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1008 Submissions

[91] viXra:1008.0093 [pdf] submitted on 31 Aug 2010

A Hypothesis on the Nature of Light

Authors: J. Arnold
Comments: 14 Pages

It is proposed that light is at absolute rest, its apparent motion being the reflection of the motion of mass in time. The hypothesis resolves the paradox of the apparent wave/particle duality of light, accounts for its speed being invariant and a limit, explains numerous other peculiarities of its behavior, and identifies the motion of mass in time as the source of gravitational energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[90] viXra:1008.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-25 08:47:03

Tides

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 9 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Abstract: This article attempts to give a simple and logical explanation to tidal mechanism, based on a radically different dynamics, presented in book ‘MATTER Re-examined)’ [1]. Tides are caused by (accelerating) actions of external efforts on a linearly moving spinning-macro body. Each external effort alters shape of spinning macro body, separately, to produce its own set of tides. Change in shape of a spinning macro body, rather than displacement of its parts, cause tides. Displacement of ocean water in the direction of moving tide is superficial and it cannot produce tidal drag on earth’s solid core body.
Category: Astrophysics

[89] viXra:1008.0091 [pdf] submitted on 31 Aug 2010

A Unifying Field in Logics: Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability and Statistics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 157 pages

It was a surprise for me when in 1995 I received a manuscript from the mathematician, experimental writer and innovative painter Florentin Smarandache, especially because the treated subject was of philosophy - revealing paradoxes - and logics. He had generalized the fuzzy logic, and introduced two new concepts: a) "neutrosophy" - study of neutralities as an extension of dialectics; b) and its derivative "neutrosophic", such as "neutrosophic logic", "neutrosophic set", "neutrosophic probability", and "neutrosophic statistics" and thus opening new ways of research in four fields: philosophy, logics, set theory, and probability/statistics.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[88] viXra:1008.0090 [pdf] submitted on 31 Aug 2010

Interval Groupoids

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Moon K. Chetry
Comments: 242 pages

This book introduces several new classes of groupoid, like polynomial groupoids, matrix groupoids, interval groupoids, polynomial interval groupoids, matrix interval groupoids and their neutrosophic analogues.
Category: Algebra

[87] viXra:1008.0089 [pdf] submitted on 30 Aug 2010

The New Prime Theorem (441)-(490)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 69 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J2(ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (441)-(490) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution. πk(N0,2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1008.0088 [pdf] submitted on 31 Aug 2010

Goldbach' Conjecture (9): Proved Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture (A)

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 4 pages, In Chinese

We have inclusion-exclusion formula of π(N) and inclusion-exclusion formula of r2(N). Make use of inclusion-exclusion formula, we can obtain Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture (A).
Category: Number Theory

[85] viXra:1008.0087 [pdf] submitted on 30 Aug 2010

The New Prime Theorem (541)-(590)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 69 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J2(ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (541)-(590) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution. πk(N0,2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[84] viXra:1008.0086 [pdf] submitted on 30 Aug 2010

The New Prime Theorem (491)-(540)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 69 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J2(ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (491)-(540) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution. πk(N0,2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[83] viXra:1008.0085 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It's Relevance to the Science

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 7 pages

Ancient descriptions of beginning of the Earth and the global deluge are relevant to the Earth history. Beginning of the Earth or beginning of the time appears to be the beginning of the Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Since then, six Supercontinent cycles were completed on the surface of the Earth and the present is the seventh cycle. Global deluge appears to be the description of the rise in sea level occurred with the breakup of each Supercontinent. Therefore global deluge occurs in the beginning of every Supercontinent cycle. Descriptions of the Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and seven Karshvars are similar to the Supercontinent cycles.
Category: Geophysics

[82] viXra:1008.0084 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 12 pages

Cause of the Earth's surface manifestations appears to be external to the Earth. Gravitational attraction of the galactic center causes the tides to form in the mantle of the Earth when the solar system reaches the nearest position to the galactic center. Pair of troughs takes shape in the mantle adjacent to the tides as the low and high tides in the ocean. Upwelling tides or megablobs breaks the continental crust and disperses the plates towards the troughs on the surface. In the subsequent cycle, when the solar system again reaches the nearest position to the galactic center, megablobs interchange with the troughs and reassemble the continental crust. In other words, two galactic cycles of the solar system makes one Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth. It appears that the Supercontinent cycle started on the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Nucleation of the inner core was initiated in this period with the beginning of the Plate tectonics. Supercontinent cycle continues as long as the solar system revolves around the galactic center in the presence of liquid outer core in the interior and water on the surface of the Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[81] viXra:1008.0083 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 16 pages

Life on Earth reels under the Supercontinent cycles. Every Supercontinent forms with the collision and merger of all the plates causing a "tectonic pause". Reduced seafloor spreading and albedo advances the ice sheets towards the equator. Massive ice sheets cover the ocean and whole or part of the Supercontinent causing a global ice age or snowball Earth event. Base of the continents further sinks into the mantle with the increased weight of the ice sheets. Increased pressure within the mantle forms as a superplume under the Supercontinent and eventually breaks the Supercontinental crust giving the new plates. Superplume with the increased seafloor spreading and the albedo causes a severe global warming and rapidly melts the ice sheets, exiting the global ice age. Rapid melting of the ice sheets floods the lowered continental regions. Isostacy gradually uplifts the submerged continental crust above the sea level. Each break in the crust causes a global warming and merger of plates causes an ice age. Mass extinctions occur in the ice age and global warming periods. Evolution takes place in the post global warming period. Ice ages and global warming forms the distinct boundaries in the sedimentary layers.
Category: Geophysics

[80] viXra:1008.0082 [pdf] submitted on 13 Mar 2010

A Set of Conjectures on Smarandache Sequences

Authors: Sylvester Smith
Comments: 9 pages

Searching through the Archives of the Arizona State University, I found interesting sequences of numbers and problems related to them. I display some of them, and the readers are welcome to contribute with solutions or ideas.
Category: Number Theory

[79] viXra:1008.0081 [pdf] submitted on 28 Aug 2010

Smarandache's Minimum Theorem in the Einstein Relativistic Velocity Model of Hyperbolic Geometry

Authors: Catalin Barbu
Comments: 3 pages

In this note, we present a proof to the Smarandache's Minimum Theorem in the Einstein Relativistic Velocity Model of Hyperbolic Geometry.
Category: Geometry

[78] viXra:1008.0080 [pdf] submitted on 27 Aug 2010

The New Prime Theorem (391)-(440)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 69 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (391)-(440) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[77] viXra:1008.0079 [pdf] submitted on 27 Aug 2010

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 6 pages

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy may be used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather is expected to have increased correspondingly.
Category: Climate Research

[76] viXra:1008.0077 [pdf] submitted on 26 Aug 2010

Approximations of the Fine Structure Constant Reciprocal

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 2 Pages

A "brute force" computer search was made for the most accurate approximations of the experimental fine structure constant reciprocal in the form (A^a - D^d)/B^b + C^c - E^e, where A, B, C, D, and E were integers ranging from 0 to 30, while the exponents a, b, and c, were integers ranging from 0 to 3, and d and e were integers ranging from 0 to -3. Within these restrictions, and ignoring all trivial variants, a fit better than or equal to 137.036 was achieved only twice, by (10^3 - 10^-3)/3^3 + 10^2 - 10^-3 = 137.036 and (22^3 - 2^-1)/25^2 + 11^2 - 1^-1 = 137.036, where the search employed a fine structure constant inverse equaling its 2006 CODATA value of 137.035999679. The comparative simplicity of the first of these approximations, its symmetrical reuse of the constant 10, and the small size of its integers, together suggest its origin may be physical, and that the integers 10 and 3 may be important physical constants.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[75] viXra:1008.0076 [pdf] replaced on 30 Aug 2010

A Note on Astrometric Data and Time Varying Sun-Earth Distance in the Light of Carmeli Metric

Authors: V. Christianto
Comments: 7 Pages

In this note, we describe shortly time varying Sun-Earth distance in the light of Carmeli metric and compare the result with recent astrometric data. The graphical plot suggests that there should be linear-linear correspondence between Sun-planets distances and their time variation.
Category: Astrophysics

[74] viXra:1008.0075 [pdf] submitted on 26 Aug 2010

Why Trimmer et Al. "Did not Detect" Aether Wind in 1973?

Authors: V.V.Demjanov
Comments: 4 Pages

          In 1960s several authors began independently studies of the interferometric detection of "aether wind" using in the device optical media. Shamir&Fox in 1969 made measurements on the plexiglas and declared them "negative" (whereas they registered the shift of the fringe at ~1/3000 of its width, and "determined" a corresponding to it velocity of aether wind ~6.6 km/s). In 1973 Trimmer et al. mounted at the one-armed device the glass optics and registered with a big resolution the shift of the interference fringe (at most ~10–6 of its width) and determined by it the speed of "aether wind" ~3.8 cm/s. This result enhanced still more the confidence in that the attempts to detect aether are unfavorable. However, my results of the same years being favorable fell out of the common line of "negative" verdicts to aether. I managed to register on gases, liquids and solid optical materials million times greater relative fringe shifts (0.01÷5.0), revealed the horizontal projection of the aether wind velocity hundreds km/s. Since my results "weakened the experimental foundation of special relativity", their publishing is rejected until now.
          In the current report I argue reasonably, relying on my experience, that Trimmer et al. (as well as Shamir &Fox), actually obtained positive results in their measurements of aether wind which amounts to several hundreds km/s, proceeding from the declared by them resolution of their experimental units. I believe their experimental data. But I guess that they were faced with hidden artefacts in the interferometer with solid optic materials and not aware of it. The theory used by them for processing the measurements of the interference fringe shift obtained is not appropriate for interferometers with solid optical materials. I have found the possible reason why Trimmer et al. did not reveal the experimental facts undermining theories repudiating aether.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[73] viXra:1008.0074 [pdf] submitted on 26 Aug 2010

An Explanation of Redshift in a Static Universe

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 7 Pages

A review of the literature on the Lyman alpha forest gives direct evidence on the dynamics of the universe. In an expanding universe one would expect the average temperature of the universe to fall as it expands - but a review of the Doppler parameters of the Hydrogen clouds in Quasar spectra shows that contrary to this, they are increasing in temperature (or at least, becoming increasingly disturbed) as the universe ages. Addition-ally, in an expanding universe, hydrogen clouds must become further apart with time, so, as redshift increases, the clouds would be closer together. Instead, the evidence is that, on average, they are evenly spaced up to a redshift of one - if not beyond. How can this be so if the universe is expanding? Especially since this range of redshifts includes the supernovae data used to show 'acceleration' and so called 'time dilation.' Taking these results in isolation implies that the universe has been static for at least the last billion years or so and therefore a new model of redshift is needed to explain redshifts in a static universe. The model proposed here is that in a static universe, photons of light from distant galaxies are absorbed and reemitted by electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space and on each interaction the electron recoils. Energy is lost to the recoiling electron (New Tired Light theory) and thus the reemitted photon has less energy, a reduced frequency and therefore an increased wavelength. It has been redshifted. The Hubble relationship be-comes 'photons of light from a galaxy twice as far away, make twice as many interactions with the electrons in the plasma of IG space, lose twice as much energy and undergo twice the redshift.' A relationship between redshift and distance is found and, using published values of collision cross-sections and number density of electrons in IG space, a value for the Hubble constant is derived which is in good agreement with measured values. Assuming that the energy transferred to the recoiling electron is emitted as secondary radiation; the wavelength is calculated and found to be consistent with the wavelengths of the CMB. On the basis that plasma clouds result in periodicity or 'quantised' galaxy redshifts it is shown that the average spacing between hydrogen clouds (z = 0.026) compares favourably with an average spacing between galaxy clusters (z = 0.023). A test of this theory in the laboratory is proposed whereby a high powered laser could be fired through sparse cold plasma and the theories predicted increase in emission of microwave radiation of a particular frequency determined.
Category: Astrophysics

[72] viXra:1008.0073 [pdf] submitted on 26 Aug 2010

A Proposed Recoil Interaction Between Photons and The Electrons In The Plasma Of Intergalactic Space Leading To The Hubble Constant And CMB

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 8 Pages

The Hubble diagram for type Ia Supernovae gives the value of the Hubble constant, H as 64±3 km/s Mpc-1 which, in SI units, is equal to 'hre/me per unit volume of space' (2.1x10-18 s-1). This coincidence could suggest a relationship between H and the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space that act collectively and oscillate if displaced. The possibility that light from distant galaxies is absorbed and reemitted by the electrons is considered with the electron recoiling on both occasions. A double Mössbauer effect leads to a redshift in the transmitted light. Introduction of the photoabsorption cross section 2reλ leads to the relationship H = 2nehre/me giving H = 12 km/s Mpc-1 when ne has the reported value of ne ~ 10-7cm-3. The small amount of energy transferred to the electron by recoil is radiated as bremstrahlung with a wavelength in the microwave region.
Category: Astrophysics

[71] viXra:1008.0072 [pdf] replaced on 30 Aug 2010

Gravitation, Force and Geometry

Authors: J. Arnold
Comments: 2 Pages

Gravitation is described as a uniquely geometric phenomenon, incompatible with the concepts of force and energy, and only analogically associable with non-geometric mathematical formalizations. In particular, the mathematical derivation of gravitational waves from the field equations is shown to be arbitrary and physically untenable.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[70] viXra:1008.0071 [pdf] submitted on 25 Aug 2010

Earth's Charge and the Charges of the Van Allen Belts

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 11 Pages, including 2 figures and 2 tables

In this paper three separate charges are distinguished for the Earth and its magnetosphere. First, it is assumed, that the Earth and its nearest atmosphere bear a net negative charge QE. Secondly, a positive charge Qi and a negative charge Qo are proposed for the inner and outer Van Allen belt, respectively. Thirdly, a belt with net zero charge (electron slot) will be assumed to be present between both charged belts. According to the three tori model, recently developed for pulsars and black holes, equilibrium may exist between the charges QE, Qi and Qo. Three expressions for the Coulomb electric field at different distances from Earth's centre are derived from the same model. Using available data, values for the three charges are deduced for the solar minimum and maximum, respectively. An averaged charge QE of about −1 C is extracted for the Earth. Some other features of the model are discussed, among them the flow of charge during the change from solar minimum to maximum. Furthermore, it is shown that the magnitude of Earth's magnetic field cannot be explained by the motion of the charges QE, Qi and Qo. In order to obtain a better explanation, the so-called Wilson-Blackett law is discussed. In addition, a large toroidal electric current in the Earth is proposed
Category: Geophysics

[69] viXra:1008.0070 [pdf] submitted on 25 Aug 2010

The Creator and the Physicist How Not to Talk Physics in the Face of God

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 4 pages

This paper is less about religion than about science. It is meant as advice to physicists, physics teachers, biologists, or others who may find themselves confronted by Creationism when discussion of the theory of evolution, or of other scientific issues, is perceived as bearing on religious writings or dogma.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[68] viXra:1008.0069 [pdf] submitted on 25 Aug 2010

Wandering in the World of Smarandache Numbers

Authors: A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 217 pages

It was in mid-nineties of the last century when I received a letter from Professor Ion Patrascu of the Fratii Buzesti College, Craiova, Romania, with lots of enclosures, introducing me with this new branch of Mathematics. Though my basic undergraduate degree is in Mathematics, my research field at that time was Operations Research and Mathematical Programming.
Category: Number Theory

[67] viXra:1008.0068 [pdf] submitted on 13 Mar 2010

Vedic Mathematics 'vedic' or 'mathematics': a Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 220 pages

Religious extremism has been the root cause of most of the world problems since time immemorial. It has decided the fates of men and nations. In a vast nation like India, the imposition of religious dogma and discrimination upon the people has taken place after the upsurge of Hindu rightwing forces in the political arena. As a consequence of their political ascendancy in the northern states of India, they started to rewrite school textbooks in an extremely biased manner that was fundamentalist and revivalist. Not only did they meddle with subjects like history (which was their main area of operation), but they also imposed their religious agenda on the science subjects. There was a plan to introduce Vedic Astrology in the school syllabus across the nation, which was dropped after a major hue and cry from secular intellectuals.
Category: Social Science

[66] viXra:1008.0067 [pdf] submitted on 13 Mar 2010

Target Type Tracking with a new Probabilistic Belief Transformation

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 8 pages

Abstract-In this paper we analyze the performances of a new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT). We complicate here a bit the TTT problem by considering three types of targets (Interceptor, Fighter and Cargo) and show through Monte-Carlo simulations the advantages of DSmP over the classical pignistic transformation which is classically used for decision-making under uncertainty when dealing with belief assignments. Based on our previous works for the justification of rules of combination for TTT problem, only the Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule and the hybrid fusion rules are considered in this work for their ability to deal consistently with high conflicting sources of evidence with three different belief assignment modelings.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[65] viXra:1008.0066 [pdf] submitted on 24 Aug 2010

Neutrino Oscillations: The Indefinite Mass Defined

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 10 pages

This paper outlines the usual neutrino oscillation theory and points out the analogy between Lyman energy eigenstates and neutrino mass eigenstates. It then suggests several alternative interpretations of the neutrino oscillation theory in regard to determination of the rest mass of the neutrino.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[64] viXra:1008.0065 [pdf] submitted on 24 Aug 2010

The Theory of Relativity is Wrong

Authors: Emil D. Gigov
Comments: 18 pages

Very true scientists, such as Rutherford, Soddy, Michelson, Sagnac, Lenard, Larmor, McMillan and others, have claimed, that the Theory of relativity is wrong. Even Poincare and Einstein are hinted something similar. Classical physics is far from simple, already during the XIX century has been spoken about things like gravity waves, nuclear power and variable mass. Theory of relativity as a whole, is based only on the hypothesis, that the speed of light in Euclidean empty space is, invariant universal constant. But in reality this velocity is variable, in Newtonian sense. Newton's emission theory of light, has been proven through many experiments, for example by those of Michelson, Sagnac and Fizeau. Also, the velocity of photons in one ray, is variable with respect to lateral observer, and is consistent with the classical law for velocity addition.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[63] viXra:1008.0064 [pdf] submitted on 23 Aug 2010

Goldbach' Conjecture (8): Upper Bound Estimation of Number of Goldbach' Primes

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 3 pages, In Chinese

This upper bound estimation prevailed over upper bound estimation of Chen Jing Run
Category: Number Theory

[62] viXra:1008.0063 [pdf] submitted on 23 Aug 2010

Temperature of the SN1987A Supernova Provides an Estimate of the Electron Neutrino Mass

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 13 pages

Numerous upper bounds on the (anti)neutrino rest mass have been published based on the SN1987A observations. Here, we use a nonkinematic (thermal) time extent to provide a rest-mass estimate of a few eV (as mc2 energy), if not zero. In the solution, we find that a typical upper-bound formula for the mass implies that this thermal extent was attributable to about 10% of the particle energy measured on Earth. The present approach yields an expected value for the mass, given any theoretical or model-dependent estimate of the fraction of the detected neutrino energy attributable to the supernova temperature. This is a reposting of an old paper which describes an analysis protocol which can be applied for any supernova for which a population of neutrinos is observed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[61] viXra:1008.0062 [pdf] submitted on 22 Aug 2010

Smarandache Consecutive Prime Sequences (n = 1 to 100)

Authors: Robert G. Wilson V
Comments: 3 pages

"Smarandache consecutive sequences" is the nth member of the consecutive sequence, e. g. Sm(11)=1234567891011, and RSm(11)=1110987654321. Following is the prime version of "Smarandache consecutive sequences"
Category: Number Theory

[60] viXra:1008.0061 [pdf] submitted on 22 Aug 2010

Some Properties of the Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: Richard Pinch
Comments: 6 pages

Charles Ashbacher [1] has posed a number of questions relating to the pseudo-Smarandache function Z(n). In this note we show that the ratio of consecutive values Z(n + 1)/Z(n) and Z(n - 1)/Z(n) are unbounded; that Z(2n)/Z(n) is unbounded; that n/Z(n) takes every integer value infinitely often; and that the series Σn 1/Z(n)α is convergent for any α > 1.
Category: Number Theory

[59] viXra:1008.0060 [pdf] replaced on 22 Feb 2011

Gravitons Writ Large; I.e. Stability, Contributions to Early Arrow of Time, and Also Their Possible Role in re Acceleration of the Universe 1 Billion Years Ago?

Authors: A. Beckwith
Comments: 19 pages, one figure. Ties in DM and DE, in terms of a treatment partly suggested by Yurov, as of 'double inflation'.

This document is due to a question by Debasish of the Saha institute of India asked in the Dark Side of the Universe conference, 2010, in Leon, Mexico, and also is connected with issues as to the initial configuration of the arrow of time brought up in both Rudn 10 , in Rencontres de Blois, and Fundamental frontiers of physics 11 , in Paris, in July 2010. Further reference is made as to how to reconcile early inflation with re acceleration, partly by dimensional analysis and partly due to recounting a suggestion as by Yurov , which the author thinks has merit and which ties into, to a point with using massive gravitons as a re acceleration of the universe a billion years ago enabler, as perhaps a variant of DE.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[58] viXra:1008.0059 [pdf] submitted on 21 Aug 2010

Tornado Genesis

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 37 Pages.

It is inferred from the phenomenological facts of tornado that tornado itself should have a driving force generating the updraft in the vortex of tornado. The driving force is supposed to be originated from the electric interaction between a storm cloud and a crustal conducting body underground. The electric interaction in tornado is considered to be similar to a lightning discharge in respect that the electric potential is reduced between a storm cloud and the ground, but the electric discharging process in tornado should be much slower than the lightning discharge and result in the atmospheric vortex formation of tornado. The mechanism of tornado formation is suggested, in which Townsend avalanche process is assumed inside the tornado vortex with a dangling conducting channel that is embedded in the funnel cloud of tornado. The strong updraft inside the vortex of tornado is produced by momentum diffusion process when the positively ionized air molecules move upward under the influence of electric field inside the vortex. With the mechanism of tornado formation, phenomenological expectations are followed.
Category: Classical Physics

[57] viXra:1008.0058 [pdf] submitted on 21 Aug 2010

The Big Boing Theory (The Exam at the End of All Exams)

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 9 Pages.

Two cosmonauts had been living in an obscure compartment of the Mir Orbiter for seven years, ever since Ground Control inadvertently omitted them from a list of return passengers...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:1008.0057 [pdf] submitted on 20 Aug 2010

Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles 3. the Mass Origin Theory

Authors: A.G. Kyriakos
Comments: 30 Pages.

Two hypotheses of the mass origin are examined: 1) the theory of mass, developed within the framework of electron theory, and 2) Higgs's mechanism of the mass generation of Standard Model. The advantages and disadvantages of each of them are shown. The connections between these two approaches and nonlinear theory of elementary particles are also noted.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[55] viXra:1008.0056 [pdf] submitted on 20 Aug 2010

Gravity Waves and the Constancy of the Speed of Light

Authors: John R. McWhinnie
Comments: 9 pages.

This paper takes two phenomena in physics, attempts to show that the solutions to them are linked and that these solutions shall require a radical re-think of physics
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:1008.0055 [pdf] submitted on 20 Aug 2010

Configuration of the Arrow of Time, in Initial Start of Inflation?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 2 pages, 1 figure. Actual proceedings submission to the Rencontres De Blois 2010 conference , with an emphasis upon issues brought up earlier, in a less organized fashion un Rudn 10, in Moscow, May 30.

Initial relic entropy growth is presented in the context of a zero valued chemical potential and different formulations of overall energy values, which may be tied into massive gravitons appearing at the onset of inflation This is contrasted with the role of gravitons with non zero rest mass in four dimensions a billion years ago. Questions as to if an interplay between two different regimes for 'heavy' gravity are presented s open research issues.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1008.0054 [pdf] submitted on 20 Aug 2010

Goldbach' Conjecture (7): Five Proofs that is Under Five Assumptions Term

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 4 pages, In Chinese

According to five assumptions, get five proofs
Category: Number Theory

[52] viXra:1008.0053 [pdf] submitted on 20 Aug 2010

Gravitons, and the Initial Configuration of Arrow of Time in Inflation?. Part 2, of a Discussion Started at Rudn 10, in Moscow, June 30, 2010

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 7 pages, one figure. Significant enhancement of arrow of time issue at the onset of inflation which will be brought up in the DICE meeting , with other topics, in September 13-17, 2010.

This investigation sets forth initial conditions for a start of the arrow of time in cosmology based upon the idea that of having initil degrees of freedom set as gstar ~ 1000 initially , instead of a maximum value of gstar ~ 100 - 120 for the number of degrees of freedom during the electro weak era.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:1008.0052 [pdf] submitted on 19 Aug 2010

Is Initial Data for Cosmological Arrow of Time Emerging Due to Inflation Start?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 pages. One figure. Contribution to the Rudn 10 conference by Andrew Beckwith, in a parallel session in cosmology, May 30, 2010 at Peoples Friendship University, Moscow, Russia as a guest of the Russian Gravitational society.

We ask if setting the vanishing chemical potential limit μ -> 0 with entropy S ∝ T3 [1] for a number of degrees of freedom significantly greater than the standard electroweak value of gstar ~ 100 - 120, do we have a new foundation for the arrow of time in quantum cosmology with inflation?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[50] viXra:1008.0051 [pdf] submitted on 18 Aug 2010

Covariant Energy-Momentum Conservation in General Relativity with Cosmological Constant

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 11 pages, this is an updated version of an earlier paper originally archived as arXiv:gr-qc/9701028. The cosmological constant has been added to the analysis, plus other small additions. Submitted to Prespacetime Journal.

A covariant formula for conserved currents of energy, momentum and angular-momentum is derived from a general form of Noether's theorem applied directly to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical general relativity. Energy conservation in closed and flat big-bang cosmologies including cosmic radiation and dark energy is discussed as special cases. Special care is taken to distinguish between kinematic and dynamic expressions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1008.0050 [pdf] submitted on 18 Aug 2010

Could Gravitons from Prior Universe Survive Quantum Bounce to Reappear in Present Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure. Part of what will be brought up in DICE 2010, as of September 13-17, 2010, in Italy . The other part of the DICE presentation will be finished by the end of next week

We ask the question if an entropy S = E/T with a usual value ascribed of initial entropy S ~ 105 of the onset of inflation can allow an order of magnitude resolution of the question of if there could be a survival of a graviton from a prior to the present universe, using typical Planckian peak temperature values of T ~ 1019 GeV. We obtain the values consistent with up to 1038 gravitons contributing to an energy value of E ~ 1024 GeV if we assume a relic energy contribution based upon each graviton initially exhibiting a frequency spike of 1010 Hz. The value of E ~ 1024 GeV is picked from looking at the aftermath of what happens if there exists a quantum bounce with a peak density value of ρmaximum ~ 2.07 ρPlanck as has been considered recently by P. Malkiewicz and W. Piechocki [15] in the LQG bounce regime radii of the order of magnitude of l ~ 1035 meters. In this paper estimates specifically avoids using S = (E - μN)/T are done, by setting vanishing chemical potential μ = 0 for ultra high temperatures. Finally we compare briefly the obtained results with the ones recently investigated by G. 't Hooft [20] and L.A. Glinka [21, 22].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1008.0049 [pdf] submitted on 17 Aug 2010

A Model of the Proton

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 27 Pages.

AA geometrical/mechanical model of the proton is developed which satisfies general empirical features. A Yukawa / Paris-type potential due to a mesonic field is incorporated into Einstein's equations of general relativity to predict a hadronic force constant, stronger than the fine structure constant by (137/√3) times Proton mass is expressed in terms of muonic mass building-blocks. Analysis of the magnetic moment allows substructure modelling, incorporating 2 grades of triplets. Creation of these component parts is described in terms of action-integrals. The gluon field energy holding the triplets together is related to total energy. Uniqueness of electromagnetic charge is attributed to a governing action principle. Finally, a neutron model has been proposed, consisting of a proton core orbited by a heavy-electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[47] viXra:1008.0048 [pdf] submitted on 17 Aug 2010

A Model of the Muon

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 17 Pages.

A geometrical/mechanical model of the muon has been developed based on a previous detailed model of the electron and the fine structure constant. The anomalous magnetic moment and lifetime have been calculated in terms of muon component parts. Known features of the tauon have also been related to the muon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[46] viXra:1008.0047 [pdf] submitted on 17 Aug 2010

A Model of Charmonium

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 7 Pages.

A geometrical/mechanical model of charmonium has been developed, based on the logarithmic confinement potential. The quark and antiquark pair orbit around the centre of mass, with their gluon and colour fields contained within a torus structure of characteristic radius.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[45] viXra:1008.0046 [pdf] submitted on 17 Aug 2010

Doppler Shift Reveals Light Speed Variation

Authors: Stephan J. G. Gift
Comments: 8 pages

Light speed variation relative to a moving observer occurring according to classical velocity composition is demonstrated using Doppler Shift. This directly contradicts the light speed invariance postulate of special relativity and confirms ether drift.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[44] viXra:1008.0045 [pdf] submitted on 16 Aug 2010

Transition of Expansion Acceleration of the Universe Through Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 5 Pages.

This letter explains that density of positive mass and negative mass is almost uniformly throughout the whole universe, but density of positive mass and negative mass included in a random universe radius R can be different from each other. Like this, positive, zero, negative values of total gravitational potential energy are all possible due to density difference of positive mass and negative mass included in a random universe radius R. This letter is showing possibility in explaining the decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion due to density difference of positive mass and negative mass because negative mass and positive mass conducts different forms of movement depending on the density difference of positive mass and negative mass. As change of total gravitational potential energy sign occurs from UT=0 and total gravitational potential energy oscillates based on 0. This provides valid explanation regarding to the problems of the atness of the universe and fine tuning.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[43] viXra:1008.0044 [pdf] submitted on 16 Aug 2010

Degrees of Freedom: A Correction to Chi Square For Physical Hypotheses

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 47 Pages.

In common practice, degrees of freedom (df) may be corrected for the number of theoretical free parameters as though parameters were the same as data categories. However, a free physical parameter generally is not equivalent to a data category in terms of goodness of the fit. Here we use synthetic, nonrandom data to show the effect of choice of categorization and df on goodness of fit. We then explain the origin of the df problem and show how to avoid it in a three-step process: First, the theoretical curve is fit to the data to remove its variance, leaving what, under the null hypothesis, should be structureless residuals. Second, the residuals are fit by a set of orthogonal polynomials up to the degree, should it occur, at which significant variance was removed. Third, the number of nonsignificant polynomial terms in the original + orthogonal set become the df in a standard chi square test. This process reduces a general df problem to one of polynomial df and allows goodness of a fit to be determined by data categorization and significance level alone. An example is given of an evaluation of physical data on neutrino oscillation.
Category: Statistics

[42] viXra:1008.0043 [pdf] submitted on 16 Aug 2010

Differentiable Structures on Real Grassmannians

Authors: Jeidsan A. C. Pereira
Comments: 10 Pages.

Given a vector space V of dimension n and a natural number k < n, the grassmannian Gk(V) is defined as the set of all subspaces W ⊂ V such that dim(W) = k. In the case of V = Rn, Gk(V) is the set of k-fl ats in Rn and is called real grassmannian [1]. Recently the study of these manifolds has found applicability in several areas of mathematics, especially in Modern Differential Geometry and Algebraic Geometry. This work will build two differential structures on the real grassmannian, one of which is obtained as a quotient space of a Lie group [1], [3], [2], [7]
Category: Geometry

[41] viXra:1008.0042 [pdf] replaced on 13 Aug 2010

An Interpretation of the Laws of Gravity and Inertia

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 16 Pages. v1 in Italian, v2 in English

Ideas on a source of inertia from fixed stars have crossed Physics least Mach onwards. Equations "Maxwell-like" for gravitation and inertia were obtained by several authors as a subspecies of the simplified theory of General Relativity. A precursor was Dennis Sciama. Introducing a four-potential, I submit here a tentative interpretation of our laws about gravity and inertia, in complete analogy with electromagnetism. In classical mechanics is not introduced, usually, a four potential. The field produced by this four-potential describes both gravitational and inertial forces. Admit the gauge transformation on potential is equivalent to enunciate the equivalence principle, and vice versa. Inertial forces (ex. Coriolis force) are interpreted as a field action. All the inertia is interpreted as a field action. The physical presence of this field seems to be a fact, even more concrete the usual admission of inertial "fictitious forces".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1008.0041 [pdf] submitted on 13 Aug 2010

Problemes Avec et Sans... Problemes!

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 175 Pages. In French

Problems with and without... problems!
Category: General Mathematics

[39] viXra:1008.0040 [pdf] submitted on 13 Aug 2010

Smarandache Hyper (∩, ∈)-Idealson Smarandache Hyper K-Algebras

Authors: Kyung Ho Kim, Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh, Habib Harizavi
Comments: 6 Pages.

We introduce the notion of a Smarandache hyper (∩, ∈)-ideal and Ω-reflexive in hyper K-algebra, and some related properties are given.
Category: Algebra

[38] viXra:1008.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-14 05:29:52

Divisibility Tests for Smarandache Semigroups.

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Rao
Comments: 12 Pages.

Two Divisibility Tests for Smarandache semigroups are given . Further, the notion of divisibility of elements in a semigroup is applied to characterize the Smarandache semigroups. Examples are provided for justification.
Category: General Mathematics

[37] viXra:1008.0038 [pdf] submitted on 12 Aug 2010

Time Paradox, Zitterbewegung and Noncommutative Geometry

Authors: Lawrence B. Crowell
Comments: 21 Pages.

The zitterbewgung of the electron is associated with an intrinsic time for an electron, or any of the fermionic particles with mass such as quarks and leptons. In this article it is shown that a massless particle coupled to noncommutative coordinate geometry is subjected to a gauge-like force. This force acts to trap the massless particle in an orbit within a region. This bottled massless particle then has an induced mass. This is then argued to be tied to fundamental aspects of physics, such as a dynamical Higgs model, as well as strings and p-brane theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1008.0037 [pdf] submitted on 12 Aug 2010

A Direct Proof of the Yff's Conjecture

Authors: Marian Dincă
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper it is given proof Yff's conjecture using convexity arguments.
Category: Geometry

[35] viXra:1008.0036 [pdf] submitted on 12 Aug 2010

On the Distribution of Prime Numbers in the Intervals Defined by the Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 4 pages

The number of primes in the inclusive intervals defined by consecutive Fibonacci numbers exhibits interesting behavior between the Fibonacci numbers 55 and 196418. Specifically, starting with the interval [55, 89] through the interval [121393,196418] the ratio of the number of primes in successive intervals is a value that alternates high, low, high, low, etc.
Category: Number Theory

[34] viXra:1008.0035 [pdf] submitted on 12 Aug 2010

One-Way Light Speed Determination Using the Range Measurement Equation of the GPS

Authors: Stephan J. G. Gift
Comments: 8 pages

The one-way speed of light is determined using the range measurement equation of the Global Positioning System. This equation has been rigorously and extensively tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame, a frame that moves with the Earth as it revolves around the Sun but does not share its rotation. The result is a simple demonstration of one-way light speed anisotropy depending on the direction of propagation relative to the rotating Earth that contradicts the principle of light speed constancy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1008.0034 [pdf] submitted on 11 Aug 2010

Rural Migration A Significant Cause Of Urbanization: A District Level Review Of Census Data For Rajasthan

Authors: Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 pages

Migration plays an important role in urbanization of a state. In general more the migration higher the urbanization rate though it many not necessarily true in all the situations but in general it is witnessed that migration have a fairly large share in urbanization. A district level analysis for Rajasthan state is attempted to comprehend Urbanization due to migration their interlinkages and association.
Category: Statistics

[32] viXra:1008.0033 [pdf] submitted on 11 Aug 2010

Urbanization Due To Migration: A District Level Analysis Of Migrants From Different Distances For The Rajasthan State

Authors: Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 pages

People migrate to different distances and there migration is governed by different reasons. Distance of place of migration plays an important role in the migration process and an analysis based on the remoteness of the origin and destination will reveal the push and pull factors in more explicit way. However, a common phenomenon is that people do migrate to a longer distance with a more focused objective and there propensity to settle in urban areas is always higher than the small distance migration.
Category: Statistics

[31] viXra:1008.0032 [pdf] submitted on 11 Aug 2010

A Unit Based Crashing Pert Network for Optimization of Software Project Cost

Authors: Priti Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Dipti Chauhan, Amit Bhaghel
Comments: 10 pages

Crashing is a process of expediting project schedule by compressing the total project duration. It is helpful when managers want to avoid incoming bad weather season. However, the downside is that more resources are needed to speed-up a part of a project, even if resources may be withdrawn from one facet of the project and used to speed-up the section that is lagging behind. Moreover, that may also depend on what slack is available in a non-critical activity, thus resources can be reassigned to critical project activity. Hence, utmost care should be taken to make sure that appropriate activities are being crashed and that diverted resources are not causing needless risk and project scope integrity. In this paper we want to present a technique called "Unit Crashing" to reduce the total cost of project. Unit Crashing means to crash the project duration by one unit (day) instead of crashing it completely. This technique uses an iterative approach to perform unit crashing until all activities along the critical path are crashed by desired amount. The output of this method will reduce the cost of project, and is useful at places where cost is of major consideration. Crashing PERT networks can save a significant amount of money in crashing and overrun costs of a company. Even if there are no direct costs in the form of penalties for late completion of projects, there is likely to be intangible costs because of reputation damage.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[30] viXra:1008.0031 [pdf] submitted on 11 Aug 2010

Another Proof of a Theorem Relative to the Orthological Triangles

Authors: Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

In [1] we proved, using barycentric coordinates, the following theorem
Category: Geometry

[29] viXra:1008.0030 [pdf] submitted on 11 Aug 2010

Proof Wolstenholme-Lenhard Ciclic Inequality for Real Numbers and L.fejes Tóth Conjecture

Authors: Marian Dincă
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper an elementary proof of the Wolstenholme-Lenhard ciclic inequality for real numbers and L.Fejes T&oactute;th conjecture( equivalent by Erdis-Mordell inequality for polygon) is given, using a remarcable identity We give the following:
Category: Geometry

[28] viXra:1008.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-22 07:33:34

Planetary Spin

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract: A part of action by ‘central force’ between planetary and central bodies causes their spin motions. All macro bodies in planetary systems develop mean accelerating spin motion. Depending on their orbital parameters, planets and central bodies may spin forward, rearward or, in rare cases, may have no spin motion at all. All macro bodies in a planetary system tend to spin in common orbital plane. Angular accelerations of orbiting macro bodies continue indefinitely until centrifugal actions disintegrate planets and planetary system. In an orbiting macro body, consistency of its matter-content and radial size determines relative spin speeds at different parts. Equatorial region of all very large orbiting macro bodies spin faster than their polar regions or regions towards their spin-axes. Lengthening of (terrestrial) solar days, presently misinterpreted as slowing down of earth’s spin motion, is the result of insufficient compensation to earth’s apparent spin motion about sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1008.0028 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2010

Symmetrically Reproducing Quark and Lepton Mass and Charge

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 3 pages

It is shown that a particle set possessing electric charges and masses that coincide with those of the quarks and leptons can be produced with the aid of the symmetry of the cuboctahedron. Specifically, it is shown that small powers of 4.1 are useful in economically reproducing the quark and lepton masses, and that these powers - and thereby the masses they represent - can be joined automatically with their correct values for electric charge with the aid of cuboctahedral symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[26] viXra:1008.0027 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2010

Conformal Gauge Relativity On the Geometrical Unification of Gravitation and Gauge Fields

Authors: Juan Andrés Musante Apolo
Comments: 44 pages

A Lagrangian depending on geometric variables (metric, affine connection, gauge group generators) is given which maintains compatibility with General Relativity. It generates the dynamics for Electromagnetism and other Gauge Fields along with Gravitation, at the time it gives a geometric foundation for the stress-energy tensor of continuous matter. The geometric-invariance principle under this integration is exposed and the resulting field equations are obtained. The theory is developed over the tangent space of a four-dimensional real manifold and the generators become those from the Homogenous Lorentz group.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1008.0026 [pdf] replaced on 15 Aug 2010

Threat Assessment of a Possible Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device Using DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 26 pages

This paper presents the solution about the threat of a VBIED (Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device) obtained with the DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory). This problem has been proposed recently to the authors by Simon Maskell and John Lavery as a typical illustrative example to try to compare the different approaches for dealing with uncertainty for decision-making support. The purpose of this paper is to show in details how a solid justified solution can be obtained from DSmT approach and its fusion rules thanks to a proper modeling of the belief functions involved in this problem.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[24] viXra:1008.0025 [pdf] replaced on 12 Aug 2010

Survey on Singularities and Differential Algebras of Generalized Functions : A Basic Dichotomic Sheaf Theoretic Singularity Test

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 184 pages

It is shown how the infinity of differential algebras of generalized functions is naturally subjected to a basic dichotomic singularity test regarding their significantly different abilities to deal with large classes of singularities. In this respect, a review is presented of the way singularities are dealt with in four of the infinitely many types of differential algebras of generalized functions. These four algebras, in the order they were introduced in the literature are : the nowhere dense, Colombeau, space-time foam, and local ones. And so far, the first three of them turned out to be the ones most frequently used in a variety of applications. The issue of singularities is naturally not a simple one. Consequently, there are different points of view, as well as occasional misunderstandings. In order to set aside, and preferably, avoid such misunderstandings, two fundamentally important issues related to singularities are pursued. Namely, 1) how large are the sets of singularity points of various generalized functions, and 2) how are such generalized functions allowed to behave in the neighbourhood of their point of singularity. Following such a two fold clarification on singularities, it is further pointed out that, once one represents generalized functions - thus as well a large class of usual singular functions - as elements of suitable differential algebras of generalized functions, one of the main advantages is the resulting freedom to perform globally arbitrary algebraic and differential operations on such functions, simply as if they did not have any singularities at all. With the same freedom from singularities, one can perform globally operations such as limits, series, and so on, which involve infinitely many generalized functions. The property of a space of generalized functions of being a flabby sheaf proves to be essential in being able to deal with large classes of singularities. The first and third type of the mentioned differential algebras of generalized functions are flabby sheaves, while the second type fails to be so. The fourth type has not yet been studied in this regard.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[23] viXra:1008.0024 [pdf] submitted on 9 Aug 2010

Hydrodynamics of the Rotating Spherical Matter Fields and Atomic Structure

Authors: Ibrahim Mutlay
Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure.

Atomic structure model was proposed as a rotating stratified fl uidic matter field with the particles corresponded to solitary waves in the field. Mathematical formulation of the proposed structure was constructed on the model of thermal convection in rotating spherical shells of conducting fluids using magnetohydrodynamic Navier-Stokes Equations. Acceleration term was derived using Coulomb potential. Novel model showed that internal structure of atoms is subjected to complex fluid dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1008.0023 [pdf] replaced on 9 Aug 2010

Lorentz Contraction of Space and the Gravitational Field

Authors: Morgan D. Rosenberg
Comments: 10 pages

By considering the gravitational field as an optical medium with a radially-dependent index of refraction, we are able to show that a physical model of space being radially compressed by mass, rather than curved by mass, as in general relativity, yields the same results predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. We are further able to show that this spatial compression is equivalent to the Lorentz contraction of special relativity. The predictions of general relativity are all derived with relatively basic mathematics without reliance on the grossly complex Riemannian geometry needed for Einstein's curved space-time model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1008.0022 [pdf] replaced on 29 Nov 2011

A Short Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Morgan D. Rosenberg
Comments: 11 pages

Presented herein is a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, which is not only short (relative to Wiles' 109 page proof), but is also performed using relatively elementary mathematics. Particularly, the binomial theorem is utilized, which was known in the time of Fermat (as opposed to the elliptic curves of Wiles' proof, which belong to modern mathematics). Using the common integer expression an + bn = cn for Fermat's Last Theorem, the substitutions c = b+i and b = a+j are made, where i and j are integers. Using a Taylor expansion (i.e., in the form of the binomial theorem), Fermat's Last Theorem reduces to (see paper) and what remains to be proven, from this equation, is that (see paper) only has rational solutions for n=1 and n=2. This proof is presented herein, thus proving that an + bn = cn only has integer solutions for a, b and c for integer values of the exponent n=1 or n=2.
Category: Number Theory

[20] viXra:1008.0021 [pdf] submitted on 8 Aug 2010

The Philosophy Error of the "Almost Prime"

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 2 pages, In Chinese

Don't confuse quantitative change and qualitative change.
Category: Number Theory

[19] viXra:1008.0020 [pdf] submitted on 7 Aug 2010

A Family of Estimators for Estimating Population Mean in Stratified Sampling under Non-Response

Authors: Manoj K. Chaudhary, Rajesh Singh, Rakesh K. Shukla, Mukesh Kumar, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 pages

Khoshnevisan et al. (2007) proposed a general family of estimators for population mean using known value of some population parameters in simple random sampling. The objective of this paper is to propose a family of combined-type estimators in stratified random sampling adapting the family of estimators proposed by Khoshnevisan et al. (2007) under non-response. The properties of proposed family have been discussed. We have also obtained the expressions for optimum sample sizes of the strata in respect to cost of the survey. Results are also supported by numerical analysis.
Category: Statistics

[18] viXra:1008.0019 [pdf] submitted on 7 Aug 2010

Russian Alphabet: Message to Slavs

Authors: Valery P. Dmitriyev
Comments: 4 pages

Russian letters have ancient names which add up to a meaningful text following the alphabet acrophony. The second half of this text, known as Message to Slavs, calls for a translation into modern language, and its interpretation is, generally speaking, ambiguous. The recently accepted translation sounds pompous and perhaps somewhat sanctimonious. Below I give an alternative interpretation of the message's second part, that is formed of sensual images, and someone may see it as scabrous. However that may be, I proceed from the assumption that our ancestors were more honest in their emotions than today's coprolalics.
Category: Linguistics

[17] viXra:1008.0018 [pdf] replaced on 14 Sep 2010

Time Travel: Some Science of Fiction

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 11 pages.

The fiction of time-travel usually makes it paradoxical and therefore impossible beyond physics. A few physical postulates, however, can make time-travel merely impossible physically.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[16] viXra:1008.0017 [pdf] submitted on 8 Aug 2010

Why We Should Favor Heavier Vehicles for Highway Driving

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 12 pages.

Elementary calculations show that the mass of the passenger's vehicle should have an important influence on risk of injury, greater mass yielding greater protection independent of the other mass(es) in the collision. This holds for collisions treated either as purely elastic, or as quasi-inelastic. Passengers in more massive vehicles thus would seem better off no matter what the size or weight of other vehicle(s) in a collision. The approximations used suggest that highway vehicles should be at least 20 times the mass of the average passenger, or injuries in a collision will be disproportionately grave.
Category: Classical Physics

[15] viXra:1008.0016 [pdf] submitted on 7 Aug 2010

On the Limit for the Periodic Table of the Elements

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 7 Pages.

It has been proved that the 5g = 18 is unstable, the heaviest element that occurs naturally is uranium with an atomic number of 92 and the island of stability does not exist using the modified Pauli principle. This is the Book proof.
Category: Chemistry

[14] viXra:1008.0015 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-12 17:04:07

Arithmetic Information in Particle Mixing

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 8 Pages.

Quantum information theory motivates certain choices for parameterizations of the CKM and MNS mixing matrices. In particular, we consider the rephasing invariant parameterization of Kuo and Lee, which is given by a sum of real circulants. Noting the relation of this parameterization to complex rotation matrices we find a potential reduction in the degrees of freedom required for the CKM matrix.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1008.0014 [pdf] submitted on 6 Aug 2010

A New Proof Viorel Vîjîitu Inequality

Authors: Marian Dincă
Comments: 2 pages.

In the paper given new proof the inequality using convex function
Category: Algebra

[12] viXra:1008.0013 [pdf] submitted on 6 Aug 2010

Generalisation of the Inequalities Proposed I.m.o. Madrid 2008 and India-International Mathematical Olympiad Training Camp2010

Authors: Marian Dincă
Comments: 3 pages.

In the paper given generalisation inequalities using Lagrange identity.
Category: Algebra

[11] viXra:1008.0011 [pdf] submitted on 5 Aug 2010

Reflections on an Asymmetry on the Occasion of Arnold's Passing Away ...

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 4 pages.

Keeping silent by authorities in science about breakthroughs made by less well known scientists creates a massively asymmetric situation which is to the detriment of science.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[10] viXra:1008.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-03 07:16:53

Planetary Orbits

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 19 Pages.

It is an established fact that sun is a moving macro body in space. By simple mechanics, it is physically impossible for a free planetary body to orbit around a moving central body, in any type of geometrically closed path. Both, a circle and an ellipse, are closed geometrical figures. Hence, elliptical planetary orbital paths (closed geometrical figures) around sun are false or apparent. A planetary body moves in same direction and along with its central body. It is only when we imagine reversing the direction of planetary body’s motion, on one side of central body’s path; we can get a geometrically closed figure for planet’s apparent orbital path. Use of a reference frame, related to a static central body, causes planetary orbital paths to appear as closed geometrical figures around central body. As central body is a moving body, this does not reflect physical reality. Although they help to explain apparent phenomena, all properties attributed to elliptical/circular planetary orbital path are unreal. Real physical actions are restricted to real entities and they have to be understood with reference to an absolute reference. Since elliptical shape of a planetary orbit is an imaginary aspect, it has its limitations to explain real actions in nature. Mechanism of orbit-formation and limitations of orbiting macro bodies, described in this article, are based on a radically different dynamics from an alternative concept presented in book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1008.0009 [pdf] submitted on 5 Aug 2010

An Expansion Theory Of The Universe With No Dark Matter And No Dark Energy

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we find a new gravitational formula: F-bar = -mc2/R = and establish an expansion theory of the universe with no dark matter and no dark energy
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1008.0008 [pdf] replaced on 18 Oct 2010

What Causes The Mass To Be Deficit Inside A Nucleus?

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 7 Pages. This article has been published in the Focus Issue (Part-II) of Prespacetime Journal on Cosmology & Gravity (Vol. 1, Issue. 9), pp. 1418-1424, November 2010.

There is ample amount of ambiguity regarding the concept of mass in present principles of physics. The mass of a gas nebula will be measured as the combined mass of all the atoms within that nebula. The only option for the measurement of mass of the same nebula when it collapses to a neutron star is by combining the mass of all the neutron particles. These two values of mass for the same object will never be the same. This is, in fact, against the definition of mass which states that the mass of an object is a fixed amount irrespective of the size of the object. It appears that our understanding of mass and the way we measure it is flawed. All the observations demonstrate that there will be deficit or gain in the mass of an object when there is a change in the volume of that object. An object measures more mass when the volume of the object was decreased. A neutron star is a compact form of the gas nebula from which it was collapsed, therefore the neutron star measures more mass or gravity than the gas nebula. A nucleus measures more gravity when all the particles were packed together in a small volume. The cause for the deficit of mass inside a nucleus is the increase in volume in which the particles were occupied.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1008.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-11 13:44:24

The Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Richard B. Dowd
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I apply a dimensional analysis to the Gravitational and Electromagnetic force constants. The result is a new way to compute the inverse fine structure constant and an equation that directly links Einstein's famous mass energy equation to both radiation and electromagnetic theory. I also speculate on where the limits to blackbody temperatures might lie. I chose limits that might be more realistic than zero degree K at the cold end and 10^32 degree K at the hot end of the spectrum. I also provide a scaling technique that can link theoretical states of matter across the entire energy spectrum.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1008.0006 [pdf] submitted on 4 Aug 2010

The Philosophy Error of the Proposition "9+9"~"1+2"

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 2 Pages. In Chinese

The method of the quantitative change can not solve the problem of the qualitative change.
Category: Number Theory

[5] viXra:1008.0005 [pdf] submitted on 3 Aug 2010

The Weight Change of a Body in Connection with the Electrical Tension

Authors: H.-J. Hochecker
Comments: 3 Pages.

I stick metal foil on an a 1 square meter large and 10 kilograms heavy dielectric so that a condenser is build. By putting a tension of 10 kV on the condenser or by short-circuiting it I measure a real reduction of the weight of about 0.1 grams each time. This result confirms my theoretical conclusion which says that the weight of a body is related with the movements of its charges (protons and electrons). Keywords: Gravitation, movement of electrical charges, relativity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1008.0004 [pdf] submitted on 3 Aug 2010

Methods in Environmental Biotechnology for Environmentalists

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, S. R. Kannan, S. Ramathilagam
Comments: 144 Pages.

The study of environmental pollution by chemicals used in agriculture as pesticide or as fertilizers or pollution caused by industries and chemical plants which use chemicals have not been analysed systematically. This book has five chapters. First chapter is introductory in nature. Here we just study chemical pollution caused by garment industries in chapter two of this book using fuzzy associative memories.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[3] viXra:1008.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2 Aug 2010

Why Shamir and Fox Did not Detect "Aether Wind" in 1969?

Authors: V.V. Demjanov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Up to 1960ies the measurement of the aether wind velocity by the technology of Michelson presumed that a medium placed across the path of light rays has no substantial significance (except as being an obstacle) for obtaining the expected shift of the interference fringe from the brought together orthogonal rays on the interference of the turnabout device. In 1960ties several authors began independent research on the Michelson-type interferometers with different optical media used as light carriers. J.Shamir and R.Fox declared "negative" the results of their measurements on the plexiglas (though they registered the fringe shift 1/3000 fraction of the fringe's width and determined the respective velocity of aether wind 6.5 km/s). The authors considered this result as "enhancing the experimental basis of special relativity", and their report has been published. My results of same years appeared to be positive. I managed to register on gaseous, liquid and solid optically transparent bodies hundred times greater relative shifts of the fringe (0.01-5.0) giving for horizontal projection of the aether wind velocity the value hundreds km/s. At different times of day and night at the latitude of Obninsk city I registered the changing of this velocity in the interval 140-480 km/s. Insofar as my results "weaken the experimental basis of special relativity", their publication is still refused. I will show in the present report, basing on my experimental experience, that in reality Shamir and Fox obtained positive results. The historical precedence of misunderstanding the positive measurements of aether wind of the order 200-400 km/s, performed by Michelson and Miller in 1920-1930ies at lengthened to 32 m air light carriers, described by me in arXiv:0910.5658v3, 24 June 2010, repeated in the work by Shamir and Fox. Misunderstood was another artifact, manifesting itself in an interferometer with a solid light carrier. In the current work, I explain the nature of this artifact, hiding from Shamir and Fox their experimental success in detecting the aether wind velocity of hundreds km/s. I discussed also the inadequacy of their own interpretation of the results.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1008.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-03 00:33:55

The Emerging Clan Capitalism in the World

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 26 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal, but it has been included in a book with title: Clan Capitalism, Graph Distance, and Other Issues (2013).

In the present article a number of critical economics situations are discussed based on clan capitalism as a starting point. One can see clearly then, that instead of assuming 'ordinary economy’ and that clan/crony capitalism is an exception in particular nation because of certain socio-historical context, one should begin with the opposite assumption instead: that clan capitalism can be found almost everywhere in this planet. One can say that clan capitalism is a norm/rule rather than an exception, because clan capitalism is part of liberal capitalism itself. Apparently, more studies on the extent and role of clan capitalism in a nation's economy and also their role in globalized economy can be expected in the coming years.
Category: Economics and Finance

[1] viXra:1008.0001 [pdf] replaced on 20 Nov 2010

The Theory About Infinity of Simple Numbers-Twins

Authors: Valery Demidovich
Comments: v2 is 29 Pages in Russian, v3 is 28 pages in English

The work maintenance: attempt to solve a problem about definition of set of simple numbers-twins is made. In work absolutely new approach which is based on algorithm of a sieve of Eratosfena is applied.
Category: Number Theory