detecting this complex pattern which is affected dynamically during the separation process. This is a fundamental phenomenon involving universal ratios. For example, to enable 2 circular bodies to interact, their maximum separation distance is their radius raised to the power of the Golden Ratio (1.6108). Similarly, a bifurcation ratio is obtained that equals half the Feigenbaum constant of 4.669. Interesting comparisons are made between identical abstract and solid geometries of the two source objects. Also demonstrated is entanglement between two macro sized bodies. The conclusions provide evidence for consciousness and the mind’s perception being linked to chaos theory, the laws of physics and the structure of universal space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[191] **viXra:1310.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 16:31:51*

**Authors:** Vitaly Kuyukov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper analyses the quantum fluctuations of the event horizon. Based on the method of Ricci flow are given topological properties of the event horizon and displays the law of loss of mass of the black hole with the emission of Hawking.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[190] **viXra:1310.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 16:39:47*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The theory accepted today for the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field is based on convection currents created in the Earth’s outer core due to the rotational motion of the planet Earth around its own axis. In this work, we show that the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field is related to the gravitational mass of the outer core.

**Category:** Geophysics

[189] **viXra:1310.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 22:14:07*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper is in English and about predictions coming true in astronomy.

Thomas Scott Zolotor's hypothesis and theories expanded. This adds on to my predictions with more details and new data. This shows proof of the predictions coming true. This paper adds more details and proof of the fact that I predicted these events.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[188] **viXra:1310.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 13:28:13*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Application of Special Relativity’s time dilation to a perfectly symmetrical twin paradox leads to a logical inconsistency that unequivocally repudiates the theory. Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is basically the Lorentz Transfor-
mation. The reason why the theory is invalid is simply that the Lorentz Transformation is not one that is consistent with our real physical world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1310.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 10:04:23*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Our Solar System revolves around the Milky Way Galaxy once each 26,000 years, crossing the Galactic Center once each time, with a halfway point at 13,000 years. The Abhimaan interface between the C3 Thaamasic and a spectrum of Raja states, varying from C^2 to C in cyclic periods, extending over 13 billion years, forms an unusual junction or transfer point. This paper links the transfer point to the end of the Mayan Calendar and periodic cataclysms on Earth, including mass animal extinction and gamma waves. The end of the Mayan Calendar in 2011 marked the passing of our solar system past the Galactic Center, one of the transfer points. Calculations show the possibility of global disaster within the next six years.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[186] **viXra:1310.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-23 17:51:20*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 1 diagram, 2 pictures

A red star has shown to be rotating at a 45 degree angle as measured against its adopted aging stars. This falsifies the nebular hypothesis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[185] **viXra:1310.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-25 06:39:35*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The false arguments for the black hole adduced by Fromholz, Poisson, and Will are exposed in this paper. Mathematics is employed. Version [2] corrects some typographical anomalies.

In their paper titled The Schwarzschild metric: It’s the coordinates, stupid! the Authors (Fromholz, Poisson, Will, 2013) consider the so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ for “a vacuum, static spherical spacetime” and attempt to determine a general means by which equivalent solutions can be generated. They have however, failed to obtain this means, deriving instead by their methods only one already known equivalent form, which has no physical significance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[184] **viXra:1310.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 05:05:23*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the major issues that remained controversial in classical thermodynamics is resolved. The issue is: Is it possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible heat engine cycle to be equal to the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle? Taking the simplest case of a reversible cycle that involves heat interactions at three different temperatures, we demonstrate that the answer is in the affirmative. We also show that if it is possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible cycle to be lower than the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle, then it is also possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible cycle to be greater than the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle. If the later is impossible, the former, too, is impossible. The later, however, is impossible according to Carnot’s corollary. Therefore, inequality of efficiencies of the two cycles is impossible. The only option left is equality of their efficiencies.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[183] **viXra:1310.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 05:13:49*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Calculation of efficiency of reversible cycles in thermodynamics remains a controversial issue. The basic question is this: Do different reversible heat engines, operating between maximum and minimum temperatures TH and TL, respectively, have different values of efficiency? We demonstrate in this article that the answer is in the negative and that all such cycles have equal efficiencies. In other words, no two reversible cycles operating between maximum and minimum temperatures of TH and TL respectively, can have unequal efficiencies.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[182] **viXra:1310.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 15:59:46*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

By examining the theory of relativity, we postulate that every massive particle specifies a space-time body frame in a universal entity, which may be referred to as ether. As a result, the four-dimensional theory of general accelerating motion is developed. It is seen that the relative motion of particles is actually the result of relative four-dimensional rotation of their corresponding space-time body frames. Consequently, the governing geometry of relative motion is non-Euclidean.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[181] **viXra:1310.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 00:00:41*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 9 pages, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

In this exploration, we introduce and define "dynamic iso-spaces", which are cutting-edge iso-mathematical constructions that are built with "dynamic iso-topic liftings" for "dynamic iso-unit functions". For this, we consider both the continuous and discrete cases. Subsequently, we engineer two simple examples that engage Fibonacci's sequence and Mandelbrot's set to define a "Fibonacci dynamic iso-space" and a "Mandelbrot dynamic iso-space", respectively. In total, this array of resulting iso-structures indicates that a new branch of iso-mathematics may be in order.

**Category:** Topology

[180] **viXra:1310.0197 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-09 12:36:18*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In the version v3 I made some improvements.

In the papers [1, 2] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the EMT. The concept of the EMT is a new physical interpretation of GR, where the curvature of space-time has been replaced by the EMT. In this paper we consider again the concept of the EMT in the GR but in the aspect of the equation of motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[179] **viXra:1310.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 08:32:52*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Free 3D matter-particles and other debris, present in a region of space, may gather under gravitational attraction to form a galactic cloud. Development of a galactic cloud depends on its total 3D matter-content and spin-speed. Galactic cloud (or region within a galactic cloud), with low or no spin-speed, condenses to form a black-hole, under gravitational collapse. Outer regions of a galactic cloud, with higher spin speed, condense to form stable galaxy. A galaxy may remain stable only for a short while. As spin speed of galaxy increases, its 3D matter-content gradually disburses or reverts into universal medium.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[178] **viXra:1310.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 08:29:19*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Physical parameters of stable galaxies produce sufficient mutual repulsion by their halos to overcome gravitational attraction between them. However, those very large galactic clouds (or central regions of stable galaxies), which do not develop sufficient spin-speeds to develop into stable galaxies, succumb to gravitational collapse and form very large single macro bodies of very high 3D matter-density. Their huge sizes and very large 3D matter-contents give them certain logical properties, one of which is to reduce and prevent outward radiation (of light) from the zone of their existence. This phenomenon makes them invisible and hence the name, ‘Black Hole’. An alternative concept, presented in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ envisages to remove all mysteries about black holes and to explain logical sequences of their birth, life and death.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[177] **viXra:1310.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 09:31:35*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Towards the end of its stable life, a ‘black hole’ becomes quasar and pulsar. Activities of quasar or pulsar are managed by cyclic outward and inward radial motion of universal medium from or towards its central region. Relative motion of universal medium acts as inertial effort on 3D matter-particles. As and when outer envelope (mantle) of a pulsar is unable to withstand outward effort due to increase in its internal pressure and due to outward displacement of universal medium, the pulsar explodes as a super nova. Intense external pressure on 3D matter-particles causes matter-cores of their photons to merge and form very high-frequency photons.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[176] **viXra:1310.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 10:38:10*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Russian

The theoretical conclusion of law of Bio – Savara - Laplace from the first principles
of energodynamics is offered. Possibility of replacement of the vector magnetic
potential for angular speed of electric charge circulation is shown
(В статье предложен теоретический вывод закона Био–Савара–Лапласа из первых принципов энергодинамики. Попутно показана возможность замены векторного магнитного потенциала на угловую скорость циркуляции электрического заряда по замкнутому контуру, а сил Лоренца – на их момент, способный совершать работу)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[175] **viXra:1310.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-12 03:09:52*

**Authors:** Malcolm Macleod

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Outlined is a model of an expanding black-hole with a contracting white-hole twin. In dimensional terms the black-hole is expanding at the speed of light in integer Planck unit (Planck mass, Planck time, Planck length) increments transferred from the white-hole to the black-hole thereby forcing an expansion of the black-hole at the expense of the (contracting) white-hole. This outwards expansion gives a rationale for the arrow of time, the speed of light, dark energy and dark matter. Comparing related cosmic microwave background CMB parameters calculated using age in units of Planck time give a best fit for a 14.624 billion year old black-hole.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[174] **viXra:1310.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 02:56:02*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Because undervalued in classical Relativity, following Ferrarese's approach, I simply expose the necessity of dealing with this topic of surface geometry as basis for extension of Einstein's theory into Tailherer's Vortex theory of gravity by the introduction of the metric deformation speed tensor.
Keywords: 2nd fundamental tensor; Tailherer's equation; Codazzi-Mainardi relations; deformation tensor; gravitational losses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[173] **viXra:1310.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 07:48:34*

**Authors:** Gerd Pommerenke

**Comments:** 321 Pages. German version available (please send an email)

In reference to a recently formulated idea of Lanczos a special solution of the MAXWELL equations is presented, describing a metric wave field which is the reason for all relativistic effects and gravity. Gravity can be lead back to this special electromagnetic field. Interestingly enough, the properties of this field are similar to those, the recently postulated HIGGS-field should have, to avoid violations of already secured perceptions and observations. Based on this solution, an alternative vacuum propagation function for EM-waves is developed, which describes all effects like cosmologic red-shift and the unexpected results of the SN-cosmology-experiment, completely without dark matter etc. A complete section is dedicated to the results and interpretation of the SN-cosmology-experiment. The dependencies between the fundamental physical constants, which not all are real constants are enlightened. Thus, an expression for the calculation of the Hubble-parameter only from locally accessible physical constants can be worked out. Due to the alternative propagation function, there is a special investigation of the question "Is the course of the Planck's radiation-function the result of the existence of an upper cut-off frequency of the vacuum?" in the annex. No standard model, no inflation, no dark matter, exact cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[172] **viXra:1310.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 06:03:44*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Psychophysical bridging, Mind-body, Cartesian dualism, Unified field

Recalling Thomas Nagel’s discussion concerning the difficulties associated with developing a scientific
explanation for the nature of experience, Nagel states that current reductionist attempts fail by filtering out any basis
for consciousness and thus become meaningless since they are logically compatible with its absence. In this article we
call into question the fundamental philosophy of the mind-brain identity hypothesis of Cognitive Theory: ‘What
processes in the brain give rise to awareness?’ and the associated search for ‘neural correlates of consciousness’
(NCC). The proper scientific manner of posing the query should simply be ‘What processes give rise to
awareness?’. We begin to formalize the Eccles psychon and summarize one of fourteen empirical protocols to test this
putative model. This requires the new science of Unified Field, UF Mechanics, entailing in terms of our current stage
of development operationally completed forms of quantum theory, gravitation and cosmology arising from a unique
derivation of the M-Theory (string theoretic) vacuum. Until now the quest for psychophysical bridging has typically
been in the arena between brain and quantum geometry; and many have wondered if contemporary science is
sufficient for the task. Nagel further asks ‘what would be left if one removed the viewpoint of the subjective observer’
and then suggests ‘that the remaining properties would be the physical processes themselves or states intrinsic to the
experience of awareness’. We examine a new theoretical framework for introducing the underlying physical
cosmology of these noetic parameters.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[171] **viXra:1310.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 15:35:13*

**Authors:** Robert S. Chambers

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The purpose of this project is to test the proposed circuitry and materials required in order to attempt to measure the thermal properties of the fluid (either atmosphere or ocean) expected to be found on the surface of Titan, a satellite of Saturn. The proposed experiment forms part of the contribution of the University of Kent at Canterbury Unit for Space Sciences to the Surface Science Package of the Huygens Probe, part of the joint ESA/NASA Cassini Mission to the Saturn system launched in 1996. The experiment uses the “transient hot wire” method to obtain an accurate measure of both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a surrounding fluid. The advantage of this method is that it
requires only a measurement of variation of resistance in a wire over a short period. This method is widely used in laboratory research, but has never before been attempted on such a small scale and at so great a distance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[170] **viXra:1310.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 14:52:42*

**Authors:** Krivosheyev O. V., Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Hierarchic fractal structure of the Universe enabling to redefine its observed characteristics is considered. According to the hypothesis the Universe consists of an infinite number of spatial and hierarchic fractal levels of matter that are nested within each other (fractals mean self-similar events, processes and spatial forms) and represented as moving spaces, presumably of a spherical shape. Distinguished in ascending order are the following basic fractals of the Universe that are conventionally connected with the kinds of matter interaction: nuclear, atomic, electromagnetic and gravitational. It can also be assumed that there exist fractals which are older than the gravitational ones. Each fractal is characterized by finite geometrical dimensions and finite value of its own energy, consequently, by the finite value of the spatial density of energy. Whenever the lower hierarchic level fractals (nuclear) transit to the higher levels (gravitational), the space and spatial density of energy inflate, and their information variety increases (as a sum of informational variety of spatial and energy forms and their levels). At transit from the lower level fractals to the higher level fractals the energy density inflates which leads to that (i) each fractal type is characterized by the finite maximum transfer velocity of internal physical interaction, and (ii) this velocity increases. It means that the maximum transit physical interaction velocity within the gravitational fractal exceeds the velocity of light which is the maximum for the electromagnetic fractal while the maximum transit physical interaction velocity of the atomic fractal is lower than the velocity of light (it is reduced by the fine structure constant). The fractal structure of the Universe hypothesis makes it possible for the authors to put forward several other assumptions: dark energy does not exist and the apparent effect of its presence in the electromagnetic fractal as well as appearance of asymmetry between the matter and antimatter are explained by its finite geometrical dimensions, spherical shape and rotational motion of this sphere around at least one of the axes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[169] **viXra:1310.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 09:21:15*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In the geophysical/astrophysical sciences it is not explained appropriately why silicon combines with oxygen before the formation of quartz crystals can take place. Explanation is provided as it is ionization caused by pressure, heat and friction, not mathematical fantasy.

**Category:** Geophysics

[168] **viXra:1310.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 12:06:10*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Marisol García-Peña, Wojtek Janusz Krzanowski, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper proposes five new imputation methods for unbalanced experiments with genotype by-environment interaction (). The methods use cross-validation by eigenvector, based on an iterative scheme with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix. To test the methods, we performed a simulation study using three complete matrices of real data, obtained from interaction trials of peas, cotton, and beans, and introducing lack of balance by randomly deleting in turn 10%, 20%, and 40% of the values in each matrix. The quality of the imputations was evaluated with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI), using the root mean squared predictive difference (RMSPD) between the genotypes and environmental parameters of the original data set and the set completed by imputation. The proposed methodology does not make any distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restrictions regarding the pattern or mechanism of missing values.

**Category:** Statistics

[167] **viXra:1310.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-21 08:45:07*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 377 Pages.

Describes status as of October 2013 of a physics model based on E8 constructed from the Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) Clifford algebra, including Calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Kobayahi- Maskawa Parameters, and the ratio Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter. V2 adds reference to viXra number. V3 and V4 add material, including about Schwinger Sources.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[166] **viXra:1310.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 08:18:05*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Maxwell’s Demon is believed to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Maxwell, who conceived of this being in 1867, did not believe that it violated the second law, but rather that it only highlighted the statistical validity of the law - with less than 100 percent certainty for its results - in contrast to the general view that thermodynamics gave results with 100 percent certainty. From then on, many other forms of challenges appeared. Some try to exorcise the demon by proposing new theories to prove that the second law is not violated by the demon, while others argue that the demon violated the second law. The debate has been continuing for the past nearly 150 years.
We show in this article that Maxwell’s Demon does not violate the second law but violates the first law. This we show by demonstrating that the Maxwell’s Demon Process (MDP) can be incorporated as a step into a reversible cycle. Through this cycle, the system subjected to MDP can be restored to its original state without leaving any changes in the surroundings. Therefore, the cycle must be reversible. If such a reversible cycle involving MDP as one of its steps were to be impossible, then it must violate the first law. Violation of the first law by this reversible cycle can arise only if MDP violated the first law, as no other process in the cycle violates either the first law or the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[165] **viXra:1310.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 09:07:05*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Includes charts and illustrations

Just as the Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Am Duat symbolize the substratum in the culture of Remotely Ancient Egypt (c. 14,000 BC), the concept of Buddhist Hell represents a devolution of Vedic Science. Indeed, Buddhism was formed because humanity had forgotten the lessons of the true spiritual science of the Vedas, Buddhism was an attempt to recover and reform the ancient science, albeit in a form more adapted to its time period. In this sense Buddhism is merely a derivative belief system of the Vedas, intended to compensate for the continued downfall of humanity. Buddhist descriptions of Hell may provide heuristic hints as to the state and condition of the Substratum. For example, the periods of time souls are to spend in each Hell actually provide exponents for periods of radioactive decay of matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[164] **viXra:1310.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 15:20:42*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In russian

The application of energodynamiks to the description of circulation processes
is given. The criteria, capable to reflect self-organising of such systems and their
development, passing equilibrium, are offered.
(Дано приложение энергодинамики к описанию эволюции систем в процессах кругооборота вещества и энергии в них. Предложены критерии, способные отразить самоорганизацию таких систем и их развитие, минуя равновесие).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[163] **viXra:1310.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 23:56:51*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

talk about the twin prime conjecture in a new
perspective.

**Category:** Number Theory

[162] **viXra:1310.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 09:58:38*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This is Not a full paper but merely an idea that I wish to be document in the viXra repository

The following document outlines the concept of translating problems involving infinitely nested recursive arithmetic expression using a simple formal language.

**Category:** Number Theory

[161] **viXra:1310.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 10:06:59*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The goal of the following document is to highlight an idea for generating new infinite series besides the ones that the standard mauclarin approach produce:

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[160] **viXra:1310.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 11:01:03*

**Authors:** Vitaly Kuyukov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper describes a quantum fluctuations of the event horizon of a black hole. Calculated the
relationship between the entropy of the black hole and the area of the horizon. The main conclusion in
this work: the event horizon of a black hole is not just a geometric object, but and is a quantum system

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] **viXra:1310.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 07:32:12*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** Pages.

the results of high-precision theoretical calculations performed within the framework of the PI-Theory of the fundamental physical constants) cosmological parameters - current values of the scalar spectral index and the age of the Universe, the absolute values of the minimum and the current values of the acceleration of the Universe expansion. On the basis of the presented results of comparison of theoretical calculations with the data of the projects “WMAP” and “Planck” the assumption that the data “WMAP-only (Seven year)” (in the part of determining the current values of the scalar spectral index and the age of the Universe) rather than the results of the “Planck+lensing (Best fit)”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[158] **viXra:1310.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 00:25:07*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This is an attempted proof of the twin prime conjecture. And though failed it offers good insight into a new method for attacking the proof by using asymptotically equivalent functions to the twin prime counting function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[157] **viXra:1310.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-12 17:51:10*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

It has long been expected in physics that there should be causality from the strong nuclear force to nuclear structures, but the mechanisms have been unknown. The present work addresses this problem, by developing a theory based on a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design, that explains the nuclides from the synchronous interaction (strong force) upwards. The basis of the Cordus nuclear theory is that the nucleus consists of a nuclear polymer bonded by the synchronous interaction (strong force). Three-nucleon physics are accommodated, in the form of bridge neutrons across the nuclear polymer. The requirements for nuclide stability are identified as the need to have a nuclear polymer that consists entirely of cis-phasic synchronous bonds, and also a spatially viable layout. Only certain identified layouts are viable. The Cordus nuclear theory successfully explains, for all nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon, why any nuclide is stable, unstable, non-viable or non-existent. It explains why some elements have multiple nuclides, and others only one. The theory also explains the deviations from the p=n line, why 1H0 and 2He1 are stable with low neutron counts, why 4Be4 and 9F9 are unstable, and why heavier elements require more neutrons than protons for stability. It explains relative stability (lateral trends with one nuclide series), including the anomalous progressions (i.e. those situations where one nuclide is unexpectedly much more or less stable than its neighbouring nuclides). The theory also explains why the limits of stability are where they are. It explains the patterns of stability in the table of nuclides, such as the runs of stable isotopes and stable isotones. Thus the nuclide landscape may be explained by morphological considerations based on a NLHV design.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[156] **viXra:1310.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-19 06:49:12*

**Authors:** Haji Talib Haydarli

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In math there are some classic problems of number theory which have not been solved yet. Two of these problems are as below:
1. «Pair of twin primes» (where difference is equal to 2 such as pairs of twin prime numbers (3;5); (5;7); (11;13); …) are infinite.
2. «It is possible to show any even number, starting from 4, as a sum of two prime numbers »
2nd problem is known as «Goldbach-Euler problem».
In order to solve these problems we have compiled a table determining if the numbers like 6m-1 and 6m+1 are prime or composite. We have solved these problems as below by using some facts and conclusions besides compilede table.

**Category:** Number Theory

[155] **viXra:1310.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-23 20:58:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Shortened and revised for entry into the 2014 contest at www.fqxi.org

The world is at a crossroad today. There is so much we have no understanding of – dark energy, the hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe, is perhaps the best known example. If humanity is going to steer the future, we need to remove ourselves from the darkness we’re immersed in and discover the light. I believe this light will reveal what dark energy is, where it comes from, and how it originated. Further, the light could give us a new perspective on where WE came from, how the human race was born, and the role of present humankind in the grand scheme of not only our own, but the universe’s, origin and destiny.
The basic outline for a different perspective on the Theory of Evolution has been described in this article. When contemplating the theory of evolution, people assume evolution belongs exclusively to the biological sciences. I maintain complete comprehension also requires physics.
Without a conviction that time travel is possible, I’d have to totally agree with the evolutionary concepts Darwin proposed. But since I have no doubt that time doesn’t exclusively operate in a straight line (my reasons are explained below), I can propose a different origin of species – though all the species subsequently undergo adaptations throughout the centuries. In 1870, Wallace (one of Darwin’s major “disciples” and the man who is often reported to have independently reached the same conclusions about evolution that Darwin did) suddenly converted to spiritualism. “Darwin’s Armada” (26) states –
“Wallace surmised … that man must have been programmed for civilisation by some higher intelligence.” (27)
Assuming Wallace’s “higher intelligence” happens because, as this article puts it near the end, “eternal God and humanity of the far future are not separate in any sense but are the same thing”, I wonder what Wallace (as well as Darwin and his other disciples) would think of this article if they were on Earth today. This article consists of 3 parts - NON-DARWINIAN ORIGINS OUTLINED, CONVERTING FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION INTO COSMOLOGY AND SCIENCE, and SPECULATIONS CONCERNING FUTURE HUMAN EVOLUTION (the speculation is backed up with science and references).

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[154] **viXra:1310.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-19 01:28:48*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Hypothesis by Thomas Scott Zolotor about our universe. I added more predictions and screenshots proof that I made these predictions before they happened.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[153] **viXra:1310.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-19 02:37:10*

**Authors:** Thomas Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Thomas Zolotor wrote on his blog:
An energy source will be detected in or around a galaxy that never been detected before.
Thomas Scott Zolotor predicts an energy source around galaxies that came true.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[152] **viXra:1310.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-18 08:37:57*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In stellar metamorphosis all stars go though a stage in which the star is completely covered in water. The evidence for ancient coral reefs which existed on early Earth can be found as limestone formations. Thus a limestone formation, also known as calcium carbonate formation, is directly where an ancient coral reef was located. Diagram of this process is provided, and as well as the actual life-path of stars as opposed to establishment fusion scientism.

**Category:** Geophysics

[151] **viXra:1310.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-23 15:21:05*

**Authors:** Patrick D. Shaw Stewart

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[150] **viXra:1310.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-17 04:11:02*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A soliton solution of the Klein-Gordon equation, ke^{-|m⋅r|} , consistent with the mass-generalized Maxwell's equations and the preon foundation for the fermions is presented, proved and discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[149] **viXra:1310.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 19:41:09*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This paper discusses a number of answers to the question posed in researchgate.net: http://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_there_alternatives_to_dopamine_hypothesis_in_order_to_explain_schizophrenia?. Hopefully the readers will find some clues for further investigation.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[148] **viXra:1310.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-17 01:29:00*

**Authors:** Bassera Hamid

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this work I deduced Hubble law as consequence of universe considered as black hole. Also I give here another way letting you to ditch the so alleged black hole being a singularity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1310.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-17 02:24:09*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The material world objects are infinitely divisible. The material world structure consists of an infinite set of matter organization levels. Primary objects of all levels are similar to each other in their properties but significantly differ in size. Various matter organization levels are built according to the same pattern but microworld and macroworld.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[146] **viXra:1310.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 13:40:05*

**Authors:** Mickey R. Green

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In physics it's not physical behavior that needs to be unified. It already is unified; it's science that is not. The elementary components of this problem are understood, but science is unable to see how they work in aggregate, because when amassed, they render a mechanism of wonderful, but elusive, simplicity. Although my model may be less than perfect, it still successfully unmasks this unified picture by assembling these physical puzzle pieces into a comprehensive viewable, and unified whole.
To complete this most gratifying portrayal, one must consider, at least temporarily, two notions: 1) particles get smaller forever, and 2) they get larger forever. These two notions steer us to the trail-head, and if you accept them as guides, and remain loyal to reason and logic, you can follow them to a satisfying end.
What are the implications of these two ideas? The first and most significant is that they show us that atoms are not and cannot be mostly empty space, demonstrating instead that they are completely full of an infinite range of smaller particles that are yet to be detected. This concept points us to several more impressions and ideas as well.
The first of those might be how the inside of an atom would look if one could see particles that small. One would see the same thing that science has detected far out in the Cosmos and has known of for some time: a hidden mass, better known as dark matter. Though seemingly empty, atoms are completely full of this matter, hinting at how physics is irrevocably tied to itself on any level that one wishes to view it. This and several other concepts are fully explained within the paper.
I have expanded forever outward and inward the same fundamental phenomena that occur here on earth every moment of every day, showing that there is no mystery, no magic, no need to go beyond a good and proper scientific investigation to confirm that these things are related. An infinite range of particle sizes is key, but I explain other important pieces of the puzzle as well, and when properly assembled, they render a simple but agreeably complete picture that is wholly contained by one unifying principle.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[145] **viXra:1310.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:14:52*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L3-L4.

Helioseismological studies have the ability to yield tremendous insight with respect to the internal structure and shape of the solar body. Such observations indicate that while the convection zone displays differential rotation, the core rotates as a rigid body. The latter is located below the tachocline layer, where powerful shear stresses are believed to occur. Beyond simple oblateness, seismological studies indicate that the Sun displays significant higher order shape terms (quadrupole, hexadecapole) which may, or may not, vary with the solar cycle. In this work, such seismological findings are briefly discussed with the intent of highlighting that 1) the differential rotation of the convection zone, 2) the rigid body rotation of the core, 3) the presence of the tachocline layer and 4) the appearance of higher order shape terms, all lend support to the idea that the solar body is composed of material in the condensed state. In this regard, the existence of the tachocline layer in the solar interior and the solid body rotation of the core constitute the nineteenth and twentieth lines of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[144] **viXra:1310.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:18:05*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L5-L6.

In modern solar theory, the photospheric surface merely acts as an optical illusion. Gases cannot support the existence of such a boundary. Conversely, the liquid metallic hydrogen model supports the idea that the Sun has a distinct surface. Observational astronomy continues to report increasingly precise measures of solar radius and diameter. Even the smallest temporal variations in these parameters would have profound implications relative to modeling the Sun and understanding climate fluctuations on Earth. A review of the literature convincingly demonstrates that the solar body does indeed possess a measurable radius which provides, along with previous discussions (Robitaille P.M. On the Presence of a Distinct Solar Surface: A Reply to Herv´e Faye. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 75–78.), the twenty-first line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed-matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[143] **viXra:1310.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:21:27*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L7-L9.

While mankind will always remain unable to sample the interior of the Sun, the presence of sunspots and coronal holes can provide clues as to its subsurface structure. Insight relative to the solar body can also be gained by recognizing that the Sun must exist in the condensed state and support a discrete lattice structure, as required for the production of its continuous spectrum. In this regard, the layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice advanced as a condensed model of the Sun (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74; Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47; Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, in press) provides the ability to add structure to the solar interior. This constitutes a significant advantage over the gaseous solar models. In fact, a layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice and the associated intercalation of non-hydrogen elements can help to account for the position of sunspots and coronal holes. At the same time, this model provides a greater understanding of the mechanisms which drive solar winds and activity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[142] **viXra:1310.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:24:11*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L10-L11.

Coronal rain represents blobs of solar material with a width of ~300 km and a length of ~700 km which are falling from the active region of the corona towards the solar surface along loop-like paths. Conversely, coronal showers are comprised of much larger bulks of matter, or clumps of solar rain. Beyond coronal rain and showers, the expulsion of solar matter from the surface, whether through flares, prominences, or coronal mass ejections, can result in massive disruptions which have been observed to rise far into the corona, return towards the Sun, and splashdown onto the photosphere. The existence of coronal rain and the splashdown of mass ejections onto the solar surface constitute the twenty-third and twenty-fourth lines of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[141] **viXra:1310.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:29:14*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L12-L13.

The apparent depletion of lithium represents one of the greatest challenges to modern gaseous solar models. As a result, lithium has been hypothesized to undergo nuclear burning deep within the Sun. Conversely, extremely low lithium abundances can be easily accounted for within the liquid metallic hydrogen model, as lithium has been hypothesized to greatly stabilize the formation of metallic hydrogen (E. Zurek et al. A little bit of lithium does a lot for hydrogen. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2009, v. 106, no. 42, 17640–17643). Hence, the abundances of lithium on the solar surface can be explained, not by requiring the nuclear burning of this element, but rather, by suggesting that the Sun is retaining lithium within the solar body in order to help stabilize its liquid metallic hydrogen lattice. Unlike lithium, many of the other elements synthesized within the Sun should experience powerful lattice exclusionary forces as they are driven out of the intercalate regions between the layered liquid metallic hydrogen hexagonal planes (Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, in press). As for lithium, its stabilizing role within the solar interior helps to account for the lack of this element on the surface of the Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[140] **viXra:1310.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:34:12*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L2-L4.

The chromosphere and corona of the Sun represent tenuous regions which are characterized by numerous optically thin emission lines in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. When observed from the center of the solar disk outward, these emission lines experience modest brightening as the limb is approached. The intensity of many ultraviolet and X-ray emission lines nearly doubles when observation is extended just beyond the edge of the disk. These findings indicate that the solar body is opaque in this frequency range and that an approximately two fold greater region of the solar atmosphere is being sampled outside the limb. These observations provide strong support for the presence of a distinct solar surface. Therefore, the behavior of the emission lines in this frequency range constitutes the twenty fifth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[139] **viXra:1310.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:38:10*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L5-L7.

The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13.) and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99) have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[138] **viXra:1310.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:41:57*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L8-L10.

The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV) is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[137] **viXra:1310.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:45:20*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L11-L14.

The solar corona and chromosphere are often marked by eruptive features, such as flares, prominences, loops, and coronal mass ejections, which rise above the photospheric surface. Coronal streamers and plumes can also characterize the outer atmosphere of the Sun. All of these structures, fascinating in their extent and formation, frequently emit continuous spectra and can usually be observed using white-light coronagraphs. This implies, at least in part, that they are comprised of condensed matter. The continuous spectra associated with chromospheric and coronal structures can be viewed as representing the twenty-eighth line of evidence, and the eighth Planckian proof, that the Sun is condensed matter. The existence of such objects also suggests that the density of the solar atmosphere rises to levels well in excess of current estimates put forth by the gaseous models of the Sun. In this work, the densities of planetary atmospheres are examined in order to gain insight relative to the likely densities of the solar chromosphere. Elevated densities in the solar atmosphere are also supported by coronal seismology studies, which can be viewed as constituting the twenty-ninth line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[136] **viXra:1310.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:49:50*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 7 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L15-L21.

The chromosphere is the site of weak emission lines characterizing the flash spectrum observed for a few seconds during a total eclipse. This layer of the solar atmosphere is known to possess an opaque Hα emission and a great number of spicules, which can extend well above the photosphere. A stunning variety of hydrogen emission lines have been observed in this region. The production of these lines has provided the seventeenth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A critical assessment of current and primordial helium levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47). Contrary to the gaseous solar models, the simplest mechanism for the production of emission lines is the evaporation of excited atoms from condensed surfaces existing within the chromosphere, as found in spicule. This is reminiscent of the chemiluminescence which occurs during the condensation of silver clusters (Konig L., Rabin I., Schultze W., and Ertl G. Chemiluminescence in the Agglomeration of Metal Clusters. Science, v. 274, no. 5291, 1353–1355). The process associated with spicule formation is an exothermic one, requiring the transport of energy away from the site of condensation. As atoms leave localized surfaces, their electrons can occupy any energy level and, hence, a wide variety of emission lines are produced. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the presence of hydrides on the Sun can also facilitate hydrogen condensation in the chromosphere. The associated line emission from main group and transition elements constitutes the thirtieth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter. Condensation processes also help to explain why spicules manifest an apparently constant temperature over their entire length. Since the corona supports magnetic field lines, the random orientations associated with spicule formation suggests that the hydrogen condensates in the chromosphere are not metallic in nature. Spicules provide a means, not to heat the corona, but rather, for condensed hydrogen to rejoin the photospheric layer of the Sun. Spicular velocities of formation are known to be essentially independent of gravitational effects and highly supportive of the hypothesis that true condensation processes are being observed. The presence of spicules brings into question established chromospheric densities and provides additional support for condensation processes in the chromosphere, the seventh line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[135] **viXra:1310.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:53:32*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L22-L25.

The E-corona is the site of numerous emission lines associated with high ionization states (i.e. FeXIV-FeXXV).Modern gaseous models of the Sun require that these states are produced by atomic irradiation, requiring the sequential removal of electrons to infinity, without an associated electron acceptor. This can lead to computed temperatures in the corona which are unrealistic (i.e. ~30–100 MK contrasted to solar core values of ~16 MK). In order to understand the emission lines of the E-corona, it is vital to recognize that they are superimposed upon the K-corona, which produces a continuous spectrum, devoid of Fraunhofer lines, arising from this same region of the Sun. It has been advanced that the K-corona harbors self-luminous condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L8–L10; Robitaille P.M. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere III. Importance of Continuous Emission Spectra from Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, Prominences, and Other Coronal Structures. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L11–L14). Condensed matter can possess elevated electron affinities which may strip nearby atoms of their electrons. Such a scenario accounts for the high ionization states observed in the corona: condensed matter acts to harness electrons, ensuring the electrical neutrality of the Sun, despite the flow of electrons and ions in the solar winds. Elevated ionization states reflect the presence of materials with high electron affinities in the corona, which is likely to be a form of metallic hydrogen, and does not translate into elevated temperatures in this region of the solar atmosphere. As a result, the many mechanisms advanced to account for coronal heating in the gaseous models of the Sun are superfluous, given that electron affinity, not temperature, governs the resulting spectra. In this regard, the presence of highly ionized species in the corona constitutes the thirty-first line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[134] **viXra:1310.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 10:01:10*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L26-L29.

Molecular hydrogen and hydrides have recently been advanced as vital agents in the generation of emission spectra in the chromosphere. This is a result of the role they play in the formation of condensed hydrogen structures (CHS) within the chromosphere (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, 15–21). Next to hydrogen, helium is perhaps the most intriguing component in this region of the Sun. Much like other elements, which combine with hydrogen to produce hydrides, helium can form the well-known helium hydride molecular ion, HeH+, and the excited neutral helium hydride molecule, HeH*. While HeH+ is hypothesized to be a key cosmological molecule, it's possible presence in the Sun, and that of its excited neutral counterpart, has not been considered. Still, these hydrides are likely to play a role in the synthesis of CHS, as the He I and He II emission lines strongly suggest. In this regard, the study of helium emission spectra can provide insight into the condensed nature of the Sun, especially when considering the 10830 Å line associated with the 2^{3}P-2^{3}S triplet state transition. This line is strong in solar prominences and can be seen clearly on the disk. The excessive population of helium triplet states cannot be adequately explained using the gaseous models, since these states should be depopulated by collisional processes. Conversely, when He-based molecules are used to build CHS in a liquid metallic hydrogen model, an ever increasing population of the 2^{3}S and 2^{3}P states might be expected. The overpopulation of these triplet states leads to the conclusion that these emission lines are unlikely to be produced through random collisional or photon excitation, as required by the gaseous models. This provides a significant hurdle for these models. Thus, the strong 2^{3}P-2^{3}S lines and the overpopulation of the helium triplet states provides the thirty-second line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[133] **viXra:1310.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 10:07:17*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 7 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L30-L36.

In the liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, the chromosphere is responsible for the capture of atomic hydrogen in the solar atmosphere and its eventual re-entry onto the photospheric surface (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15–L21). As for the corona, it represents a diffuse region containing both gaseous plasma and condensed matter with elevated electron affinity (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere V. On the Nature of the Corona. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L22–L25). Metallic hydrogen in the corona is thought to enable the continual harvest of electrons from the outer reaches of the Sun, thereby preserving the neutrality of the solar body. The rigid rotation of the corona is offered as the thirty-third line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Within the context of the gaseous models of the Sun, a 100 km thick transition zone has been hypothesized to exist wherein temperatures increase dramatically from 104–106 K. Such extreme transitional temperatures are not reasonable given the trivial physical scale of the proposed transition zone, a region adopted to account for the ultra-violet emission lines of ions such as CIV, OIV, and Si IV. In this work, it will be argued that the transition zone does not exist. Rather, the intermediate ionization states observed in the solar atmosphere should be viewed as the result of the simultaneous transfer of protons and electrons onto condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Line emissions from ions such as CIV, OIV, and Si IV are likely to be the result of condensation reactions, manifesting the involvement of species such as CH _{4}, SiH_{4}, H_{3}O^{+} in the synthesis of CHS in the chromosphere. In addition, given the presence of a true solar surface at the level of the photosphere in the liquid metallic hydrogen model, it follows that the great physical extent of the chromosphere is supported by gas pressure, much like the atmosphere of the Earth. This constitutes the thirty-fourth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[132] **viXra:1310.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 11:16:19*

**Authors:** Marcos Georgallides

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Lagrange equation of motion for a single point ( Primary Point A is the only Space ) , states that this point must move from the Initial Position A to another position say B . This Equilibrium for points A and B , presupposes in Mechanics the Principle of Virtual Displacements and the work done is W = ∫ P.ds = 0 , or when ds = distance AB then →
[ ds .( PA + P B ) = 0 ] ...(1).. From Equation (1) are self created all the Spaces [S] the equilibrium Anti-Spaces [AS] and the Sub-Spaces [SS] with infinite points in them and with a finite work on it . Monad dš (dipole AB) is a complex number of type [ dš = z = x+i.y ] ..(1a) representing the real part (x) , the distance AB , and imaginary parts (i.y) which is the work of …(1) . Complex number , z , the first dimentional unit AB , is such that either repeated by itself as monad ( z• = z.z.z.z. w-times ) or repeated times itself in monad ( ⁿ√z = z /ⁿ = z• , z/ⁿ.z/ⁿ.z/ⁿ….w = 1/n-times , or the nth roots of z equal to w = 1/n ) remains unaltered forming Spaces ( z•) , Anti-spaces( - z•) and the inversing Sub-spaces (ⁿ•z) , meaning that , unit circle is mapped on itself simultaneously on the two bases , 1 and n=1/w , where w.n = 1. This duality of coexistance on AB [ the w.th power and the n.th root of z where w.n =1 ] presupposes a common base ,m, which creates this unit polynomial exponentiation . Analysing this exponentiation according to one of the four basic properties of logs then becomes →
log.w(1= w.n) = log.w(w)+log.w(n=1/w) = 1+1/w = 1+ n
and it is the base of natural logarithms e and since 1= w.n
then → ( 1+ n )• = (1+1/w)• = constant = m = e ← ....(2) Since the first dimentional unit AB is a complex number with many imaginary parts (and this because of the infinite variables) then this unit has the general type of quaternion .i.e.
m^±(ª+₫.i) = q• = (Tq)•.[cos.wφ + ε.sin.wφ] ……where
m = lim(1+1/w)• for w = 1→ ∞ , q = z = ± ( x+y.i )
sinφ = y/•x²+y² , cosφ = x/•x²+y² , |z| = •x²+y²,
Tq = • x²+y1²+y2²+ ….yn² , Ty = • y1²+y2²+ ….yn²
ε = (y.i/Ty)=[y.i ] / [Ty]=(y1.a1+y2.a2+.)/(• y1²+y2²+yn²)
[PNS] ↔ quaternion ↔ [ dŝ = x+i.y ] is a Vector with two components , the one x is the only Space with Scalar Potential field Φo , which is only half lengths of Space , Anti-Space , ( the longitudinal position ) , (x) → (-x) straight line connecting Space [S] , Anti-Space [AS] in [PNS] and in it exist , the initial Work , or Impulse , bounded on points which cannot be created or destroyed which is analogous to the (x) magnitude , and the other one y is the infinite local curl fields So , due to the Spin which is the intrinsic rotation of the Space and Anti-Space . Because in [S] and [AS] forces PA - PB are acting in the same straight line so moment lever is zero ( 0 ) , therefore Primary [S] and [AS] are ir-rotational and so it is possible to express this Primary field as a scalar function (Φo). This shows that [PNS] is a Space Work or Space- Spin or < Space Energy Existence > , where Time is not existing , because Φo and So are not time-varying . The same is holding also for the infinite dipole AiBi which are also complex numbers with all their properties , that of quaternions .
Because quaternion properties are wrapped in lower and higher dimensions only by rotation , this is the property of spaces , so all dipole AnBn may have commons , which may bleed off in any Space , a very useful device for Quantum-mechanics . Geometrically states that , this property of commons allows to the dipole AnBn or to Spaces ↔ [ dŝ = xn+i.yn ] , to be also a Space -Time existence wrapped in the , Space-Energy Existence because of ,
Operation ↔ Quaternion → Notation m^±(ª+₫.i) = q• → = (Tq)•. [cos.wφ + ε.sin.wφ]
Scatters , Part or all Content of the quaternion q , in all Spaces and Sub-Spaces as q•
[ i.e. The duality of coexistence ↔ of the content of dŝ , from w.th power to the n.th root of q , where w.n =1 , is the measuring of , drag areas and other trapped accumulator , and by rotation to convert them in Spaces ]. An extend analysis of this unification follows in [23]

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[131] **viXra:1310.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 07:30:11*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 23 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 3-25.

History has the power to expose the origin and evolution of scientific ideas. How did humanity come to visualize the Sun as a gaseous plasma? Why is its interior thought to contain blackbody radiation? Who were the first people to postulate that the density of the solar body varied greatly with depth? When did mankind first conceive that the solar surface was merely an illusion? What were the foundations of such thoughts? In this regard, a detailed review of the Sun’s thermodynamic history provides both a necessary exposition of the circumstance which accompanied the acceptance of the gaseous models and a sound basis for discussing modern solar theories. It also becomes an invitation to reconsider the phase of the photosphere. As such, in this work, the contributions of Pierre Simon Laplace, Alexander Wilson, William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, Herbert Spencer, Richard Christopher Carrington, John Frederick William Herschel, Father Pietro Angelo Secchi, Hervé August Etienne Albans Faye, Edward Frankland, Joseph Norman Lockyer, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, Benjamin Loewy, and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, relative to the evolution of modern stellar models, will be discussed. Six great pillars created a gaseous Sun: 1) Laplace’s Nebular Hypothesis, 2) Helmholtz’ contraction theory of energy production, 3) Andrew’s elucidation of critical temperatures, 4) Kirchhoff’s formulation of his law of thermal emission, 5) Plücker and Hittorf’s discovery of pressure broadening in gases, and 6) the evolution of the stellar equations of state. As these are reviewed, this work will venture to highlight not only the genesis of these revolutionary ideas, but also the forces which drove great men to advance a gaseous Sun.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[130] **viXra:1310.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 07:36:54*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 19 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 41-59

In this work, the development of solar theory is followed from the concept that the Sun was an ethereal nuclear body with a partially condensed photosphere to the creation of a fully gaseous object. An overview will be presented of the liquid Sun. A powerful lineage has brought us the gaseous Sun and two of its main authors were the direct scientific descendants of Gustav Robert Kirchhoff: Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster and Arthur Stanley Eddington. It will be discovered that the seminal ideas of Father Secchi and Hervé Faye were not abandoned by astronomy until the beginning of 20th century. The central role of carbon in early solar physics will also be highlighted by revisiting George Johnstone Stoney. The evolution of the gaseous models will be outlined, along with the contributions of Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner, James Clerk Maxwell, Jonathan Homer Lane, August Ritter, William Thomson, William Huggins, William Edward Wilson, George Francis FitzGerald, Jacob Robert Emden, Frank Washington Very, Karl Schwarzschild, and Edward Arthur Milne. Finally, with the aid of Edward Arthur Milne, the work of James Hopwood Jeans, the last modern advocate of a liquid Sun, will be rediscovered. Jeans was a staunch advocate of the condensed phase, but deprived of a proper building block, he would eventually abandon his non-gaseous stars. For his part, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar would spend nine years of his life studying homogeneous liquid masses. These were precisely the kind of objects which Jeans had considered for his liquid stars.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[129] **viXra:1310.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 07:41:29*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 15 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 60-74.

Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for formation. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H. B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydrogen. J. Chem. Phys., 1935, v.3, 764–770). At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this structural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[128] **viXra:1310.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 07:47:47*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 75-78.

In this exposition, the existence of the solar surface will be briefly explored. Within the context of modern solar theory, the Sun cannot have a distinct surface. Gases are incapable of supporting such structures. The loss of a defined solar surface occurred in 1865 and can be directly attributed to Herv´e Faye (Faye H. Sur la constitution physique du soleil. Les Mondes, 1865, v.7, 293–306). Modern theory has echoed Faye affirming the absence of this vital structural element. Conversely, experimental evidence firmly supports that the Sun does indeed possess a surface. For nearly 150 years, astronomy has chosen to disregard direct observational evidence in favor of theoretical models.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[127] **viXra:1310.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 07:56:28*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 10 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 79-88.

Father Angelo Secchi used the existence of solar granulation as a central line of reasoning when he advanced that the Sun was a gaseous body with a photosphere containing incandescent particulate matter (Secchi A. Sulla Struttura della Fotosfera Solare. Bullettino Meteorologico dell’Osservatorio del Collegio Romano, 30 November 1864, v.3(11), 1–3). Secchi saw the granules as condensed matter emitting the photospheric spectrum, while the darkened intergranular lanes conveyed the presence of a gaseous solar interior. Secchi also considered the nature of sunspots and limb darkening. In the context of modern solar models, opacity arguments currently account for the emissive properties of the photosphere. Optical depth is thought to explain limb darkening. Both temperature variations and magnetic fields are invoked to justify the weakened emissivities of sunspots, even though the presence of static magnetic fields in materials is not usually associated with modified emissivity. Conversely, within the context of a liquid metallic hydrogen solar model, the appearance of granules, limb darkening, and sunspots can be elegantly understood through the varying directional emissivity of condensed matter. A single explanation is applicable to all three phenomena. Granular contrast can be directly associated with the generation of limb darkening. Depending on size, granules can be analyzed by considering Kolmogoroff’s formulations and Bénard convection, respectively, both of which were observed using incompressible liquids, not gases. Granules follow the 2-dimensional space filling laws of Aboav-Weiner and Lewis. Their adherence to these structural laws provides supportive evidence that the granular surface of the Sun represents elements which can only be constructed from condensed matter. A gaseous Sun cannot be confined to a 2-dimensional framework. Mesogranules, supergranules, and giant cells constitute additional entities which further support the idea of a condensed Sun. With respect to sunspots, the decrease in emissivity with increasing magnetic field strength lends powerful observational support to the idea that these structures are comprised of liquid metallic hydrogen. In this model, the inter-atomic lattice dimensions within sunspots are reduced. This increases the density and metallic character relative to photospheric material, while at the same time decreasing emissivity. Metals are well known to have lowered directional emissivities with respect to non-metals. Greater metallicity produces lower emissivity. The idea that density is increased within sunspots is supported by helioseismology. Thus, a liquid metallic hydrogen model brings with it many advantages in understanding both the emissivity of the solar surface and its vast array of structures. These realities reveal that Father Secchi, like Herbert Spencer and Gustav Kirchhoff, was correct in his insistence that condensed matter is present on the photosphere. Secchi and his contemporaries were well aware that gases are unable to impart the observed structure.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[126] **viXra:1310.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 08:02:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 89-92.

In this note, energy partition within the Sun is briefly addressed. It is argued that the laws of thermal emission cannot be directly applied to the Sun, as the continuous solar spectrum (Tapp ~6,000 K) reveals but a small fraction of the true solar energy profile. Without considering the energy linked to fusion itself, it is hypothesized that most of the photospheric energy remains trapped in the Sun’s translational degrees of freedom and associated convection currents. The Sun is known to support both convective granules and differential rotation on its surface. The emission of X-rays in association with eruptive flares and the elevated temperatures of the corona might provide some measure of these energies. At the same time, it is expected that a fraction of the solar energy remains tied to the filling of conduction bands by electrons especially within sunspots. This constitutes a degree of freedom whose importance cannot be easily assessed. The discussion highlights how little is truly understood about energy partition in the Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[125] **viXra:1310.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 08:07:36*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 7 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 93-99.

The standard gaseous model of the Sun is grounded on the concept of local thermal equilibrium. Given this condition, Arthur Milne postulated that Kirchhoff’s law could be applied within the deep solar interior and that a blackbody spectrum could be generated in this region, based solely on equilibrium arguments. Varying internal solar opacity then ensured that a blackbody spectrum could be emitted at the photosphere. In this work, it is demonstrated that local thermal equilibrium and solar opacity arguments provide a weak framework to account for the production of the thermal spectrum. The problems are numerous, including: 1) the validity of Kirchhoff’s formulation, 2) the soundness of local thermal equilibrium arguments, 3) the requirements for understanding the elemental composition of the Sun, and 4) the computation of solar opacities. The OPAL calculations and the Opacity Project will be briefly introduced. These represent modern approaches to the thermal emission of stars. As a whole, this treatment emphasizes the dramatic steps undertaken to explain the origins of the continuous solar spectrum in the context of a gaseous Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[124] **viXra:1310.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 08:13:49*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in physics, 2011, v. 3, 100-102.

In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incompressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is currently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[123] **viXra:1310.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 08:21:58*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 1, 19-24.

Sunspots and faculae are related phenomena and constitute regions of elevated magnetic field intensity on the surface of the Sun. These structures have been extensively studied in the visible range. In this regard, it has been recognized that the intensity contrast of faculae, relative to the photosphere, increases considerably as the line of observation moves from the center to the limb of the Sun. Such center to limb variation (CLV) suggests that the directional spectral emissivity of the faculae increases at the same time that photospheric directional emissivity decreases. Since the directional spectral emissivity of faculae increases towards the limb, these structures, along with sunspots, provide strong evidence for metallic behavior at the level of the solar surface. This further strengthens claims that the body of the Sun is not gaseous, but rather, comprised of condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1310.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 08:27:45*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 13 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, 35-47.

Before a solar model becomes viable in astrophysics, one must consider how the elemental constitution of the Sun was ascertained, especially relative to its principle components: hydrogen and helium. Liquid metallic hydrogen has been proposed as a solar structural material for models based on condensed matter (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74). There can be little doubt that hydrogen plays a dominant role in the universe and in the stars; the massive abundance of hydrogen in the Sun was established long ago. Today, it can be demonstrated that the near isointense nature of the Sun’s Balmer lines provides strong confirmatory evidence for a distinct solar surface. The situation relative to helium remains less conclusive. Still, helium occupies a prominent role in astronomy, both as an element associated with cosmology and as a byproduct of nuclear energy generation, though its abundances within the Sun cannot be reliably estimated using theoretical approaches. With respect to the determination of helium levels, the element remains spectroscopically silent at the level of the photosphere. While helium can be monitored with ease in the chromosphere and the prominences of the corona using spectroscopic methods, these measures are highly variable and responsive to elevated solar activity and nuclear fragmentation. Direct assays of the solar winds are currently viewed as incapable of providing definitive information regarding solar helium abundances. As a result, insight relative to helium remains strictly based on theoretical estimates which couple helioseismological approaches to metrics derived from solar models. Despite their “state of the art” nature, helium estimates based on solar models and helioseismology are suspect on several fronts, including their reliance on solar opacities. The best knowledge can only come from the solar winds which, though highly variable, provide a wealth of data. Evaluations of primordial helium levels based on 1) the spectroscopic study of H-II regions and 2) microwave anisotropy data, remain highly questionable. Current helium levels, both within the stars (Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.-M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion versus Gravitational Settling, and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, in press) and the universe at large, appear to be overstated. A careful consideration of available observational data suggests that helium abundances are considerably lower than currently believed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[121] **viXra:1310.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 08:33:08*

**Authors:** Joseph Christophe Robitaille, Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 11 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, 87-97.

Invocation of a liquid metallic hydrogen model (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74; Robitaille P.M. LiquidMetallic Hydrogen II: A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47) brings with it a set of advantages for understanding solar physics which will always remain unavailable to the gaseous models. Liquids characteristically act as solvents and incorporate solutes within their often fleeting structural matrix. They possess widely varying solubility products and often reject the solute altogether. In that case, the solute becomes immiscible. “Lattice exclusion” can be invoked for atoms which attempt to incorporate themselves into liquid metallic hydrogen. In order to conserve the integrity of its conduction bands, it is anticipated that a graphite-like metallic hydrogen lattice should not permit incorporation of other elements into its in-plane hexagonal hydrogen framework. Based on the physics observed in the intercalation compounds of graphite, non-hydrogen atoms within liquid metallic hydrogen could reside between adjacent hexagonal proton planes. Consequently, the forces associated with solubility products and associated lattice exclusion envisioned in liquid metallic hydrogen for solutes would restrict gravitational settling. The hexagonal metallic hydrogen layered lattice could provide a powerful driving force for excluding heavier elements from the solar body. Herein lies a new exfoliative force to drive both surface activity (flares, coronal mass ejections, prominences) and solar winds with serious consequences relative to the p–p reaction and CNO cycle in the Sun. At the same time, the idea that non-hydrogen atomic nuclei can exist between layers of metallic hydrogen leads to a fascinating array of possibilities with respect to nucleosynthesis. Powerful parallels can be drawn to the intercalation compounds of graphite and their exfoliative forces. In this context, solar winds and activity provide evidence that the lattice of the Sun is not only excluding, but expelling helium and higher elements from the solar body. Finally, exfoliative forces could provide new mechanisms to help understand the creation of planets, satellites, red giants, and even supernova.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[120] **viXra:1310.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 09:10:53*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L1-L2.

High energy gamma-ray flares are almost always observed near the limb of the Sun and are seldom, if ever, visualized in the central region of the solar disc. As such, they exhibit a powerful anisotropy best explained by invoking a true photospheric surface. In this regard, the anisotropic nature of the gamma-ray emissions from high-energy flares constitute the eighteenth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[119] **viXra:1310.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-17 08:02:56*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Submitted for publication

As of today, neither one of the mass generation mechanisms of the Standard Model (SM) can convincingly explain the source of the electroweak scale. In this brief report we argue that the onset of fractal spacetime near the electroweak interaction provides a natural motivation for the emergence of this scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[118] **viXra:1310.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-16 05:04:38*

**Authors:** Khalid Ibrahim

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

In this paper, we have established a connection between The Dirichlet series with the Mobius function $M (s) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \mu (n) /n^s$ and a functional representation of the zeta function $\zeta (s)$ in terms of its partial Euler product. For this purpose, the Dirichlet series $M (s) $ has been modified and represented in terms of the partial Euler product by progressively eliminating the numbers that first have a prime factor 2, then 3, then 5, ..up to the prime number $p_r $ to obtain the series $M(s,p_r)$. It is shown that the series $M(s)$ and the new series $M(s,p_r)$ have the same region of convergence for every $p_r$. Unlike the partial sum of $M(s)$ that has irregular behavior, the partial sum of the new series exhibits regular behavior as $p_r$ approaches infinity. This has allowed the use of integration methods to compute the partial sum of the new series and to examine the validity of the Riemann Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[117] **viXra:1310.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 00:09:11*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new and interesting continued fraction expression is derived for Carnot efficiency. The derivation is based on a series combination of a set of Carnot heat engines, wherein heat rejected by a member of the series is absorbed by the following member of the series. Our analysis of this combination of Carnot heat engines shows that mathematical consistency is maintained only if the efficiency of Carnot heat engine is zero. This calls the attention of researchers to look back at the puzzling definition of Carnot efficiency that says the efficiency of ideal heat engine (Carnot heat engine) is less than one, in spite of the fact that each of the steps involved in the cycle of operation is hundred percent efficient.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[116] **viXra:1310.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-16 03:12:06*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 47 Pages. some photos and charts

The Egyptian Book of the Dead, a collection of coffin texts, has long been thought by Egyptologists to describe the journey of the soul in the afterlife, or the Am Duat. In fact, the so – called Book of the Dead describes the invisible Substratum, the “black hole” form of matter to which all matter returns, and from which all matter arises. The hieroglyphics of the Papyrus of Ani, for example, do not describe the journey of the soul, but the creation of the atom. This paper gives evidence for the very Ancient Egyptians as having knowledge of a higher mathematics than our own civilization, including the Exceptional Lie Algebras E6 and G2, the Octonions and Sedenions, as well as the Substratum and the nuclear processes that occur there. The Osiris myth represents a general re – telling of the nuclear processes which occur within the Substratum, the invisible “black hole” form of matter.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[115] **viXra:1310.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:06:08*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 2, L5-L8

In this work, the properties of the water are briefly revisited. Though liquid water has a fleeting structure, it displays an astonishingly stable network of hydrogen bonds. Thus, even as a liquid, water possesses a local lattice with short range order. The presence of hydroxyl (O-H) and hydrogen (H-OH2) bonds within water, indicate that it can simultaneously maintain two separate energy systems. These can be viewed as two very different temperatures. The analysis presented uses results from vibrational spectroscopy, extracting the force constant for the hydrogen bonded dimer. By idealizing this species as a simple diatomic structure, it is shown that hydrogen bonds within water should be able to produce thermal spectra in the far infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This simple analysis reveals that the oceans have a physical mechanism at their disposal, which is capable of generating the microwave background.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[114] **viXra:1310.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:10:44*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 2, L9-L11

In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planet would be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. The results are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[113] **viXra:1310.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 11 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 3-13.

In this work, Kirchhoff’s law (Kirchhoff G. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec. 1859, 1860, 783–787) is being revisited not only to mark its 150th anniversary but, most importantly, to highlight serious overreaching in its formulation. At the onset, Kirchhoff’s law correctly outlines the equivalence between emission and absorption for an opaque object under thermal equilibrium. This same conclusion had been established earlier by Balfour Stewart (Stewart B. Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, 1858, v. 22(1), 1–20). However, Kirchhoff extends the treatment beyond his counterpart, stating that cavity radiation must always be black, or normal: depending only on the temperature and the frequency of observation. This universal aspect of Kirchhoff’s law is without proper basis and constitutes a grave distortion of experimental reality. It is readily apparent that cavities made from arbitrary materials (epsilon < 1) are never black. Their approach to such behavior is being driven either by the blackness of the detector, or by black materials placed near the cavity. Ample evidence exists that radiation in arbitrary cavities is sensitive to the relative position of the detectors. In order to fully address these issues, cavity radiation and the generalization of Kirchhoff’s law are discussed. An example is then taken from electromagnetics, at microwave frequencies, to link results in the resonant cavity with those inferred from the consequences of generalization.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[112] **viXra:1310.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:22:46*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 14-16.

Through the reevaluation of Kirchhoff’s law (Robitaille P. M. L. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267), Planck’s blackbody equation (Planck M. Ann. der Physik, 1901, v. 4, 553–356) loses its universal significance and becomes restricted to perfect absorbers. Consequently, the proper application of Planck’s radiation law involves the study of solid opaque objects, typically made from graphite, soot, and carbon black. The extension of this equation to other materials may yield apparent temperatures, which do not have any physical meaning relative to the usual temperature scales. Real temperatures are exclusively obtained from objects which are known solids, or which are enclosed within, or in equilibrium with, a perfect absorber. For this reason, the currently accepted temperature of the microwave background must be viewed as an apparent temperature. Rectifying this situation, while respecting real temperatures, involves a reexamination of Boltzmann’s constant. In so doing, the latter is deprived of its universal nature and, in fact, acts as a temperature dependent variable. In its revised form, Planck’s equation becomes temperature insensitive near 300 K, when applied to the microwave background.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[111] **viXra:1310.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:32:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 26 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 17-42.

The COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) operated from ~30 to ~3,000 GHz (1–95 cm-1) and monitored, from polar orbit (~900 km), the ~3 K microwave background. Data released from FIRAS has been met with nearly universal admiration. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals significant problems with this instrument. FIRAS was designed to function as a differential radiometer, wherein the sky signal could be nulled by the reference horn, Ical. The null point occurred at an Ical temperature of 2.759 K. This was 34 mK above the reported sky temperature, 2.725 0.001 K, a value where the null should ideally have formed. In addition, an 18 mK error existed between the thermometers in Ical, along with a drift in temperature of ~3 mK. A 5 mK error could be attributed to Xcal; while a 4 mK error was found in the frequency scale. A direct treatment of all these systematic errors would lead to a ~64 mK error bar in the microwave background temperature. The FIRAS team reported ~1 mK, despite the presence of such systematic errors. But a 1 mK error does not properly reflect the experimental state of this spectrophotometer. In the end, all errors were essentially transferred into the calibration files, giving the appearance of better performance than actually obtained. The use of calibration procedures resulted in calculated Ical emissivities exceeding 1.3 at the higher frequencies, whereas an emissivity of 1 constitutes the theoretical limit. While data from 30–60 GHz was once presented, these critical points are later dropped, without appropriate discussion, presumably because they reflect too much microwave power. Data obtained while the Earth was directly illuminating the sky antenna, was also discarded. From 300–660 GHz, initial FIRAS data had systematically growing residuals as frequencies increased. This suggested that the signal was falling too quickly in the Wien region of the spectrum. In later data releases, the residual errors no longer displayed such trends, as the systematic variations had now been absorbed in the calibration files. The FIRAS team also cited insufficient bolometer sensitivity, primarily attributed to detector noise, from 600–3,000 GHz. The FIRAS optical transfer function demonstrates that the instrument was not optimally functional beyond 1,200 GHz. The FIRAS team did not adequately characterize the FIRAS horn. Established practical antenna techniques strongly suggest that such a device cannot operate correctly over the frequency range proposed. Insufficient measurements were conducted on the ground to document antenna gain and field patterns as a full function of frequency and thereby determine performance. The effects of signal diffraction into FIRAS, while considering the Sun/Earth/RF shield, were neither measured nor appropriately computed. Attempts to establish antenna side lobe performance in space, at 1,500 GHz, are well outside the frequency range of interest for the microwave background (<600 GHz). Neglecting to fully evaluate FIRAS prior to the mission, the FIRAS team attempts to do so, on the ground, in highly limited fashion, with a duplicate Xcal, nearly 10 years after launch. All of these findings indicate that the satellite was not sufficiently tested and could be detecting signals from our planet. Diffraction of earthly signals into the FIRAS horn could explain the spectral frequency dependence first observed by the FIRAS team: namely, too much signal in the Jeans-Rayleigh region and not enough in the Wien region. Despite popular belief to the contrary, COBE has not proven that the microwave background originates from the universe and represents the remnants of creation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[110] **viXra:1310.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:39:09*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 8 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2010, v. 3, 3-10.

Microwave reference blackbodies and targets play a key role in astrophysical and geophysical studies. The emissivity of these devices is usually inferred from return-loss experiments which may introduce at least 10 separate types of calibration errors. The origin of these inaccuracies depends on test conditions and on the nature of each target. The most overlooked errors are related to the geometry adapted in constructing reference loads and to the effects of conduction or convection. Target shape and design can create an imbalance in the probabilities of absorption and emission. This leads to loss of radiative equilibrium, despite the presence of a thermodynamic steady state. Heat losses or gains, through conduction and convection, compensate for this unexpected physical condition. The improper calibration of blackbodies and targets has implications, not only in global climate monitoring, but also relative to evaluating the microwave background

**Category:** Astrophysics

[109] **viXra:1310.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:43:13*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 8 Pages. First publishe in: Progress in Physics, 2010, v. 3, 11-18.

Armed with ~4K reference targets, the Planck satellite low frequency instrument (LFI) is intended to map the microwave anisotropies of the sky from the second Lagrange point, L2. Recently, the complete design and pre-flight testing of these ~4K targets has been published (Valenziano L. et al., JINST 4, 2009, T12006). The receiver chain of the LFI is based on a pseudo-correlation architecture. Consequently, the presence of a ~3K microwave background signal at L2 can be established, if the ~4K reference targets function as intended. Conversely, demonstration that the targets are unable to provide the desired emission implies that the ~3K signal cannot exist, at this location. Careful study reveals that only the second scenario can be valid. This analysis thereby provides firm evidence that the monopole of the microwave background, as initially detected by Penzias and Wilson, is being produced by the Earth itself.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[108] **viXra:1310.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 11:33:52*

**Authors:** Piyush Mohan Singhal

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The measurement space with uncertainty in determination of the origin, is shown to be of discrete nature. The measured information in discrete space, is characterized based on initial state created at the interface of continuum or source and discrete measurement space. In discrete measurement space the entropy considerations, result in a phenomenological relationship based on dimension-less constants, for stable microscopic and macroscopic structures. The relationship is independent of the experimentally determined constants 'h', 'c', 'e', and leads to the phenomenological explanation of the fine-structure constant and its value in low-energy limits. The concept of measurement space based on entropy change of the space as a result of the state creation and the capability of the observer, is developed next. The consequence of a macroscopic observer with limited measurement capability, making measurements in discrete measurement space, results in the constraint of a three dimensional measurement space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[107] **viXra:1310.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:20:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 16 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 1, 3-18.

In this work, results obtained by the WMAP satellite are analyzed by invoking established practices for signal acquisition and processing in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dynamic range, image reconstruction, signal to noise, resolution, contrast, and reproducibility are specifically discussed. WMAP images do not meet accepted standards in medical imaging research. WMAP images are obtained by attempting to remove a galactic foreground contamination which is 1,000 times more intense than the desired signal. Unlike water suppression in biological NMR, this is accomplished without the ability to affect the signal at the source and without a priori knowledge. Resulting WMAP images have an exceedingly low signal to noise (maximum 1–2) and are heavily governed by data processing. Final WMAP internal linear combination (ILC) images are made from 12 section images. Each of these, in turn, is processed using a separate linear combination of data. The WMAP team extracts cosmological implications from their data, while ignoring that the ILC coefficients do not remain constant from year to year. In contrast to standard practices in medicine, difference images utilized to test reproducibility are presented at substantially reduced resolution. ILC images are not presented for year two and three. Rather, year-1 data is signal averaged in a combined 3-year data set. Proper tests of reproducibility require viewing separate yearly ILC images. Fluctuations in the WMAP images arise from the inability to remove the galactic foreground, and in the significant yearly variations in the foreground itself. Variations in the map outside the galactic plane are significant, preventing any cosmological analysis due to yearly changes. This occurs despite the masking of more than 300 image locations. It will be advanced that any “signal” observed by WMAP is the result of foreground effects, not only from our galaxy, but indeed yearly variations from every galaxy in the Universe. Contrary to published analysis, the argument suggests there are only questionable findings in the anisotropy images, other than those related to image processing, yearly galactic variability, and point sources. Concerns are also raised relative to the validity of assigning brightness temperatures in this setting.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[106] **viXra:1310.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:34:21*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 1, 19-23.

The powerful “Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)” signal currently associated with the origins of the Universe is examined from a historical perspective and relative to the experimental context in which it was measured. Results from the COBE satellite are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the systematic error observed in determining the CMB temperature. The nature of the microwave signal emanating from the oceans is also discussed. From this analysis, it is demonstrated that it is improper for the COBE team to model the Earth as a 285K blackbody source. The assignment of temperatures to objects that fail to meet the requirements set forth in Kirchhoff’s law constitutes a serious overextension of the laws of thermal emission. Using this evidence, and the general rule that powerful signals are associated with proximal sources, the CMB monopole signal is reassigned to the oceans. In turn, through the analysis of COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 data, the dipole signal is attributed to motion through a much weaker microwave field present both at the position of the Earth and at the second Lagrange point.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1310.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:40:54*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 12 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 1, 70-81; also on arXiv:astro-ph/0410075.

In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[104] **viXra:1310.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:46:02*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 3, 3-4.

The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation by the atmosphere of the Earth is considered under a steady state scenario. Using this approach, it is demonstrated that the microwave background could not have a cosmological origin. Scientific observations in the microwave region are explained by considering an oceanic source, combined with both Rayleigh and Mie scattering in the atmosphere in the absence of net absorption. Importantly, at high frequencies, Mie scattering occurs primarily with forward propagation. This helps to explain the lack of high frequency microwave background signals when radio antennae are positioned on the Earth’s surface.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[103] **viXra:1310.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:56:51*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 9 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 4, 25-33.

In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can decrease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[102] **viXra:1310.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:03:09*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 10 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 4, 74-83.

In this work, the nature of the microwave background is discussed. It is advanced that the 2.725 K monopole signal, first detected by Penzias and Wilson, originates from the Earth and therefore cannot be detected at the Lagrange 2 point (L2). Results obtained by the COBE, Relikt-1, and WMAP satellites are briefly reviewed. Attention is also placed on the upcoming PLANCK mission, with particular emphasis on the low frequency instrument (LFI). Since the LFI on PLANCK can operate both in absolute mode and in difference mode, this instrument should be able to unequivocally resolve any question relative to the origin of the 2.725K monopole signal. The monopole will be discovered to originate from the Earth and not from the Cosmos. This will have implications relative to the overall performance of the PLANCK satellite, in particular, and for the future of astrophysics, in general.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[101] **viXra:1310.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:09:04*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 4, 117-120.

October 4th, 2007 marks the 60th anniversary of Planck’s death. Planck was not only the father of Quantum Theory. He was also a man of profound moral and ethical values, with far reaching philosophical views. Though he lived a life of public acclaim for his discovery of the Blackbody radiation formula which bares his name, his personal life was beset with tragedy. Yet, Planck never lost his deep faith and belief in a personal God. He was admired by Einstein, not so much for his contributions to physics, but rather, for the ideals which he embodied as a person. In this work, a brief synopsis is provided on Planck, his life, and his philosophical writings. It is hoped that this will serve as an invitation to revisit the philosophical works of the man who, more than any other, helped set the course of early 20th century physics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[100] **viXra:1310.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:17:17*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 2, 164-165.

In this work, the presence of substantial microwave power in the atmosphere of the Earth is discussed. It is advanced that this atmospheric microwave power constitutes pools of scattered photons initially produced, at least in substantial part, by the ~3K microwave background. The existence of these microwave pools of photons can serve to explain how the Earth, as an anisotropic source, is able to produce an Earth Microwave Background (EMB) at ~3K which is isotropic.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[99] **viXra:1310.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:27:52*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 30-35; also in arXiv:0805.1625 [physics.gen-ph]

It has been advanced, on experimental (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267) and theoretical (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23) grounds, that blackbody radiation is not universal and remains closely linked to the emission of graphite and soot. In order to strengthen such claims, a conceptual analysis of the proofs for universality is presented. This treatment reveals that Gustav Robert Kirchhoff has not properly considered the combined effects of absorption, reflection, and the directional nature of emission in real materials. In one instance, this leads to an unintended movement away from thermal equilibrium within cavities. Using equilibrium arguments, it is demonstrated that the radiation within perfectly reflecting or arbitrary cavities does not necessarily correspond to that emitted by a blackbody.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[98] **viXra:1310.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:34:11*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 20 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 36-55.

Since the days of Kirchhoff, blackbody radiation has been considered to be a universal process, independent of the nature and shape of the emitter. Nonetheless, in promoting this concept, Kirchhoff did require, at the minimum, thermal equilibrium with an enclosure. Recently, the author stated (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267; P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23), that blackbody radiation is not universal and has called for a return to Stewart’s law (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2008, v. 3, 30–35). In this work, a historical analysis of thermal radiation is presented. It is demonstrated that soot, or lampblack, was the standard for blackbody experiments throughout the 1800s. Furthermore, graphite and carbon black continue to play a central role in the construction of blackbody cavities. The advent of universality is reviewed through the writings of Pierre Prévost, Pierre Louis Dulong, Alexis Thérèse Petit, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Siméon Denis Poisson, Frédérick Hervé de la Provostaye, Paul Quentin Desain, Balfour Stewart, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, and Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. These writings illustrate that blackbody radiation, as experimentally produced in cavities and as discussed theoretically, has remained dependent on thermal equilibrium with at least the smallest carbon particle. Finally, Planck’s treatment of Kirchhoff’s law is examined in detail and the shortcomings of his derivation are outlined. It is shown once again, that universality does not exist. Only Stewart’s law of thermal emission, not Kirchhoff’s, is fully valid.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[97] **viXra:1310.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 04:25:40*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

I show in this paper that all the fermion masses may be determined from merely two well chosen constants, and all the fermion charges thereafter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[96] **viXra:1310.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 05:45:49*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 53 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-142.

Our Sun has confronted humanity with overwhelming evidence that it is comprised of condensed matter. Dismissing this reality, the standard solar models continue to be anchored on the gaseous plasma. In large measure, the endurance of these theories can be attributed to 1) the mathematical elegance of the equations for the gaseous state, 2) the apparent success of the mass-luminosity relationship, and 3) the long-lasting influence of leading proponents of these models. Unfortunately, no direct physical finding supports the notion that the solar body is gaseous. Without exception, all observations are most easily explained by recognizing that the Sun is primarily comprised of condensed matter. However, when a physical characteristic points to condensed matter, \textit{a postori} arguments are invoked to account for the behavior using the gaseous state. In isolation, many of these treatments appear plausible. As a result, the gaseous models continue to be accepted. There seems to be an overarching belief in solar science that the problems with the gaseous models are few and inconsequential. In reality, they are numerous and, while often subtle, they are sometimes daunting. The gaseous equations of state have introduced far more dilemmas than they have solved. Many of the conclusions derived from these approaches are likely to have led solar physics down unproductive avenues, as deductions have been accepted which bear little or no relationship to the actual nature of the Sun. It could be argued that, for more than 100 years, the gaseous models have prevented mankind from making real progress relative to understanding the Sun and the universe. Hence, the Sun is now placed on trial. Forty lines of evidence will be presented that the solar body is comprised of, and surrounded by, condensed matter. These `proofs' can be divided into seven broad categories: 1) Planckian, 2) spectroscopic, 3) structural, 4) dynamic, 5) helioseismic, 6) elemental, and 7) earthly. Collectively, these lines of evidence provide a systematic challenge to the gaseous models of the Sun and expose the many hurdles faced by modern approaches. Observational astronomy and laboratory physics have remained unable to properly justify claims that the solar body must be gaseous. At the same time, clear signs of condensed matter interspersed with gaseous plasma in the chromosphere and corona have been regrettably dismissed. As such, it is hoped that this exposition will serve as an invitation to consider condensed matter, especially metallic hydrogen, when pondering the phase of the Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[95] **viXra:1310.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 05:59:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First Published in Progress in Physics, 2006, v. 2, 22-23.

Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G. Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik, 1860, v. 109, 275]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitting object. Recently, Kirchhoff’s experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P. M. L. Robitaille. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2003, v. 31(6), 1263]. In this work, Einstein’s derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[94] **viXra:1310.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 06:08:53*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2006, v. 2, 17-21.

The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1) the thermal spectrum, (2) limb darkening, (3) solar collapse, (4) the solar density, (5) seismic activity, (6) mass displacement, (7) the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8) shape, (9) surface activity, (10) photospheric/coronal flows, (11) photospheric imaging, (12) the solar dynamo, and (13) the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[93] **viXra:1310.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 15:19:26*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Thomas Scott Zolotor has made several hypothesis in the field of astronomy and other fields. These are his updated predictions that came true.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1310.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 20:43:46*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 1 Figure

Galaxies are the basic components of the universe. A massive Hubble Space Telescope photos survey reveals that the diversity of galaxies in the early universe was as varied as the many galaxy types seen today. Therefore, understanding galaxies is the great challenge to humans. This paper deals with the disk-typed galaxies which is called spirals. In longer wavelength image, galaxy arms are mostly gone, and spiral galaxies fall to two types: ordinary and barred. The ordinary ones are basically an axi-symmetric disk whose stellar density decreases exponentially outwards. It is called the exponential disk. It is straightforward to show that any exponential disk has infinite nets of orthogonal curves such that the stellar density on one side of each curve is in constant ratio to the density on the other side of the curve. These curves are call proportion curves or Darwin curves. It happens that the Darwin curves of exponential disk are all golden spirals. Amazingly, astronomers found out that the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are all golden spirals. Therefore, I had a proposition in 2004 that a two dimensional structure is called a rational one if there exists at least one orthogonal net of Darwin curves in the structure plane. Now in this paper, the mathematical solution to rational structure is completely obtained. We prove that rational structure is unique.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[91] **viXra:1310.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 21:42:31*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 37 Pages. 2 diagrams

In Vedic Physics, the Photon is called the Vritihi (neutrino), which is merely the visible stage of the life cycle of this particle. The Vrithi decays over time, and the final point of decay marks the radial edge of our holographic Universe. This paper explains the combinatorial process which forms the Vrithi and the various states of matter involved in this process versus conventional notions about the electromagnetic spectrum, gravity and strong and weak forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[90] **viXra:1310.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-01 07:33:58*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Euclid’s proof of the infinitude of the primes has generally been regarded as elegant. It is a proof by contradiction, or, reductio ad absurdum, and it relies on an algorithm which will always bring in larger and larger primes, an infinite number of them. However, the proof is also subtle and has been misinterpreted by some with one well-known
mathematician even remarking that the algorithm might not work for extremely large numbers. This paper, which is a revision/expansion of the author’s earlier paper published in an international mathematics journal in 2003, presents a strong argument which supports the validity of the twin primes conjecture, using reasoning similar to that of Euclid’s proof of the infinity of the primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[89] **viXra:1310.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 04:04:55*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper, which is a revision/expansion of the author’s earlier paper published in an international mathematics journal in 2003, approaches the twin primes problem from a few different perspectives.

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1310.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-30 09:30:46*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This paper is a revision and expansion of two papers on the Goldbach conjecture which the author had published in an international mathematics journal in 2012. It presents insights on the conjecture gained over a period of many years.

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1310.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-01 04:41:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 8

Proposal for an atomic nuclear Polar-coaxial ring geometry, based on Magic Number logic, including the newest number of 34 nucleons found by RIBF/Riken Japan (October 2013).
The numerology of magic numbers was reason to do research on geometrical solutions for the
shape and structural system of nucleons (protons and neutrons) inside atom nuclei.
I found interesting coaxial ring solutions, which were not only able to match the sequence of magic number numerology in a surprising way, but also able to explain the latest discovery of an extra magic number 34.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[86] **viXra:1310.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 02:29:33*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English and russian texts

Quantum theory has been proven to have basically nо information on 3Не existence conditions and properties.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[85] **viXra:1310.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 13:45:11*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 34 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, 2014, 92(10): 1082-1093

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment measured the geodetic precession due to parallel transport in a curved space-time metric, as predicted by de Sitter, Fokker and Schiff. Schiff included the Thomas precession in his treatment and argued that it should be zero in a free fall orbit. We review the existing interpretations regarding the relation between the Thomas precession and the geodetic precession for a gyroscope in a free fall orbit. Schiff and Parker had contradictory views on the status of the Thomas precession in a free fall orbit, a contradiction that continues to exist in the literature. In the second part of this paper we derive the geodetic precession as a global Thomas Precession by use of the Equivalent Principle and some elements of hyperbolic geometry, a derivation that allows the treatment of GP--B physics in between SR and GR courses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1310.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 14:56:34*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The conventional theory of everything concerns the unification of the four forces of nature: gravity, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and electromagnetism. But some of the most fundamental aspects of nature are left out. This article raises some important points which ought to be covered by a new theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[83] **viXra:1310.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 04:22:40*

**Authors:** Eduard N. Klenov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article considers a paradoxical geometric figure that is constructed of two equal but unspecified in their form and dimensions triangles. It appears to be a carrier of the values of the conserved additive quantum numbers of the real strongly and weakly interacting particles, though we didn’t use any data from the particle physics while constructing it.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[82] **viXra:1310.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 17:21:15*

**Authors:** A.A. Salama, S.A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Neutrosophy has been introduced by Smarandache [7, 8] as a new branch of philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to construct a new set theory called the neutrosophic set. After given the fundamental definitions of neutrosophic set operations, we obtain

Neutrosophy has been introduced by Smarandache [7, 8] as a new branch of philosophy. The
purpose of this paper is to construct a new set theory called the neutrosophic set. After given the fundamental
definitions of neutrosophic set operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between
neutrosophic sets and others. Finally, we extend the concepts of fuzzy topological space [4], and intuitionistic
fuzzy topological space [5, 6] to the case of neutrosophic sets. Possible application to superstrings and
space–time are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[81] **viXra:1310.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 19:09:57*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 29 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

The present article discusses how some known phenomena in solar system, including the Lense-Thirring effect of anomalous precession, could be described using spherical kinetic dynamics approach. Other implications include a plausible revised version of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization equation described by Rubćić & Rubćić. Our
proposition in this paper can be summarized as follows: by introducing time-increment to the ordinary celestial quantization method (Nottale et al.), we can expect to observe
signatures of CGLE (complex Ginzburg-Landau equation) in Solar system. Possible verification may include the use of Earth-based satellites, which go beyond traditional GTR tests such as precession of the first planet. Further observation to verify or refute this conjecture is recommended, plausibly using LAGEOS-type satellites.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[80] **viXra:1310.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-23 15:05:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the real Higgs mechanism that transformed partially the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field (the inflation field) into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The lightest Higgs boson is the quadrupole of the four stable neutrinos (the tau-neutrino is unstable) so its gravitational mass is very low but the superluminal non-gravitating energy frozen inside such ground-state Higgs boson is about 119 powers of ten higher than the observed energy/mass - the geometric mean is close to the Planck energy. There can appear the composite Higgs bosons composed of the confined lightest Higgs bosons - their masses are quantized and such quantization follows from properties of the nuclear plasma described within SST. There appear the composite Higgs bosons with masses of 125 GeV, 742 GeV and about 17.1 TeV. There is as well the virtual composite Higgs boson with a mass of 424.12 MeV. But probably there can appear other quantized masses as well as the components of the tower of the masses of the composite Higgs bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[79] **viXra:1310.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 12:55:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The Youtube of Bland-Hawthorn’s interview is no longer active. His interview is available here: www.abc.net.au/news2013-09-24/new-research-sheds-more-light-on-black-holes/4979088

This paper constitutes, in the form of a letter, a refutation of the allegation, reported to free public access, on the University of Sydney News Online website, that some two million years ago a black hole at Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) exploded, leaving a trail of debris in its wake. Professor Joss Bland-Hawthorn of the University of Sydney is cited in the news report, as are Astronomer Royal Professor Martin Rees, Dr. Ralph Sutherland, and Dr. Phil Maloney. In addition Professor Bland-Hawthorn was interviewed by a journalist about these claims made by he and his colleagues and this interview was posted to the World Wide Web as a Youtube presentation. Professor Bland-Hawthorn and his colleagues made numerous demonstrably false assertions to which I called their attention and sought their comments in light of the facts. Not one of them offered any defence of their false claims. Infact, only Professor Bland-Hawthorn of the four protagonists even replied to my refutation of their claims and all he offered was "please stop sending emails". Distinguished Professor Emeritus John L. Friedman, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, sent two short unscientific letters in defence of Bland-Hawthorn et al. but his replies were devoid of scientific content. Bland-Hawthorn and his colleagues made false public statements and must therefore be held accountable for their statements, but they chose instead to ignore the simple facts that completely invalidate their claims and seek refuge in silence. This article exposes the unscientific and misleading claims made by these scientists, in terms that any interested educated person can easily follow, and the methods they have adopted to evade having to account for themselves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1310.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:16:37*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fuzzy ideals and the notion of fuzzy local function were introduced and studied by Sarkar[12] and by Mahmoud in [9]. The purpose of this paper deals with a fuzzy compactness modulo a fuzzy ideal. Many new sorts of weak and strong fuzzy compactness have be

Fuzzy ideals and the notion of fuzzy local function were introduced and studied by Sarkar[12] and by Mahmoud in [9]. The purpose of this paper deals with a fuzzy compactness modulo a fuzzy ideal. Many new sorts of weak and strong fuzzy compactness have been introduced to fuzzy topological spaces in the last twenty years but not have been studied using fuzzy ideals so,the main aim of our work in this paper is to define and study some new various types of fuzzy compactness with respect to fuzzy ideals namely fuzzy L-compact and L*-compact spaces. Also fuzzy compactness with respect to ideal is useful as unification and generalization of several others widely studied concepts. Possible application to superstrings and E∞ space-time are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[77] **viXra:1310.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:22:07*

**Authors:** I.M. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, M. Abdelfttah, Y. M.Wazery4

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself with the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of mobile adhoc

In Mobile Adhoc Network the design of security model is a very critical and essential topic, this is due to the rapidly changing nature of this type of networks. Many other factors should be in consideration while handling mobile adhoc networks like the lake of infrastructure, bandwidth, etc. a security scheme is proposed based on Public Key infrastructure for distributing session keys between nodes. The length of those keys is decided using fuzzy logic manipulation for the discrimination between some of the attacks applied over this kind of networks. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself with the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of mobile adhoc networks.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[76] **viXra:1310.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:25:51*

**Authors:** I.m.hanafy, A.a.salama, M. Abdelfattah, Y. M. Wazery

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in this paper the Artificial Immune System (AIS) is used as the defense system to the MANET to face botnets. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of AIS in MANETs.

Mobile adhoc networks (MANETs) poses a large area of challenges in the field of security, this is due to the lake
of infrastructure and the continuous changing in the network topology. Botnets are believed to be the most harmful danger
that threatens any type of networks; because it controls the units in a non noticeable manner so detection of botnets is more
difficult . in this paper the Artificial Immune System (AIS) is used as the defense system to the MANET to face botnets.
Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of AIS in MANETs.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[75] **viXra:1310.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:29:00*

**Authors:** M. E. Abd El-Monsef, A.Kozae, A. A. Salama, H.M.Elagmy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In this paper we introduce the notion of fuzzy bitopological ideals .The concept of fuzzy pairwise local function is also introduced here by utilizing the q-neighborhood structure for a fuzzy topological space .These concepts are discussed fuzzy bitopolog

In this paper we introduce the notion of fuzzy bitopological ideals .The concept of fuzzy pairwise
local function is also introduced here by utilizing the q-neighborhood structure for a fuzzy topological space
.These concepts are discussed fuzzy bitopologies and several relations between different fuzzy bitopological
ideals .

**Category:** Topology

[74] **viXra:1310.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:35:17*

**Authors:** Ossama S. Alshabrawy, A.A.Salama, Aboul Ella Hassanien

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper presents an approach for underdetermined blind source separation that can be applied even if the number of sources is unknown. Moreover, the proposed approach is applicable in the case of separating I+3 sources from I mixtures without additive

This paper presents an approach for underdetermined
blind source separation that can be applied even if the
number of sources is unknown. Moreover, the proposed approach
is applicable in the case of separating I+3 sources from I
mixtures without additive noise. This situation is more challenging
and suitable to practical real world problems. Also, the
sparsity conditions are not imposed unlike to those employed
by some conventional approaches. Firstly, the number of source
signals are estimated followed by the estimation of the mixing
matrix based on the use of short time Fourier transform and
rough-fuzzy clustering. Then, source signals are normalized
and recovered using modified Lin's projected gradient algorithm
with modified Armijo rule. The simulation results show
that the proposed approach can separate I+3 source signals
from I mixed signals, and it has superior evaluation performance
compared to conventional approaches.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[73] **viXra:1310.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:38:01*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In this paper, fuzzy L-open sets due to Abd El-Monsef et al. [4] are used to introduce a new separation axiom and new type of function in fuzzy topological ideals spaces . Some the basic properties of fuzzy L-irresolute functions, as well as the connectio

In this paper, fuzzy L-open sets due to Abd El-Monsef et al. [4] are used to introduce a new
separation axiom and new type of function in fuzzy topological ideals spaces . Some the basic properties of fuzzy
L-irresolute functions, as well as the connections between them, are investigated. Possible application to
superstrings and space–time are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[72] **viXra:1310.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:40:55*

**Authors:** M. E. Abd El-Monsef, A. Kozae, A. A. Salama, H. M. Elagamy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The aim of this paper is to introduce and study some new fuzzy pairwise notion in fuzzy bitopological ideals spaces. We also generalize the notion of fuzzy L-open sets due to Abd El-Monsef et al[1]. In addit ion to generalize the concept of fuzzy L-closed

The aim of this paper is to introduce and study some new fuzzy pairwise notion in fuzzy bitopological ideals
spaces. We also generalize the notion of fuzzy L-open sets due to Abd El-Monsef et al[1]. In addit ion to generalize the
concept of fuzzy L-closed sets, fuzzy L-continuity and L-open functions due to Abd El-Monsef et al[1]. Relationships
between the above new fuzzy pairwise notions and there other relevant classes are investigated. Recently, we define and
study two different types of fuzzy pairwise functions .

**Category:** Topology

[71] **viXra:1310.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:43:52*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In this paper we introduce the notion of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ideals which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy intuitionistic ideals studies in[6], the important generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ideals has been given. The concept of gen

In this paper we introduce the notion of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ideals which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy intuitionistic ideals studies in[6], the important generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ideals has been given. The concept of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy local function is also introduced for a generalized intuitionistic fuzzy topological space. These concepts are discussed with a view to find new generalized intuitionistic fuzzy topology from the original one in[5, 7]. The basic structure, especially a basis for such generated generalized intuitionistic fuzzy topologies and several relations between different generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ideals and generalized intuitionistic fuzzy topologies are also studied here.

**Category:** Topology

[70] **viXra:1310.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:48:25*

**Authors:** A.A. Salama, S.A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In this paper we introduce the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy ideals studies in [1, 2, 3, 11 ], the important intuitionistic fuzzy ideal has been given. The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy local func

In this paper we introduce the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals which is
considered as a generalization of fuzzy ideals studies in [1, 2, 3, 11 ], the
important intuitionistic fuzzy ideal has been given. The concept of
intuitionistic fuzzy local function is also introduced here by utilizing the -
neighborhood structure for an intuitionistic fuzzy topological space. These
concepts are discussed with a view to find new intuitionistic fuzzy topology
from the original one in [10, 12].The basic structure, especially a basis for
such generated intuitionistic fuzzy topologies and several relations between
different intuitionistic fuzzy ideals and intuitionistic fuzzy topologies are also
studied here. Finally, several properties of all investigated new notions are
discussed.

**Category:** Topology

[69] **viXra:1310.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 07:50:40*

**Authors:** M.e. Abd El-Monsef, A.a. Nasef, A.a. Salama

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Recently in 1997, Sarker in [8] introduced the concept of fuzzy ideal and fuzzy local function between fuzzy topological spaces. In the present paper, we introduce some new fuzzy notions via fuzzy ideals. Also, we generalize the notion of L-open sets due

Recently in 1997, Sarker in [8] introduced the concept of
fuzzy ideal and fuzzy local function between fuzzy topological spaces.
In the present paper, we introduce some new fuzzy notions via fuzzy
ideals. Also, we generalize the notion of L-open sets due to Jankovic
and Homlett [6]. In addition to, we generalize the concept of L-closed
sets, L- continuity due to Abd El-Monsef et al. [2]. Relationships
between the above new fuzzy notions and other relevant classes are
investigated.1

**Category:** Topology

[68] **viXra:1310.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-05 01:12:07*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Keywords: Navier-Stokes equations, self-similar solutions, incompressible flow

A new classification of self-similar solutions of the Navier-Stokes system of equations is presented here.
We consider equations of motion for incompressible flow (of Newtonian fluids) in the curl rotating co-ordinate system. Then the equation of momentum should be split into the sub-system of 2 equations: an irrotational (curl-free) one, and a solenoidal (divergence-free) one.
The irrotational (curl-free) equation used for obtaining of the components of pressure gradient. As a term of such an equation, we used the irrotational (curl-free) vector field of flow velocity, which is given by the proper potential (besides, the continuity equation determines such a potential as a harmonic function).
As for solenoidal (divergence-free) equation, the transition from Cartesian to curl rotating co-ordinate system transforms equation of motion to the Helmholtz vector differential equation for time-dependent self-similar solutions. The Helmholtz differential equation can be solved by separation of variables in only 11 coordinate systems, so it forms a complete set of all possible cases of self-similar solutions for Navier-Stokes system of equations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[67] **viXra:1310.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-12 16:06:14*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

By examining the theory of relativity, as originally proposed by Lorentz and Poincaré, the fundamental relationship between space-time and matter is discovered, thus completing the theory of relativity and electrodynamics. As a result, the four-dimensional theory of general motion and the four-dimensional vortex theory of interaction are developed. It is seen that the electromagnetic four-vector potential and strength fields are the four-dimensional velocity and vorticity fields, respectively. Furthermore, the four-vector electric current density is proportional to the four-dimensional mean curvature of the four-vector potential field. This is the fundamental geometrical theory of electromagnetism, which determines the origin of electromagnetic interaction and clarifies some of the existing ambiguities. Interestingly, the governing geometry of motion and interaction is non-Euclidean.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[66] **viXra:1310.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-12 19:32:01*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, S.A.Albolwi, Mohmed Eisa

**Comments:** 8 Pages. New neutrosophic sets and possible Applications

In this paper we will introduce and study some types of neutrosophic sets. Finally, we extend the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy ideal [8] to the case of neutrosophic sets. We can use the new of neutrosophic notions in the following
applications: compiler, networks robots, codes and database.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[65] **viXra:1310.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-12 19:35:26*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we introduce definitions of generalized neutrosophic sets. After given the fundamental definitions
of generalized neutrosophic set operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between generalized
neutrosophic sets and others. Finally, we extend the concepts of neutrosophic topological space [9], intuitionistic fuzzy
topological space [5, 6], and fuzzy topological space [4] to the case of generalized neutrosophic sets. Possible application to
GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[64] **viXra:1310.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 00:38:42*

**Authors:** T. Widdicombe

**Comments:** 1 Page. previously uploaded as 1208.0142

Evidence pointing to the existence of mathematically imaginary dimensions in the universe is put forward, briefly and qualitatively explaining "spooky action at a distance" and the fractal nature of living structures.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[63] **viXra:1310.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-05 02:37:31*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper reconciles General Relativity (GR) and Mach's Principle into a consistent, simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravitation. The Universe's ubiquitous background gravitational potential plays an important role in relativity concepts. This gravitational potential (energy per unit mass) far from all massive bodies is c^{2}, which determines *unit* rest mass/energy, and is the essence behind E = mc^{2}. The Universal matter distribution creates a local inertial rest frame at every location, in which the Universe gravitational potential is a minimum. A velocity in this frame increases this gravitational potential through net blue shift of Universal gravity, causing velocity time dilation, which is a gravitational effect identical to gravitational time dilation. Velocity time dilation from this increase of gravitational potential is found to be same as computed from the low velocity approximation of Lorentz factor. The current Lorentz Factor is applicable only in situations where a local potential is dominant compared to the Universe potential. Time dilation increases with velocity, but does not become boundless for general rectilinear motion in the Universe. Speed of light is not the maximum possible speed in such situations, but only in circumstances where the Lorentz Factor is the appropriate metric. Gravitational time dilation is derived first, and velocity time dilation is derived from it. The mathematics becomes much simpler and more intuitive than GR, while remaining consistent with existing experiments. Some experiments are suggested that will show this theory to be more accurate than GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1310.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-18 11:11:16*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we prove the continuum hypothesis by categorical logic, proving that the theory of initial ordinals and the theory of cardinals are isomorphic. To prove that the theorems of the theory of cardinals are theorems of the theory of initial ordinals, and conversely, the theorems of the theory of initial ordinals are theorems of the theory of cardinals, and so, since isomorphic structures are isomorphic theories by the fundamental theorem of mathematical logic, cardinals and initial ordinals are isomorphic structures, we use the definition of a theory, the definition of an isomorphism of structures in its equivalent form, the definition of an isomorphism of categories, the definition of a structure, the definition of a formal language, the definition of a functor, the definition of a category, the axioms of mathematical logic and the axioms of the theory of categories, which include the Gödel-Bernays-von Neumann axioms, so as to apply both the theorem on the comparablity of ordinals to the theory of cardinals and the fundamental theorem of cardinal arithmetic to the theory of ordinals.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[61] **viXra:1310.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-12 02:40:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Inspired by “Starting Point” by Steve Nadis – Discover Magazine, September 2013; and being considered by the journal “Nature”

“François Englert and Peter W. Higgs are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. In 1964, they proposed the theory independently of each other (Englert together with his now deceased colleague Robert Brout). In 2012, their ideas were confirmed by the discovery of a so called Higgs particle at the CERN laboratory outside Geneva in Switzerland.” – email from “Elsevier Physics received on October 11, 2013”
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs deserve recognition for their work on the Higgs field and Higgs particle. In my opinion however, CERN has only confirmed the particle’s existence, not that it plays a role in the acquiring of mass. Albert Einstein deserves the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. Of course, this is impossible for two reasons - 1) the Prize is only awarded to living people, and 2) just as scientists regarded him as "out of touch with science" in the last 30 years of his life, modern scientists still regard him as out of touch when they (unknowingly) fail to understand him. The following article of mine being considered by the journal “Nature” gives the reasons I believe he deserves the Nobel.
The inspiration for this article was an article called “Starting Point” by Steve Nadis – Discover Magazine, September 2013. “Starting Point” is about the life and theories of Ukrainian cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin. He’s responsible for introducing the ideas of eternal inflation and quantum creation of the universe from a quantum vacuum, and is currently Professor of Physics and Director of the Institute of Cosmology at Tufts University near Boston in the U.S. My article concedes that the idea of quantum fluctuation in a vacuum is valid because those fluctuations can be defined as “the temporary change in the amount of energy at a point in space”. This temporary change can be enabled by the binary digits of 1 and 0 fluctuating between states and thus serving as Virtual Particles. This causes the universe to have its creation not in a quantum vacuum as an exclusively linear concept of time would require, but in a nonlinear aspect of time with the binary digits originating in human computer technology. Ensuing solutions of cosmological puzzles from this proposal refer to the subheadings
“Digital” String Theory;
Poincare + Cosmic Strings, Wormholes And Hologram;
Steady State Universe, Big Bang Subuniverses And DNA’s Double Helix;
Newtonian / Einsteinian Space-Time Warping;
Cosmic Rays, Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays & Today’s Speed Of Light;
Electronic Infinity;
Interstellar And Intergalactic Travel;
c2 And The Atomic Nucleus;
Dark Energy And Fractal Geometry;
Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1310.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-12 02:45:54*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 50 Pages. 3 charts

Matter begins with the Clifford Clock at the border of the Substratum state; then can be traced through to the Moolaprakrithi state. Along the way, this paper traces the Trigrams of Chinese metaphysics to the Clifford Clock and the Clock of Complex Spaces, the binary aspects of the trigrams and the binary aspects of the Octonions and the Fano Plane, then the construction of the 3 x 3 x 3 Cube from the Trigrams; then isomorphic relations between the Cube and the Klein Quartic and the Sierspinski Triangle; Clifford Algebras and their organization via Pascal’s Triangle (Zhang Hui’s Triangle or Mount Meru); connections to the Magic Triangle of Exceptional Lie Algebras which terminates with E8.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[59] **viXra:1310.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-30 10:05:16*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. numerous small changes

In this deeply thoughtful, informative, and rewarding book, Laughlin, a physics Nobel laureate (1998), discusses the emergence of natural law from organizational/collective principles in nature and in various phases of matter - as in (among many other and more exotic examples) the familiar shift from the laws of crystalline order to those of hydrodynamics and finally to the gas laws, as ice melts to water and water evaporates to vapor. He is at pains to point out that most of the phenomena in our daily lives are produced by the higher-level emergent principles and laws of phase organization due to the collective action of vast myriads of atomic constituents whose individual properties count for very little in the final social milieu - and not just because an individual atom is only one among many, but because totally different organizational principles are at work in the different phases of bulk matter, in contrast to those operating between small numbers of individual particles: for example, the quantum behavior of atoms vs the Newtonian behavior of bowling balls. Laughlin raises the question: which laws are the more fundamental - the quantum laws of the individual atoms, or the emergent laws of the collective? Although he identifies this as a semantic distinction that cannot be definitively answered, as a practical matter of survival (in biology), he comes down in favor of the collective.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[58] **viXra:1310.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-10 23:34:32*

**Authors:** Leonard William Nelson

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The mass of a photon is derived. Frequencies of light are shown to represent infinitesimal differences in speed just below c. Formulas of Newton, Einstein, Planck, Lorentz, Doppler and de Broglie for relativity, frequency, energy, velocity-addition and waveforms of matter are all linked using simple mathematical terms into a single set of formulas that all describe the same phenomena: matter, movement and energy. The physical laws governing the astronomically large are the same laws governing the microscopically small.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1310.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-13 09:27:46*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite being generously supported by experimental data, the Standard Model for particle physics (SM) has many unsettled questions. At least for the time being, the discovery of the Higgs boson - a crucial step in the validation of the SM – does not take us any closer to answering these questions. With no clear roadmap in sight, the Higgs sector of particle physics remains a largely unexplored territory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[56] **viXra:1310.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-10 04:47:49*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The mechanism of electromagnetic atomic radiation frequency spectrum has been described

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[55] **viXra:1310.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 15:17:06*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The current flight passenger-transport and cargo systems have reached the peak of their development. In the last 30 years there has been no increase in speed or reductions in trip costs. The transportation industry needs a revolutionary idea, which allows jumps in speed and delivery capability, and dramatic drops in trip price. The author offers a new idea in transportation in which trip (flight) time practically does not depend on distance, and vehicle load capability doubles and which has a driving engine that is located on the ground and can use any cheap source of energy.
The author develops the theory and provides computations for project contains five subprojects united the common idea: acceleration the air vehicle on ground and continuation of flight by inertia (high speed catapulting). The initial speed is 290 – 6000 m/s, the range is 50 -10000 km (short, average, and long distances). Short transport system has range 50-70 km, for example: city – sub-city, strait and air bridges such as across the Straits of Gibraltar 16 km, the English Channel 40 km, Bering Straits 100 km (Russia–America), Sakhalin–Asia 20 km, Russia–Japan, etc. The long distance has range up 10000 km such as New York-Paris 5838 km, Washington-London 7373 km, San-Francisco – Tokyo 8277 km, San-Francisco – Vladivostok (Russia) 8377 km, New York – Moscow 7519 km, Moscow – Beijing 5800 km, Moscow – Tokyo 7487 km, New York – Berlin 6392 km, and so on. The offered catapult system having length 400 km can be used as the space launch system which decreases the space launch cost in hundreds times. That also may be used as the new conventional high speed (up 1000 km/h) transport system between cities. That will be significantly cheaper then used MagLev (Magnetic Levitation) systems, because for suspending of the vehicle used the conventional wing. The offered system may be also used for the mass launch of bombs (projectiles) in war.
------------------- Key word: air catapult transport, air kinetic transport, new passenger and cargo transport, catapult aviation, new space launch system, new suspending high speed ground system, cattran, skimplane.
*Detailed manuscript AIAA-2005-6221 was presented to Atmospheric Flight Mechanic Conference – 2005, 15–18 August, USA.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:1310.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 15:31:26*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English

Here we present a short review of conflicts found in deductive structure of some fundamental disciplines based upon energodynamics as non-hypothetical, non-postulative theory of any energy form transfer; we also suggest ways of solution of the conflicts described.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[53] **viXra:1310.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 18:07:13*

**Authors:** Teodor Dungaciu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Un eseu de literatura.

**Category:** Linguistics

[52] **viXra:1310.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 18:13:43*

**Authors:** Corneliu Florea

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

"Marii" critici bucureşteni nici nu citesc, ca lumea, cărţile pe care le recenzează doar le răsfoiesc superficial, apreciază subiectiv în funcţie de bisericuţe şi clanuri literare, obligaţii, simpatii şi antipatii.

**Category:** Linguistics

[51] **viXra:1310.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 23:18:21*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper presents an innovating way of deriving the special theory of relativity (SR). This paper proposes that, contrary to the popular belief, the SR is derived from the absolute inertial reference frame (AIRF). In other words, the AIRF exists and can be found. To validate the derivation, this paper uses the AIRF to explain Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz contraction, transverse Doppler red-shift, and time dilation. Then most importantly, a method of finding the AIRF will be revealed by examining the effect of simultaneity on the wave phases observed by a moving inertial frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1310.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-09 05:08:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 28 Pages. 28

Quantum FFF Theory states, that Black holes don't emit gravitons (as Fermions do) but suffer under the "Casimir push" of the oscillating Higgs (pushing gravity) Aether field lattice. That the Black hole is a real multiple string alike Higgs Knot inside this energetic oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice, which is origin of a Semi-Relativistic Aether!. This Semi-relativistic Higgs aether is supposed to be the origin of Lightning-channelling, Ball Lightning and Micro-Comet phenomena on earth and the origin of Comets, Sunspots, Herbig Haro Objects evolving into Stellar- or Galaxy Anchor Black Holes in space.
Photons are propagating through the Higgs vacuum lattice as "ripples" able to collapse (by Higgs transformation) as real string shaped photons connected to a string propeller shaped electron on a screen or as interference with two or more photons into Quantum Knots of a Sprite or ball Lightning. http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk . I expect that the new generation of telescopes will show the evidence of dual Dark Matter Black Holes found as Herbig Haro hotspots and in pairs outside Galaxies as Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[49] **viXra:1310.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-09 05:13:19*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract：With observations and speculation, this article puts forward a proposition
about twin primes that every pair of numbers of the form {2·6k ±1, k∈N} all be twin
primes. Proves the proposition statement is true applied Wilson’s theorem and
induction, show there are infinitely many twin primes of the form {2·6k ±1,k∈N},
and conclude the twin prime conjecture statement is true.

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1310.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-07 12:53:40*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 72 Pages. Added a brand new section 13 which uses the recursive findings of section 9 to prove the existence of a non-trivial Quantum Yang–Mills Theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

We show how SU(3)C chromodynamics, which is the theory of strong interactions, is a corollary theory emerging naturally from the combination of nothing other than Maxwell / Weyl gauge theory with Yang-Mills theory. In the process, we show not only the emergence from the Maxwell / Yang-Mills combination of all that is to be expected from SU(3)C chromodynamics, but additionally, we show how the observed baryons containing three colored quarks in the ground state are the magnetic charges of Yang-Mills gauge theory and how these magnetic charges naturally confine their quarks and gluons but do pass mesons in order to interact. That is, we explain quark and gluon confinement and how it is that strong interactions are mediated by mesons but not gauge fields. Additionally, we demonstrate how the inherent non-linearity of Yang-Mills theory may be used to solve the “mass gap” problem and yield a nuclear interaction that is short range notwithstanding its being based on massless gluon gauge fields. We further demonstrate the origin of “chiral symmetry breaking” in strong interactions. We find that the non-linear nature of Yang-Mills theory contains a recursive aspect which provides a useful tool for solving the Yang-Mills path integral in order to exactly, analytically arrive at quantum Yang-Mills theory. As a result of further developing Weyl’s original geometric view of gauge theory, we uncover a classical field equation unifying gravitational theory with Weyl’s gauge theory including both its Maxwell / Abelian and Yang-Mills variants, at the level of the Einstein equation for gravitation. Finally, we use the recursive aspects of Yang-Mills theory to develop and solve an exact, closed recursive path integral for Quantum Yang-Mills Theory and thereby prove the existence of a non-trivial quantum Yang–Mills theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:1310.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-07 19:12:11*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists have misinterpreted Red Shift since its inception. This paper provides the proper interpretation for Red Shift in explaining phenomena. Since Red Shift provides one of the legs of the Big Bang hypothesis, this paper and its predecessors on Vixra make the BB story untenable. The time has come for paradigm shift that properly explains Red Shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1310.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 02:35:30*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. English and russian texts

Diamagnetism prevails in the microworld. We have described mechanisms of macroscopic paramagnetism and macroscopic diamagnetism occurrence from microscopic diamagnetism.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[45] **viXra:1310.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-30 02:23:58*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 19 Pages. version 12 of this paper

This paper presents an unconventional view on the gravity field and the way it manifests in particle interactions via a newly-introduced particle; introduces the “energy density function” of this particle and the way it affects the surrounding particles by its physical field; unites gravity interactions between mass-bearing and massless particles, proposes methods of gravity field measurement. This paper also proposes several inexpensive experiments that can be performed to check the presented hypotheses.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1310.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-07 10:11:42*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In [1] Dr. Florentin Smarandache generalized several properties of the nedians. Here, we
will continue the series of these results and will establish certain connections with the triangles
which have the same coefficient of deformation.

**Category:** Geometry

[43] **viXra:1310.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-04 06:43:49*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a method to get the prime counting function (x) and other arithmetical functions than can be generated by a Dirichlet series, first we use the general variational method to derive the solution for a Fredholm Integral equation of first kind with symmetric Kernel K(x,y)=K(y,x), after that we find another integral equations with Kernels K(s,t)=K(t,s) for the Prime counting function and other arithmetical functions generated by Dirichlet series, then we could find a solution for (x) and , solving for a given functional J, so the problem of finding a formula for the density of primes on the interval [2,x], or the calculation of the coefficients for a given arithmetical function a(n), can be viewed as some “Optimization” problems that can be attacked by either iterative or Numerical methods (as an example we introduce Rayleigh-Ritz and Newton methods with a brief description

**Category:** Number Theory

[42] **viXra:1310.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-07 07:27:37*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 diagram

According to establishment and their thought police on Wikipedia, the Crab Nebula or M1, is the remains of an exploding star. This is horrendously absurd. M1 is an embryonic galaxy. It resembles a homo-polar motor, is expanding, has a central pulsar and will eject from the Milky Way becoming a galaxy itself many millions of years in the future.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[41] **viXra:1310.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-07 08:54:06*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Big Bang is a logical impossibility in a combinatorial and holographic universe, and this paper explains this logic. In two earlier papers published on Vixra, the author discussed deficiencies of the Big Bang story. This paper gives a logical argument about the implausibility of the Big Bang in a combinatorial and holographic universe. As a scientific paradigm, little evidence has been discovered to support this hypothesis, despite eight decades of hard work by armies of physicists and astronomers. The Cosmic Microwave Background fails to support the BB story, since the author has shown that the so - called CMB is nothing more than random detections of the Thaamic Substratum at the Natural Logarithm e, or 2.718…When a paradigm fails to satisfactorily explain the phenomena it should explain, it becomes time to abandon that paradigm. Pop goes the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1310.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-16 05:36:09*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Space (or motion) has dual properties: absolute and relative. The change from absolute nature to relative nature (or vice versa) is governed by dynamic nature of space. Absolute motion is absolute and has no connection with relative motion. Absolute motion is evident only from the changes in the laws and phenomena of nature (physics). Absolute motion is relative to a dynamic absolute reference frame, but this reference frame itself depends on absolute motion!
The laws and phenomena of nature (physics) exist in their simplest forms in physical systems that are at absolute rest and become distorted / transformed in physical systems that are in absolute motion. The behavior of physical systems (such as Michelson - Morley's apparatus) can be predicted correctly only in their associated dynamic absolute reference frames. The laws and phenomena of nature (physics) depend on the absolute motion of physical systems.
The relative speed of the observer or (inertial) reference frame is irrelevant in determining the laws and phenomena of physics, and this is in accordance with Galilean invariance principle (and Einstein's two postulates).Only (absolute) motion of a physical system itself has significance. A physical system is affected by its own absolute motion and not by its motion relative motion or by the motion of an observer. In steady state, the speed of light is always equal to C, independent of the speed of the source and of the speed of the observer, in accordance with Einstein's light postulate. However, the speed of light is equal to C± Vabs in non-inertial conditions, in the imaginary dynamic absolute reference frame [1], where Vabs is the absolute velocity of the physical system (such as MM device).
The speed of the light beam in the MM device is the same C for all other inertial detectors (observers) but the speed of the same light beam is C± Vabs for the detector in the MM device. This can be explained by the dual property hypothesis: space is both absolute and relative. The behavior (fringe shift) of the MM device depends only on its own (absolute) velocity and any relative velocity of the device is irrelevant in determining the fringe shift. The behavior of physical systems (such as MM device) can be predicted correctly in the associated dynamic absolute reference frame (in all conditions, steady state or non-steady state). At steady state, the absolute velocity of the MM device is zero.
Galileo's invariance principle holds only in steady state condition. But then how else can the speed of light be the same for two observers that are in relative motion, other than the length contraction time dilation hypothesis? The theory 'Relativity of Electromagnetic Fields' [2] proposed by the present author explains this. The absolute motion of Michelson-Morley device (and hence its behavior, i.e. fringe shift) has no connection with any relative motion of the device (relative to the sun or relative to an observer's reference frame). Absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley (MM) device is evident only from a fringe shift and can be predicted only in the imaginary dynamic absolute reference frame, but this reference frame itself depends on absolute motion of the device! The unexpected null fringe shift only shows that the absolute velocity of the MM device is zero and not invalidity of absolute motion. This theory has the potential to explain and reconcile the results of many of the experiments and phenomena associated with the nature of the speed of light including the Michelson Morley experiment, Sagnac effect, Stellar aberration, ‘GPS corrections’: slow down or speed up of clocks may be connected with absolute motion and experiments confirming the source speed independence of the speed of light. This theory might also be applied to better understand planetary systems, such phenomena as 'elliptic' orbits and Mercury perihelion advance. Mercury perihelion advance and elliptic orbits may be affected by absolute motion of the solar system. This theory reconciles the ever existing notion of absolute motion with Galilean invariance principle and Einstein's two postulates.
This theory gives a hint on consciousness! A paradox in this theory can be resolved if parts of a physical system ‘know’ that they are parts of the system! Physical systems may have ‘consciousness’! The notion of absolute motion gives hint on the mystery of consciousness!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1310.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-09 03:54:22*

**Authors:** Martin Schlueter

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An approximation heuristic for the prime counting function Pi(x) is presented. It is numerically shown, that the heuristic is on average as good as Li(x)-0.5Li(sqrt(x)) for x up to 100,000.

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1310.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-04 15:17:55*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note discusses recent weak measurements of the nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer, measurements that can be interpreted in terms of state vectors traveling both forwards and backwards in time. A complementary interpretation is presented, from the perspective of the scale invariant quantum Hall and far field photon impedances. A delayed choice variant on the recent experiment is proposed, distinguishing between these two and other interpretations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[37] **viXra:1310.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 18:48:35*

**Authors:** Jon Daniel Woodward

**Comments:** 90 Pages. One inspirational monologue on the importance of collectivism in the modern era of high energy.

This book came about as@@ a collection of works produced since 2000, when the website was first put online and ideas produced. The website ran for 3 years until going inactive, then it was later repurchased in 2005, and the book published the next year in the summer of 2006. The website is currently inactive but plans to go back online. Some of the author's work is inspired by David Bohm's "Quantum Theory."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1310.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-04 19:04:36*

**Authors:** Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Addtional changes per Sergey Fedosin's feed back

Relativity’s Special and General Theory are not valid theories as constant one-way speed of light postulate is contradictory. This paper gives one page explanation that even a high school student can understand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1310.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 19:17:48*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The aim of this presentation is to connect Extenics with new fields of research, i.e. fuzzy logic and neutrosophic logic.
We show herein:
- How Extenics is connected to the 3-Valued Neutrosophic Logic,
- How Extenics is connected to the 4-Valued Neutrosophic Logic,
- How Extenics is connected to the n-Valued Neutrosophic Logic,
when contradictions occurs.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[34] **viXra:1310.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 19:25:24*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Pinaki Majumdar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we have defined First Zadeh’s implication , First Zadeh’s intuitionistic fuzzy
conjunction and intuitionistic fuzzy disjunction of two intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets and some their basic
properties are studied with proofs@@ and examples.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[33] **viXra:1310.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 19:29:18*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** Pages.

S.Broumi and F.Smarandache introduced the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set,
which is an extension to the soft set. In this paper we apply the concept of intuitionistic
neutrosophic soft set to rings theory .The notion of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft rings is
introduced and their basic properties are presented . Intersection, union, AND, and OR
operations of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft rings are defined . Also ,we have defined the
product of two intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set over Ring.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[32] **viXra:1310.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 19:40:55*

**Authors:** Alexandru Gal, Luige Vladareanu, Florentin Smarandache, Hongnian Yu, Mincong Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we present a way of deciding which
control law should operate at a time for a mobile walking robot.
The proposed deciding method is based on the new research field,
called Neutrosophic Logic. The results are presented as a
simulated system for which the output is related to the inputs
according to the Neutrosophic Logic.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[31] **viXra:1310.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 19:49:13*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce for the first time the concept of correlation coefficients of
interval valued neutrosophic set (INS for short). Respective numerical examples are presented.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[30] **viXra:1310.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 19:53:37*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Intuitionistic Neutrosophic soft set theory proposed by S.Broumi and F. Samarandache [28 ], has been regarded as
an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. In this paper new operations on intuitionistic neutrosophic soft sets
have been introduced . Some results relating to the properties of these operations have been established. Moreover ,we
illustrate their interconnections between each other.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[29] **viXra:1310.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 20:37:38*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article we establish a connection between the notion of the symmedian of a
triangle and the notion of polar of a point in rapport to a circle

**Category:** Geometry

[28] **viXra:1310.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 21:25:30*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Smarandache (1995) defined the notion of neutrosophic sets, which is a generalization of Zadeh's fuzzy set and Atanassov's
intuitionistic fuzzy set. In this paper, we first develop some similarity measures of neutrosophic sets. We will present a method to calculate the
distance between neutrosophic sets (NS) on the basis of the Hausdorff distance. Then we will use this distance to generate a new similarity
measure to calculate the degree of similarity between NS. Finally we will prove some properties of the proposed similarity measures.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[27] **viXra:1310.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 21:36:42*

**Authors:** Xingsen Li, Yingjie Tian, Haolan Zhang, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** Pages.

The process of generating innovative solutions mostly rely on skilled experts which are usually unavailable and with uncertainty. Computer science and information technology is changing the innovation environment and accumulating big data from which a lot of knowledge is discovered. However, it is a rather nebulous area and still remains several challenge problems to integrate multi-information and lots of rough knowledge effectively to support the process of innovation. Based on the new cross discipline Extenics, we present a collaborative innovation model in the context of big data. The model transforms collected data into a knowledge base in a uniform basic-element format, and then we explore the innovation paths and its solutions by a formularized model based on Extenics. Finally we score and select all possible solutions by 2D dependent function. The model can collaborate different departments to put forward the innovation solutions with support of big data. The model is proved useful by a practical innovation case in management.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[26] **viXra:1310.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 21:41:20*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we study the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic set of Bhowmik and Pal. We
have introduced this concept in soft sets and defined intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set. Some definitions and
operations have been introduced on intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set. Some properties of this concept have
been established.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[25] **viXra:1310.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 22:00:31*

**Authors:** A.Victor Devadoss, M. Clement Joe Anand

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Youth is the major assets of a nation, we need to channel their energy accordingly and dissipate it
appropriately for the benefits of a nation and humanity as a whole. Social media has how become
indispensable in our societies. Most of the major social media are predominated by the youth,
exploiting it for one purpose or the other. In this paper we analyzed how youth could constructively,
the role of social media and it’s how it build a nation and achieve a promising future not only for
themselves but equality for the upcoming generations using Neutrosophic cognitive maps. This paper
has four sections. In section one, we give an introduction about Pervasive social Media, Section two
we recall the definition of Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMs) Section three is deals with the
methods of finding the hidden pattern in NCMs and analysis of Features or Characters of Youth and
Youth Activism. In final section we give the conclusion based on our study.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] **viXra:1310.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 22:02:44*

**Authors:** A.Victor Devadoss, M. Clement Joe Anand, A. Joseph Bellarmin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Quality in primary education has been classified into five factors involving learners, content,
processes, environment and outcomes. In this paper we analyzed, quality in primary education in
Chennai and find out its solution using Neutrosophic cognitive maps (NCMS), which is the
generalization of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMS) defined by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentine
Smarandache. This paper has five sections. First section gives information about development of fuzzy
cognitive maps and Neutrosophic cognitive maps. Second section gives the preliminaries of FCMS
and NCMS. In section three, we give the description of the problem; final section gives the conclusion
based on our study.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[23] **viXra:1310.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-06 01:03:23*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The most standard and fundamental statements of the second law of thermodynamics are those of Kelvin and Clausius. They form the foundation for the structure of thermodynamics. Essentially they are statements of impossibility of certain processes in nature. Every standard book on thermodynamics ritualistically demonstrates the consistency between these two statements by showing violation of one leads to violation of the other. We show in this note, that the two statements are mutually inconsistent. That is, we show violation of one does not lead to violation of the other. We adopt a procedure similar to the one used by Fermi for our demonstration.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22] **viXra:1310.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 10:50:42*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. It is sincerely hoped that these comments will provoke serious thought and discussion about the specific issues raised, as well as about other similar issues in present day physics.

Considering the manner in which many students are introduced to some of the accepted pillars of perceived scientific wisdom, it seems appropriate, in view of recent developments associated with the theories of both Special and General Relativity, to look at the present basis for this accepted educational approach.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1310.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 03:35:05*

**Authors:** Nehul Yadav

**Comments:** 8 Pages. none

This research focuses primarily on the statistics and the famous models of mathematics used in ecology and evolution. I chose a unique topic in applied mathematics as i covet to become a mathematics researcher. Hope you like this research.

**Category:** Statistics

[20] **viXra:1310.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 03:30:14*

**Authors:** Nehul Yadav

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Please reply back to me at nehul12@gmail.com

This research conceptualises the the theories in mathematics with ecology and our evolution. It traces the link between the planet earth with mathematics. It uses calculus , graphs , combinatorics and other theories an models in mathematics. Hope it gets published!

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[19] **viXra:1310.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-04 08:43:18*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

List publications by Bolonkin in 2007-2013

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1310.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-03 14:27:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Günther

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article presents a new exact solution of Einstein’s equations with cosmological constant,
which includes de Sitter’s metric as a special case. The generalized solution admits a nonzero stress energy
momentum tensor. The second section is concerned with a transformation of the line element into a spherical
symmetric but anisotropic form.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17] **viXra:1310.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-03 10:26:56*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 41 Pages. 3 Charts

Vedic Physics theory posits that Super Conductivity occurs amidst the 18
types of Quarks in the Thaamic type of matter, known as the Substratum,
A.K.A. “Black Hole.” Specifically, Super Conductivity occurs at at an
approximate phase - related velocity, between the 4th.and 6th power of light velocity, identified as Moha Thaama to Andha Thaama states. These states correspond to the Quark and Planck Mass phenomena in contemporary physics. Moreover, the phenomena described herein may help to explain the
mysterious radio waves detected since the 1990’s from M82 and M87 in 2010.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16] **viXra:1310.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-03 02:19:18*

**Authors:** Antonio Leon

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This work is part of a broader discussion on digital relativity (avalaible at interciencia.es)

In spite of the fact that the reflection of light by a mirror is involved in many relativistic arguments, the relativity of the reflection itself has not been adequately addressed. In a previous work on the relativistic refraction of light we found an inconvenient involving Snell law: by assuming the refractive index does not change with relative motion, the refraction of a visible laser beam does not follow Snell law when observed in relative motion. Now it is the second law of the reflection of light which seems not to be satisfied when the reflection is observed in certain relativistic conditions. The argument is developed in basic geometry terms, without making additional physical assumption as in the case of Snell law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1310.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 03:21:00*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 12 formulas, 1 figure

Using a formula including the proton mass and Compton’s wavelength, it is obtained the value of the universal gravitational constant by two orders of magnitude more accurate than the recommended CODATA value [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1310.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-02 09:39:43*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 diagram

Super-Earths are quite common in evolved galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda. They are stars in late stages of their evolution. All Super-Earths are ocean worlds.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13] **viXra:1310.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 11:29:52*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

The Gliese 433 system contains 3 stars in different stages of metamorphosis, a red dwarf, a grey dwarf and a blue dwarf/water world.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1310.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-02 11:22:59*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Big Bang “Theory” evolved out of a process designed to cover up and
obscure the mistakes and fallacies of one scientific concept after another,
especially General Relativity and Special Relativity. Just like a gambler deep
in debt at the casino table, 20th
Century scientists fell deeper into error, the
more they tried to cover up their earlier mistakes. The process resulted in the
Big Bang, which unfortunately remains as the dominant paradigm of the early 21st
Century. The time has come to pop the Big Bang and end the catastrophic
efforts to revive the Frankenstein of Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1310.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-03 07:31:00*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. Published in Physics Essays, Vol. 27 (2): 198-203, June 2014. Post-print available at http://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/622-3-radwan-m-kassir-on-special-relativity-root-cause-of-the-problems-with-lorentz-transformation.html

In a previous study,[1] the Lorentz transformation was shown to be merely a set of restricted particular equations, the application of which to events having restricted coordinates―essential for the interpretation of time dilation and length contraction―resulted in mathematical contradictions. In this paper, the particular terms, erroneously generalized in the Lorentz transformation, are replaced with their correct expressions, resulting in a transformation conforming to the speed of light postulate, but having detrimental consequences on the Special Relativity predictions. The essential anomaly in the Lorentz time transformation equations leading to their fatal contradictions is identified, and the Special Relativity “established” predictions turn out to be overwhelmingly refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1310.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 11:34:41*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

According to the establishment Rho Cassiopeiae is a yellow hypergiant star with 450 times the diameter of the Sun. This is incorrect. We shall see that their parallax measurements are completely bogus, as RC is a normal yellow star like the Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1310.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 19:23:54*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the cable propulsion system, circle propulsion system and space keeper, kinetic propulsion system, gas-tube propulsion system, sliding rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, Sun and magnetic sail, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam propulsion system, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsator), Earth-Moon non-rocket and Earth-Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel.
The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Key words: Review, Non-rocket propulsion, non-rocket space launching, non-rocket space flight, cable launch system, circle launch system, space keeper, kinetic propulsion system, gas-tube launch system, sliding rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, Sun and magnetic sail, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam propulsion system, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsator), Earth-Moon non-rocket and Earth-Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, recombination engine, electronic sail, solar sail.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1310.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 19:43:20*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 69 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion, beam space propulsion, MagSail, high speed AB-solar sail, transfer electricity in outer space, simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion, electrostatic linear engine and cable space launcher, AB-levitrons, electrostatic climber, AB-space propulsion, convertor any matter in nuclear energy, femtotechnology, wireless transfer of energy, magnetic space launcher, railgun, superconductivity rail gun, etc.
Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel.
The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Key words: Non-rocket propulsion, non-rocket space launching, non-rocket space flight, electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion, beam space propulsion, MagSail, high speed AB-solar sail, transfer electricity in outer space, simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion, electrostatic linear engine and launcher, AB-levitrons, electrostatic climber, AB-space propulsion, convertor any matter in nuclear energy, femtotechnology, wireless transfer of energy, magnetic space launcher, railgun, superconductivity railgun.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1310.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 20:06:46*

**Authors:** A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Under Space Tower the author understands structures having height from 100 km to the geosynchronous orbit and supported by Earth’s surface. The classical Space Elevator is not included in space towers. That has three main identifiers which distingue from Space Tower: Space Elevator has part over Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO) and all installation supported only the Earth’s centrifugal force, immobile cable connected to Earth’s surface, no pressure on Earth’s surface.
A lot of new concepts, ideas and innovation in space towers were offered, developed and researched in last years especially after 2000. For example: optimal solid space towers, inflatable space towers (include optimal space tower), circle and centrifugal space towers, kinetic space towers, electrostatic space towers, electromagnetic space towers, and so on.
Given review shortly summarizes there researches and gives a brief description them, note some their main advantages, shortcomings, defects and limitations.
---------------
Key words: Space tower, optimal space mast, inflatable space tower, kinetic space tower, electrostatic space tower,
magnetic space tower.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1310.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-09 03:34:59*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** Pages.

Problem – The explanation of nuclear properties from the strong force upwards has been elusive. It is not clear how binding energy arises, or why the neutrons are necessary in the nucleus at all. Nor has it been possible to explain, from first principles of the strong force, why any one nuclide is stable, unstable, or non-existent. Approach – Design methods were used to develop a conceptual mechanics for the bonding arrangements between nucleons. This was based on the covert structures for the proton and neutron as defined by the Cordus theory, a type of non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields. Findings - Nuclear bonding arises from the synchronous interaction between the discrete fields of the proton and neutron. This results in not one but multiple types of bond, cis- and transphasic, and assembly of chains and bridges of nucleons into a nuclear polymer. The synchronous interaction constrains the relative orientation of nucleons, hence the nuclear polymer takes only certain spatial layouts. The stability of nuclides is entirely predicted by morphology of the nuclear polymer and the cis/transphasic nature of the bonds. The theory successfully explains the qualitative stability characteristics of all hydrogen and helium nuclides. Originality – Novel contributions include: the concept of a nuclear polymer and its mechanics; an explanation of the stability, instability, or non-existence of nuclides starting from the strong/synchronous force; explanation of the role of the neutron in the nucleus. The theory opens a new field of mechanics by which nucleon interactions may be understood.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] **viXra:1310.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-12 20:09:52*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove the Space Time Computational Intractability, the Fundamental Theorem of Computational Complexity, proving the Quantum Computation Intractability

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[4] **viXra:1310.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-02 01:41:10*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 1 chart

Only three dimensions exist in the Universe, as most humans have long suspected, with the exception of mathematicians and physicists. Albert Einstein at one point approached this realization but geometry prevented his making the logical connections necessary to understand this basic principle. Today mathematicians and physicists fantasize about eleven, fifty – six and two hundred and fifty – six dimensions, which in reality are merely combinatorial aspects of our Universe. This paper reviews how 5 famous scientists missed the mark.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1310.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 09:38:55*

**Authors:** R.A. Isasi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. none

This brief article analyzes the personality of Sir Isaac Newton, egocentric, anchotite and above all alchemist. Precisely, the superposition of this "defects", associated to a brillant mind, led Isaac Newton to be an original and extraordinary precursor in all the History of Physics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[2] **viXra:1310.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 09:50:05*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

According to 21st century physics the Higgs Boson does not emit or reflect electromagnetism. This means the Higgs Boson is not matter and therefore does not exist.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1310.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 11:07:00*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Płotnicki

**Comments:** 11 Pages. All paragraphs in english. Some paragraphs in two languages: English//Polish

Article contains:
- very simple proof that special relativity is false,
- new postulates about every movement,
- optical relativity formulas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology