[91] **viXra:1008.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** J. Arnold

**Comments:** 14 Pages

It is proposed that light is at absolute rest, its apparent motion being the reflection
of the motion of mass in time. The hypothesis resolves the paradox of the
apparent wave/particle duality of light, accounts for its speed being invariant and
a limit, explains numerous other peculiarities of its behavior, and identifies the
motion of mass in time as the source of gravitational energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1008.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-25 08:47:03*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Abstract: This article attempts to give a simple and logical explanation to tidal mechanism, based on a radically different dynamics, presented in book ‘MATTER Re-examined)’ [1]. Tides are caused by (accelerating) actions of external efforts on a linearly moving spinning-macro body. Each external effort alters shape of spinning macro body, separately, to produce its own set of tides. Change in shape of a spinning macro body, rather than displacement of its parts, cause tides. Displacement of ocean water in the direction of moving tide is superficial and it cannot produce tidal drag on earth’s solid core body.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[89] **viXra:1008.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 157 pages

It was a surprise for me when in 1995 I received a manuscript from the mathematician,
experimental writer and innovative painter Florentin Smarandache, especially because the
treated subject was of philosophy - revealing paradoxes - and logics.
He had generalized the fuzzy logic, and introduced two new concepts:
a) "neutrosophy" - study of neutralities as an extension of dialectics;
b) and its derivative "neutrosophic", such as "neutrosophic logic", "neutrosophic set",
"neutrosophic probability", and "neutrosophic statistics" and thus opening new ways
of research in four fields: philosophy, logics, set theory, and probability/statistics.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[88] **viXra:1008.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Moon K. Chetry

**Comments:** 242 pages

This book introduces several new classes of groupoid, like
polynomial groupoids, matrix groupoids, interval groupoids,
polynomial interval groupoids, matrix interval groupoids and
their neutrosophic analogues.

**Category:** Algebra

[87] **viXra:1008.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 69 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime
theorems (441)-(490) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6)
we are able to find the smallest solution. π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[86] **viXra:1008.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 4 pages, In Chinese

We have inclusion-exclusion formula of π(N) and inclusion-exclusion formula of r_{2}(N). Make use of
inclusion-exclusion formula, we can obtain Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture (A).

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1008.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 69 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime
theorems (541)-(590) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6)
we are able to find the smallest solution. π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1008.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 69 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime
theorems (491)-(540) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6)
we are able to find the smallest solution. π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[83] **viXra:1008.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 August 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 7 pages

Ancient descriptions of beginning of the Earth and the global deluge are relevant to
the Earth history. Beginning of the Earth or beginning of the time appears to be the
beginning of the Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth around 2800 million
years ago. Since then, six Supercontinent cycles were completed on the surface of the
Earth and the present is the seventh cycle. Global deluge appears to be the
description of the rise in sea level occurred with the breakup of each Supercontinent.
Therefore global deluge occurs in the beginning of every Supercontinent cycle.
Descriptions of the Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and seven Karshvars are similar
to the Supercontinent cycles.

**Category:** Geophysics

[82] **viXra:1008.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 August 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 12 pages

Cause of the Earth's surface manifestations appears to be external to the Earth.
Gravitational attraction of the galactic center causes the tides to form in the
mantle of the Earth when the solar system reaches the nearest position to the
galactic center. Pair of troughs takes shape in the mantle adjacent to the tides
as the low and high tides in the ocean. Upwelling tides or megablobs breaks the
continental crust and disperses the plates towards the troughs on the surface.
In the subsequent cycle, when the solar system again reaches the nearest position
to the galactic center, megablobs interchange with the troughs and reassemble
the continental crust. In other words, two galactic cycles of the solar system
makes one Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth. It appears that the
Supercontinent cycle started on the Earth around 2800 million years ago.
Nucleation of the inner core was initiated in this period with the beginning of
the Plate tectonics. Supercontinent cycle continues as long as the solar system
revolves around the galactic center in the presence of liquid outer core in the
interior and water on the surface of the Earth.

**Category:** Geophysics

[81] **viXra:1008.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 August 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 16 pages

Life on Earth reels under the Supercontinent cycles. Every Supercontinent forms
with the collision and merger of all the plates causing a "tectonic pause".
Reduced seafloor spreading and albedo advances the ice sheets towards the equator.
Massive ice sheets cover the ocean and whole or part of the Supercontinent causing
a global ice age or snowball Earth event. Base of the continents further sinks
into the mantle with the increased weight of the ice sheets. Increased pressure
within the mantle forms as a superplume under the Supercontinent and eventually
breaks the Supercontinental crust giving the new plates. Superplume with the
increased seafloor spreading and the albedo causes a severe global warming and
rapidly melts the ice sheets, exiting the global ice age. Rapid melting of the
ice sheets floods the lowered continental regions. Isostacy gradually uplifts
the submerged continental crust above the sea level. Each break in the crust
causes a global warming and merger of plates causes an ice age. Mass extinctions
occur in the ice age and global warming periods. Evolution takes place in the
post global warming period. Ice ages and global warming forms the distinct
boundaries in the sedimentary layers.

**Category:** Geophysics

[80] **viXra:1008.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Sylvester Smith

**Comments:** 9 pages

Searching through the Archives of the Arizona State University,
I found interesting sequences of numbers and problems
related to them. I display some of them, and the readers
are welcome to contribute with solutions or ideas.

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1008.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this note, we present a proof to the Smarandache's Minimum Theorem in the Einstein
Relativistic Velocity Model of Hyperbolic Geometry.

**Category:** Geometry

[78] **viXra:1008.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 69 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (391)-(440) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[77] **viXra:1008.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 6 pages

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global
warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in
an approximation to the global entropy may be used to show that global
warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that
the variance of the weather is expected to have increased correspondingly.

**Category:** Climate Research

[76] **viXra:1008.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages

A "brute force" computer search was made for the most accurate approximations of the experimental
fine structure constant reciprocal in the form (A^a - D^d)/B^b + C^c - E^e, where A, B, C, D, and E were
integers ranging from 0 to 30, while the exponents a, b, and c, were integers ranging from 0 to 3, and d
and e were integers ranging from 0 to -3. Within these restrictions, and ignoring all trivial variants, a
fit better than or equal to 137.036 was achieved only twice, by (10^3
- 10^-3)/3^3 + 10^2 - 10^-3 = 137.036 and (22^3 - 2^-1)/25^2 + 11^2 - 1^-1 = 137.036,
where the search employed a fine structure constant inverse equaling its 2006 CODATA
value of 137.035999679. The comparative simplicity of the first of these approximations, its symmetrical
reuse of the constant 10, and the small size of its integers, together suggest its origin may be physical,
and that the integers 10 and 3 may be important physical constants.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[75] **viXra:1008.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages

In this note, we describe shortly time varying Sun-Earth distance in the light of Carmeli
metric and compare the result with recent astrometric data. The graphical plot suggests
that there should be linear-linear correspondence between Sun-planets distances and their
time variation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1008.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** V.V.Demjanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages

In 1960s several authors began independently studies of the
interferometric detection of "aether wind" using in the device optical media. Shamir&Fox in 1969
made measurements on the plexiglas and declared them "negative" (whereas they registered the shift
of the fringe at ~1/3000 of its width, and "determined" a corresponding to it velocity of aether
wind ~6.6 km/s). In 1973 Trimmer et al. mounted at the one-armed device the glass optics and
registered with a big resolution the shift of the interference fringe (at most ~10^{–6}
of its width) and determined by it the speed of "aether wind" ~3.8 cm/s. This result enhanced still
more the confidence in that the attempts to detect aether are unfavorable. However, my results of
the same years being favorable fell out of the common line of "negative" verdicts to aether. I
managed to register on gases, liquids and solid optical materials million times greater relative
fringe shifts (0.01÷5.0), revealed the horizontal projection of the aether wind velocity
hundreds km/s. Since my results "weakened the experimental foundation of special relativity",
their publishing is rejected until now.

In the current report I argue reasonably, relying on my experience, that Trimmer et al. (as well as Shamir &Fox), actually obtained positive results in their measurements of aether wind which amounts to several hundreds km/s, proceeding from the declared by them resolution of their experimental units. I believe their experimental data. But I guess that they were faced with hidden artefacts in the interferometer with solid optic materials and not aware of it. The theory used by them for processing the measurements of the interference fringe shift obtained is not appropriate for interferometers with solid optical materials. I have found the possible reason why Trimmer et al. did not reveal the experimental facts undermining theories repudiating aether.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[73] **viXra:1008.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Lyndon Ashmore

**Comments:** 7 Pages

A review of the literature on the Lyman alpha forest gives direct evidence on the dynamics of the
universe. In an expanding universe one would expect the average temperature of the universe to fall
as it expands - but a review of the Doppler parameters of the Hydrogen clouds in Quasar spectra
shows that contrary to this, they are increasing in temperature (or at least, becoming increasingly
disturbed) as the universe ages. Addition-ally, in an expanding universe, hydrogen clouds must become
further apart with time, so, as redshift increases, the clouds would be closer together. Instead,
the evidence is that, on average, they are evenly spaced up to a redshift of one - if not beyond.
How can this be so if the universe is expanding? Especially since this range of redshifts includes
the supernovae data used to show 'acceleration' and so called 'time dilation.' Taking these results
in isolation implies that the universe has been static for at least the last billion years or so
and therefore a new model of redshift is needed to explain redshifts in a static universe.
The model proposed here is that in a static universe, photons of light from distant galaxies are
absorbed and reemitted by electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space and on each interaction
the electron recoils. Energy is lost to the recoiling electron (New Tired Light theory) and thus
the reemitted photon has less energy, a reduced frequency and therefore an increased wavelength.
It has been redshifted. The Hubble relationship be-comes 'photons of light from a galaxy twice as
far away, make twice as many interactions with the electrons in the plasma of IG space, lose twice
as much energy and undergo twice the redshift.' A relationship between redshift and distance is
found and, using published values of collision cross-sections and number density of electrons in
IG space, a value for the Hubble constant is derived which is in good agreement with measured
values. Assuming that the energy transferred to the recoiling electron is emitted as secondary
radiation; the wavelength is calculated and found to be consistent with the wavelengths of the CMB.
On the basis that plasma clouds result in periodicity or 'quantised' galaxy redshifts it is shown
that the average spacing between hydrogen clouds (z = 0.026) compares favourably with an average
spacing between galaxy clusters (z = 0.023). A test of this theory in the laboratory is proposed
whereby a high powered laser could be fired through sparse cold plasma and the theories predicted
increase in emission of microwave radiation of a particular frequency determined.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[72] **viXra:1008.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Lyndon Ashmore

**Comments:** 8 Pages

The Hubble diagram for type Ia Supernovae gives the value of the Hubble constant, H as 64±3 km/s Mpc^{-1} which,
in SI units, is equal to 'hr_{e}/m_{e} per unit volume of space'
(2.1x10^{-18} s^{-1}). This coincidence could suggest a
relationship between H and the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space that act collectively and
oscillate if displaced. The possibility that light from distant galaxies is absorbed and reemitted by the
electrons is considered with the electron recoiling on both occasions. A double Mössbauer effect leads to a
redshift in the transmitted light. Introduction of the photoabsorption cross section 2r_{e}λ leads to the
relationship H = 2n_{e}hr_{e}/m_{e} giving H = 12 km/s Mpc^{-1} when ne has
the reported value of
n_{e} ~ 10^{-7}cm^{-3}. The small
amount of energy transferred to the electron by recoil is radiated as bremstrahlung with a wavelength in the
microwave region.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[71] **viXra:1008.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** J. Arnold

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Gravitation is described as a uniquely geometric phenomenon, incompatible with the
concepts of force and energy, and only analogically associable with non-geometric mathematical
formalizations. In particular, the mathematical derivation of gravitational waves from the field
equations is shown to be arbitrary and physically untenable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1008.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 11 Pages, including 2 figures and 2 tables

In this paper three separate charges are distinguished for the Earth and its magnetosphere. First,
it is assumed, that the Earth and its nearest atmosphere bear a net negative charge
*Q*_{E}. Secondly, a positive charge *Q*_{i} and a negative charge
*Q*_{o} are proposed for the inner and outer Van Allen belt, respectively. Thirdly,
a belt with net zero charge (electron slot) will be assumed to be present between both charged
belts. According to the three tori model, recently developed for pulsars and black holes,
equilibrium may exist between the charges *Q*_{E}, *Q*_{i} and
*Q*_{o}. Three expressions for the Coulomb electric field at different distances
from Earth's centre are derived from the same model. Using available data, values for the three
charges are deduced for the solar minimum and maximum, respectively. An averaged charge
*Q*_{E} of about −1 C is extracted for the Earth. Some other features of
the model are discussed, among them the flow of charge during the change from solar minimum
to maximum. Furthermore, it is shown that the magnitude of Earth's magnetic field cannot be
explained by the motion of the charges *Q*_{E}, *Q*_{i} and
*Q*_{o}. In order to obtain a better explanation, the so-called Wilson-Blackett
law is discussed. In addition, a large toroidal electric current in the Earth is proposed

**Category:** Geophysics

[69] **viXra:1008.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 4 pages

This paper is less about religion than about science. It is meant as advice to
physicists, physics teachers, biologists, or others who may find themselves
confronted by Creationism when discussion of the theory of evolution, or of other
scientific issues, is perceived as bearing on religious writings or dogma.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[68] **viXra:1008.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** A.A.K. Majumdar

**Comments:** 217 pages

It was in mid-nineties of the last century when I received a letter from Professor Ion Patrascu of
the Fratii Buzesti College, Craiova, Romania, with lots of enclosures, introducing me with this
new branch of Mathematics. Though my basic undergraduate degree is in Mathematics, my
research field at that time was Operations Research and Mathematical Programming.

**Category:** Number Theory

[67] **viXra:1008.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 220 pages

Religious extremism has been the root cause of most of the
world problems since time immemorial. It has decided the fates
of men and nations. In a vast nation like India, the imposition of
religious dogma and discrimination upon the people has taken
place after the upsurge of Hindu rightwing forces in the political
arena. As a consequence of their political ascendancy in the
northern states of India, they started to rewrite school textbooks
in an extremely biased manner that was fundamentalist and
revivalist. Not only did they meddle with subjects like history
(which was their main area of operation), but they also imposed
their religious agenda on the science subjects. There was a plan
to introduce Vedic Astrology in the school syllabus across the
nation, which was dropped after a major hue and cry from
secular intellectuals.

**Category:** Social Science

[66] **viXra:1008.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova

**Comments:** 8 pages

Abstract-In this paper we analyze the performances of a
new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the
sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in
the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT). We complicate here
a bit the TTT problem by considering three types of targets
(Interceptor, Fighter and Cargo) and show through Monte-Carlo
simulations the advantages of DSmP over the classical pignistic
transformation which is classically used for decision-making
under uncertainty when dealing with belief assignments. Based
on our previous works for the justification of rules of combination
for TTT problem, only the Proportional Conflict Redistribution
rule and the hybrid fusion rules are considered in this work for
their ability to deal consistently with high conflicting sources of
evidence with three different belief assignment modelings.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[65] **viXra:1008.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 10 pages

This paper outlines the usual neutrino oscillation theory and points out the
analogy between Lyman energy eigenstates and neutrino mass eigenstates. It
then suggests several alternative interpretations of the neutrino oscillation theory
in regard to determination of the rest mass of the neutrino.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[64] **viXra:1008.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Emil D. Gigov

**Comments:** 18 pages

Very true scientists, such as Rutherford, Soddy, Michelson, Sagnac, Lenard, Larmor,
McMillan and others, have claimed, that the Theory of relativity is wrong. Even Poincare
and Einstein are hinted something similar. Classical physics is far from simple, already
during the XIX century has been spoken about things like gravity waves, nuclear power and
variable mass. Theory of relativity as a whole, is based only on the hypothesis, that
the speed of light in Euclidean empty space is, invariant universal constant. But in
reality this velocity is variable, in Newtonian sense. Newton's emission theory of light,
has been proven through many experiments, for example by those of Michelson, Sagnac and
Fizeau. Also, the velocity of photons in one ray, is variable with respect to lateral
observer, and is consistent with the classical law for velocity addition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1008.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 3 pages, In Chinese

This upper bound estimation prevailed over upper bound estimation of Chen Jing Run

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1008.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 13 pages

Numerous upper bounds on the (anti)neutrino rest mass have been published
based on the SN1987A observations. Here, we use a nonkinematic (thermal) time
extent to provide a rest-mass estimate of a few eV (as mc2 energy), if not zero. In
the solution, we find that a typical upper-bound formula for the mass implies that
this thermal extent was attributable to about 10% of the particle energy measured
on Earth. The present approach yields an expected value for the mass, given any
theoretical or model-dependent estimate of the fraction of the detected neutrino
energy attributable to the supernova temperature.
This is a reposting of an old paper which describes an analysis protocol which can
be applied for any supernova for which a population of neutrinos is observed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[61] **viXra:1008.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Robert G. Wilson V

**Comments:** 3 pages

"Smarandache consecutive sequences" is the nth member of the consecutive sequence, e. g. Sm(11)=1234567891011, and RSm(11)=1110987654321.
Following is the prime version of "Smarandache consecutive sequences"

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1008.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Richard Pinch

**Comments:** 6 pages

Charles Ashbacher [1] has posed a number of questions relating
to the pseudo-Smarandache function Z(n). In this note we show that
the ratio of consecutive values Z(n + 1)/Z(n) and Z(n - 1)/Z(n) are unbounded;
that Z(2n)/Z(n) is unbounded; that n/Z(n) takes every integer
value infinitely often; and that the series Σ_{n} 1/Z(n)^{α} is convergent for any
α > 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[59] **viXra:1008.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 22 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
19 pages, one figure. Ties in DM and DE, in terms of a treatment partly suggested by Yurov,
as of 'double inflation'.

This document is due to a question by Debasish of the Saha institute of India asked in the
Dark Side of the Universe conference, 2010, in Leon, Mexico, and also is connected with issues
as to the initial configuration of the arrow of time brought up in both Rudn 10 , in Rencontres
de Blois, and Fundamental frontiers of physics 11 , in Paris, in July 2010. Further reference
is made as to how to reconcile early inflation with re acceleration, partly by dimensional
analysis and partly due to recounting a suggestion as by Yurov , which the author thinks has
merit and which ties into, to a point with using massive gravitons as a re acceleration of the
universe a billion years ago enabler, as perhaps a variant of DE.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1008.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Kiyoung Kim

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

It is inferred from the phenomenological facts of tornado that tornado itself should have a driving
force generating the updraft in the vortex of tornado. The driving force is supposed to be originated
from the electric interaction between a storm cloud and a crustal conducting body underground. The
electric interaction in tornado is considered to be similar to a lightning discharge in respect that the
electric potential is reduced between a storm cloud and the ground, but the electric discharging
process in tornado should be much slower than the lightning discharge and result in the atmospheric
vortex formation of tornado. The mechanism of tornado formation is suggested, in which Townsend
avalanche process is assumed inside the tornado vortex with a dangling conducting channel that is
embedded in the funnel cloud of tornado. The strong updraft inside the vortex of tornado is
produced by momentum diffusion process when the positively ionized air molecules move upward
under the influence of electric field inside the vortex. With the mechanism of tornado formation,
phenomenological expectations are followed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1008.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Two cosmonauts had been living in an obscure compartment of the Mir Orbiter for
seven years, ever since Ground Control inadvertently omitted them from a list of return
passengers...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1008.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** A.G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Two hypotheses of the mass origin are examined: 1) the theory of mass, developed
within the framework of electron theory, and 2) Higgs's mechanism of the mass
generation of Standard Model. The advantages and disadvantages of each of them are
shown. The connections between these two approaches and nonlinear theory of
elementary particles are also noted.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[55] **viXra:1008.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:**
9 pages.

This paper takes two phenomena in physics, attempts to show
that the solutions to them are linked and that these solutions shall require a
radical re-think of physics

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1008.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
2 pages, 1 figure. Actual proceedings submission to the Rencontres De Blois 2010 conference ,
with an emphasis upon issues brought up earlier, in a less organized fashion un Rudn 10,
in Moscow, May 30.

Initial relic entropy growth is presented in the context of a zero valued chemical potential and
different formulations of overall energy values, which may be tied into massive gravitons
appearing at the onset of inflation This is contrasted with the role of gravitons with non zero rest
mass in four dimensions a billion years ago. Questions as to if an interplay between two
different regimes for 'heavy' gravity are presented s open research issues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1008.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 4 pages, In Chinese

According to five assumptions, get five proofs

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1008.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
7 pages, one figure. Significant enhancement of arrow of time issue at the onset of
inflation which will be brought up in the DICE meeting , with other topics, in
September 13-17, 2010.

This investigation sets forth initial conditions for a start of the arrow of time in cosmology based
upon the idea that of having initil degrees of freedom set as g_{star} ~ 1000 initially , instead of a
maximum value of g_{star} ~ 100 - 120 for the number of degrees of freedom during the electro
weak era.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1008.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
5 pages. One figure. Contribution to the Rudn 10 conference
by Andrew Beckwith, in a parallel session in cosmology, May 30, 2010
at Peoples Friendship University, Moscow, Russia as a guest of the
Russian Gravitational society.

We ask if setting the vanishing chemical potential limit μ -> 0 with
entropy S ∝ T^{3} [1] for a number of degrees of freedom significantly
greater than the standard electroweak value of g_{star} ~ 100 - 120, do we
have a new foundation for the arrow of time in quantum cosmology
with inflation?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1008.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:**
11 pages, this is an updated version of an earlier paper originally archived as arXiv:gr-qc/9701028.
The cosmological constant has been added to the analysis, plus other small additions. Submitted to Prespacetime Journal.

A covariant formula for conserved currents of energy, momentum and angular-momentum is
derived from a general form of Noether's theorem applied directly to the Einstein-Hilbert
action of classical general relativity. Energy conservation in closed and flat big-bang
cosmologies including cosmic radiation and dark energy is discussed as special cases.
Special care is taken to distinguish between kinematic and dynamic expressions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1008.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
12 pages, 1 figure. Part of what will be brought up in DICE
2010, as of September 13-17, 2010, in Italy . The other part of the DICE
presentation will be finished by the end of next week

We ask the question if an entropy S = E/T with a usual value
ascribed of initial entropy S ~ 10^{5} of the onset of inflation can allow
an order of magnitude resolution of the question of if there could be a
survival of a graviton from a prior to the present universe, using typical
Planckian peak temperature values of T ~ 10^{19} GeV. We obtain the
values consistent with up to 1038 gravitons contributing to an energy
value of E ~ 10^{24} GeV if we assume a relic energy contribution based
upon each graviton initially exhibiting a frequency spike of 1010 Hz.
The value of E ~ 10^{24} GeV is picked from looking at the aftermath of
what happens if there exists a quantum bounce with a peak density
value of ρ_{maximum} ~ 2.07 ρ_{Planck} as has been considered recently by
P. Malkiewicz and W. Piechocki [15] in the LQG bounce regime radii
of the order of magnitude of l ~ 10^{35} meters. In this paper estimates
specifically avoids using S = (E - μN)/T are done, by setting vanishing
chemical potential μ = 0 for ultra high temperatures. Finally
we compare briefly the obtained results with the ones recently investigated
by G. 't Hooft [20] and L.A. Glinka [21, 22].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1008.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

AA geometrical/mechanical model of the proton is developed which satisfies
general empirical features. A Yukawa / Paris-type potential due to a mesonic field is
incorporated into Einstein's equations of general relativity to predict a hadronic force
constant, stronger than the fine structure constant by (137/√3) times Proton mass is
expressed in terms of muonic mass building-blocks. Analysis of the magnetic moment
allows substructure modelling, incorporating 2 grades of triplets. Creation of these
component parts is described in terms of action-integrals. The gluon field energy holding
the triplets together is related to total energy. Uniqueness of electromagnetic charge is
attributed to a governing action principle. Finally, a neutron model has been proposed,
consisting of a proton core orbited by a heavy-electron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:1008.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A geometrical/mechanical model of the muon has been developed based on a
previous detailed model of the electron and the fine structure constant. The anomalous
magnetic moment and lifetime have been calculated in terms of muon component parts.
Known features of the tauon have also been related to the muon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1008.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A geometrical/mechanical model of charmonium has been developed, based on the
logarithmic confinement potential. The quark and antiquark pair orbit around the centre of mass,
with their gluon and colour fields contained within a torus structure of characteristic radius.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[45] **viXra:1008.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 8 pages

Light speed variation relative to a moving observer occurring
according to classical velocity composition is demonstrated using
Doppler Shift. This directly contradicts the light speed invariance
postulate of special relativity and confirms ether drift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1008.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This letter explains that density of positive mass and negative mass is almost uniformly throughout the whole
universe, but density of positive mass and negative mass included in a random universe radius R can be different
from each other. Like this, positive, zero, negative values of total gravitational potential energy are all possible
due to density difference of positive mass and negative mass included in a random universe radius R. This letter
is showing possibility in explaining the decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion due to density difference
of positive mass and negative mass because negative mass and positive mass conducts different forms of movement
depending on the density difference of positive mass and negative mass. As change of total gravitational potential
energy sign occurs from UT=0 and total gravitational potential energy oscillates based on 0. This provides valid
explanation regarding to the problems of the
atness of the universe and fine tuning.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1008.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

In common practice, degrees of freedom (df) may be corrected for the number of
theoretical free parameters as though parameters were the same as data categories.
However, a free physical parameter generally is not equivalent to a data category in
terms of goodness of the fit.
Here we use synthetic, nonrandom data to show the effect of choice of
categorization and df on goodness of fit. We then explain the origin of the df
problem and show how to avoid it in a three-step process:
First, the theoretical curve is fit to the data to remove its
variance, leaving what, under the null hypothesis, should be
structureless residuals.
Second, the residuals are fit by a set of orthogonal polynomials up
to the degree, should it occur, at which significant variance was
removed.
Third, the number of nonsignificant polynomial terms in the
original + orthogonal set become the df in a standard chi square
test.
This process reduces a general df problem to one of polynomial df and allows
goodness of a fit to be determined by data categorization and significance level
alone. An example is given of an evaluation of physical data on neutrino
oscillation.

**Category:** Statistics

[42] **viXra:1008.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Jeidsan A. C. Pereira

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Given a vector space V of dimension n and a natural number k < n, the
grassmannian G_{k}(V) is defined as the set of all subspaces W ⊂ V such that
dim(W) = k. In the case of V = R^{n}, G_{k}(V) is the set of k-fl
ats in R^{n} and
is called real grassmannian [1]. Recently the study of these manifolds has
found applicability in several areas of mathematics, especially in Modern
Differential Geometry and Algebraic Geometry. This work will build two
differential structures on the real grassmannian, one of which is obtained as a
quotient space of a Lie group [1], [3], [2], [7]

**Category:** Geometry

[41] **viXra:1008.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 16 Pages. v1 in Italian, v2 in English

Ideas on a source of inertia from fixed stars have crossed Physics least Mach
onwards. Equations "Maxwell-like" for gravitation and inertia were obtained by
several authors as a subspecies of the simplified theory of General Relativity. A
precursor was Dennis Sciama.
Introducing a four-potential, I submit here a tentative interpretation of our laws about
gravity and inertia, in complete analogy with electromagnetism.
In classical mechanics is not introduced, usually, a four potential.
The field produced by this four-potential describes both gravitational and inertial
forces.
Admit the gauge transformation on potential is equivalent to enunciate the
equivalence principle, and vice versa.
Inertial forces (ex. Coriolis force) are interpreted as a field action.
All the inertia is interpreted as a field action.
The physical presence of this field seems to be a fact, even more concrete the usual
admission of inertial "fictitious forces".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1008.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 175 Pages. In French

Problems with and without... problems!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[39] **viXra:1008.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Kyung Ho Kim, Young Bae Jun, Eun Hwan Roh, Habib Harizavi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We introduce the notion of a Smarandache hyper (∩, ∈)-ideal
and Ω-reflexive in hyper K-algebra, and some related properties are given.

**Category:** Algebra

[38] **viXra:1008.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-14 05:29:52*

**Authors:** Chandra Sekhar Rao

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two Divisibility Tests for Smarandache semigroups are given . Further, the notion of divisibility of elements in a semigroup is applied to characterize the Smarandache semigroups. Examples are provided for justification.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[37] **viXra:1008.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Lawrence B. Crowell

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The zitterbewgung of the electron is associated with an intrinsic time for
an electron, or any of the fermionic particles with mass such as quarks and
leptons. In this article it is shown that a massless particle coupled to noncommutative
coordinate geometry is subjected to a gauge-like force. This force
acts to trap the massless particle in an orbit within a region. This bottled
massless particle then has an induced mass. This is then argued to be tied to
fundamental aspects of physics, such as a dynamical Higgs model, as well as
strings and p-brane theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1008.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Marian Dincă

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper it is given proof Yff's conjecture using convexity arguments.

**Category:** Geometry

[35] **viXra:1008.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 pages

The number of primes in the inclusive intervals defined by consecutive
Fibonacci numbers exhibits interesting behavior between the Fibonacci
numbers 55 and 196418. Specifically, starting with the interval [55,
89] through the interval [121393,196418] the ratio of the number of
primes in successive intervals is a value that alternates high, low, high,
low, etc.

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1008.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 8 pages

The one-way speed of light is determined using the range measurement
equation of the Global Positioning System. This equation has been rigorously and
extensively tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame, a frame that moves
with the Earth as it revolves around the Sun but does not share its rotation. The result is a
simple demonstration of one-way light speed anisotropy depending on the direction of
propagation relative to the rotating Earth that contradicts the principle of light speed
constancy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1008.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 pages

Migration plays an important role in urbanization of a state. In general more
the migration higher the urbanization rate though it many not necessarily
true in all the situations but in general it is witnessed that migration have a
fairly large share in urbanization. A district level analysis for Rajasthan state
is attempted to comprehend Urbanization due to migration their
interlinkages and association.

**Category:** Statistics

[32] **viXra:1008.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 pages

People migrate to different distances and there migration is
governed by different reasons. Distance of place of migration plays an
important role in the migration process and an analysis based on the
remoteness of the origin and destination will reveal the push and pull factors
in more explicit way. However, a common phenomenon is that people do
migrate to a longer distance with a more focused objective and there
propensity to settle in urban areas is always higher than the small distance
migration.

**Category:** Statistics

[31] **viXra:1008.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Priti Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Dipti Chauhan, Amit Bhaghel

**Comments:** 10 pages

Crashing is a process of expediting project schedule by compressing the total project duration. It is helpful when
managers want to avoid incoming bad weather season. However, the downside is that more resources are needed to
speed-up a part of a project, even if resources may be withdrawn from one facet of the project and used to speed-up
the section that is lagging behind. Moreover, that may also depend on what slack is available in a non-critical
activity, thus resources can be reassigned to critical project activity. Hence, utmost care should be taken to make
sure that appropriate activities are being crashed and that diverted resources are not causing needless risk and
project scope integrity. In this paper we want to present a technique called "Unit Crashing" to reduce the total cost
of project. Unit Crashing means to crash the project duration by one unit (day) instead of crashing it completely.
This technique uses an iterative approach to perform unit crashing until all activities along the critical path are
crashed by desired amount. The output of this method will reduce the cost of project, and is useful at places where
cost is of major consideration. Crashing PERT networks can save a significant amount of money in crashing and
overrun costs of a company. Even if there are no direct costs in the form of penalties for late completion of projects,
there is likely to be intangible costs because of reputation damage.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[30] **viXra:1008.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

In [1] we proved, using barycentric coordinates, the following theorem

**Category:** Geometry

[29] **viXra:1008.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Marian Dincă

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper an elementary proof of the Wolstenholme-Lenhard ciclic
inequality for real numbers and L.Fejes T&oactute;th conjecture( equivalent by Erdis-Mordell
inequality for polygon) is given, using a remarcable identity
We give the following:

**Category:** Geometry

[28] **viXra:1008.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-12 10:06:56*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

A part of action by ‘central force’ between planetary and central bodies causes their spin motions. All macro bodies in planetary systems develop mean accelerating spin motion. Depending on their orbital parameters, planets and central bodies may spin forward, rearward or, in rare cases, may have no spin motion at all. All macro bodies in a planetary system tend to spin in common orbital plane. Angular accelerations of orbiting macro bodies continue indefinitely until centrifugal actions disintegrate planets and planetary system. In an orbiting macro body, consistency of its matter-content and radial size determines relative spin speeds at different parts. Equatorial region of all very large orbiting macro bodies spin faster than their polar regions or regions towards their spin-axes. Lengthening of (terrestrial) solar days, presently misinterpreted as slowing down of earth’s spin motion, is the result of insufficient compensation to earth’s apparent spin motion about sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[27] **viXra:1008.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 3 pages

It is shown that a particle set possessing electric charges and masses that coincide with those
of the quarks and leptons can be produced with the aid of the symmetry of the cuboctahedron.
Specifically, it is shown that small powers of 4.1 are useful in economically reproducing the quark
and lepton masses, and that these powers - and thereby the masses they represent - can be joined
automatically with their correct values for electric charge with the aid of cuboctahedral symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[26] **viXra:1008.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Juan Andrés Musante Apolo

**Comments:** 44 pages

A Lagrangian depending on geometric variables (metric, affine connection, gauge group
generators) is given which maintains compatibility with General Relativity. It generates
the dynamics for Electromagnetism and other Gauge Fields along with Gravitation, at
the time it gives a geometric foundation for the stress-energy tensor of continuous
matter. The geometric-invariance principle under this integration is exposed and the
resulting field equations are obtained. The theory is developed over the tangent space
of a four-dimensional real manifold and the generators become those from the Homogenous
Lorentz group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1008.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 26 pages

This paper presents the solution about the
threat of a VBIED (Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive
Device) obtained with the DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache
Theory). This problem has been proposed recently to the
authors by Simon Maskell and John Lavery as a typical
illustrative example to try to compare the different
approaches for dealing with uncertainty for decision-making
support. The purpose of this paper is to show
in details how a solid justified solution can be obtained
from DSmT approach and its fusion rules thanks to a
proper modeling of the belief functions involved in this
problem.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[24] **viXra:1008.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 184 pages

It is shown how the infinity of differential algebras of generalized
functions is naturally subjected to a basic dichotomic singularity test
regarding their significantly different abilities to deal with large classes
of singularities. In this respect, a review is presented of the way
singularities are dealt with in four of the infinitely many types of
differential algebras of generalized functions. These four algebras, in the
order they were introduced in the literature are : the nowhere dense,
Colombeau, space-time foam, and local ones. And so far, the first
three of them turned out to be the ones most frequently used in a
variety of applications. The issue of singularities is naturally not a
simple one. Consequently, there are different points of view, as well as
occasional misunderstandings. In order to set aside, and preferably,
avoid such misunderstandings, two fundamentally important issues
related to singularities are pursued. Namely, 1) how large are the sets
of singularity points of various generalized functions, and 2) how are
such generalized functions allowed to behave in the neighbourhood of
their point of singularity. Following such a two fold clarification on
singularities, it is further pointed out that, once one represents
generalized functions - thus as well a large class of usual singular functions
- as elements of suitable differential algebras of generalized functions,
one of the main advantages is the resulting freedom to perform
globally arbitrary algebraic and differential operations on such functions,
simply as if they did not have any singularities at all. With the same
freedom from singularities, one can perform globally operations such
as limits, series, and so on, which involve infinitely many generalized
functions. The property of a space of generalized functions of being
a flabby sheaf proves to be essential in being able to deal with large
classes of singularities. The first and third type of the mentioned
differential algebras of generalized functions are flabby sheaves, while the
second type fails to be so. The fourth type has not yet been studied
in this regard.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[23] **viXra:1008.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Ibrahim Mutlay

**Comments:** 6 pages, 1 figure.

Atomic structure model was proposed as a rotating stratified fl
uidic matter field
with the particles corresponded to solitary waves in the field. Mathematical formulation
of the proposed structure was constructed on the model of thermal convection
in rotating spherical shells of conducting fluids using magnetohydrodynamic
Navier-Stokes Equations. Acceleration term was derived using Coulomb potential. Novel
model showed that internal structure of atoms is subjected to complex fluid dynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1008.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Morgan D. Rosenberg

**Comments:** 10 pages

By considering the gravitational field as an optical medium with a radially-dependent
index of refraction, we are able to show that a physical model of space being radially
compressed by mass, rather than curved by mass, as in general relativity, yields the
same results predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. We are further able
to show that this spatial compression is equivalent to the Lorentz contraction of
special relativity. The predictions of general relativity are all derived with relatively
basic mathematics without reliance on the grossly complex Riemannian geometry needed
for Einstein's curved space-time model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1008.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 29 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Morgan D. Rosenberg

**Comments:** 11 pages

Presented herein is a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, which is not only short
(relative to Wiles' 109 page proof), but is also performed using relatively
elementary mathematics. Particularly, the binomial theorem is utilized, which
was known in the time of Fermat (as opposed to the elliptic curves of Wiles'
proof, which belong to modern mathematics). Using the common integer expression
a^{n} + b^{n} = c^{n} for Fermat's Last Theorem, the
substitutions c = b+i and b = a+j are made,
where i and j are integers. Using a Taylor expansion (i.e., in the form of the
binomial theorem), Fermat's Last Theorem reduces to (see paper) and what remains
to be proven, from this equation, is that (see paper) only has rational solutions for
n=1 and n=2. This proof is presented herein, thus proving that
a^{n} + b^{n} = c^{n} only has
integer solutions for a, b and c for integer values of the exponent n=1 or n=2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1008.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 2 pages, In Chinese

Don't confuse quantitative change and qualitative change.

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1008.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Manoj K. Chaudhary, Rajesh Singh, Rakesh K. Shukla, Mukesh Kumar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 pages

Khoshnevisan et al. (2007) proposed a general family of estimators for population mean using
known value of some population parameters in simple random sampling. The objective of this
paper is to propose a family of combined-type estimators in stratified random sampling adapting
the family of estimators proposed by Khoshnevisan et al. (2007) under non-response. The
properties of proposed family have been discussed. We have also obtained the expressions for
optimum sample sizes of the strata in respect to cost of the survey. Results are also supported by
numerical analysis.

**Category:** Statistics

[18] **viXra:1008.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Valery P. Dmitriyev

**Comments:** 4 pages

Russian letters have ancient names which add up to a meaningful text
following the alphabet acrophony. The second half of this text, known as
Message to Slavs, calls for a translation into modern language, and its
interpretation is, generally speaking, ambiguous. The recently accepted
translation sounds pompous and perhaps somewhat sanctimonious. Below I
give an alternative interpretation of the message's second part, that is formed
of sensual images, and someone may see it as scabrous. However that may be, I
proceed from the assumption that our ancestors were more honest in their
emotions than today's coprolalics.

**Category:** Linguistics

[17] **viXra:1008.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:**
11 pages.

The fiction of time-travel usually makes it paradoxical and therefore impossible beyond
physics. A few physical postulates, however, can make time-travel merely impossible
physically.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[16] **viXra:1008.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:**
12 pages.

Elementary calculations show that the mass of the passenger's vehicle should
have an important influence on risk of injury, greater mass yielding greater
protection independent of the other mass(es) in the collision. This holds for
collisions treated either as purely elastic, or as quasi-inelastic. Passengers in more
massive vehicles thus would seem better off no matter what the size or weight of
other vehicle(s) in a collision.
The approximations used suggest that highway vehicles should be at least 20
times the mass of the average passenger, or injuries in a collision will be
disproportionately grave.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1008.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It has been proved that the 5g = 18 is unstable, the heaviest element that occurs
naturally is uranium with an atomic number of 92 and the island of stability does not
exist using the modified Pauli principle. This is the Book proof.

**Category:** Chemistry

[14] **viXra:1008.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-12 17:04:07*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Quantum information theory motivates certain choices for parameterizations of the CKM and MNS mixing matrices. In particular, we consider the rephasing invariant parameterization of Kuo and Lee, which is given by a sum of real circulants. Noting the relation of this parameterization to complex rotation matrices we find a potential reduction in the degrees of freedom required for the CKM matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1008.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Marian Dincă

**Comments:** 2 pages.

In the paper given new proof the inequality using
convex function

**Category:** Algebra

[12] **viXra:1008.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Marian Dincă

**Comments:** 3 pages.

In the paper given generalisation inequalities using
Lagrange identity.

**Category:** Algebra

[11] **viXra:1008.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 4 pages.

Keeping silent by authorities in science about breakthroughs made
by less well known scientists creates a massively asymmetric situation
which is to the detriment of science.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[10] **viXra:1008.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-03 07:16:53*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

It is an established fact that sun is a moving macro body in space. By simple mechanics, it is physically impossible for a free planetary body to orbit around a moving central body, in any type of geometrically closed path. Both, a circle and an ellipse, are closed geometrical figures. Hence, elliptical planetary orbital paths (closed geometrical figures) around sun are false or apparent. A planetary body moves in same direction and along with its central body. It is only when we imagine reversing the direction of planetary body’s motion, on one side of central body’s path; we can get a geometrically closed figure for planet’s apparent orbital path. Use of a reference frame, related to a static central body, causes planetary orbital paths to appear as closed geometrical figures around central body. As central body is a moving body, this does not reflect physical reality. Although they help to explain apparent phenomena, all properties attributed to elliptical/circular planetary orbital path are unreal. Real physical actions are restricted to real entities and they have to be understood with reference to an absolute reference. Since elliptical shape of a planetary orbit is an imaginary aspect, it has its limitations to explain real actions in nature. Mechanism of orbit-formation and limitations of orbiting macro bodies, described in this article, are based on a radically different dynamics from an alternative concept presented in book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1008.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we find a new gravitational formula:
F-bar = -mc^{2}/R = and establish an expansion theory of the
universe with no dark matter and no dark energy

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1008.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This article has been published in the Focus Issue (Part-II) of Prespacetime
Journal on Cosmology & Gravity (Vol. 1, Issue. 9), pp. 1418-1424, November 2010.

There is ample amount of ambiguity regarding the concept of mass in present principles of physics.
The mass of a gas nebula will be measured as the combined mass of all the atoms within that nebula.
The only option for the measurement of mass of the same nebula when it collapses to a neutron star
is by combining the mass of all the neutron particles. These two values of mass for the same object
will never be the same. This is, in fact, against the definition of mass which states that the mass
of an object is a fixed amount irrespective of the size of the object. It appears that our
understanding of mass and the way we measure it is flawed.
All the observations demonstrate that there will be deficit or gain in the mass of an object when
there is a change in the volume of that object. An object measures more mass when the volume of
the object was decreased. A neutron star is a compact form of the gas nebula from which it was
collapsed, therefore the neutron star measures more mass or gravity than the gas nebula. A nucleus
measures more gravity when all the particles were packed together in a small volume. The cause for
the deficit of mass inside a nucleus is the increase in volume in which the particles were occupied.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1008.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Richard B. Dowd

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A derivation of the fine structure constant by deduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1008.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Chinese

The method of the quantitative change can not solve the problem of the qualitative change.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5] **viXra:1008.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I stick metal foil on an a 1 square meter large and 10 kilograms heavy dielectric so that a condenser is
build. By putting a tension of 10 kV on the condenser or by short-circuiting it I measure a real reduction of the
weight of about 0.1 grams each time. This result confirms my theoretical conclusion which says that the weight
of a body is related with the movements of its charges (protons and electrons).
Keywords: Gravitation, movement of electrical charges, relativity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1008.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, S. R. Kannan, S. Ramathilagam

**Comments:** 144 Pages.

The study of environmental pollution by chemicals used in
agriculture as pesticide or as fertilizers or pollution caused by
industries and chemical plants which use chemicals have not
been analysed systematically.
This book has five chapters. First chapter is introductory in
nature. Here we just study chemical pollution caused by
garment industries in chapter two of this book using fuzzy
associative memories.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[3] **viXra:1008.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Up to 1960ies the measurement of the aether wind velocity by the technology of Michelson
presumed that a medium placed across the path of light rays has no substantial significance (except
as being an obstacle) for obtaining the expected shift of the interference fringe from the brought
together orthogonal rays on the interference of the turnabout device. In 1960ties several authors
began independent research on the Michelson-type interferometers with different optical media used
as light carriers. J.Shamir and R.Fox declared "negative" the results of their measurements on
the plexiglas (though they registered the fringe shift 1/3000 fraction of the fringe's width and
determined the respective velocity of aether wind 6.5 km/s). The authors considered this result as
"enhancing the experimental basis of special relativity", and their report has been published. My
results of same years appeared to be positive. I managed to register on gaseous, liquid and solid
optically transparent bodies hundred times greater relative shifts of the fringe (0.01-5.0) giving for
horizontal projection of the aether wind velocity the value hundreds km/s. At different times of day
and night at the latitude of Obninsk city I registered the changing of this velocity in the interval
140-480 km/s. Insofar as my results "weaken the experimental basis of special relativity", their
publication is still refused.
I will show in the present report, basing on my experimental experience, that in reality Shamir and
Fox obtained positive results. The historical precedence of misunderstanding the positive
measurements of aether wind of the order 200-400 km/s, performed by Michelson and Miller in 1920-1930ies
at lengthened to 32 m air light carriers, described by me in arXiv:0910.5658v3, 24 June 2010,
repeated in the work by Shamir and Fox. Misunderstood was another artifact, manifesting itself in an
interferometer with a solid light carrier. In the current work, I explain the nature of this artifact,
hiding from Shamir and Fox their experimental success in detecting the aether wind velocity of
hundreds km/s. I discussed also the inadequacy of their own interpretation of the results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1008.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-03 00:33:55*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal, but it has been included in a book with title: Clan Capitalism, Graph Distance, and Other Issues (2013).

In the present article a number of critical economics situations are discussed based on clan
capitalism as a starting point. One can see clearly then, that instead of assuming 'ordinary
economy’ and that clan/crony capitalism is an exception in particular nation because of
certain socio-historical context, one should begin with the opposite assumption instead:
that clan capitalism can be found almost everywhere in this planet. One can say that clan
capitalism is a norm/rule rather than an exception, because clan capitalism is part of liberal capitalism itself. Apparently, more studies on the extent and role of clan capitalism in a nation's economy and also their role in globalized economy can be expected in the coming years.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[1] **viXra:1008.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Valery Demidovich

**Comments:** v2 is 29 Pages in Russian, v3 is 28 pages in English

The work maintenance: attempt to solve a problem about definition of set of simple numbers-twins is made.
In work absolutely new approach which is based on algorithm of a sieve of Eratosfena is applied.

**Category:** Number Theory