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1612 Submissions

[394] viXra:1612.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:18:02

Use of Bayesian Belief Networks in Predicting Contamination of Drinking Water with e. Coli in Rural Vietnam.

Authors: David C. Hall, Quynh Ba Le
Comments: 11 Pages.

A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was designed to describe association between various deterministic and probabilistic variables gathered from 600 small scale integrated (SSI) farmers in Vietnam. The variables relate to E. coli content of their drinking water, sourced on-farm from wells and rain water. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed that choice variables were particularly likely to influence endpoint values, reflecting the highly variable and impactful nature of preferences, attitudes, and beliefs relating to mitigation strategies. This BBN model of SSI farming in Vietnam is helpful to understanding the complexity of small scale agriculture as well as for identifying and estimating impact of policy options, particularly where combined with other analytical and policy tools. With appropriate knowledge translation, the model results will be particularly useful for helping SSI farmers understand their options for engaging in water public health mitigation strategies that do not disrupt their chosen livelihoods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[393] viXra:1612.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:39:19

Mitigation of Water Related Zoonotic Diseases on Small-Scale Integrated Farms in Vietnam.

Authors: Quynh Ba Le, David C. Hall
Comments: 23 Pages.

The goals of this study were to 1) assess basic microbial and other quality indicators of drinking and domestic water and 2) identify factors associated with E. coli contamination of drinking and domestic water on 600 small-scale integrated (SSI) farms in the provinces of Thai Binh and An Giang in Vietnam. The cross-sectional study relied on questionnaires and on-farm water samples analyzed using standard methods from the Vietnam national protocol for water quality testing. Our results showed that SSI farmers frequently used water of poor quality contaminated with E. coli for domestic purposes. In Thai Binh for example, well water had a mean E. coli count of 356.5 cfu/100 mls. There were significant differences in the frequencies of use and the levels of E. coli contamination regarding water for domestic purposes between the two provinces. Analysis of associated factors revealed that socioeconomic status of farmers and their perceptions of risk factors for water related zoonotic disease (WRZD) transmission were significantly associated with E. coli contamination of domestic water. These findings would be informative in the course of formulation of water related interventions and policies, particularly for improving farmer awareness of risk factors for WRZD transmission and improvement of SSI farm water quality in general. Further research should explore farmers’ strategies to mitigate WRZD transmission and factors that may influence those strategies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[392] viXra:1612.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 21:01:16

The Geometry of Spacetime

Authors: Richard A Jowsey
Comments: 13 Pages.

The fundamental fabric of spacetime is revealed by deep Dimensional Analysis of the Planck Units of mass, energy, and electromagnetism. Using a little-known expression derived by James Clerk Maxwell for the dimensional reduction of mass and charge into units of length and inverse-time (frequency), all of the physical quantities can be expressed in terms of metres and inverse-seconds (Hz). On arranging these quantities into a 2D log-log space/time matrix, simple (but compelling) patterns emerge in the mathematical relationship between fundamental units. The space/time matrix requires five spatial dimensions to accommodate the physical units, two of which are shown to be imaginary spatially-gauged wavelengths, i.e. unobservable dimensions of complex 5+1D spacetime, measured in metres, which exist (mathematically), but are not real.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[391] viXra:1612.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 16:56:35

Area of Torricelli's Trumpet or Gabriel's Horn, Sum of the Reciprocals of the Primes, Factorials of Negative Integers

Authors: Sinisa Bubonja
Comments: 9 Pages.

In our previous work [1], we defined the method for computing general limits of functions at their singular points and showed that it is useful for calculating divergent integrals, the sum of divergent series and values of functions in their singular points. In this paper, we have described that method and we will use it to calculate the area of Torricelli's trumpet or Gabriel's horn, the sum of the reciprocals of the primes and factorials of negative integers.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[390] viXra:1612.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 00:28:51

TRL Universal Recursive Sub-Sets And Super-Sets Of A Set In Completion. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Recursive Sub-Sets And Super-Sets Of A Set In Completion'.
Category: General Mathematics

[389] viXra:1612.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 00:39:34

TRL Recursive Slating Of A Function (Set) In Terms Of Itself And Its Converse At The kth Universe In Parallel Given That The Given Set Has k Universes In Parallel, Found To Exhaustion. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Recursive Slating Of A Function (Set) In Terms Of Itself And Its Converse At The kth Universe In Parallel Given That The Given Set Has k Universes In Parallel, Found To Exhaustion'.
Category: General Mathematics

[388] viXra:1612.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 00:48:37

TRL Universal Equation Connecting True Life And True Redundancy of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Equation Connecting True Life And True Redundancy of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[387] viXra:1612.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 06:11:07

Non-Power-Function Metric: a Generalized Fractal

Authors: Wen Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

This short note proposes a general time-space metric by an extension of the power-function based fractal concept to the structural-function fabric. The structural function can be an arbitrary-function to describe complex metric underlying physical systems. We call such a metric Structal, and the fractal is its special case. This work is inspired by our recent work on the structural derivative, in which the structural function takes into account the significant influence of time-space fabric of a complex system on its physical behaviors, in particular, the ultra-slow diffusion. Based on the structal concept, this communication suggests the structural time-space transformation and introduces the general diffusion model. In addition, the statistics implication of the structal and the structural derivative model is also briefly discussed.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[386] viXra:1612.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 09:04:23

Brain-Mapping Advances

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21] Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19]
Category: Mind Science

[385] viXra:1612.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 11:14:55

Two Conjectures on the Number of Primes Obtained Concatenating to the Left with Numbers Lesser Than P a Prime P (Ii)

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes p = 30*h + j, where j can be 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 or 29, such that, concatenating to the left p with a number m, m < p, is obtained a number n having the property that the number of primes of the form 30*k + j up to n is equal to p. Example: such a number p is 67 = 30*2 + 7, because there are 67 primes of the form 30*k + 7 up to 3767 and 37 < 67. I also conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes q that don’t belong to the set above, i.e. doesn’t exist m, m < q, such that, concatenating to the left q with m, is obtained a number n having the property shown. Primes can be classified based on this criteria in two sets: primes p that have the shown property like 13, 17, 23, 31, 37, 41, 47, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 89, 103 (...) and primes q that don’t have it like 7, 11, 19, 29, 43, 53, 79, 83, 101 (...).
Category: Number Theory

[384] viXra:1612.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 11:44:56

Symmetric and Asymmetric Tensors of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 9 Pages. Russian

It is shown that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be associated with symmetric and asymmetric tensors, which are derived from decomposition of the antisymmetric tensor of general form into its elements: symmetric and antisymmetric parts. These tensors contain additional information about the electromagnetic field. d'Alembert wave equations for electromagnetic potential and derivatives of Lorenz gauge condition follow from antisymmetric tensor and Navier-Stokes dynamic equation for the electromagnetic potential follow from symmetric tensor. A harmonized system of field equations, including Maxwell's equations, follows from these three tensors.
Category: Classical Physics

[383] viXra:1612.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 11:57:30

On the Tensor of Energy-Momentum Tensor of the Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Matter

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

In this paper, a new consistent approach to theory of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. The tensor of energy-momentum tensor obtained from the tensor of the electromagnetic field and the induction field without the involvement of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. Tensor of energy-momentum the equations of conservation of energy density, the flux density of energy, density and momentum of the wave equation for these energy values. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium.
Category: Classical Physics

[382] viXra:1612.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 06:29:12

Applications of Machine Learning in Estimating the Minimum Distance of Approach of an NEO

Authors: Jayant Mehra
Comments: 15 Pages, 6 Figures, 5 Tables

Although the current detection techniques have been able to calculate the minimum distance to which a Near Earth Object (NEO) can approach Earth for thousands of NEOs, there are millions of yet undiscovered NEOs which could pose a threat to Planet Earth. An NEO is considered highly dangerous if the minimum distance between it and the centre of the Earth is less than 0.03 AU. However, only a handful NEOs have been detected prior to entering this danger zone. The immense task of asteroid hunting by conventional techniques is further complicated by a high number of false positives and false negatives. In this report, machine learning algorithms are written to predict the minimum distance upto which an NEO can approach the planet and classify NEOs as whether they are in the danger zone or no based on their physical characteristics. In section 4 of the study, an Artificial Neural Network based on the backpropagation algorithm and a Logistic Classification based on Unconstrained Minimisation using the fminunc function are employed to classify NEOs with an accuracy of 92% and 90% respectively. In section 5 of the report, the Levenberg - Marquardt Algorithm based on an Artificial Neural Network is employed to calculate the minimum distance with a regression R value of 0.79 (Value of 1 being the maximum). All the algorithmic systems developed have low false positive and false negative rates
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[381] viXra:1612.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 06:53:28

Minha Homenagem a Cesar Lattes

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages. Em português

Por ocasião da triste notícia do falecimento do físico brasileiro Cesar Lattes em 8 de março de 2005, um cientista injustiçado e quase ganhador do prêmio Nobel de Física, enviei uma nota minha para a página da Unicamp que o homenageava, uma síntese do que sentia no momento e que gostaria de dizer, deixar publicado. César Lattes era (e é) um dos meus heróis na Física, e certamente fiquei triste por sua morte. Não encontro mais a página para onde enviei minha homenagem, pela primeira vez (30/12/2016) após muitos anos, por este motivo eu escrevo este texto e deixo publicado onde costumo gravar meus artigos, para que não sejam perdidas nem minha homenagem nem a de vários físicos renomados brasileiros que também escreveram antes de mim. Havia ainda outros depoimentos, amáveis e curiosos, mas que não gravei anteriormente e por isso não há como transcrevê-los aqui.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[380] viXra:1612.0401 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-13 22:02:19

Constructing a Mathematical Framework for the Ensemble Interpretation Based on Double-Slit Experiments

Authors: Chong Wang
Comments: 7 Pages.

The ensemble interpretation attributes the wave appearances of particles to their statistical characteristics. This has increasingly interested scientists. However, the ensemble interpretation is still not a scientific theory based on mathematics. Here, based on the double-slit experiment, a mathematical framework for the ensemble interpretation is constructed. The Schrodinger equation and the de-Broglie equation are also deduced. Analysis shows that the wave appearance of particles is caused by the statistical properties of these particles; the nature of the wave function is the average least action for the particles in a position.
Category: Quantum Physics

[379] viXra:1612.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 02:12:38

Conjecture on Numbers N Obtained Concatenating Two Primes Related to the Number of Primes up to N (Ii)

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any prime p, p > 5, there exist q prime, q > p, where p = 30*k + m1 and q = 30*h + m2, m1 and m2 distinct, having one from the values 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, such that the number of primes congruent to m1 (mod 30) up to n, where n is the number obtained concatenating p with q, is equal to the number of primes congruent to m2 (mod 30) up to n. Example: for p = 17 there exist q = 23 such that there are 34 primes of the form 30*k + 17 up to 1723 and 34 primes of the form 30*k + 23 up to 1723.
Category: Number Theory

[378] viXra:1612.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 11:24:15

Magnetic Stem Cells for Gene Engineering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Scientists from the Tomsk Polytechnic University's Laboratory of Novel Dosage are developing a technology to control mesenchymal stem cells of patients and allow more effective cancer treatment. [20] Researchers from North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University have developed a synthetic version of a cardiac stem cell. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[377] viXra:1612.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 12:32:03

On Hypersurfaces F3 in e4 with Nonzero Laplacian of the Second Fundamental Form

Authors: Irina I. Bodrenko
Comments: 3 Pages.

The some properties of hypersurfaces F3 in Euclidean space E4 of nonzero Laplacian of the second fundamental form b are studied in this report.
Category: Geometry

[376] viXra:1612.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 13:15:23

Underlying Symmetry Among the Quark and Lepton Mixing Angles (Nine Year Update)

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 9 Pages.

In 2007 a single mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing was described. This model exploited the fact that when a $3 \times 3$ rotation matrix whose elements are squared is subtracted from its transpose, a matrix is produced whose non-diagonal elements have a common absolute value, where this value is an intrinsic property of the rotation matrix. For the traditional CKM quark mixing matrix with its second and third rows interchanged (i.e., c - t interchange) this value equals one-third the corresponding value for the leptonic matrix (roughly, 0.05 versus 0.15). This model is distinguished by three such constraints on mixing. As nine years have elapsed since its introduction, it is timely to assess the accuracy of the model's six mixing angles. In 2012 a large experimental conflict with leptonic angle $\theta_{13}$ required toggling the sign of one of the model's integer exponents; this change did not significantly impair the model's economy, where it is just this economy that makes the model notable. There followed a nearly fourfold improvement in the accuracy of the measurement of leptonic $\theta_{13}$. Despite this much-improved measurement, and despite much-improved measurements for three other mixing angles since the model's introduction in 2007, no other conflicts have emerged. The model's mixing angles in degrees are 45, 33.210911, 8.034394 (originally 0.013665) for leptons; and 12.920966, 2.367442, 0.190986 for quarks.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[375] viXra:1612.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 13:16:02

Why the Universe Is Not a Computer Simulation?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that due to the needed very high resolution of a computer simulating the initial big bang and next the evolution of our Cosmos, we and our Cosmos cannot be a computer simulation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[374] viXra:1612.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 16:06:30

Conjecture on Numbers N Obtained Concatenating Two Primes Related to the Number of Primes up to N

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of numbers n obtained concatenating two primes p and q, where p = 30*k + m1 and q = 30*h + m2, p < q, m1 and m2 distinct, having one from the values 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, such that the number of primes congruent to m1 (mod 30) up to n is equal to the number of primes congruent to m2 (mod 30) up to n. Example: for n = 1723 obtained concatenating the primes p = 17 and q = 23, there exist 34 primes of the form 30*k + 17 up to 1723 and 34 primes of the form 30*k + 23 up to 1723.
Category: Number Theory

[373] viXra:1612.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 16:05:22

Perceptive or P-Calculus: Ordinale & Residuale Noesis

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 10 Pages. novel foundations

An early formal glimpse at a survey of results yet to be revealed bridging topics as diverse as, the extensions of Cauchy functional equation, Taylor expansion, ABC conjecture, and Fermat LP to name but a few.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[372] viXra:1612.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 16:17:18

Could We Find Number pi and Golden Ratio Within the List of Natural Number ?

Authors: Jaime Vladimir TORRES-HEREDIA JULCA
Comments: 1 Page.

In this short paper I show that we can find the first digits of number Pi and Golden Ratio within the list of natural numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[371] viXra:1612.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 08:16:06

Greenhouse Versus Living Room Model

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 7 Pages.

Measurements and registrations indicate that the increase in global temperature is already during 150 years equal to 0,05 °C with every increase of 1 TeraWatt (~30 ExaJoule/year) worldwide generated power. This article describes the thermo dynamical research regarding the possibility of a direct increase of global temperature as a result of the power generated by mankind’s activities. Indicative calculations show that such a scenario should not be excluded on beforehand. Moreover: the greenhouse model is eventually such an intricate one that irrefutable evidences regarding its validity are not given yet. The importance of the possible validity of the living room model, as introduced in this article, is that present measurements to reduce CO2 emissions might be fully irrelevant. Eventually, whichever model might be the correct one, the most fundamental reason for the increasing global temperature is the explosively growing world population.
Category: Climate Research

[370] viXra:1612.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 10:09:32

When the First Baryons Were Created?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the big bang (the superluminal inflation) was separated in time from the “soft” big bang of the Universe. During the inflation (it lasted about 67 powers of ten times shorter than a second) there was no time for the three Standard-Model interactions i.e. electromagnetism, weak interactions, and the nuclear strong interactions - such interactions need much longer time. During the inflation baryons were not created. There were created only the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are the components of the Einstein spacetime (ES). It was because the interactions of the entanglons the neutrinos consist of were due to the inflation field i.e. due to the non-gravitating tachyons moving with speed about 97 powers of ten m/s. It means that the time of interactions of the ES components in distance equal to the Planck length is about 132 powers of ten times shorter than a second. SST shows that first baryons were created at the end of the inflation because of the collapse of the external layer of the ES - there was created more baryons than antibaryons because initially the inflation field had the left-handed helicity. Due to the return shock wave, there were created additional baryons in the centre of the Cosmos.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[369] viXra:1612.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-31 14:12:01

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos of not Fully Random Systems

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 12 Pages. v1 - version in Polish; v2 and later - in English.

Important for modeling of products of life, of technology and culture using complex networks, the famous Kauffman's hypothesis „life on the edge of chaos and order” is here deeply reinterpreted in effect of the model extension by functions and states correlation. The presented discovery of “half-chaos” – a state more adequate for describing life, significantly alter the existing basis of many considerations. Half-chaotic systems have the same parameters as chaotic random systems but they exhibit the characteristics of order and chaos simultaneously, previously considered to be mutually exclusive. As superheating, in effect of a large change (after a small disturbance) they become chaotic. Small change, defined by lack of immediate changes, does not lead out of half-chaos. The basis of half-chaos is a short attractor. Discovered “semimodularity” - a form of the half-chaos, gives the image “small lakes of activity in the ice”, similar as for systems in Kauffman's “liquid area” on the edge of chaos. There is much more half-chaotic systems than in “liquid area”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[368] viXra:1612.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 19:15:50

Uni-Temporalism, the Relation of Human Beings to Time and the ‘future’ of Time in Physics

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 35 Pages.

An examination of time. Presentation of Uni-temporalism, an advance on Presentism that provides both unambiguous foundational sequential time (that is the temporal expression for the continually changing configuration of the material universe) and emergent, information derived, relative time. Some ideas about time are given for comparison. Uni-temporal time is compared with Newtonian time and proper time. The two kinds of time presented dispel the temporal paradoxes. Time reversibility is removed from Classical mechanics if uni-temporal (-Now) time is used instead of Newtonian time. The arrows of time provided by Uni-temporalism are set out. Past, present and future are re-considered. The two kinds of time allow physics using sequential time and physics using relativistic time to co-exist without there being incompatibility or contradiction.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[367] viXra:1612.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 20:35:01

Every Even Integer Greater Than Six Can be Expressed as the Sum of Two co-Prime Odd Integers Atleast One of Which is a Prime

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper we prove a simple theorem that is distantly related to the Even Goldbach conjecture and is weaker than Chen’s theorem regarding the expression of any even integer as the sum of a prime number and a semiprime number. We show that any even integer greater than six can be written as the sum of two odd integers coprime to one another and atleast one of them is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[366] viXra:1612.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-20 08:30:42

On the Conformal Unity Between Quantum Particles and General Relativity

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 22 Pages. Published version: OALibJ, 4: e3342. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103342

I consider the standard model, together with a preon version of it, to search for unifying principles between quantum particles and general relativity. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions alone. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Conformal symmetry is seen to improve quantization in loop quantum gravity. The Einstein-Cartan theory with torsion is analyzed suggesting structure in spacetime below the Cartan scale. A toy model for black hole constituents is proposed. Higgs metastability hints at cyclic conformal cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[365] viXra:1612.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 23:59:57

Time Invariance of the Fundamental Phisical Constants

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper shows that the variation of certain fundamental constants is practically impossible in a physical time frame of reference. We can have as many time frames of reference we want but when we transform them all into physical time frames of reference, with time as a measure of movement, physical equations retain their form and meaning and values of certain physical quantities and fundamental constants are the same. Therefore the question of variation of certain fundamental constants is only possible for those frames of reference other than physical time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[364] viXra:1612.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 01:16:00

The Sequence of Palindromes N with Property that the Number of Primes 30k+7 and 30k+11 up to N is Equal

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of palindromes n for which the number of primes up to n of the form 30k + 7 is equal to the number of primes up to n of the form 30k + 11 and I found the first 40 terms of the sequence of n (I also found few larger terms, as 99599, 816618 or 1001001 up to which the number of primes from the two sets, equally for each, is 1154, 8159, respectively 9817).
Category: Number Theory

[363] viXra:1612.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 01:37:07

The Universal Rotation Curve of Dwarf Disc Galaxies Created by the Most Massive Disc Galaxies

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), visible mass (or baryonic mass) of most massive disc galaxies is about 0.85 multiplied by both 12 powers of ten and the solar mass. Calculated within SST the mean baryonic mass of discs of dwarf galaxies produced by such massive galaxies is 5.2 multiplied by both 7 powers of ten and the solar mass. The calculated within SST mean orbital speed of stars in such dwarf galaxies, which results from the interactions of stars with the dark-matter (DM) structures, is about 37 km/s. SST shows that the total number of dwarf galaxies in the early Universe should be about 2.2 multiplied by 12 powers of ten and should decrease with time because of their mergers and due to their absorption by the nearby massive galaxies (massive galaxies have mass higher than about 11 powers of ten multiplied by the solar mass and there should be a massive black hole in their centre). In the early Universe there should be about 1000 times more the dwarf galaxies than the massive galaxies. Contrary to the mainstream cosmology, SST shows that number of massive galaxies in the observed Universe should not depend on time i.e. it is an invariant. SST shows that we should not observe a smooth field of first stars or smooth field of first dwarf galaxies free from the massive galaxies. Moreover, reionization is an illusory phenomenon which follows from the “transition” of galaxies from the unseen period of evolution to the observed period - it took place in the time distance about 13.8 Gyr. All theoretical results obtained in this paper are consistent with observational facts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[362] viXra:1612.0381 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-21 15:41:57

Advance Physics

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 31 Pages.

As further progress in PHPR and the Scientific Age continue more knowledge of physics will be ascertain and establish in Advance Physics.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[361] viXra:1612.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:16:43

Prion Proteins and Prion Diseases. New Hypothesis. \\ Прионные белки и прионные болезни. Новая гипотеза.

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

The article gives a summary about prion proteins and prion diseases from the point of view of conventional medicine. Studies of prions by the Information-Wave Medicine methods are described. A hypothesis about the role of the pri-on proteins in human body functioning is formulated. \\ В статье приведены краткие сведения о прионных белках и прионных болезнях, как их видит конвенциональная медицина. Описаны исследования прионов методами информационно-волновой медицины. Сформулирована гипотеза о роли прионных белков в жизнедеятельности человеческого организма.
Category: Physics of Biology

[360] viXra:1612.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:19:09

Klinefelter Syndrome. Unanswered Questions. \\ Синдром Клайнфельтера. Вопросы без ответов.

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article describes the disease also known as “XXY boys” where develop-ment of boys’ skeleton and some organs follows female pattern. Most of the clinical implications cannot be explained by classical medicine. When consider-ing the described state in terms of the Information-Wave Medicine we have found the answers to the questions put by physicians. \\ В статье описано заболевание, известное также как «мальчики XXY», сопровождающееся развитием скелета и некоторых органов у мальчиков по женскому типу. Большинство из клинических проявлений классическая медицина объяс-нить не может. При рассмотрении описываемого состояния с позиции ин-формационно-волновой медицины найдены ответы на вопросы, постав-ленные медиками.
Category: Physics of Biology

[359] viXra:1612.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:21:37

Prions and Tyrants \\ Прионы и тираны

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article describes a hypothesis that the tyranny of the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, the leader of “all the times” Joseph Stalin and mental breakdowns of Adolf Hitler are explained by prion disease of all three persons. \\ В статье приведена гипотеза о том, что тирания северокорейского вождя Ким Чен Ына, вождя «всех времен и народов» И.В. Сталина и психические срывы Адольфа Гитлера объясняются наличием у всех троих прионной болезни.
Category: Physics of Biology

[358] viXra:1612.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:27:43

Geniuses and Genes \\ Гении и гены

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article refutes the hypothesis of orthodox science explaining the emer-gence of geniuses. Regularities of changes in brain structures of men of genius from the point of view of the Information-Wave Medicine are shown. \\ В статье опровергаются гипотезы ортодоксальной науки, поясняющие появление гениев. Приводятся закономерности изменения мозговых структур у гениальных людей с позиций информационно-волновой ме-дицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[357] viXra:1612.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:29:18

Regarding the Issue of Free-Radical Theory of Human Aging \\ К вопросу о свободнорадикальной теории старения человека

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

The article shows the results of researches confirming the groundlessness of the “free-radical theory of aging”. The genetic-viral etiology of this process and the role of antioxidants in slowing down aging processes are proved. \\ В ста-тье приведены результаты исследований, подтверждающие несостоя-тельность «свободнорадикальной теории старения». Доказана генно-вирусная этиология этого процесса, а также роль антиоксидантов в за-медлении процессов старения.
Category: Physics of Biology

[356] viXra:1612.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:31:15

Antigens and Antibodies \\ Антигены и антитела

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article briefly considers the antigenic theory and its use in the Information-Wave Medicine technologies. \\ В статье кратко рассмотрена антигенная теория и ее использование в технологиях информационно-волновой ме-дицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[355] viXra:1612.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:36:11

The New About Prostate Cancer \\ Новое о раке простаты

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

This article describes an approach that allows to diagnose and treat prostate cancer in terms of the Information-Wave Medicine. \\ В статье описан подход к диагностике и лечению рака простаты с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[354] viXra:1612.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:38:16

Night Blindness \\ Куриная слепота не только куриная.

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article describes the pathology of the retina called the “night blindness”. Some aspects of checking this disease by the Information-Wave Medicine methods are shown. \\ В статье описана патология сетчатки глаза, назван-ная в народе «куриной слепотой». Приведены некоторые аспекты провер-ки этого заболевания методами информационно-волновой медицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[353] viXra:1612.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:40:15

Concerning Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis and More \\ О холестерине, атеросклерозе и не только

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

The author has its own approach to decholesterolization and effect of athero-sclerosis on the duration of human life, the article is devoted to this approach. \\ К вопросу снижения холестерина в крови и влияния атеросклероза на продолжительность жизни человека у автора имеется свой подход, кото-рому и посвящена настоящая статья.
Category: Physics of Biology

[352] viXra:1612.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:42:02

Parkinson’s Disease is Curable \\ Болезнь Паркинсона можно излечить

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

The article describes the peculiarities of Parkinson’s disease in terms of classi-cal medicine. Mistakes in medical approach are described, as well as the re-sults of studies confirming the possibility of curing the disease are shown. \\ В статье описаны особенности болезни Паркинсона с позиции классической медицины. Показаны ошибки в подходе медиков, а также приведены ре-зультаты исследований, подтверждающие возможность излечения этой болезни.
Category: Physics of Biology

[351] viXra:1612.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 03:43:37

What is the Wave Portrait of a Body. \\ Что такое волновой портрет ор-ганизма.

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

The article considers the concept of the “wave portrait” of a body, first used in the author-developed concept of the “Information-Wave Medicine”. The article shows its composition, describes its three field components. \\ В статье рас-смотрено понятие «волновой портрет» организма, впервые используемое автором в созданной им концепции «Информационно-волновая медици-на». Показан его состав, описаны три его полевые составляющие.
Category: Physics of Biology

[350] viXra:1612.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 04:52:24

Loss of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[349] viXra:1612.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 05:24:47

Pretty Good Privacy Like Alternative to a Secure Hash Algorithm

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

A server can distribute signed files using the pretty good privacy program, using a universal standard client that have known public key and known private key.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[348] viXra:1612.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 07:04:17

Nano System Operates with Interacting Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Illustrating the unusual way things work on the nanoscale, scientists have designed a new nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) that produces mechanical motion due to the interactions between electrons—yet unlike similar systems, this system does not require any electric current. Instead, the electron-electron interactions couple two electron reservoirs of different temperatures, which generates a heat flow between them that causes a suspended carbon nanotube to vibrate. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons
Category: Condensed Matter

[347] viXra:1612.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 11:53:11

The M-Sigma Problem Resolved: Negative Mass Supermassive Black Holes Appeared Early in the Universe Followed by Capture of Positive Mass to Reduce the Hole Size

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Supermassive black holes were utilized in the early universe to eliminate redundant -H bosons after their use in transferring +mass fermions from the previous universe. The large initial masses of the holes later decreased as some of the +mass transferred was captured by the negative intrinsic mass H bosons, leaving previously active galaxies with smaller or no central black holes
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[346] viXra:1612.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 06:44:00

John S. Bell Was Right: “How to Teach Special Relativity” and Atomic Pear Shaped Contraction.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 9 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Polarized Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field. Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance. Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity” The recently observed Axial symmetric pear shaped atom nuclei ( LHC) are an extra support for the atomic interaction with a new massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum reference frame postulated by Quantum FFF Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[345] viXra:1612.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 09:26:49

Skyrmion Hall Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[344] viXra:1612.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 17:44:54

Quantum Thread Theory

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 15 Pages.

There is a high tension finest-filament-thread particle field in space .
Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing).
A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual thread lengths are approximately one Ångström).
Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web. If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a finest filament thread particle field)
The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"
The particle field threads have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is. If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[343] viXra:1612.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 02:31:53

Variations of the Gravitational Constant with Time in the Framework of the Expanding Universe

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to find an answer in the matter of expanding universe from the time variance of the gravitational constant point of view. We took as reference the equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe and report the observational data to it. The equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe is estimated in a reference universe hypothesis. An expanding force is balanced by an attracting force and this is the basis from which we can establish a formal time variance for the gravitational constant in two cases. The first one correspond to an expanding universe, hence this case can’t be a reference for our evaluation. The second case corresponds to a static universe and it is the same as a de Sitter universe. This is the reason why this case can be a reference case. Thus the observational data smaller than our reference theoretical value, are linked to a collapsing universe and the observational data greater than the same reference value are characteristic to an expanding universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[342] viXra:1612.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 07:08:27

Epstein-Barr Virus (Ebv) – a Main Cause of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 5 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany.Published by:

Objective. Many studies presented some evidence that EBV might play a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Still, there are conflicting reports concerning the existence of EBV in the synovial tissue of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods. Takeda et al. designed a study to detected EBV DNA is synovial tissues obtained at synovectomy or arthroplasty from 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 30 control patients (no rheumatoid arthritis). In this study, the data as published by Takeda et al. were re-analysed. Results. EBV infection of human synovial tissues is a condition per quam of rheumatoid arthritis. And much more than this. There is a highly significant causal relationship between an EBV infection of human synovial tissues and rheumatoid arthritis (k= +0,546993718, p-value = 0,00001655). Conclusion. These findings suggest that EBV infection of human synovial tissues is a main cause of rheumatoid arthritis.
Category: Statistics

[341] viXra:1612.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 13:10:07

Atom Interferometer Measure Inertial Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

MIT researchers describe a way to make atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates even more precise by eliminating a source of error endemic to earlier designs. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic anti-social behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[340] viXra:1612.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 15:53:21

Deriving the Maximum Velocity of Matter from the Planck Length Limit on Length Contraction

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here we will assume that there is a Planck length limit on the maximum length contraction that is related to the reduced Compton wavelength. Our focus will be on the maximum velocity of subatomic particles, which “have” what is known as a reduced Compton wavelength. We assume that the reduced Compton wavelength of a moving particle as measured from the laboratory frame (“rest” frame) cannot be shorter than the Planck length as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[339] viXra:1612.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 07:30:29

Surface Formulations of the Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Material Bodies — Part III

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 10 Pages.

As a supplement to the previous Parts I and II, the Surface formulations of the ElectroMagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for the system constructed by Multiple Homogeneous Material bodies (Surf-MHM-EMP-CMT) are established in this Part III. The coupling phenomenon among different bodies is specifically studied, and then a new kind of power-based Characteristic Mode (CM) set, Coupling power CM (CoupCM) set, is developed for characterizing the coupling character.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[338] viXra:1612.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-30 14:40:02

Gravitational Lensing Explained in Terms of Energy Field Theory

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modeled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) so this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[337] viXra:1612.0355 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-09 11:23:59

Prediction for the Von Klitzing Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 25812.8074479 ohms.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[336] viXra:1612.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 02:01:39

Law of Stoichiometry - The Law of Nature

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 12 Pages.

The fundamental law of chemistry – the law of stoichiometry - is not properly understood even after two centuries of existence. The significance of the pivotal concept of ‘equivalent of a reaction’ is not recognized. This led to several misconceptions that include ‘what a chemical reaction is’. The origin of the problems lies with lack of understanding of the distinction between a mixture of chemical reactions represented by the equation: ∑αi Xi = 0, and a chemical reaction represented by the equation: ∑νi Xi = 0. νi ≠ αi; (νi is the stoichiometric coefficient of species Xi and αi is a rational number),. These problems are easily identified in the decomposition and combination of chemical reactions (that includes half cell reactions), specifically in case of disproportionation reactions. In these cases we find multiple values of zcell (equivalents per mol of reaction) and properties such as E0 (standard potential) for a given reaction. This is a paradox. It is impossible a for reaction under given conditions to have multiple values of a property (a thermodynamic state function). We critically analyze these issues and highlight in this paper the crucial aspects of a chemical reaction: That it must have a unique number of equivalents per mol, must be decomposable uniquely into two partial or half cell reactions, must be obtainable from combination of two partial or half cell reactions in a unique way; and, the distinction between a chemical reaction and a mixture of chemical reactions. Our analysis leads to: a new definition of chemical reaction; a new definition of linearly independent reactions, a new relation between the number of equivalents per mol of the partial or half cell reactions and the resultant chemical reaction; specify the two necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied in combining reactions to get resultant reactions. We apply the criteria to a few examples to show their applicability. We also comment on Avogadro number and the terminology - ‘kJ per mol of reaction as written’. Chemistry must play an active role to bring back the preeminent role of chemistry in furtherance of natural sciences.
Category: Chemistry

[335] viXra:1612.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 03:13:34

Sedeonic Equations for Electromagnetic Field in Anisotropic Media

Authors: Victor L. Mironov
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of electromagnetic field in an anisotropic medium using the sedeonic wave equations based on sedeonic potentials and space-time operators.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[334] viXra:1612.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 04:22:39

Surface Formulations of the Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Material Bodies — Part II

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 13 Pages.

Both the previous Part I and this Part II focus on the linear electromagnetic system constructed by a Single Homogeneous Material body (SHM), and the SHM can be electric and/or magnetic. The studies for the system constructed by Multiple Homogeneous Material bodies (MHM) will be finished in Part III. It is indispensable for the Surface formulations of the ElectroMagnetic-Power-based SHM Characteristic Mode Theory (Surf-SHM-EMP-CMT) to relate the surface equivalent electric and magnetic currents, and a boundary condition based method for establishing the relation has been provided in the Part I. In this Part II, some further studies for the boundary condition based method are done (such as the revelation for physical essence, the numerical analysis, and the improvement), and a new conservation law based method is given. As a supplement to the Part I, some new surface formulations for the output power of a SHM are developed in this Part II, and then some new surface formulations for constructing the Output power Characteristic Mode (OutCM) set and some new variational formulations for the scattering problem of a SHM are established. In addition, the power relation contained in the PMCHWT formulation for a SHM is analyzed. Then, it is clearly revealed that the physical essence of the PMCHWT formulation for the SHM scattering problem is the conservation law of energy; the power character of the CM set derived from the PMCHWT-based CMT is not always identical to the OutCM set derived from the Surf-SHM-EMP-CMT; the PMCHWT-based CMT can be viewed as a special case of the object-oriented EMP-CMT.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[333] viXra:1612.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 05:01:26

A New Mudra and Breathing Technique

Authors: Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu
Comments: 02 Pages. I request readers to trial this breathing technique

The practice of meditational techniques is to unite cosmic and bio energies. There are several methods formulated and introduced by philosophers and spiritual masters. All the known systems are difficult to perform. One has to practise for years. Most of the meditational and breathing methods have side effects. But the author’s “An entirely new kundalini mudra, yoga and meditation “is very easy to practice and there will be no side effects or defects.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[332] viXra:1612.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 06:54:14

Ramanujan's Radicals , Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this note we present some Fractals related with the polynomial equation:x^9+3*x^6+3*x^3-1=0.
Category: General Mathematics

[331] viXra:1612.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-14 04:18:08

Physical Properties of Stars and Stellar Dynamics

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

The present study is an investigation of stellar physics based on observables such as mass, luminosity, radius, and photosphere temperature. We collected a dataset of these characteristics for 360 stars, and diagramed the relationships between their characteristics and their type (white dwarf, red dwarf, main sequence star, giant, supergiant, hypergiant, Wolf-Rayet, carbon star, etc.). For stars dominated by radiation pressure in the photosphere which follow the Eddington luminosity, we computed the opacity and cross section to photon flux per hydrogen nuclei in the photosphere. We considered the Sun as an example of star dominated by gas pressure in the photosphere, and estimated the density of the solar photosphere using limb darkening and assuming the adiabatic gradient of a monoatomic gas. We then estimated the cross section per hydrogen nuclei in the plasma of the solar photosphere, which we found to be about 2.66\e{-28} \, m^2, whereas the cross section of neutral hydrogen as given by the Bohr model is 8.82\e{-21} \, m^2. This result suggests that the electrons and protons in the plasma are virtually detached. Hence, a hydrogen plasma may be represented as a gas mixture of electrons and protons. If the stellar photosphere was made of large hydrogen atoms or ions such as the ones we find in gases, its surface would evaporate due to the high temperatures.
Category: Astrophysics

[330] viXra:1612.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 12:36:25

Emotional Hangover

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Emotional experiences can induce physiological and internal brain states that persist for long periods of time after the emotional events have ended, a team of New York University scientists has found. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[329] viXra:1612.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 08:03:59

A Viewpoint on the Momentum of Photons Propagating in a Medium

Authors: Chong Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

A suggestion is proposed to solve the dispute about light momentum in transparent materials: when photons show wave features, the momentum of light conforms to Minkowski's viewpoint; when photons show particle features, the momentum of light accords with Abraham's thought.
Category: Quantum Physics

[328] viXra:1612.0346 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-26 18:26:36

New Theory of HIV Diversification

Authors: Edward J Steele, Roger L Dawkins
Comments: 39 Pages.

Abstract Several observations suggest that the mutation rate of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is much higher than generally believed. This evidence is briefly reviewed. A new speculative theory for HIV diversification (in development since 2013) is thus proposed whereby the virus co-opts the host’s somatic hypermutation (SHM) machinery normally targeted to rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable genes (VDJs) within antigen-activated Germinal Centre B lymphocytes. The pessimistic conclusion - that a conventional vaccine is impossible – is a message not really welcomed in this modern age addicted to only positive scientific results. We argue this should be taken as a spur to approach viral prophylaxis and therapy from entirely new directions. Viruses, particularly HIV and its antecedents, have had billions of years of both cosmic and terrestrial evolution to figure out, by trial and error, how to multiply and infect the next host cell. The implications of our novel and plausible HIV immune evasion strategy is discussed both for the host-parasite relationship and current vaccine research. Because the straight forward and simple idea in this paper has been in preparation for three years it has been found necessary to add a Post Script to this viXra.org submission.
Category: Physics of Biology

[327] viXra:1612.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 09:49:09

Synthetic Stem Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University have developed a synthetic version of a cardiac stem cell. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[326] viXra:1612.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 10:03:47

Advance Artificial Super-Intelligence

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

From FL to AL.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[325] viXra:1612.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 05:04:02

Self-Healing Material Electrically Activated

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists, including several from the University of California, Riverside, have developed a transparent, self-healing, highly stretchable conductive material that can be electrically activated to power artificial muscles and could be used to improve batteries, electronic devices, and robots. [11] The same researchers who pioneered the use of a quantum mechanical effect to convert heat into electricity have figured out how to make their technique work in a form more suitable to industry. [10] Systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium are very common in nature. In recent years they have attracted constantly growing attention because of their relevance for fundamental physics as well as for modern nanotechnology. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[324] viXra:1612.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 05:28:49

Repair DNA Mistakes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled.
Category: Physics of Biology

[323] viXra:1612.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-11 01:48:26

Gravitational Clock: Near Space Proof-of-Concept Prior to Deep Space Measurement of G-Part I

Authors: Richard Benish
Comments: Typo fixed in penultimate paragraph of page 6. Os changed to phis in Uggerhoj's name.

Motivated by the benefits of improving our knowledge of Newton's constant G, Feldman et al have recently proposed a new measurement involving a gravitational clock launched into deep space. The clock's mechanism is supposed to be the linear oscillation of a test mass falling back and forth along the length of a hole through the center of a spherical source mass. Similar devices — ones that would have remained in orbit around Earth — were proposed about 50 years ago for the same purpose. None of these proposals were ever carried out. Further back, in 1632 Galileo proposed the thought experiment of a cannonball falling into a hole through the center of Earth. Curiously, no one has yet observed the gravity-induced radial motion of a test object through the center of a massive body. Also known as a gravity-train, not a one has yet reached its antipodal destination. From this kind of gravitational clock, humans have not yet recorded a single tick. The well known reliability of Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity may give confidence that the device will work as planned. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a less expensive apparatus — Small Low-Energy Non-Collider — ought to be built first, simply to prove that the operating principle is sound. Certain peculiar facts about Schwarzschild's interior solution are discussed here; and a novel way of interpreting gravitational effects will be presented in Part II, together adding support for the cautious advice to more thoroughly look before we leap to the outskirts of the Solar System.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[322] viXra:1612.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 08:13:36

Short-Lived Tetraneutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A research team at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, using new interaction between neutrons, has theoretically justified the low-energy tertaneutron resonance that was recently obtained experimentally. [14] James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[321] viXra:1612.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 10:17:53

Algebraic Interpretation of Octonion Dark Matter

Authors: V.K.Sharma, B.C.Chanyal, O.P.S.Negi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The vast majority of the dark matter in the universe is believed to be nonbaryonic, which means that it contains no atoms and does not interact with ordinary matter via electromagnetic forces. The nonbaryonic dark matter includes neutrinos, and possibly hypothetical entities such as axions, or supersymmetric particles. Unlike baryonic dark matter, nonbaryonic dark matter does not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe (big bang nucleosynthesis) and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational attraction. The nonbaryonic dark matter is evident through its gravitational effect only. There are two type of nonbaryonic dark matter respectively defined as hot dark matter and cold dark matter. For the existence of nonbaryonic dark matter in this universe we can used the higher dimensional division algebra. There exists four normed division algebras: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions, and octonions. Since, the octonions are the last division algebra, so we can easily described the octonion space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces namely gravitational G-space and electromagnetic EM-space. Thus, describing the octonion eight dimensional space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces (namely associated with the electromagnetic interaction (EM-space) and linear gravitational interaction (G-space)), we have reexamined the unified picture of EM-G space in terms of octonionic formulation in consistent manner. Consequently, we have obtained the fundamental components of angular momentum and torque for unified theory of gravi- electromagnetism. After that we relate these components in terms of octonionic dark matter and dark energy. In this formulation, it should be noted that the unified octonionic rotation energies in terms of angular momentum and torque will be responsible for the existence of dark matter and dark energy in this universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[320] viXra:1612.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 17:35:46

Conjecture on Kissing Numbers and Uniform N-Polytodes

Authors: Pablo Álvarez Domínguez
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main objectives of this little work is to propose a conjecture about a condition that every Kissing Number must satisfy and to study a little bit its most basic direct consequences if it were proven true. It can seem that nowadays there is not enough acknowledge to conjecture it (mainly because the little information we have about Kissing Numbers). However, the few known examples we have about this type of numbers satisfy it.
Category: Topology

[319] viXra:1612.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 03:51:56

Acoustic Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Yale scientists have shown how to enhance the lifetime of sound waves traveling through glass—the material at the heart of fiber optic technologies. [16] Electron microscopy of a manganese dioxide nanowire in cross-section shows its tunnelled atomic structure, stabilized by potassium ions. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[318] viXra:1612.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 04:23:34

Fluorescence Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[317] viXra:1612.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 06:39:59

Devices Convert Heat into Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

The same researchers who pioneered the use of a quantum mechanical effect to convert heat into electricity have figured out how to make their technique work in a form more suitable to industry. [10] Systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium are very common in nature. In recent years they have attracted constantly growing attention because of their relevance for fundamental physics as well as for modern nanotechnology. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[316] viXra:1612.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 13:05:30

Foundation Armenian Theory Of General Relativity In One Physical Dimension by Pictures

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan
Comments: 88 Pages. Armenian Theory of General Relativity Is a New and Solid Mathematical Theory, Because it Satisfies the Conditions to be Called a New Theory.

In this new - second volume of the visual crash course of "Armenian Theory of Relativity", which is organic sequel of the first volume, we discuss the case (Case B) where observing coordinate systems moving against each other with arbitrary acceleration. We also used the most general considerations and only a pure mathematical approach, and in so doing, we build a theory of general relativity (kinematics) and received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for observed test particle coordinates differentials. Our visual book, which is also made for broad audiences of physicists, does not generalize legacy theory of general relativity, but using totally new approach and without limitations, in one dimensional physical space, building more logical and correct theory of general relativity (for now kinematics only), which has one additional new universal constant (s). Our received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for moving test particle coordinates differentials we can also obtain in a very easy way from the Armenian Theory of Special Relativity (Volume A) transformation equations, by just taking test particle coordinates two infinitesimal points, where reciprocal relative velocities between observing systems are instantaneous variable velocities. But we prefer to go hard way to show the fact that Armenian Theory of Relativity is a solid mathematical theory. In this volume we also faced contradictions and our next volumes we will solve those "contradictions". We also advise readers to be very cautious when comparing legacy theory relativity with the Armenian Theory of Relativity, especially when instead of trying to understand the new theory, they use their whole energy trying to find “mistakes” or “paradoxes” in Armenian Theory of Relativity. Please just try to remember that legacy theories of relativity are symmetric theories, but Armenian Theory of Relativity is asymmetric theory of relativity. Proofs in this volume are also very brief and therefore readers need to put sufficient effort to prove all providing formulas.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[315] viXra:1612.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 15:02:25

La Grangian Multiplier Equation in Pre Planckian Space-Time Early Universe and the Cosmological Constant.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

We look at two action integrals for the early universe. One action integral as specified by Ambjorn, et.al, 2010 is part of a quantum gravity as a sum over space-time results and another is by Padmanabhan, in 2005 gives an action integral in terms of the Cosmological Constant prominently in, as a way to obtain the Einstein Equations in general relativity. The procedure in our derivation is to say that both first integrals in the Pre-Planckian space-time are giving the same ‘information’ and from there to utilize an equivalence between these two first integrals as to interpret what the Lagrangian multiplier in the Abjorn et.al. first integral is saying. In addition we interpret the Ricci scalar, in the Padmabhan first integral in terms of a treatment given by Majumbdar, 2015, which has the value of being rendered in terms of scalar factors a(t). In doing so, we utilize the physical interpretation of a Lagrangian multiplier, as given by Karrabulet which is in terms of minimum conditions needed for affecting the physics (of cosmological expansion of the universe) from first principles Key words, Ricci tensor, inflaton physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[314] viXra:1612.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 12:51:08

Foundation Armenian Theory of Special Relativity By Pictures

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan
Comments: 80 Pages. This book is dedicated to the 25-th anniversary of independence of Armenia

In this visual book we showed that the «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity» is full of fine and difficult ideas to understand, which in many cases seems to conflict with our everyday experiences and legacy conceptions. This new crash course book is the simplified version for broad audiences. This book is not just generalizing transformation equations and all relativistic formulas; It is also without limitations and uses a pure mathematical approach to bring forth new revolutionary ideas in the theory of relativity. It also paves the way to build general theory of relativity and finally for the construction of the unified field theory – the ultimate dream of every truth seeking physicist. Armenian Theory of Relativity is such a mathematically solid and perfect theory that it cannot be wrong. Therefore, our derived transformation equations and all relativistic formulas have the potential to not just replace legacy relativity formulas, but also rewrite all modern physics. Lorentz transformation equations and other relativistic formulas is a very special case of the Armenian Theory of Relativity when we put s = 0 and g = -1 . The proofs in this book are very brief, therefore with just a little effort, the readers themselves can prove all the provided formulas in detail. You can find the more detailed proofs of the formulas in our main research book «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity», published in Armenia of June 2013. In this visual book, you will set your eyes on many new and beautiful formulas which the world has never seen before, especially the crown jewel of the Armenian Theory of Relativity - Armenian energy and Armenian momentum formulas, which can change the future of the human species. The time has come to reincarnate the ether as a universal reference medium which does not contradict relativity theory. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute ether theory, relativistic ether theory and dark matter theory. We just need to mention that the absolute ether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[313] viXra:1612.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 07:35:57

Biological Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Caltech biologist Markus Meister is disputing recent research claiming to have solved what he describes as "the last true mystery of sensory biology"—the ability of animals to detect magnetic fields. This "magnetic sense" provides a navigational aid to a variety of organisms, including flies, homing pigeons, moles, and bats. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[312] viXra:1612.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 06:06:15

No Violation of Lorentz Symmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Physicists have found the strongest evidence yet for no violation of Lorentz symmetry, one of the fundamental symmetries of relativity. [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[311] viXra:1612.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 07:10:15

Flat Optical Lenses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Engineers at Caltech have developed a system of flat optical lenses that can be easily mass-produced and integrated with image sensors, paving the way for cheaper and lighter cameras in everything from cell phones to medical devices. [15] University of Illinois Electrical & Computer Engineering and Bioengineering Professor Brian Cunningham's Nano Sensors group has invented a novel live-cell imaging method that could someday help biologists better understand how stem cells transform into specialized cells and how diseases like cancer spread. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[310] viXra:1612.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 16:28:23

Comparative Studies of Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Elecctric Charge, and Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy and the like — No.2 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative chemistry series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of mass, law of conservation of energy, and law of conservation of elecctric charge. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern chemistry; and they are all widely used in chemistry. The different points: the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of elecctric charge are also correct in physics, while the law of conservation of mass is not correct in physics, because mass and energy can be converted mutually; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. By using the comparative method, and referring to the concept of Comparative Sciences Clusters, these three laws of conservation can be dealed with the unified method, and the concept of Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy may be proposed, namely these three laws of conservation can be unified as sets of multiform laws of conservation of energy taking energy as the core. Finally, comparing with and referring to “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science” and “partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science”, these three laws of conservation are dealed with the unified method of variational principle.
Category: Chemistry

[309] viXra:1612.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 19:46:30

Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron. The value predicted is calculated from calculations for the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron(1) and the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron(2). The predicted value for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15267393 compared to the Codata value of 1836.15267389(17) These values predicted are a continuation of Michael John Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory of Everything. He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the electron and proposes a value that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[308] viXra:1612.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 01:22:28

Coulomb’s Law is Not Violated in Anion Dimers as Reported by Fatila et al

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: One page; sent to Angew. Chem.

This is a short note to dispel the idea that in some anionic dimers, Coulomb’s law is violated. The author points out that the two negatively charged oxygens are connected through a positively charged hydrogen provided by the hydrogen bond.
Category: Chemistry

[307] viXra:1612.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 14:04:46

Inertia.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

With the help of general relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The formula includes the speed of light. The gravitational field of two bodies changes the metric, it describes the general relativity. According to Einstein, the speed of light in a small local area in a gravitational field - there is a function of distance. Therefore, according to the formula interaction force on the repulsion of the particles (like charge) is less than the force approached exactly the same particles (charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and therefore always attract. From this is derived the inertia of a body.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[306] viXra:1612.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 11:19:59

Against Free Will in the Contemporary Natural Sciences

Authors: Martín López-Corredoira
Comments: 27 Pages. invited chapter in the book "Free Will: Interpretations, Implementations and Assessments", to be published by Nova Science Publ.

The claim of the freedom of the will (understood as an individual who is transcendent to Nature) in the name of XXth century scientific knowledge, against the perspective of XVIIIth-XIXth century scientific materialism, is analysed and refuted in the present paper. The hypothesis of reductionism finds no obstacle within contemporary natural sciences. Determinism in classical physics is irrefutable, unless classical physics is itself refuted. From quantum mechanics, some authors argue that free will is possible because there is an ontological indeterminism in the natural laws, and that the mind is responsible for the wave function collapse of matter, which leads to a choice among the different possibilities for the body. However, here I defend the opposite thesis because indeterminism does not imply free will, and because the considerations about an autonomous mind sending orders to the body is against neuroscience or evolutionary theories about human beings. The quantum theory of measurement can be interpreted without the intervention of human minds, but other fields of science cannot contemplate the mentalist scenario. A fatalistic or materialist view, which denies the possibility of a free will, makes much more sense in scientific terms.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[305] viXra:1612.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 09:41:20

Rigid Body Motion – Limits on Acceleration

Authors: John Freidenfelds. PhD
Comments: 14 Pages.

It is well-known that, according to special relativity, there is an absolute “speed limit” on objects traveling in space-time: nothing can travel faster than light. It turns out that an object’s acceleration is also limited by the geometry of space-time, but in a more complex manner. For objects viewed as points (negligible spatial extent), special relativity imposes no particular constraints on the magnitude of their acceleration. For objects that have spatial extent, however, it turns out that the geometry of space-time does impose limits. The case we are considering here is what has been defined as “rigid motion” (Born [1], Franklin [2]). This is motion in which an object’s speed is changed in such a way that it is neither stretched nor compressed. All of our discussion is limited to a single spatial dimension plus time (a moving rod). We assume that acceleration is applied all along the rod’s length with no assumptions required about its rigidity. Nor do we include such dynamic physical effects as momentum or elasticity. It turns out that speed changes cannot be uniform along the length of the rod if it is to remain in rigid motion. Franklin [2] derived a formula relating the required accelerations of various points along the rod. His derivation was for the special case in which acceleration is constant over time. Here we show that Franklin’s key formula (Equation 14 in [2]) applies to acceleration that is non-constant as well. Franklin’s formula reveals an interesting property of space-time: If the rod’s acceleration exceeds a fixed, finite bound the rod must experience distortion -- stretching or compressing in the direction of the acceleration. Furthermore, if a rod is accelerated at this bound, in order to maintain rigid motion, its trailing end must accelerate instantaneously (infinite acceleration), while its leading end accelerates at a finite constant rate. The rod’s trailing end will acquire its new speed in zero time, while the leading end takes a finite time. That is, the leading end ages, during this acceleration, over the trailing end.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[304] viXra:1612.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 05:11:35

Electron-Photon Small-Talk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A Princeton University-led team has built a device that advances silicon-based quantum computers, which when built will be able to solve problems beyond the capabilities of everyday computers. The device isolates an electron so that can pass its quantum information to a photon, which can then act as a messenger to carry the information to other electrons to form the circuits of the computer. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[303] viXra:1612.0320 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-03 04:39:02

The Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein & the Physical Society – Part II

Authors: Gocho V. Sharlanov
Comments: 30 Pages.

To upload a manuscript to the e-print archive of Cornell University, you need endorsement (recommendation), which you will never get if the content of the manuscript contradicts the theory of relativity. Of course, physics journals with the highest impact factor in the world directly refuse the publication of evidence, which can discredit the theory of relativity. Nobody can assume that a professor of physics at world-renowned university does not know what a coordinate reference system means. It is unclear, why the physical society is not standing decidedly behind the strong evidence that the measured velocity of light is not the same in all frames of reference. This fact was proven not only in the past century, but also by the last experiments carried out by means of modern technologies. In fact, the only remaining argument of the dominant orthodox part of the scientific community for more than one century is that “if the theory of relativity is mathematically proven – then this theory is correct…”, but… “not everyone can understand the theory of relativity”. The inaccessibility distance is actually silently supported to all, who “do not understand” the theory of relativity. We all know the anecdote concerning Ludwik Silberstein and Arthur Eddington about – “who are the three men who actually understood the theory of relativity?”… Actually, the main reason for the fact that this theory is incomprehensible is not that the mathematical apparatus is complex, but that the people do not accept illusory claims. The real statement can always be explained in a simple and comprehensible way for everyone. That is why, the book “THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY = THE BIGGEST DELUSION IN PHYSICS FOR 20TH CENTURY” (in 3 parts) was published at Amazon. This book is understandable for everyone who studied mathematics in secondary school.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[302] viXra:1612.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-22 07:06:55

Existence of Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A low-temperature material made from the elements praseodymium, osmium, and antimony should be able to host subatomic particles known as Majorana fermions, MIT researchers have shown in a theoretical analysis. [28] Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics. This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[301] viXra:1612.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 18:22:10

Exploring the Possibility of New Physics Part II: Infinite Superpositions & Black Holes the Kerr Metric & Gravitational Waves

Authors: Julian williams
Comments: 50 Pages. Feedback is welcome for both Part I & Part II of these papers as they overlap

Continuing Part 1 covering the building of fundamental Standard Model particles from infinite superpositions. The borrowed energy for cosmic wavelength gravitons requires the universe to expand and spacetime to warp around mass concentrations. We used a simplified approach initially which agreed with an infinitesimally modified General Relativity. In this paper we address those simplifications and find a mass/radius squared term (in Planck units) in the metric, which appears to raise some tension with General Relativity but only very close to the horizon of black holes. This may relate with the possibility of echoes in the Gravitational Waves at merger recently speculated. We also address the Kerr metric (which is also slightly modified) and briefly look at Gravitational Waves in this paper
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[300] viXra:1612.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-22 03:31:44

The Mechanism of Universe Beginning

Authors: Gou Nakano
Comments: 4 Pages.

When we consider the beginning of the universe, the Big Bang theory is currently the mainstream. And it is said that the universe was born out of nothing. Inflation started immediately after the start of the universe, the universe expanded at a speed exceeding the speed of light, the universe became huge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[299] viXra:1612.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 11:35:33

Quantum-based Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[298] viXra:1612.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 12:42:14

Atomic Clock Mimics Synthetic Magnetic State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Using their advanced atomic clock to mimic other desirable quantum systems, JILA physicists have caused atoms in a gas to behave as if they possess unusual magnetic properties long sought in harder-to-study solid materials. Representing a novel "off-label" use for atomic clocks, the research could lead to the creation of new materials for applications such as "spintronic" devices and quantum computers. [21] New material with ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism may lead to better computer memory. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another.
Category: Condensed Matter

[297] viXra:1612.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 07:33:22

Spintronics-Based Artificial Intelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[296] viXra:1612.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 09:33:08

Ferroelectricity and Ferromagnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

New material with ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism may lead to better computer memory. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage.
Category: Condensed Matter

[295] viXra:1612.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 01:38:23

The Special Nature of the Magnetic Field Around a Moving Line Charge

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 8 Pages.

Two types of electric currents and related magnetic fields were analyzed deeply in this paper. One is the current in a neutral wire, which is very familiar to us. The other current is the result of directional motion of one type (positive or negative) charges suspended in the space. The analysis results show that the two types of currents and related magnetic fields have same properties to observers in stationary frame. But, to the observers in a moving frame, the two types of currents and related magnetic field appear very different behaviors. In the second situation, it looks not sufficient to determine a magnetic field to a given point in space only by its magnitude and direction. In order to sufficiently determine the magnetic, the source of the magnetic field is also required to be considered into.
Category: Classical Physics

[294] viXra:1612.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 02:06:26

"Geomagnetic Pole" Shift Should Somewhat Decrease Earth-Sun Distance

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages. In Russian

Implications from Milankovitch cycles and changes of „torsion” field of the Earth to near Earth object orbit prediction quality are discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[293] viXra:1612.0310 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-08 14:16:56

Comment on "New Formulation of the Two Body Problem Using a Continued Fractional Potential "

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 4 Pages; 1Reference. This work is submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science

In a relatively recent article by F.A. Abd El-Salam et al. [Astrophys. Space Sci. 350, 507 (2014)], the authors claimed a new formulation of the two-body problem via the introduction of the continued fractional potential. Even if the idea of applying the continued fraction procedure to the gravitational physics is by itself a novelty, the study presented in their work suffers both from some mathematical and physical issues. These issues are discussed in this comment.
Category: Classical Physics

[292] viXra:1612.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-09 04:43:01

Report of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 171 Pages.

The Hilbert book test model is a purely mathematical test model that starts from a solid foundation from which the whole model derives by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The foundation restricts its extension. Also, the knowledge about physical reality serves as guidance, but the model is not claimed to be a proper reflection of physical reality. It is impossible to verify such claim. The mathematical toolkit still contains holes. These holes will appear during the development of the model and suggestions are made how those gaps can close. Some new insights and some new mathematical methods appear. The theory interprets the selected foundation as part of a recipe for modular construction, and that recipe applies throughout the development of the model. This development is an ongoing project. The main law of physics appears to be a commandment: “Thou shalt construct in a modular way.” The paper reveals the possible origin of several physical concepts. This paper shows that it is possible to discover a mathematical structure that is suitable as an extensible foundation. However, without adding extra mechanisms that ensure dynamic coherence, the structure does not provide the full functionality of reality. These extra mechanisms apply stochastic processes, which generate the locations of the elementary modules that populate the model. All discrete items in the universe configure from dynamic geometric locations. These items store in a repository that covers a history part, the current static status quo, and a future part. The elementary modules float over the static framework of the repository. Dedicated mechanisms ensure the coherent behavior of these elementary modules. Fields exist that describe these elementary modules. An encapsulating repository supports these fields. Quaternionic Hilbert spaces form both repositories. The model introduces a category of super-tiny objects that are shock fronts. The model gives them names, but mathematics knows these shock front already for two centuries as solutions of the wave equation. The model offers two interesting views. The first view is the creator’s view and offers free access to all historical, current, and future dynamic geometric data that store in the quaternion-based eigenspaces of operators. Quaternions store the data in a Euclidean space-progression structure. The second view is the observer’s view. The observers are modules that travel with the vane, which represents the static status quo. The observers only perceive information that comes from the past, and that is carried by the field that embeds them. The observer’s view sees the model as a spacetime based structure that presents its dynamic geometric data with a Minkowski signature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[291] viXra:1612.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 13:55:46

Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Now a group of scientists including physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory has demonstrated a new laser-driven "stop-action" technique for studying complex electron interactions under dynamic conditions. [30] Physicists now believe they can enhance superconductivity-the idea is to externally drive its underlying physical phenomena by changing how ions vibrating in the crystal lattice of the conductor material, called phonons, interact with electron flowing in the material. [29] Researchers at the University of Houston have reported a new method for inducing superconductivity in non-superconducting materials, demonstrating a concept proposed decades ago but never proven. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[290] viXra:1612.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 12:21:56

The Push Of Gravity

Authors: Donald Brown
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the universe two common things seem to dictate a great deal of how things work: electromagnetic energy and gravity. If photons are responsible for all of the electromagnetic effects that we see, can neutrinos be responsible for all of the gravity we see? I believe the answer is yes and through this paper I will lay out the logic and observations I have used to arrive at this conclusion.
Category: Classical Physics

[289] viXra:1612.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 10:01:16

Neural Activity by Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[288] viXra:1612.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 06:53:18

Kronecker Commutation Matrices and Particle Physics

Authors: Christian Rakotonirina
Comments: 10 Pages. Talk given in 8th High Energy physics Conference in Antananarivo, Madagascar, HEPMAD16, 15th Anniversary, October2016

In this paper, formulas giving a Kronecker commutation matrices (KCMs) in terms of some matrices of particles physics and formulas giving electric charge operators (ECOs) for fundamental fermions in terms of KCMs have been reviewed. Physical meaning have been given to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a KCM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[287] viXra:1612.0304 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-20 11:31:52

Dark Matter Does not Exist at All

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 5 Pages. I only made a small correction without changing any significance.

Several aspects of the dark matter proposal are discussed. It is shown that the existing baryonic mass in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. It is concluded, then, that dark matter does not exist at all in the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[286] viXra:1612.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 02:15:28

Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Background

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[285] viXra:1612.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-23 18:47:07

Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

When charged particles travel faster than light, they emit Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[284] viXra:1612.0301 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-20 12:37:15

Earth Thermal Resonance Model with Gravitational Side Effect

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 4 Pages. Unexpected correlations found in earth energy density

Abstract I build a theoretical model of the relationship between the solarconstant and earth surface temperature by using temperature to obtain energy density instead of surface flux. Earth behave as a standing wave in resonance, shown in the resulting energy levels. Energy density of vacuum from the cosmological constant is added. The result is a function of pi that shows how earth is not only dependant of solar radiation for energy content, it is a three point exchange. Mass has no part at all in these calculations, temperature is accurately obtained for all points of interest. The speed of light in units of km/s is connected to the calculations. The model seems to cover the whole earth system state, not only as a planet, but as a planet heated by the sun as it floats in vacuum with energy density 8πG. Earth mass can be ignored in all internal relationships.
Category: Classical Physics

[283] viXra:1612.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-19 11:19:56

A Short Presentation of a New Physics Theory Based on the HM16 Model of Ether

Authors: Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus, Aurelian Has
Comments: 4 Pages. The authors intend to develop this paper in future, with necessary details

Here we briefly expose a new physics theory, which contains some explanations of physical phenomena in nature including some unexplained to date. The New Physics Theory 2016 (NPT16) is based on a new model of ether HM16 which lead to NPT16.
Category: Classical Physics

[282] viXra:1612.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-19 12:57:58

STPL – Mechanism is The-Energy-space Generator

Authors: Markos Georgallides
Comments: 21 Pages.

Everything in this cosmos , is Done or Becomes , from a Mould where , in Geometry is the Monad , the discrete continuity AB , In Mechanics and Physics is the Recent Acquisition of Material-Geometry where , Material-point is the discrete continuity |{⊕+⊝}| = The Quantum , In Plane is Archimedes number ,π, which is becoming from the Squaring of the circle , In Space ,volume, is the number ³√2 which is becoming from the Duplication of the Cube . In article [STPL] Geometrical Mechanism produces and composite all opposite Spaces and Anti-spaces Points , to Material-points which are the three Breakages {[s²=±(w ̅.r)², [i]= 2(wr)²] of [MFMF] Gravity , under thrust v ̅= c ̅ } , where through it become the Fermions → [ ±v ̅.s²] and Bosons → [v ̅.I = [v ̅.2(w ̅.r)²] = [v ̅.2s²] , i.e. STPL is the Energy-Space Genesis Mechanism . Big Bang and GR was a temporary solution to the weakness of what men-kind had to answer . Nature cannot be described through infinite concepts as this can happen in Algebra and values , and this because are devoid of any meaning in Objective -Reality , the Physical world which is the Nature . Material Geometry is the Science and the Quantization-Quality of this Cosmos which joints the , infinite dimensionless and meaningless Points , because these have only Position , with those of Nature which are Qualitative Positive - Negative - Zero Points and which have , Positions , Directions and Magnitudes with infinite meanings , which through the Physical laws are the language of them in itself . The Work , as Energy , is the essence of this deep connection of Material-Points , the Space , and through the Conservation-laws is making , Energy-Material-Geometry . Extension of Material-Geometry to Chemical-Sector gives the possibility for new materials in a drained way of thinking .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[281] viXra:1612.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 17:42:02

A New Quantum Mechanical Formalism Based on the Probability Representation of Quantum States

Authors: J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, E. Menkova, S.A. Podosenov
Comments: 179 Pages.

A new quantum mechanical formalism based on the probability representation of quantum states is proposed. This paper in particular deals with the special case of the measurement problem, known as Schrödinger’s cat paradox. We pointed out that Schrödinger’s cat demands to reconcile Born’s rule. Using new quantum mechanical formalism we find the collapsed state of the Schrödinger’s cat always shows definite and predictable outcomes even if cat also consists of a superposition. Using new quantum mechanical formalism the EPRB-paradox is considered successfully. We find that the EPRB-paradox can be resolved by nonprincipal and convenient relaxing of the Einstein’s locality principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[280] viXra:1612.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 20:31:41

Quantum Optical Mechanics

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 133 Pages. This is a key paper in our new EM program as it replaces Maxwell's field forces.

This is the sixth report on a new research programme investigating the electromagnetic (EM) interaction. This paper analyzes the effects of interactions arising from multiple, remote electrons on one or several, local ‘target’ electrons. These interactions are the result of the new quantized form of the EM impulse introduced in the previous paper. This model is used to re-interpret various optical effects that have previously required the existence of a fundamental object known as ‘LIGHT’: a basic entity, considered to be either a particle or a wave (or even both? - the ‘photon’) that travels across space. In contrast, this new EM model is constructed upon the key role of the ‘light’ emission processes, categorized as either oscillatory (as in antenna) or transitory (as within atoms). These real emission processes are now integrated into the asynchronous action-at-a-distance model of the EM interaction that is the basis of this new theory. Mathematically, this new model describes algebraically how variable or periodic phenomena (that have been assumed require the use of waves) can be explained by periodic, asynchronous, remote interactions between point particles without any use of differential equations (including the wave equation). This paper now extends the earlier pair-wise interaction between two electrons into the many-body world of macroscopic reality. The two key ideas of interaction saturation and selection are now introduced, which totally differentiate this theory from all other theories constructed around universal, continuous interaction (or ‘force’) models. By eliminating all the ray, wave and photon models of ‘light’ this paper now extends the original Newtonian mechanical philosophy of nature to the major domain of optics: both classical and quantum. The emphasis is on the electrons and on the relationship between electrons and not on some hypothetical ‘carrier’ that travels between them – this is the Newtonian action-at-a-distance particulate model extended to multiple times. The idea of selection leads to the introduction of information waves that identify the location and velocities of all other electrons that might participate in a ray-like exchange of momentum between pairs of electrons (saturation) that always act like particles (real trajectories across space). These supra-luminal waves do not carry momentum but ensure that the interaction minimizes the exchange of action across a non-local region of space. This new model resolves the long-time paradox of electrons as waves or particles: electrons are seen here as real point particles that interact periodically (rather than continuously) together; the focus is on the relationship between them that can be described by the discrete mathematics of particles or the periodic mathematics usually associated with waves. This paper includes the first analytical solution to the 3D scattering of two electrons – in the center-of-mass frame of reference both electrons are shown to go in quantized spiraling, conical motions: towards each other and then away from each other. The present theory provides an alternative to Feynman’s mathematical approach to “the mysterious properties of light” while providing a physical explanation for some of the calculational diagrams introduced by Feynman in his approach to quantum electrodynamics (QED). This now replaces all field theories of ‘light’ without introducing the concept of the photon or virtual particles and so eliminates all QED infinities in the physical properties associated with the interactions of electrons arising from the false idea of vacuum polarization, returning the vacuum to its Newtonian role as the passive, empty space between real particles. This new EM theory establishes a firm foundation for a new quantum theory that covers all scales of nature from the macroscopic to the heart of the atomic nucleus, while covering the complete range of interaction sets from a pair of electrons to the myriads of electrons existing in macroscopic objects. The next (companion) paper will explain the wave-like properties of electrons while providing a new, comprehensive theory of quantum measurement. This next paper will finally establish the critical link between the realistic model of the micro-world introduced so far and the macroscopic world of scientific measurements. * Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi99@telus.net © H. J. Spencer Version 1.340 23-06-201Begun 23-06-2010 (pp. 133; 97Kw, 1900KB)
Category: Quantum Physics

[279] viXra:1612.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 23:45:17

Discussion on the Negate and the Proof of ABC Conjecture

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 21 Pages.

The ABC conjecture is both likely of the wrong and likely of the right in the face of satisfactory many primes and satisfactory many odd numbers of 6K±1 from operational results of computer programs. So we find directly a specific equality 1+2N (2N-2)=(2N-1)2 with N≥2, then set about analyzing limits of values of ε to discuss the right and the wrong of the ABC conjecture in which case satisfying 2N-1>(Rad(1, 2N(2N-2), 2N-1))1+ε . Thereby supply readers to make with a judgment concerning a truth or a falsehood which the ABC conjecture is.
Category: Number Theory

[278] viXra:1612.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-19 00:19:14

A New Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 25 Pages. 1 Figure

The word “quantum field” in “quantum field theory” has two interpretations: 1- the field of quanta; 2- the field of that the quanta, i.e. electrons, nucleons etc. (as quantum mechanics is applied to electrons, nucleons etc., these should also be the quanta) possess, e.g., magnetic field. The present quantum field theory is based on the second interpretation. Because, when the quanta themselves possess field, how can other quanta occur as a field between the fields of former quanta? Secondly, as electrons, nucleons etc. possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy and magnetic field etc. properties, there should positively be some purpose as to why they possess persistent spin motion and they should have some special structures, unlike simple balloons of charge that keeps them spinning persistently and provides all the properties they possess. Similarly as our hearts beat persistently without having any source of infinite energy, not unnecessarily; there is an important purpose as to why they beat persistently, and they have special structure, unlike simple balloons of blood that keeps them beating persistently and provides all the properties our hearts possess. Further, as all the phenomena/activities related with our hearts, e.g., persistent blood circulation etc. taking place in our bodies are the effects of persistent beating and special structure of our hearts, similarly, all the phenomena/activities related with electrons and nucleons etc. taking place in their systems should be the effects of the purpose behind their persistent spin motion and their special structure. And therefore, presently, that purpose and their special structures have been determined and taking their accounts, the present quantum field theory has been developed. The present quantum field theory enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related with electrons, nucleons etc. taking place in their systems, e.g., their beams, nuclei, electric current and persistent current (flowing at superconducting state) carrying specimens.
Category: Quantum Physics

[277] viXra:1612.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-01 11:18:56

On the Smallest Surface Scale and Dark Energy

Authors: Paolo Bolzoni
Comments: 7 Pages.

n this study we want to propose a heuristic model to compute and to interpret the dark energy content of our universe. To this purpose we include the mass-energy of the static gravitational field and compute its effect at very small distances. From its analysis, we obtain for the smallest surface scale for the empty space $\tau=2h\gamma/5c^3$. After that we show, how this result can be used to compute a natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its implications on the content of fermionic and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of state w=p_{vac}/\rho_{vac} we obtain w=}-128\pi^2/(15\Delta N), where \Delta N\= N_f - N_b$ represents the difference between the number of species of fermions and bosons. Finally comparing our result with the measured cosmological parameters, we discus general constraints on the field content beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[276] viXra:1612.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-19 03:08:08

The Principle of Equivalence Applied to Transformer Law

Authors: Carles R Paul
Comments: 4 Pages. in Spanish

The transformer relation is an electromagnetic law that arises as a consequence of the application of the electromagnetic induction between the primary and secondary electrical circuit. In this article we propose a relation transformer new demonstration without needing to resort to electromagnetic induction and even without resorting to electromagnetic principles. We deduce the law from fundamental mechanical principles, such as the law of conservation of angular momentum. With all this we show that the law of the transformer is the consequence of an inertial phenomenon
Category: Classical Physics

[275] viXra:1612.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 15:00:49

New Simple Relations Connecting Bond Lengths, Lattice Parameters and Bohr Radii for the Biologically Important Elements, C, N, O, P and S

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eq. 1, please change 2.84 to 1.42

This paper presents some new simple relations connecting bond lengths between two same atoms, their Bohr radii obtained from first ionization potentials and their lattice parameters. The biologically important elements, C, N, O, P and S are chosen as examples.
Category: Chemistry

[274] viXra:1612.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 07:45:59

Brain's Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21] Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[273] viXra:1612.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 09:03:13

Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[272] viXra:1612.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 23:35:30

Why is there Something Rather Than Nothing?

Authors: Roger Granet
Comments: 13 Pages.

A solution to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?" is proposed that also entails a proposed solution to the question "Why do things exist?". In brief, I propose that a thing exists if it is a grouping or relationship defining what is contained within. This grouping/relationship is equivalent to a surface, edge or boundary defining what is contained within and giving "substance" and existence to the thing. This thinking is used to resolve several mereological (study of parts and wholes) issues . Next, in regard to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?", when we get rid of all existent entities including matter, energy, space/volume, time, abstract concepts, laws or constructs of physics and math as well as minds to consider this supposed lack of all, we think what is left is the lack of all existent entities, or "absolute nothing". But, try to visualize this situation. This "absolute lack-of-all", would be it; it would be the everything. It would be the entirety, or whole amount, of all that is present. That's it; that's everything. Is there anything else besides that "absolute nothing"? No. It's "nothing", and it is the all. An entirety, whole amount or "the all" is a grouping defining what is contained within and is therefore an enclosing surface and an existent entity. In other words, the supposed "absolute lack of all" defines all that is present and is, therefore, an existent entity. It defines itself and is the beginning point in the chain of being able to define existent entities in terms of other existent entities. The grouping/ edge of the absolute lack-of-all is not some separate thing; it is just the "entirety", or "the all" relationship, inherent in this absolute lack-of-all, that defines what is contained within. Finally, I use this conclusion to build a primitive model of the universe, which is made of existent entities, via what I refer to as a metaphysics-to-physics approach or philosophical engineering. It is argued that this type of thinking will allow faster progress towards a deeper understanding of the universe than the more top-down approach that physicists currently use.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[271] viXra:1612.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 23:42:11

Thought Experiments About Infinite Sets and Subsets Produce Experimental Artifacts: Relationship to Their Use in Physics

Authors: Roger Granet
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, the conclusion in set theory that the size of an infinite set is the same as the size of an infinite subset derived from it is questioned.This is done not to try and invalidate any mathematical results because mathematics is an abstract field and does not necessarily have to accurately describe the physical world but in order to prompt the reexamination of the use of this result in physics, which does have to accurately describe the real, physical world and the relationships between its components. The rationale is as follows. First, it is suggested that thought experiments are still experiments and should follow the rules for good experimental technique, which include the need to study a system in a setting as close as possible to the "natural setting" to try and avoid experimental artifacts. Now, starting with the single set of the positive integers, one wants to compare the total number of integers to the total number of even integers within the "natural setting" of the single original set. The traditional experimental processing method extracts the even integers, puts them into a separate subset and pairs off the subset's and set's members one-to-one with a function. After doing this, no elements are left over, and, therefore, the original set and the subset extracted from it are said to be the same size. However, extracting the evens and putting them into a separate subset dramatically alters the original single set system. This is analogous to a biologist extracting the nucleus from a cell, studying the nucleus and remaining parts of the cell in isolation and assuming that the results obtained are the same as in the original intact cell. They often are not. Does extracting the even integers out into a subset alter the results compared to those that would be obtained in the natural single set system? Yes. In the single set system, the positive integers march lockstep and in- phase with the odd integers from one to infinity, meaning that there is a built-in relationship in this system of one positive integer for every two total integers, which means that there are only one-half as many positive integers as total integers. This is a different result than that obtained after the subset extraction method, which means that the result produced by this method is an experimental artifact. This should be unacceptable in a well done experiment even if it is a thought experiment. It is suggested that this artifact may be related to some of the problems associated with infinities in physics.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[270] viXra:1612.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 23:45:41

Infinite Sets: The Appearance of an Infinite Set Depends on the Perspective of the Observer

Authors: Roger Granet
Comments: 2 Pages.

    This paper discusses how an infinite set would appear to different observers and how this applies to both physics and mathematics.  Consider a set, N, defined as containing an infinite number of discrete, finite-sized elements such as balls.  Any one of these balls can be defined as an internal observer, O.  The balls extend outward in infinite numbers relative to any location and orientation of any internal observer O. That is, wherever O is in the set and in whichever direction O is “looking”, the elements of the set extend without bounds the same potentially infinite distance in all directions relative to O.   To observer O, set N appears as a potentially infinite space composed of discrete, finite-sized elements.   Now, consider a hypothetical second observer, P who is outside the same set N and whose size relative to internal observer O is actually infinite. That is, P is of the same size “scale” as the entire set N, which is actually infinite relative to O.   To observer P, each ball O is infinitesimally small, so that P can not distinguish the boundary of each ball O. Therefore, to P, set N appears as a finite-sized object containing a smooth, infinitely divisible internal space.  The implications of these differing views of the same set depending on the reference frame of the observer are discussed for both mathematics and physics.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[269] viXra:1612.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 03:43:03

Vacuum’s Quantum Effect on Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Observations of the dense remnant of an exploded star have provided the first sign of a quantum effect on light passing through empty space. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[268] viXra:1612.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 07:15:03

About Geopathic Disease Polyfactorial Structure. \\ О полифакториальной структуре гео-патогенной болезни

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article deals with the made by the author in joined examination of the diseases caused by chromosome mutation of an unborn child who was under long-term exposure to geopathic zone emission. \\ В статье приводятся выводы, сделанные автором при совместном рассмотрении заболеваний, вызванных мутацией хромосом не родившегося ребенка, находившегося под длительным воздействием излучений геопатогенной зоны.
Category: Physics of Biology

[267] viXra:1612.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 07:19:58

To Neutralize a Silent Killer \\ Обезвредить тихого убийцу

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

The article deals with different approaches to etiology, diagnostics and treatment of Hepatitis C by methods of classical and information-wave medicine, The author describes his own method to quickly cure this virulent disease. \\ В статье приведены различные подходы к этиологии, диагностике и лечению гепатита С методами классической и информационно-волновой ме-дицины. Описана созданная автором методика быстрого излечения человека от этой страшной болезни.
Category: Physics of Biology

[266] viXra:1612.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 07:32:52

What is Simulation Modeling \\ Что такое ситуационное моделирование

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article describes the nature of the simulation modeling process; the opportunities of this technology are shown by example and the need to use it. \\ В статье описывается сущность процесса ситуационного моделирования, на примере показываются возможности данной технологии и необходимость ее применения.
Category: Physics of Biology

[265] viXra:1612.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 10:42:16

HEIDEGGER’S Being and Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A dialogue between Martin Heidegger and a theoretical physician, namely Richie, unveils the striking relationships between the philosophical concept of Being and the experimentally detectable quantum vacuum. We provide an account of long-standing theoretical issues, such Being, Entity, Existence and the unique role of the human Thoughts in the world, and expound their possible physical counterparts.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[264] viXra:1612.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 11:22:23

Thought Force and Consciousness

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 8 Pages.

By changing the axiom of time, we affect both physics and science in general, thus raising some remarkably fascinating questions, for example, what is thought, what lives, what is consciousness.
Category: Mind Science

[263] viXra:1612.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-10 05:59:50

Beal Conjecture: Complete Proof with Numerical Examples

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 77 Pages. In French, with minor corrections. Submitted to Journal of Number Theory. Comments welcome.

In 1997, Andrew Beal announced the following conjecture : \textit{Let $A, B,C, m,n$, and $l$ be positive integers with $m,n,l > 2$. If $A^m + B^n = C^l$ then $A, B,$ and $C$ have a common factor.} We begin to construct the polynomial $P(x)=(x-A^m)(x-B^n)(x+C^l)=x^3-px+q$ with $p,q$ integers depending of $A^m,B^n$ and $C^l$. We resolve $x^3-px+q=0$ and we obtain the three roots $x_1,x_2,x_3$ as functions of $p,q$ and a parameter $\theta$. Since $A^m,B^n,-C^l$ are the only roots of $x^3-px+q=0$, we discuss the conditions that $x_1,x_2,x_3$ are integers. Four numerical examples are given.
Category: Number Theory

[262] viXra:1612.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-11 09:39:13

Lavelle's Dilemma: a Purposeful Life

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 15 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Science enriches us steadily with more and more knowledge about the workings of the universe, and it accomplishes this without invoking hypothetical gods as explanations. Still, it is a common assumption that the gods define what constitutes a purposeful life. Many followers of the gods are convinced that a purposeful life cannot exist without the gods to guarantee it; hence, denying the gods’ importance is equivalent to acknowledging that life is unpurposeful, an assumption that is here designated the Lavelle Consensus. Lavelle’s dilemma examines this consensus through the application of what is known as Euthyphro’s dilemma. The supporters of the Lavelle Consensus face a powerful dilemma: either a purposeful life rests on the gods’ arbitrary decisions, or the gods are not the originators of a purposeful life and life is therefore subject to an independent reality. Both horns of the dilemma compromise the need for the gods’ existence or reduce them to dictators without any right to command. Lavelle’s dilemma thus concerns itself with human beings’ freedom and purpose in life. If powerful beings command human beings, then they are not free; if powerful beings dictate purpose in life, then it is ipso facto not human beings’ purpose but their purpose. Thus, either an objective purposeful life exists, leaving science and philosophy to explain the content of this purpose, or a purposeful life is something all human beings are free to create themselves, which happens to be one of the purposes of philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[261] viXra:1612.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 09:10:33

Microelectromechanical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons
Category: Condensed Matter

[260] viXra:1612.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:04:21

Evaluation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocytes After Incubation with Biofield Treated Herbomineral Formulation: Effect of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment - The Trivedi Effect®

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Alan Joseph Balmer, Dimitrius Anagnos, Janice Patricia Kinney, Joni Marie Holling, Joy Angevin Balmer, Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 11 Pages.

The use of herbomineral formulations in the healthcare sector has increased due to their high safety and better therapeutic action. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with a mixture of the herbal root extract of ashwagandha and three minerals viz. zinc chloride, magnesium gluconate, and sodium selenate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the formulation when applied to splenocyte cells isolated from mice spleen. The formulation was divided into two parts; one was the control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The test formulation was evaluated to find the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, MIP-1α, and IL-1β along with non-cytotoxic concentrations by MTT assay. The splenocytes were given the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated sample at concentrations range (0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL) for 48 hours and was reported with safe concentration up to 1.053 µg/mL with percentage viability range from 76.7% to 109.2% in both samples. Biofield Energy Healing significantly enhanced the cell viability as compared with the untreated formulation. The expression of TNF-α was significantly inhibited in the Biofield Treated formulation at 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL by 1.77%, 1.93%, and 3.55%, respectively compared with the untreated formulation. The rest of the tested concentrations of the Biofield Treated formulation showed an increase in TNF-α expression at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, and 0.001053 µg/mL by 7.26%, 8.50%, and 8.50%, respectively compared to the vehicle control group. Similarly, the MIP-1α expression was inhibited by the Biofield Energy Treated formulation and showed immunosuppression activity at 0.01053 µg/mL by 18.47% (p≤0.001) compared to the untreated formulation. MIP-1α expression was reported as 628.94 ± 13.0 pg/mL in the untreated formulation, while it decreased to 512.74 ± 1.9 pg/mL in the Biofield Treated formulation at 0.01053 µg/mL. In addition, the IL-1β secretion was also significantly inhibited by the Biofield Treated formulation at concentrations 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL by 72.02%, 50.16%, 30.68%, and 22.11%, respectively as compared with the untreated formulation. Overall, The Trivedi Effect® significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines and potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the treated formulation, which can be better utilized in organ transplants, anti-aging, stress management, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory disorders, etc. to modulate the immune system by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[259] viXra:1612.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:05:44

Impact of Biofield Energy Treated Herbomineral Formulation (The Trivedi Effect®) on Mouse Dendritic and Splenocyte Cells for Modulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Aileen Carol Lee, Aksana Hancharuk, Carola Marina Sand, Debra Jane Schnitzer, Rudina Thanasi, Eileen Mary Meagher, Faith Ann Pyka, Gary Richard Gerber, Johanna Catharina Stromsnas, Judith Marian Shapiro, Laura Nelson Streicher, Lorraine Marie Hachfeld, Matthew Charles Hornung, Patricia M. Rowe, Sally Jean Henderson, Sheila Maureen Benson, Shirley Theresa Holmlund, Stephen P. Salters, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 11 Pages.

The use of herbomineral formulation in the healthcare sector for different chronic diseases is gaining popularity due to its fewer side effects, high safety profile, and cost effectiveness. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated, consisting of four essential ingredients viz. herbal root extract (ashwagandha), and minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium). The study aims to evaluate the in vitro effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation using murine dendritic (DCs) and splenocyte cells. The herbomineral formulation was divided into two parts; one was represented as control, while the other part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers (The Trivedi Effect®) and defined as the Biofield Treated formulation. The effect of the test formulation on these cells were monitored by an estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines level such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α), and interleukin (IL-1β) in cell culture supernatants at the non-cytotoxic concentrations of the test formulation using MTT assay. The DCs were treated with the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at different concentrations (i.e. 1.05 to 1052.5 µg/mL) for 24 hours, and the results showed significant (p≤0.001) suppression of TNF-α levels at all the tested concentrations with a maximum percentage decrease by 43.64% at 5.2 µg/mL concentration in the Biofield Treated formulation as compared with the untreated test formulation. Further, the Biofield Treated formulation also demonstrated inhibition of MIP-1α and IL-1β at a concentration range of 0.0000105 to 10.5 µg/mL in LPS stimulated splenocyte cells. There was a significant (p≤0.001) inhibition of MIP-1α (26.52%) and IL-1β (35.28%) in the Biofield Treated test formulation at concentration 0.000105 µg/mL and 0.0000105 µg/mL, respectively in comparison to the untreated test formulation. Overall, these results suggest that the Biofield Energy Healing based herbomineral formulation (The Trivedi Effect®) significantly down-regulated the tested cytokines expression in DCs and splenocyte cells as compared to the untreated formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Healing based formulation might be useful as a better anti-inflammatory product for many chronic and acute inflammatory disease conditions and autoimmune disorders. The Biofield Energy Treatment based formulation can also be effectively applied in cases of organ transplants, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[258] viXra:1612.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:06:26

Effect of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Murine Dendritic and Splenocyte Cells

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Cathryn Dawn Nykvist, Celine Lavelle, Daniel Paul Przybylski, Dianne Heather Vincent, Dorothy Felger, Douglas Jay Konersman, Elizabeth Ann Feeney, Jay Anthony Prague, Joanne Lydia Starodu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The utilization and demand of self-medication with herbomineral-based formulations have increased day-by-day across the globe over the last decade. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was prepared with the mixture of minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium) and the herbal root extract of ashwagandha. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test herbomineral formulation using murine dendritic cells (DCs) and splenocytes in vitro. The formulation was divided into two parts, one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The effect of the Biofield Energy Treated formulation in murine cells was monitored with an estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in cell culture supernatants along with estimations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of the test formulation by MTT assay. The Biofield Treated formulation showed 114.2%, 122.6%, 141.2%, 127.8%, and 114.1% cell viability at concentrations 1.05, 5.2, 10.5, 25.6, and 51.2 µg/mL, respectively in DCs. Similarly, the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated formulations showed more than 100% cell viability in mice splenocytes at 5 µg/mL. The level of TNF-α in DCs was significantly (p≤0.05) inhibited by 19.21% in the Biofield Treated formulation at concentration 5.2 µg/mL as compared to the untreated test formulation. The level of MIP-1α in LPS induced mice splenocyte cells was reduced by 15.35% in the Biofield Energy Treated formulation at 0.0105 µg/mL as compared to the untreated formulation. Similarly, the level of IL-1β in LPS induced mice splenocyte cells was significantly (p≤0.05) reduced by 31.59% in the Biofield Treated formulation at 1.05 µg/mL as compared to the untreated formulation. Altogether, the results suggest that The Trivedi Effect® (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) showed significant down-regulation of the tested pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the treated formulation to modulate the immune system. These data also suggest that the Biofield Treated test formulation can be used for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[257] viXra:1612.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:07:45

An Impact of the Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocytes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Ariadne Esmene Afaganis, Barbara Marie Bader, Brian A. Weekes, Daphne Luisa Dumas, Denise Marie Fiedler, Dennille Mellesia Smith, Desi Pano, Donna Felice Galla, Donna Maria Alija, Elaine
Comments: 11 Pages.

Due to the increased popularity of herbomineral preparations in the healthcare sector, a new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated consisting of ashwagandha root extract and three minerals viz. zinc chloride, magnesium gluconate, and sodium selenate. The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation using murine splenocyte cells. The herbomineral formulation was divided into two parts; one defined as the control, while the other part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment performed from a remote distance by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers (The Trivedi Effect®) and defined as the Biofield Treated formulation. The splenocyte cells were exposed to test formulations at concentration from 0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL and were analyzed after 48 hours for cell viability using MTT assay. The expression of the cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and MIP-1α) was determined using ELISA assay. The cell viability data showed that all the tested concentration ranges were found to be safe with percentage cell viability at more than 80%. Further, TNF-α expression was significantly inhibited in the Biofield Treated test formulation group with respect to the vehicle control, while at 0.001053 and 0.1053 µg/mL, the expression was suppressed by 1.70% and 8.16%, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the untreated formulation. However, a significant immunosuppression was reported in IFN-γ expression at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL by 12.63%, 2.31%, 8.31%, 9.15%, and 7.86%, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. The MIP-1α expression was inhibited by 8.31%, 21.53%, and 8.70% at 0.0001053, 0.01053, and 0.1053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. However, IL-1β expression was significantly suppressed by 19.72% at concentration 0.00001053 µg/mL in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. Thus, the down-regulation of tested cytokines and chemokines in the Biofield Energy Healing test formulation might be applicable for controlling acute and chronic inflammation in many clinical diseases. Overall, the results demonstrated that The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing (TEBEH) has the capacity to potentiate the immunomodulatory activity of the test formulation, which can be useful against autoimmune disorders. Biofield Treated Test formulation may also be useful in anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, stress management and in preventing immune-mediated tissue damage in organ transplants by improving overall health and quality of life.
Category: Biochemistry

[256] viXra:1612.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:08:24

An Impact of the Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing on Herbomineral Formulation for Immunomodulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Biofield Treated Mouse Splenocytes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Alan Joseph Balmer, Dimitrius Anagnos, Janice Patricia Kinney, Joni Marie Holling, Joy Angevin Balmer, Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Herbomineral formulations have increased in recognition and popularity due to their high safety and better therapeutic action. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with a mixture of the herbal root extract of ashwagandha and three minerals viz. zinc, magnesium, and selenium. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation when applied to splenocyte cells isolated from the Biofield Treated mice. The test formulation was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Treatment. The other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers. A wide concentration range (0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL) of the test formulation was used to determine non-cytotoxic concentrations using MTT assay. Further, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MIP-1α, and IL-1β) was determined by ELISA method. The test formulation was evaluated and found to be safe up to 1.053 µg/mL with a percentage cell viability range of 73% to 97% using MTT assay. The Biofield Treated formulation improved the cell viability up to 6.61% compared with the untreated test formulation. TNF-α expression was significantly inhibited by 16.72% at 0.1053 µg/mL compared with the untreated test formulation, however expression was significantly altered by 53.67% and 25.62% at 0.01053 and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation. TNF-α expression was also suppressed in the Biofield Treated test formulation at 0.001053 and 0.1053 µg/mL by 4.0% and 8.56%, respectively as compared with the vehicle control. MIP-1α suppression was reported in the Biofield Treated test formulation at 0.00001053 to 1.053 µg/mL by 8.43%, 22.02%, 21.92%, 20.54%, 5.40%, and 19.82%, respectively compared with the vehicle control. However, the Biofield Treated formulation further exhibited substantial suppression of MIP-1α at 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, and 0.1053 µg/mL by 13.50%, 7.38%, 36.83% (p≤0.001), and 2.53%, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. In addition, significant inhibition of IL-1β secretion was reported in the Biofield Treated formulation at 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, and 0.01053 µg/mL by 32.40%, 14.99%, 60.42%, and 15.15%, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the test formulation in Biofield Treated mouse splenocytes, which can be used for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[255] viXra:1612.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:19:09

Two Atoms Radio Receiver

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[254] viXra:1612.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:58:42

Improved Particle Accelerators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[253] viXra:1612.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 05:31:22

Hydrogen Fuel in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Using large-scale computer simulations, the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy research group at the Department of Earth and Space Sciences is making important contributions to Joint European Torus (JET), the biggest fusion experiment currently in operation. [17] Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[252] viXra:1612.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 17:15:00

Discrete Relativistic Electron Dynamics

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 198 Pages. This is a key paper in our new EM program as it replaces Maxwell's field forces.

This is the fifth report on a new research programme investigating the fundamental electromagnetic (EM) interaction. This paper completes the analysis of the interaction between two electrons described in the two previous papers. Each of these electron papers imposed a new, discrete restriction on the EM interaction. This paper now adds two new restrictions to the asynchronous interaction between two electrons. A pair-wise ray-like form of the EM impulse is proposed whose magnitude diminishes linearly with temporal separation to a finite, fixed value. Additionally, the discrete EM interaction is universalized by proposing a simple, new form for quantizing both the dynamical and kinematical activity between interacting pairs of electrons. This constrains both the linear momentum and kinetic energy of the two electrons to be exchanged across each interaction in fixed quanta. This dynamical exchange of quantized action (h/2) replaces Coulomb’s unproven spherical, continuous and instantaneous ‘law’ of electrostatics with a new, unified, discrete and dynamical basis for electromagnetism. This fulfills Maxwell’s quest for extending Newtonian (particle) mechanics to the phenomena of electricity and magnetism but now for all relative distances and speeds: unifying both EM and classical and relativistic mechanics. This new EM model replaces Planck’s arbitrary (mathematical) quantum of action ‘rule’ (first injected mathematically into EM radiation theory and then later into atomic physics) and thereby providing a universal physical explanation for all atomic phenomena. This paper provides the first complete analytical solution of the isolated two-electron interaction – both attraction and repulsion. The present theory shows that negative and positive electrons are two complementary manifestations of the same type of entity, phase-shifted from one another in the timing of their interactions. It is proposed that both forms of the electron execute a four-step transverse, cyclic trajectory across space (in opposite directions). This new physical and mathematical EM model provides a simple, discrete mechanical explanation for the foundational (but mysterious) two-valued quantum phenomenon of electron ‘spin’. Since this motion is sub-microscopic, this may be viewed as the ‘hidden quantum degree of freedom’ that characterizes this most mysterious behavior of the electron. The intrinsic (‘clicking’) motion of the electron is proposed here as the spatial component (where) of the fundamental interaction between pairs of electrons. The other new component is now intimately associated with when and how an electron interacts with other electrons. These ideas result in electrons stepping cyclically through four interaction states (the positron goes through the same four states but in the opposite sequence). This provides novel insights into Dirac’s Equation of the Relativistic Electron while avoiding all taint of negative energy states. This new two-time theory unifies an asynchronous version of Newton’s physics of point particle motion (at all velocities) with all of the experimental phenomena of classical and quantum EM while avoiding use of single-time field theories and their necessary relativistic transformations of space and time. The new theory now forms the foundation for a new quantum theory of atoms, nuclei and elementary particles that is easier to visualize (geometric) while its finite algebraic basis (rather than continuous calculus) make it much easier to calculate and extend than prior continuum theories; the new results of these further extensive investigations will be presented in a series of subsequent papers. * Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi99@telus.net © H. J. Spencer Version 1.250 16-12-2016 Begun 23-06-2008 (675 KB, 196pp)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[251] viXra:1612.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 23:58:57

Quaternionic Formulation in Symmetry Breaking Mechanism

Authors: Gaurav Karnatak
Comments: 14 Pages. No

In this formalism the covariant derivative contains the four potentials associated with four charges and thus leads the dierent gauge strength for the particles containing electric, magnetic,gravitational and Heavisidian charges. Quaternions representation in spontaneously symmetry of breaking and Higg's mechanics and the equation of motion are derived for free particles (i.e.electric, magnetic, gravitational and Heavisidian charges). The local gauge invariance in order to explain the Yang-Mill's field equation and spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. The quaternionic gauge theory of quantum electrodynamics has also been developed in presence of electric, magnetic, gravitational and Heavisidian charge
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[250] viXra:1612.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 13:25:00

Verlinde's Theory of Gravity Tested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team led by astronomer Margot Brouwer (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) has tested the new theory of theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde (University of Amsterdam) for the first time through the lensing effect of gravity. [21] Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[249] viXra:1612.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 14:27:30

Traveling Wave Pattern Biological Coordinates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicists in Israel and the US have proposed a new type of travelling wave pattern—one that can adapt to the size of physical system in which it is embedded-reporting the work in the New Journal of Physics. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast.
Category: Physics of Biology

[248] viXra:1612.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 09:20:16

Switching of Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[247] viXra:1612.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 09:29:19

The Sequence of Repnumbers N with Property that the Number of Primes 30k+11 and 30k+13 up to N is Equal

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In my previous paper “Conjecture involving repunits, repdigits, repnumbers and also the primes of the form 30k + 11 and 30k + 13” I conjectured that there exist an infinity of repnumbers n (repunits, repdigits and numbers obtained concatenating not the unit or a digit but a number) for which the number of primes up to n of the form 30k + 11 is equal to the number of primes up to n of the form 30k + 13 and I found the first 18 terms of the sequence of n (I also found few larger terms, as 11111, 888888 and 11111111 up to which the number of primes from the two sets, equally for each, is 167, 8816, respectively 91687). In this paper I extend the search to first 40 terms of the sequence.
Category: Number Theory

[246] viXra:1612.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 10:05:58

Half-Quantum Vortices in Superfluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[245] viXra:1612.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 16:20:52

Conjecture Involving Repunits, Repdigits, Repnumbers and Also the Primes of the Form 30k+11 and 30k+13

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In my previous paper “Conjecture on semiprimes n = p*q related to the number of primes up to n” I was wondering if there exist a class of numbers n for which the number of primes up to n of the form 30k + 1, 30k + 7, 30k + 11, 30k + 13, 30k + 17, 30k + 19, 30k + 23 and 30k + 29 is equal in each of these eight sets. I didn’t yet find such a class, but I observed that around the repdigits, repunits and repnumbers (numbers obtained concatenating not the unit or a digit but a number) the distribution of primes in these eight sets tends to draw closer and I made a conjecture about it.
Category: Number Theory

[244] viXra:1612.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 07:05:01

A Two-Dimensional Vector Space Algebra with Identity 2x2 Matrix Basis Matrix Multiplication Homomorphism

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 3 Pages.

A two-dimensional vector space algebra with identity 2x2 matrix basis matrix multiplication homomorphism There exists a homomorphism between any two-dimensional vector space algebra with identity and a 2x2 matrix basis under ordinary matrix multiplication. This is a statement of constructive existence of an algebra. Given that the vector space of the algebra is known to be 2-dimensional, the algebra product determines the constants: A,B,b ; determining the basis of the algebra. And showing that the basis of a two-dimensional vector space unitary algebra is a cyclic group of order 2
Category: Algebra

[243] viXra:1612.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 15:55:23

Introduction to Tree Hopf Algebras

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 15 Pages.

An introduction to Hopf algebras in quantum field theory from the perspective of category theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[242] viXra:1612.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 10:18:33

Conjecture on Semiprimes N=pq Related to the Number of Primes up to N

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of semiprimes n = p*q, where p = 30*k + m1 and q = 30*h + m2, m1 and m2 distinct, having one from the values 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, such that the number of primes congruent to m1 (mod 30) up to n is equal to the number of primes congruent to m2 (mod 30) up to n. Example: for n = 91 = 7*13, there exist 3 primes of the form 30*k + 7 up to 91 (7, 37 and 67) and 3 primes of the form 30*k + 13 up to 91 (13, 43 and 73).
Category: Number Theory

[241] viXra:1612.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-02 11:43:43

Physical & Mathematics Theoretical Analysis of Special Relativity, Albert Einstein

Authors: Valentin Ibanez Fernandez
Comments: 21 Pages.

Abstract The paper presents a deep theoretical analysis of the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity was violated the basic principle of relativity. According to this principle all the laws of nature are the same in all inertial motion systems
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[240] viXra:1612.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 12:32:42

H. J. Spencer

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 145 Pages. A fundamental challenge to one of the pillars of modern physics.

This is the fourth report on a new research programme investigating the electromagnetic interaction. In contrast to the previous paper in this series, which analyzed the continuous interaction of pairs of charged point particles, this paper focuses on the hypothesis that the inter-electron interaction only occurs discontinuously over time. This new hypothesis is in response to the previous results showing that all continuous interaction (force) theories between point particles that exhibit inertial resistance to changes in their motion are inconsistent with asynchronous forms of action-at-a-distance or equivalently, interactions limited to points ‘on their mutual light-cone’. It is shown here that the conventional approach to the special theory of relativity has been based on an implied merger of two distinct but incompatible theories. The continuous electric charge model (now used to develop Maxwell’s Equations of classical electromagnetism) leads directly to Relativistic Transformations of the space and time co-ordinates; while Planck’s 1906/7 Proposal for redefining an inertial point particle’s momentum came to replace classical Newtonian mechanics with its central concept of invariant particle mass. However, both of these theories are fatally flawed: electricity is NOT continuous but is particulate (point electrons with finite and discrete charge and mass values) while Planck’s relativistic derivation relied on a mysterious constant force that contradicts both the inverse square Coulomb force or the Heaviside velocity-sensitive force that are central to electromagnetism. An alternative model is now proposed here for the basic interaction between pairs of electrons that is shown to be consistent with classical electromagnetism and provides an alternative (but now readily understandable) physical explanation for the dynamical results of relativity without requiring the Relativistic transform to redefine the foundations of space and time. Physicists now must make a choice:- they can continue to use continuum mathematics (grounded in the traditional calculus used to describe local but mass-less field theories that cover all of space and time, subject to the bizarre interpretations of relativity). Alternatively, theoretical physics can return to the physical models of impulse interactions between point particles (described by the mathematics of FINITE differences acting within the passive, but common-sense, view of space and time introduced by Newton in the Principia) but now acknowledging that the fundamental interaction is asynchronous. This latter choice means that the TWO interaction times must always be considered in a symmetric manner: the venerable, single-time approach can no longer be viewed as a suitable model of reality.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[239] viXra:1612.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 09:30:42

Retrocausality, Wheeler's Delayed Choice, and Simulation Theory Reinterpreted Via The Participatory Universe, 'it from bit', Time Travel and the Everett/Wheeler Hypothesis

Authors: Marshall Barnes
Comments: 10 pages in English with 7 full color photos from the experiments mentioned. Standard Copyright 2016

Abstract This paper will deal specifically with the concept of extending some of the contentions and theories of John Archibald Wheeler into a more complete description of reality, supported in part by physical experiments. The subjects that will be dealt with are well known from quantum theory, and now lately - Nick Bostrom's simulation theory, but will be seen through a new reinterpretation that connects seamlessly, prior positions of Wheeler into a self-consistent model that defines the nature of the physical universe through the convergence of information universe models and the Everett/Wheeler hypothesis. Hints will be given, as to how the reported desires of so-called Silicon Valley billionaires to leave the simulated universe, can be fulfilled using on-the-horizon technology to accomplish time travel through the manipulation of the information based fabric underpinning reality. In whole, the following will be major points discussed: 1. J.A. Wheeler posited that even the greatest mathematical equation in the universe is missing something, the principle by which it can become real. He also said, "no phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon. " 2. Wheeler developed his theory of "it from bit", explaining that the physical world was based upon information at a fundamental level 3. Seth Lloyd, taking that thought further, said that the universe acts like a giant computer processing the information contained therein. 4. Nick Bostrom posited that, in fact, our universe is a computer simulation created by our post-human descendants in the distant future. 5. Philip K. Dick science fiction writer and visionary, in his 1977 public statements mentioned, that due to to events in the past being "reprogrammed", things in the present could be changed so that an alternate universe splits off. 6. The universe is participatory, not just with humans, but everything else. *Just as various events cause a variety of phenomena, in the extreme cases, the universe responds in the extreme by producing alternate universes. This process resolves many of the issues related to quantum phenomena, parallel universes and time travel* 7. The detection of a simulated universe and escape therefrom is similar but not the same as doing so with an information universe. Escape from a simulated universe is impossible just as its detection may be. However, in this paper, a series of experiments will be presented that for the first time ever, establish such a possible detection as well as the method of ultimate escape from our information based universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[238] viXra:1612.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 06:24:20

Two Conjectures on the Number of Primes Obtained Concatenating to the Left with Numbers Lesser Than P a Prime P

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that: (I) for any prime p of the form 6*k + 1 there are obtained at least n primes concatenating p to the left with the (p – 1) integers lesser than p, where n ≥ (p - 10)/3; (II) for any prime p of the form 6*k – 1, p ≥ 11, there are obtained at least n primes concatenating p to the left with the (p – 1) integers lesser than p, where n ≥ (p - 8)/3.
Category: Number Theory

[237] viXra:1612.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-15 07:00:30

The Ethical Economy of Space and Time

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 8 Pages.

Peace Studies.
Category: Social Science

[236] viXra:1612.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-30 10:14:05

Re – Understanding of Neutrino Oscillations

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regard to the neutrino oscillations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[235] viXra:1612.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 22:01:42

Anomalous Heat Effects by Interaction of Nano-Metals and H(D)-Gas

Authors: A. Takahashi, A. Kitamura, K. Takahashi, R. Seto, T. Yokose, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama
Comments: 12 Pages. pre-print of ICCF20 Proceedings paper

Brief review of Technova-Kobe study (2008-2015) on anomalous heat effects (AHE) by interaction of nano-metals and D(H)-gas is presented in three parts. Part-I) D(H) isotopic effect by twin gas loading and calorimetry at room temperature is reviewed. Part-II) AHE by interaction of binary Ni-based nano-metals and H(D)-gas at 200-300 deg C is reviewed. Part-III) Theoretical explanation by advanced TSC-models is briefly reviewed. AHE at room temperature was significant only in dynamic evolution of D-absorption, cf. H-absorption, and considerable D(H)-isotopic effect for integrated heat values. AHE lasting for several days has been observed at elevated temperatures in the range of 200-300 deg C. AHE has been confirmed by repeated observation of excess heat-power. AHE was lasting for long time span as several days for CNS, PNZ and CNZ samples. AHE has been seen after D(H) loading ratios saturated. AHE is therefore some catalytic surface sited effect by in/out of D(H)-gas. Observed long lasting heat gave order of GJ/mol-H(D) (or several keV/atom-H(D)) in a few days span. Level is not of H(D) chemical absorption energy, so far. AHE at 200-300 deg C is almost impossible to explain by known chemical reactions. Pd-only nano-metals did not work at higher temperatures than 100 deg C. AHE were observed both for H- and D-charging at 200-300 deg C.
Category: Condensed Matter

[234] viXra:1612.0249 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-23 09:53:14

Modern Physics’ Incomplete Absurd Relativistic Mass Interpretation. And the Simple Solution that Saves Einstein’s Formula.

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein’s relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, “How close can it get to the speed of light?” Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example? Key words: Relativistic mass, maximum velocity of subatomic particles, boundary condition, Haug maximum velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[233] viXra:1612.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 10:54:53

Decision-Making Method based on Neutrosophic Soft Expert Graphs

Authors: Vakkas Uluçay, Mehmet Şahin, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 30 Pages. this article is submited to an elsevier journal

In this paper, we first define the concept of neutrosophic soft expert graph. We have established a link between graphs and neutrosophic soft expert sets. Basic operations of neutrosophic soft expert graphs such as union, intersection and complement are defined here. The concept of neutrosophic soft expert soft graph is also discussed in this paper. The new concept is called neutrosophic soft expert graph-based multi-criteria decision making method (NSEGMCDM for short). Finally, an illustrative example is given and a comparison analysis is conducted between the proposed approach and other existing methods, to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[232] viXra:1612.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 12:35:27

Boost Calculations on Interdimensional 4-Configurataions of N-Spheres

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 12 Pages.

Boost Calculations on Interdimensional 4-configurataions of N-spheres
Category: General Mathematics

[231] viXra:1612.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 07:31:14

Silver Nanoparticles as Antibiotics: Bactericidal Effect, Medical Applications and Environmental Risks.

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell, Marcelo Marcet
Comments: 19 Pages.

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most medical applications nanomaterials mainly due to its antimicrobial effect, plasmon resonance and its capacity to impregnate polymeric materials. Recently Ag-NPs have been used in water treatment systems, central venous catheters, burn dressing, as well as in biosensors for detecting levels of p53 protein associated with cancer development. Moreover, the Ag-NPs have been studied for being potentially dangerous to humans and environment. Ag-NPs are transformed under the ecosystems conditions and may even increase their aggressiveness. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of knowledge about the bactericidal effect of Ag-NPs, the main synthesis methods, its application based on antibiotic capacity, Ag-NPs environmental transformations and their impact on the human.
Category: Chemistry

[230] viXra:1612.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 08:14:24

New Expansions in Series for Tangent and Secant Functions

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, the author proved new expansions in series for tangent and secant functions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[229] viXra:1612.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 08:19:37

Mendeleev-like Tables of Elementary Particles

Authors: M. J. Germuska
Comments: 46 Pages.

The Vir Theory of Elementary Particles provides a formula for the relationship between mass and spin. Using this formula the masses of over 200 particles were calculated with such accuracy that the errors from the actual masses are entirely attributable to the mass measurement errors. The particles come from 16 families including the lightest family N and the heaviest family Y. For each family of particles considered there is one or more Mendeleev-like table where the columns have increasing spin and the rows increasing mass, in such a way that the diagonal cells have the same predicted mass. The empty cells should in future be filled by new particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[228] viXra:1612.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 09:40:40

Continuous Two-Electron Theory of Electromagnetism

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 121 Pages. This is the next paper in the EM series building on earlier Natural Vectors.

This research programme continues with its fundamental analysis of the electromagnetic interaction. In contrast to the continuous charge model of electricity that is today used as the foundation for presentations of classical electro-magnetism (CEM), this paper now analyzes the continuous interaction of pairs of charged point particles that better reflects the known basis of electricity – electrons. This analysis first demonstrates that all continuous theories of interaction between point particles that exhibit inertial resistance to changes in their motion are inconsistent with all asynchronous action-at-a-distance forms of interaction or equivalently, interactions limited to points on their ‘light-cone’. This research programme is an extension of the Newtonian scheme of classical mechanics that represents the locations of point particles, not by standard algebraic vectors but by a more powerful, non-commutative complex algebra, based on Hamilton’s quaternions, called here ‘Natural Vectors’. This NV representation is extended here from representing a single location (the ‘field point’) to representing the differences between pairs of point objects; this automatically advances the idea that even ‘classical’ electrons must be treated as ‘fermions’ (as this is an anti-symmetric algebraic representation). Adding the assumption of separability of the electromagnetic momentum to the previous single-time version now reproduces Planck’s 1907 infamous proposal (not Einstein’s) for defining relativistic forms of single particle momentum and energy but now in terms of EM electro-kinetic momentum between two particles, in contrast to Planck’s original but unphysical assumption of a constant, mechanical force on a single particle that required the Lorentz transformation. This paper also extends this new two-electron viewpoint to many-body situations involving myriads of pair-wise interactions by showing that classical electromagnetism is a consequence of the statistical effects of very many of these interactions arising from multiple, remote electrons moving within metallic conductors on one or many ‘target’ electrons. A new discrete, many-body approximation model (“Mesoscopic Electrodynamics”) is developed here that is shown to be a covering theory for the standard (continuum) model of CEM. The emphasis here is shifted back from empty space to the actual experiments involving electrical currents in metallic wires that were the real foundation for CEM’s integral and differential equations, which only summarized these effects mathematically but never provided any physical justification or insights. This theory now extends the rival, forgotten (‘continental’) approach to CEM to directly include radiation, as just a long-range induction effect, removing the only advantage previously associated with Maxwell’s field theory. It also links directly to Newtonian mechanics to provide a seamless unity to all of classical physics. These results now demonstrate that, contrary to the orthodox consensus, Maxwell’s Equations (as a field theory) are not a fundamental model for understanding the basic interaction between any types of elementary particles. This view challenges the last 150 years in theoretical physics that has been constructed only on the mathematics of continuous fields, leading to quantum field theories. This approach eliminates the force densities (electric and magnetic fields), the ‘instant’ Coulomb potential and the single-time (‘God-like’) view of nature that have dominated physics for 300 years, only because these ideas could use the simplified (but well-studied) mathematical representation of differential equations. *Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi@shaw.ca © H. J. Spencer Version 2.180 29-04-2011 Version 1.0 21-10-2007 [123 pp;94Kw]
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[227] viXra:1612.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 09:45:02

Doctor of Philosophy Thesis in Military Informatics (Openphd) :Lethal Autonomy of Weapons is Designed And/or Recessive

Authors: Nyagudi Musandu Nyagudi
Comments: 1 Page. By way of Prior Publications, Practice and Contribution

My original contribution to knowledge is : Any weapon that exhibits intended and/or untended lethal autonomy in targeting and interdiction – does so by way of design and/or recessive flaw(s) in its systems of control – any such weapon is capable of war-fighting and other battle-space interaction in a manner that its Human Commander does not anticipate. A lethal autonomous weapons is therefore independently capable of exhibiting positive or negative recessive norms of targeting in its perceptions of Discrimination between Civilian and Military Objects, Proportionality of Methods and Outcomes, Feasible Precaution before interdiction and its underlying Concepts of Humanity. This marks the completion of an Open PhD ( #openphd ) project done in sui generis form.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[226] viXra:1612.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 04:16:34

Ds-Bidens: a Novel Computer Program for Studying Bacterial Colony Features

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell-Gago
Comments: 4 Pages.

Optical forward-scattering systems supported by image analysis methods are increasingly being used for rapid identification of bacterial colonies (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholera, etc.). The conventional detection and identification of bacterial colonies comprises a variety of methodologies based on biochemical, serological or DNA/RNA characterization. Such methods involve laborious and time-consuming procedures in order to achieve confirmatory results. In this article we present ds-Bidens, a novel software for studying bacterial colony features. The software ds-Bidens was programmed using C++, Perl and wxBasic programming languages. A graphical user interface (GUI), an image processing tool and functions to compute bacterial colony features were programmed. We obtained versatile software that provides key tools for studying bacterial colony images as: texture analysis, invariant moment and color (CIELab) calculation, etc., simplifying operations previously carried out by MATLAB applications. The new software can be of particular interest in fields of microbiology, both for bacterial colonies identification and the study of their growth, changes in color and textural features. Additionally ds-Bidens offers to the users a versatile environment to study bacterial colonies images. ds-Bidens is freely available from: http://ds-bidens.sourceforge.net/
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[225] viXra:1612.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 04:46:37

Standard Deviation for PDG Mass Data

Authors: M. J. Germuska
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper analyses the data for the masses of elementary particles provided by the Particles Data Group (PDG). It finds evidence that the best mass estimates are not based solely on statistics but also on overall consistency, that sometimes results in skewed minimum and maximum mass limits. The paper also points out to some other quirks that result in minimum and maximum mass limits which are far from the statistical standard deviation. A statistical method is proposed to compute the standard deviation in such cases and when PDG does not provide any limits.
Category: Statistics

[224] viXra:1612.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-25 08:44:41

Dynamic Wave Geometry Concept

Authors: Calin Vasilescu
Comments: 34 Pages.

The initial idea that made me think about this new concept was that the wave nature of light must be the reason why no entity in this universe can exceed this propagation speed, but only if all other “particles” are waves as well. Assuming this was true it meant that all the effects described by relativity must be related to this wave nature of light and matter. If these effects can be explained that way, then the only option is that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. We can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. This model assumes, by definition that space doesn't have a variable geometry and takes the other possibility, hence, complex particles inner geometry changes what we measure as time and space. The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams. Analysing these waves, in this context, leads to a proper development of the concept.
Category: Classical Physics

[223] viXra:1612.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 01:05:36

On the Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Daniel Thomas Hayes
Comments: 7 Pages.

The problem on the existence and smoothness of the Navier--Stokes equations is considered.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[222] viXra:1612.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-05 03:20:05

Absorption of Angular Momentum of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 6 Pages. Introduction is increased

It is demonstrated that dielectric or magnetic, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave according to the canonical spin tensor of electrodynamics. Lorentz transformations are used for energy, momentum, and angular momentum flux density because a moving absorber is considered. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.
Category: Classical Physics

[221] viXra:1612.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-13 12:07:04

Vir Theory of Elementary Particles

Authors: M. J. Germuska
Comments: 28 Pages.

A new theory of elementary particles is presented based on solid mathematical foundations of Variational Calculus, Euler’s Equations of Motion and Special Relativity. The Vir Theory of Elementary Particles explains that a particle is a stationary circular wave created by the motion of twin vortices in the relativistic ether. Mathematical equations show that they must have integer or half-integer spin, explain why the electric charge must be plus, minus or zero, why neutral particles come in right-handed and left-handed pairs, why charge-parity-time (CPT) transformation are invariant and why there are anti-particles but no stable anti-matter. A simple formula for the relationship between particle spin and mass is also derived, that can be used to verify the theory using the existing PDG data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[220] viXra:1612.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-13 12:47:59

Continuous Natural Vector of Electro-Magnetism

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 74 Pages. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical E/M in an immediate and direct algebraic manner.

A new algebraic representation is used to immediately recover all the major results of classical electromagnetism. This new representation (‘Natural Vectors’) is based on Hamilton’s quaternions and completes the original attempt by Maxwell to use this powerful, non-commutative algebra in the final presentation of his theory in his Treatise. The foundational hypothesis here is that the principal electromagnetic variables are best represented by Natural Vectors, rather than the conventional 3D vectors defined by ‘real numbers’. The present results avoid all use of the field concept and validate the retarded scalar and vector potentials approach first introduced by L. V. Lorenz, who combined Gauss’s 1845 suggestion of the finite speed of interaction with Newton’s action-at-a-distance model of physics into a charge-potential model of electromagnetism in 1867. This new approach demonstrates the primacy and physical significance of the ‘Lorenz gauge’. Not withstanding Maxwell’s aether theory, the present results are based on the artificial continuous charge-density substance model of electricity that is used today to develop and teach Maxwell’s Equations for classical electromagnetism. The present analysis also demonstrates that Helmholtz’s ‘fluid’ model of electricity is one of the few that can result in an electromagnetic ‘explanation’ for the phenomenon of light. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical electro-magnetism in an immediate and direct algebraic manner. This new theory focuses on the remote interaction between charges, which then appears both as variations in the charge-density and the potentials “traveling at light-speed across space”. Surprisingly, this same result also appears for the current-density; this suggests that the conventional interpretation of this major symbol in Maxwell’s Equations needs to be questioned further. * SPSI, Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299 spsi99@telus.cnet © H. J. Spencer Version 2.3 25-07-2012 Version 1.0 16-06-2007
Category: Classical Physics

[219] viXra:1612.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-13 05:29:08

TRL Universal Hyper Primality (Invoking Primality Metric Within Primality Metric) Analysis. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed about 'TRL Universal Hyper Primality (Invoking Primality Metric Within Primality Metric) Analysis'.
Category: General Mathematics

[218] viXra:1612.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-13 07:37:54

Shapes with the Minimum Moment of Inertia

Authors: M. J. Germuska, R. B. Germuska, M. A. Germuska
Comments: 19 Pages.

A recent paper by one of the authors presented a new formula found experimentally for the shape of the free surface of stable vortices. In this paper we show that the given shape is the concave spinning top with the minimum moment of inertia. A new variation method is used to find this shape, since no existing method seems to cope with the Lagrangian involving r(z)4, inequality constraints and the solution with r(0) = infinity. In the process we find spinning tops with the minimum moment of inertia under various constraints.
Category: General Mathematics

[217] viXra:1612.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 12:11:33

The Use of the Electrodynamics Canonical Spin Tensor

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 3 Pages. Will be submitted to all scietific journals

It is demonstrated that a dielectric, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave, according to the canonical spin tensor. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.
Category: Classical Physics

[216] viXra:1612.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 12:48:25

Optical Laser Experiments at Atomic-Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) facility, near Hamburg, Germany, was built with one objective—to provide pulses of light short enough, bright enough, and of small enough wavelength to observe processes that would otherwise be too fast and/or too infrequent to measure in real-time. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[215] viXra:1612.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-19 11:16:09

Newtonian-Lewis-Doppler Theory

Authors: Silas Sacheli Santos
Comments: 28 Pages.

Relativistics equations are derived using concepts of Newton, Lewis, Doppler and non-instantaneos forces. And the theory is in agreement with particle collision, mass variation, time dilation, transversal Doppler effect, kinetic energy, etc. We propose a mass spectroscopy experiment to test the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[214] viXra:1612.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 13:34:06

Conical Capacitor as Gravity Propulsion Device

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 8 Pages.

It was proposed gravity propulsion method by using asymmetric conical capacitor charged by high voltage. It was used linear approximation of general relativity equations for derivation of gravity field potential of charged conical capacitor and was shown that negative gravity capabilities of conical capacitor depends only on ratio of electric energy and capacitor mass density, where electric energy density depends on applied voltage and geometric parameters of conical capacitor.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[213] viXra:1612.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 14:05:57

Rewired Cells for Cancer Therapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A major challenge in truly targeted cancer therapy is cancer's suppression of the immune system. Northwestern University synthetic biologists now have developed a general method for "rewiring" immune cells to flip this action around. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[212] viXra:1612.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 14:33:07

Neural Activity in Mouse Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Columbia scientists have traced the origins of mysterious signals in the brain that have captivated the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) community for the last decade. Using a recently developed imaging technique in mice, the Columbia team revealed synchronized, network-like neural activity coursing around the brain, even when the mouse was 'at rest.' [21] A major challenge in truly targeted cancer therapy is cancer's suppression of the immune system. Northwestern University synthetic biologists now have developed a general method for "rewiring" immune cells to flip this action around. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[211] viXra:1612.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 14:49:58

Brain's Default Mode Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

With thousands of basic and clinical neuroscience studies carried out over the past 15 years, the Default Mode Network (DMN) – a network of highly co-correlated interacting regions whose activity is very active during wakeful rest and distinct from that of other neural networks – is one of the most highly-investigated networks of the brain. [22] Columbia scientists have traced the origins of mysterious signals in the brain that have captivated the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) community for the last decade. Using a recently developed imaging technique in mice, the Columbia team revealed synchronized, network-like neural activity coursing around the brain, even when the mouse was 'at rest.' [21] A major challenge in truly targeted cancer therapy is cancer's suppression of the immune system. Northwestern University synthetic biologists now have developed a general method for "rewiring" immune cells to flip this action around. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[210] viXra:1612.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 13:57:47

Photonic-Magnetic Field in Interplanetary Space

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 14 Pages.

Imagine an interplanetary space where each celestial object will be attracted by the magnetic waves from these electromagnetic waves are created in more of photonic waves. From this set of waves there arises the photonic-magnetic field theory which is to attract a celestial body when the celestial object is undergoing a total shutdown. From this shutdown of the celestial body or planet, there is created an energy that emanates (Aggressively) photons. The photons have the function of joining with the magnetic waves, from this bond will create a cloud of magnetic charges (+ ;-) and photons ( Note that the photons are radiation magnetic waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[209] viXra:1612.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-18 09:13:19

The Photon Mass Problem

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data. We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[208] viXra:1612.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-15 14:31:17

The Suggestion that 2-Probable Primes Satisfying Even Goldbach Conjecture Are Possible

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

The even Goldbach conjecture suggests that every even integer greater than four may be written as the sum of two odd primes. This conjecture remains unproven. We explore whether two probable primes satisfying the Fermat’s little theorem can potentially exist for every even integer greater than four. Our results suggest that there are no obvious constraints on this possibility.
Category: Number Theory

[207] viXra:1612.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 03:18:52

Conic and Cyclidic Sections in Double Conformal Geometric Algebra G_{8,2}

Authors: Robert Benjamin Easter, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 6 Pages. Proceedings of SSI 2016, Session SS11, pp. 866-871, 6-8 Dec. 2016, Ohtsu, Shiga, Japan, 10 color figures.

The G_{8,2} Geometric Algebra, also called the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA), has entities that represent conic sections. DCGA also has entities that represent planar sections of Darboux cyclides, which are called cyclidic sections in this paper. This paper presents these entities and many operations on them. Operations include projection, rejection, and intersection with respect to spheres and planes. Other operations include rotation, translation, and dilation. Possible applications are introduced that include orthographic and perspective projections of conic sections onto view planes, which may be of interest in computer graphics or other computational geometry subjects.
Category: Algebra

[206] viXra:1612.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 04:07:58

Graphene Beat the Heat in Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[205] viXra:1612.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 04:32:27

Laser Production of Ultrathin Nanomaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[204] viXra:1612.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 05:20:34

New Principle for Graphene Use

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Fujitsu Laboratories today announced the world's first successful development of an exquisitely sensitive gas sensor based on a new principle that takes advantage of graphene, a material in which carbon atoms are arranged in a sheet one atom thick. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[203] viXra:1612.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 06:36:52

The Quintic :Z^5+z^3+z^2-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 12 Pages.

The quintic: p(z)=z^5+z^3+z^2-1=0 , the number pi , and fractals.
Category: General Mathematics

[202] viXra:1612.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 06:56:56

Hyper-Aged Men Finished Off by Ageism and Misandry: from Deadly Discrimination of Men in Society, Social Science, and Andragogy Practice, Toward Emancipatory “male” Applied Empirical Social Science

Authors: Sascha Vongehr
Comments: 14 Pages. 1 Fig., 52 Refs.

There are about 1.4 times more women than men above 60 years of age. We argue that the age distributions’ shapes imply that socio-biological reality ‘hyper-ages’ men by five years beyond their nominal age. Moreover, women present the overwhelming majority in adult education programs for the elderly, outnumbering men by up to ten to one. We discuss relevant social theory and practice, and as an example for empirically scientific social science, show that males are discriminated against in lifelong education efforts, deepening their general discrimination and unhealthy, in relation to this issue literally deadly social isolation. Our hyperaged, exhausted men description renders this work belonging to Advocacy Gerontology: older men are doubly discriminated by ageism. But our practical recommendations do not fix symptoms where it is “too late”. Our general recommendations support truly emancipatory, that is system-theoretical, “Asperger autistic male” theorizing.
Category: Social Science

[201] viXra:1612.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 08:50:10

PROSPECTing for Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[200] viXra:1612.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 10:53:08

Memory Architecture for AI

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[199] viXra:1612.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 11:37:50

Neuromotor Problems the Core of Autism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Rutgers neuroscientists have established that problems controlling bodily movements are at the core of autism spectrum disorders and that the use of psychotropic medications to treat autism in children often makes such neuromotor problems worse. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19]
Category: Mind Science

[198] viXra:1612.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 11:51:02

An Algebraic Representation for Action-at-a=Distance

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 44 Pages. The first paper in a new research programme investigating the foundations of physics.

A new algebra is introduced that is found to be suitable for representing asynchronous action-at-a-distance. This “Natural Vector” representation is based on Hamilton’s quaternions with the four bases constructed from real (4x4) matrices with the scalar component explicitly including the standard square root of minus one, so that natural vectors operate like a simple non-commuting, complex algebra. This algebra can replace calculus in much physics and directly relates the Wave equation, the Continuity equation and the Flow equation together, which are at the center of mathematical physics. This new representation forms the mathematical foundation for a new research programme that challenges several of the basic assumptions of modern physics that are directly related to the metaphysical “Continuum Hypothesis”. This new form of quaternion algebra described here is found to be mathematically simpler than the somewhat similar biquaternions and appears to be the natural algebraic form for describing ‘relativistic’ interactions that implicitly incorporate the asynchronous delays occurring in the electromagnetic interaction. These complex four-component vectors are inherently simpler than other alternatives, such as Clifford algebra or Minkowski 4-vectors – they are more physically transparent than tensor calculus. Natural vectors are always anti-symmetric for two point-particles, so they form a natural fermionic representation even for ‘classical’ electrons; their anti-commutative properties lead naturally into a suitable representation for quantum mechanics. The new focus is on the interaction between two electrons at two different times, rather than other standard theories centered on a single particle or field-point in empty space, at one single time. Asynchronous inter-particle interactions, like those found in electromagnetism, are here represented by natural vectors that are both separable and temporally invariant. This is the first paper in a new research programme investigating the foundations of physics; this programme is aimed to recognize that continuum assumptions in physics (used everywhere since Isaac Newton created calculus for particle motion) needs to be replaced with discrete mathematics. *SPSI, Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299* spsi99@telus.net © H. J. Spencer [2016] * (Version 2.6 19-08-2016 Version 1.0 31-7-2007)
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[197] viXra:1612.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 11:44:20

The Shape of Water and Air Vortices

Authors: M. J. Germuska
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper presents a new formula found experimentally for the shape of the free surface of stable vortices. It is a generalisation of the theoretical formula for the irrotational vortex in the ideal fluid. The new formula applies to real vortices where viscosity and compression may be present. The experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions on water and air vortices that were produced in several different ways.
Category: Classical Physics

[196] viXra:1612.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 10:45:45

Graphene Nano-Calligraphy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law.
Category: Condensed Matter

[195] viXra:1612.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 11:04:25

LIGO at the University of Queensland

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 3 Pages. Reitze lectured high school science teachers at a conference at UQ: http://www.staq.qld.edu.au/pd-events/steeagmm/?

On Tuesday the 6th of December 2016, professor David Reitze, the Director of LIGO, delivered a 'keynote' conference lecture to high school science teachers at the University of Queensland. He reiterated claims that the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration detected gravitational waves produced by two merging black holes some 1.3 billion light years from Earth. By and large the school teachers sat passively, thoughtlessly absorbing his claims without criticism. Big bang cosmology is now taught to students as young as twelve in Queensland, as a matter of official curriculum. Yet this cosmology is demonstrably false on many levels. When scientific facts were put to him professor Reitze retreated to 'hand waving'. That LIGO did not detect gravitational waves or black holes is easily proven. The letter herein was sent to professor Reitze, inviting his arguments in defence of LIGO.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[194] viXra:1612.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 11:12:16

Polysilicone Sensitive Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

State of the art sensors made from graphene and children's toy silly putty. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[193] viXra:1612.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 12:28:56

Natural Philosophical Critique of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 80 Pages. This one of the 'light-house' papers in a new theory of electro-magnetism.

This paper re-opens the debate on the failure of quantum mechanics to provide an understandable view of micro-reality. A critique is offered of the commonly accepted ‘Copenhagen Interpretation’ of a theory that is only a mathematical approach to the level of reality characterized by atoms and electrons. This critique is based on the oldest approach to thinking about nature for over 2500 years, known as Natural Philosophy. Quantum mechanics (QM) was developed over the first quarter of the 20th Century, when scientists were enthralled by a new philosophy known as Positivism, whose foundations were based on the assumption that material objects exist only when measured by humans – This central assumption conflates epistemology (knowledge) with ontology (existence). The present critique rejects this human-centered view of reality by assuming material reality has existed long before (and will persist long after) human beings (“Realism”). The defensive view that the micro-world is too different to understand using regular thinking (and only a mathematical approach is possible) is rejected totally. At least 12 earlier QM interpretations are critically analyzed, indicating the broad interest in “what does QM mean?” The standard theory of quantum mechanics is thus constructed on only how the micro-world appears to macro measurements - as such, it cannot offer any view of how the foundations of the world are acting when humans are not observing it - this has generated almost 100 years of confusion and contradiction at the very heart of physics. Significantly, we live in a world that is not being measured by scientists but is interacting with itself and with us. QM has failed to provide explanations: only recipes (meaningless equations), not insights. Physics has returned to the pre-Newtonian world of Ptolemaic phenomenology: only verifiable numbers without real understanding. The focus needs to be on an explicit linkage between the micro-world, when left to itself, and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of measurement. This limits the role of measurement to confirming our mental models of reality but never confusing these with a direct image of ‘the thing in itself’. This implies a deep divide between reality and appearances. This paper proposes that it is the attempt to preserve continuum mathematics (especially calculus), which drives much of the mystery and confusion behind all attempts to understand quantum mechanics. The introduction of discrete mathematics is proposed to help analyze the discrete interactions between the quintessential quantum objects: the electrons and their novel properties. Additionally, several hidden major assumptions have been present in Classical Mechanics (represented by continuum mathematics) since its inception by Newton that are blocking progress and understanding of quantum mechanics. A related paper demonstrates that it is possible to create a point-particle theory of electrons that explains all their peculiar (and ‘paradoxical’) behavior without introducing the continuum mathematical ideas of fields or waves. * Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299 spsi99@telus.net Version 1.195 10-07-2016 Begun 23-06-2008 {pp. 80, 70.4 Kw; 800 KB}
Category: Quantum Physics

[192] viXra:1612.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-12 04:22:41

Length Contraction

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Lorentz length contraction is a fallacy and it's very obvious, the length of an object will not decrease as it speeds up in a situation where there is no friction. Hendrik Lorentz came to the wrong conclusion because he didn't understand what time dilation was, theoretical physicists don't understand what happens when time slows down. The length of an object remains the same in that situation, the only thing that can change is time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[191] viXra:1612.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 07:56:51

A Unified Description for the Magnetic Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet and Decuplet.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 11 Pages. two tables, one figure

The masses of the leptons and baryons are shown to be quantitatively described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background( as proposed decades ago by Barut, Jehle, and Post). As a further proof of the soundness of the method, we present a plot of mass against magnetic moment in which the data for the spin-3/2 decuplet particles are shifted from the data for the spin-1/2 octet by the exact numerical factor predicted from the square root of the ratio between their spin angular momenta.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[190] viXra:1612.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 08:26:39

Fusion Reactor's Infinite Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[189] viXra:1612.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 09:31:06

Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 47 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We then study according to our new theory of dark matter the different possible distributions of dark matter in galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). Despite that our Theory of dark matter is compatible with the SCM, we then expose a new Cosmological model based on this new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM and that we will call local Cosmological frame. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new Cosmological model. The 1st mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model of expansion used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[188] viXra:1612.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 22:47:05

TRL Positive Real Order Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm. {Rendition To Completion} (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Positive Real Order Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm'.
Category: General Mathematics

[187] viXra:1612.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-02 09:09:11

Proof of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: Robert Deloin
Comments: 7 Pages. Version 2.

Riemann's hypothesis (1859) is the conjecture stating that: The real part of every non trivial zero of Riemann's zeta function is 1/2. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve the proof of Riemann's hypothesis. The key idea is to provide an Hamiltonian operator whose real eigenvalues correspond to the imaginary part of the non trivial zeros of Riemann's zeta function and whose existence, according to Hilbert and Polya, proves Riemann's hypothesis.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[186] viXra:1612.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 02:20:30

Conference on the Digital World, Nantes Dec 8 2016 at Lycée Clémenceau

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 28 Pages.

A presentation is made on the numerical world of mathematics. Round table on the numerical data. Une présentation du numérique à Nantes, table ronde organisée par ADN ouest au Lycée Clémenceau
Category: Number Theory

[185] viXra:1612.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 06:41:52

Next-Generation Accelerators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[184] viXra:1612.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 07:04:02

2016 for LHC

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[183] viXra:1612.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 14:46:51

Watch Biomolecules at Work

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
Category: Physics of Biology

[182] viXra:1612.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 12:30:05

Is Intuition More Important Than Reasoning, Or, Vice-Versa?

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper aims to inspire thinking on the capabilities and potential of the human brain.
Category: General Mathematics

[181] viXra:1612.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 07:49:40

Energy from Human Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Michigan State University engineering researchers have created a new way to harvest energy from human motion, using a film-like device that actually can be folded to create more power. [14] Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[180] viXra:1612.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 09:29:20

Sunlight Hydrogen Dark Reaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[179] viXra:1612.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 04:14:35

Hidden Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[178] viXra:1612.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 04:48:14

Nano-Roundabout for Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[177] viXra:1612.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-18 06:09:14

Fractal Optimization as Generator of Market Neutral Long-Short Portfolio

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilia Drozdov
Comments: 8 Pages.

A fractal approach to the long-short portfolio optimization is proposed. The algorithmic system based on the composition of market-neutral spreads into a single entity was considered. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal walk model of returns, optimizing a risk aversion according to the investment horizon. The covariance matrix of spread returns has been used for the optimization and modified according to the Hurst stability analysis. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented for the space of exchange traded funds in five period time period of observation. The considered portfolio system has turned out to be statistically more stable than a passive investment into benchmark with higher risk adjusted cumulative return over the observed period.
Category: Economics and Finance

[176] viXra:1612.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 06:36:30

About an Unknown Disease \\ Об одной неизвестной болезни

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

A common disease has been described which still was unknown to the classic medicine. The diagnostic and treatment methods have been pro-posed for this decease which we called “geopathic desease”. \\ Описано часто встречающееся заболевание, которое до настоящего времени не известно классической медицине. Приведены методы диагностики и лечения этой болезни, названной нами «геопатогенная болезнь» (ГП-болезнь).
Category: Physics of Biology

[175] viXra:1612.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 06:40:33

What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als)? \\ Что такое боковой амиотрофический склероз (БАС)?

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article considers the ALS etiology and pathogenesis from the perspective of the information-wave medicine. The diagnostic and treatment methods have been proposed for this “incurable” disease. \\ В статье рассмотрены этиология и патогенез БАС с позиции информационно-волновой медицины. Предложены пути диагностики и лечения этой «неизлечимой» болезни. \\ В статье приведена краткая информация о рассеянном склерозе, как его видит клас-сическая медицина, рассмотрены особенности этого заболевания с позиции информацион-но-волновой медицины. Установлены причины возникновения, пути ранней диагностики и полного излечения этого заболевания. Показана идентичность описанной нами мало из-вестной геопатогенной болезни рассеянному склерозу.
Category: Physics of Biology

[174] viXra:1612.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 06:44:55

Disseminated Sclerosis: Fantasies and Facts. \\ Рассеяный склероз: домыслы и факты.

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article contains brief information on disseminated sclerosis as seen by the classic medicine, the peculiarities of this disease have been examined from the perspective of the information-wave medicine. The causes of this disease have been established as well as the diagnostic and treatment methods. Identity of the described little-known geopathic disease to disseminated sclerosis have been demonstrated.
Category: Physics of Biology

[173] viXra:1612.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:41:10

Computational Techniques for Modeling Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 35 Pages.

Modeling the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is a challenging subject. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. These include continuum models, numerical methods, and pore-scale network modeling. The latter proved to be more successful and realistic than the rest. The reason is that it captures the essential features of the flow and porous media using modest computational resources and viable modeling strategies. In this article we present pore-scale network modeling techniques for simulating non-Newtonian flow in porous media. These techniques are partially validated by theoretical analysis and comparison to experimental data.
Category: Classical Physics

[172] viXra:1612.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:44:06

Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 99 Pages.

The study of flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is very important and serves a wide variety of practical applications in processes such as enhanced oil recovery from underground reservoirs, filtration of polymer solutions and soil remediation through the removal of liquid pollutants. These fluids occur in diverse natural and synthetic forms and can be regarded as the rule rather than the exception. They show very complex strain and time dependent behavior and may have initial yield-stress. Their common feature is that they do not obey the simple Newtonian relation of proportionality between stress and rate of deformation. Non-Newtonian fluids are generally classified into three main categories: time-independent whose strain rate solely depends on the instantaneous stress, time-dependent whose strain rate is a function of both magnitude and duration of the applied stress and viscoelastic which shows partial elastic recovery on removal of the deforming stress and usually demonstrates both time and strain dependency. In this article, the key aspects of these fluids are reviewed with particular emphasis on single-phase flow through porous media. The four main approaches for describing the flow in porous media are examined and assessed. These are: continuum models, bundle of tubes models, numerical methods and pore-scale network modeling.
Category: Classical Physics

[171] viXra:1612.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:47:27

Computational Techniques for Efficient Conversion of Image Files from Area Detectors

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 17 Pages.

Area detectors are used in many scientific and technological applications such as particle and radiation physics. Thanks to the recent technological developments, the radiation sources are becoming increasingly brighter and the detectors become faster and more efficient. The result is a sharp increase in the size of data collected in a typical experiment. This situation imposes a bottleneck on data processing capabilities, and could pose a real challenge to scientific research in certain areas. This article proposes a number of simple techniques to facilitate rapid and efficient extraction of data obtained from these detectors. These techniques are successfully implemented and tested in a computer program to deal with the extraction of X-ray diffraction patterns from EDF image files obtained from CCD detectors.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[170] viXra:1612.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:49:53

The Flow of Power-Law Fluids in Axisymmetric Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this article we present an analytical method for deriving the relationship between the pressure drop and flow rate in laminar flow regimes, and apply it to the flow of power-law fluids through axially-symmetric corrugated tubes. The method, which is general with regards to fluid and tube shape within certain restrictions, can also be used as a foundation for numerical integration where analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical or practical complexities. Five converging-diverging geometries are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[169] viXra:1612.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:52:35

Slip at Fluid-Solid Interface

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 69 Pages.

The `no-slip' is a fundamental assumption and generally-accepted boundary condition in rheology, tribology and fluid mechanics with strong experimental support. The violations of this condition, however, are widely recognized in many situations, especially in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Wall slip could lead to large errors and flow instabilities, such as sharkskin formation and spurt flow, and hence complicates the analysis of fluid systems and introduces serious practical difficulties. In this article, we discuss slip at fluid-solid interface in an attempt to highlight the main issues related to this diverse complex phenomenon and its implications.
Category: Classical Physics

[168] viXra:1612.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:55:36

Newtonian Flow in Converging-Diverging Capillaries

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 23 Pages.

The one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are used to derive analytical expressions for the relation between pressure and volumetric flow rate in capillaries of five different converging-diverging axisymmetric geometries for Newtonian fluids. The results are compared to previously-derived expressions for the same geometries using the lubrication approximation. The results of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes are identical to those obtained from the lubrication approximation within a non-dimensional numerical factor. The derived flow expressions have also been validated by comparison to numerical solutions obtained from discretization with numerical integration. Moreover, they have been certified by testing the convergence of solutions as the converging-diverging geometries approach the limiting straight geometry.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[167] viXra:1612.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:57:56

New Program with New Approach for Spectral Data Analysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

This article presents a high-throughput computer program, called EasyDD, for batch processing, analyzing and visualizing of spectral data; particularly those related to the new generation of synchrotron detectors and X-ray powder diffraction applications. This computing tool is designed for the treatment of large volumes of data in reasonable time with affordable computational resources. A case study in which this program was used to process and analyze powder diffraction data obtained from the ESRF synchrotron on an alumina-based nickel nanoparticle catalysis system is also presented for demonstration. The development of this computing tool, with the associated protocols, is inspired by a novel approach in spectral data analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[166] viXra:1612.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 21:00:49

Using Euler-Lagrange Variational Principle to Obtain Flow Relations for Generalized Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 29 Pages.

Euler-Lagrange variational principle is used to obtain analytical and numerical flow relations in cylindrical tubes. The method is based on minimizing the total stress in the flow duct using the fluid constitutive relation between stress and rate of strain. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models; which include power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Carreau and Cross; are used for demonstration.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[165] viXra:1612.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 21:07:59

Testing the Connectivity of Networks

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this article we discuss general strategies and computer algorithms to test the connectivity of unstructured networks which consist of a number of segments connected through randomly distributed nodes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[164] viXra:1612.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 21:11:29

Navier–Stokes Flow in Converging–diverging Distensible Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 15 Pages.

We use a method based on the lubrication approximation in conjunction with a residual-based mass-continuity iterative solution scheme to compute the flow rate and pressure field in distensible converging–diverging tubes for Navier–Stokes fluids. We employ an analytical formula derived from a one-dimensional version of the Navier–Stokes equations to describe the underlying flow model that provides the residual function. This formula correlates the flow rate to the boundary pressures in straight cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius. We validate our findings by the convergence toward a final solution with fine discretization as well as by comparison to the Poiseuille-type flow in its convergence toward analytic solutions found earlier in rigid converging–diverging tubes. We also tested the method on limiting special cases of cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius where the numerical solutions converged to the expected analytical solutions. The distensible model has also been endorsed by its convergence toward the rigid Poiseuille-type model with increasing the tube wall stiffness. Lubrication-based one-dimensional finite element method was also used for verification. In this investigation five converging–diverging geometries are used for demonstration, validation and as prototypes for modeling converging–diverging geometries in general.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[163] viXra:1612.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 02:09:20

Abrikosov Vortices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A nanophotonics group led by Prof. Brahim Lounis of the University of Bordeaux, including scientists from MIPT, has performed a unique experiment involving the optical manipulation of individual Abrikosov vortices in a superconductor. In their article published in Nature Communications, the scientists mention the possibility of designing new logic units based on quantum principles for use in supercomputers. [33] A team of researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in India has found that cooling a sample of bismuth to 0.00053 Kelvin caused the material to become a superconductor, putting at risk a decades-old theory regarding how superconductivity works. [32] Researchers from Brown University have demonstrated an unusual method of putting the brakes on superconductivity, the ability of a material to conduct an electrical current with zero resistance. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[162] viXra:1612.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-08 18:56:06

An Expression For The Argument of ζ at Zeros on the Critical Line

Authors: Stephen Crowley
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is conjectured that argζ(1/2+i t_n)=S_n(t_n)=π(3/2-frac((ϑ(t_n))/π)-⌊g~^(-1)(n)⌋-n) where g~^(-1)(t)=(t ln(t/(2 π e)))/(2 π)+7/8 is the inverse of g~(n)=((8n-7)π)/(4 W((8n-7)/(8 e))) which accurately approximates the Gram points g(n) and that all of the non-trivial zeros of ζ, enumerated by n, are on the critical line. Therefore, if S(t)=S_n(t_n) then the exact transcendental equation for the Riemann zeros has a solution for each positive integer n which proves that Riemann's hypothesis is true since the counting function for zeros on the critical line is equal to the counting function for zeros on the critical strip if the transcendental equation has a solution for each n.
Category: Number Theory

[161] viXra:1612.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 14:28:50

Supermassive Black Holes Formed Quickly When Dark Matter H Particles Coalesced Early in the Formation of the Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: -H and -Z particles were plentiful in the very early universe in form of Briggs fermibosons with negative matter bosonic components. After these components did their job of transferring matter from the dying universe to the new universe, the redundant -H particles came together to quickly form super massive black holes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[160] viXra:1612.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 10:23:47

Exotic or Classical Magnetoresistance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists from the Nijmegen High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML) and the ETH in Zürich have demonstrated that a simple physical model is sufficient to explain the phenomenon of linear magnetoresistance. [17] Researchers at the Division of Solid-State Physics and the Division of Materials Physics at Uppsala University have shown how the collective dynamics in a structure consisting of interacting magnetic nano-islands can be manipulated. [16] An international team led by University of Arkansas physicists has discovered drastic changes in material properties occurring in a group of two-dimensional materials that are being investigated as candidates to power the next generation of opto-electronic devices. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[159] viXra:1612.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:06:17

Linear Dependence on Covalent Radii of Atomic and Ionic Radii of Elements Calculated by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 2 Tables and 3 Figures

The radii of free atoms calculated recently using DFT by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft have been correlated here with the covalent radii of elements of the Periodic Table. The linear dependences found are in accordance with the previous results obtained by the author between various types of radii of atoms. In particular, the comparison of the atomic radii and the Golden ratio based ionic radii of the alkali metal and halogen atoms with those presented by Rahm et al. shows that the latter also involve the Golden ratio.
Category: Chemistry

[158] viXra:1612.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:01:18

Flow Reversal of Negative Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Science (NIFS) has succeeded in revealing the flow of negative hydrogen ions using a combination of infrared lasers and electrostatic probes in the ion-source plasma, which generates a negative-hydrogen-ion beam. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[157] viXra:1612.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:24:56

Familiar Strangers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

According to a new study, there are more familiar strangers in our lives than friends, coworkers, and all other acquaintances combined. [13] Creative achievement can provide a buffer against being anxious about death, research from psychologists at the University of Kent shows. [12] A new study reveals how two populations of neurons in the brain contribute to the brain's inability to correctly assign emotional associations to events. Learning how this information is routed and misrouted could shed light on mental illnesses including depression, addiction, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. [11] In dynamic neuronal networks, pervasive oscillatory activity is usually explained by pointing to pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the network. Recently, however, scientists at The Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel studied synchronized periodic bursting that emerged spontaneously in a network of in vitro rat hippocampus and cortex neurons, finding that roughly 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected from the network – and that each neuron oscillated at its own frequency, which is controlled by the neuron's excitability. [10] Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[156] viXra:1612.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 12:44:46

Atom-Sized Tunnels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Electron microscopy of a manganese dioxide nanowire in cross-section shows its tunnelled atomic structure, stabilized by potassium ions. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[155] viXra:1612.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 08:36:25

Enigmas of the Genetic Code, Enigma 3: a Third Hidden Arithmetical Algorithm

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 6 Pages.

This third enigma is standing in relation to enigmas 1 & 2, given in our previous two communications. It is relating to total number of atoms (239) in side chains of 23 protein amino acids, within standard genetic code. By this three amino acids (L, S, R) are included twice each.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[154] viXra:1612.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 08:44:54

Structural Phase Transitions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An international team led by University of Arkansas physicists has discovered drastic changes in material properties occurring in a group of two-dimensional materials that are being investigated as candidates to power the next generation of opto-electronic devices. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[153] viXra:1612.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 09:11:56

Cosmology in the Dreamtime at the University of Sydney

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 2 Pages. Public Lecture: The dark Side of the Universe, Professor Manfred Lindner: http://sydney.edu.au/sydney_ideas/lectures/2016/professor_manfred_lindner.shtml

On the evening of the 29th of November 2016, Professor Manfred Lindner from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, gave a public lecture at the University of Sydney, on dark matter and cosmology, and the Xenon1T project searching for dark matter particles by means of neutrino collisions and recoils in a 1 tonne vat of liquid xenon. At the conclusion of his lecture I questioned him on his presentation of an all-sky 'CMB' anisotropy map. He confirmed that the map was from the Planck satellite. The Planck satellite's 4 K 'blackbody' reference loads failed. This failing, ironically, proved that there is no monopole signal at L2, and hence no 'CMB'. Without its 'CMB', big bang cosmology is dead.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[152] viXra:1612.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 09:21:28

Three Systems Show Lorentz Force Law Clashing with Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based on classical electromagnetic theory and special theory of relativity, three thought experiments are conducted and analyzed here. In all these cases, the Lorenz force law clashes with special theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[151] viXra:1612.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 09:24:25

Fractal Optimization of Market Neutral Portfolio

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilia Drozdov
Comments: 7 Pages. Accepted in Quantitative Finance

A fractal approach to the long-short portfolio optimization is proposed. The algorithmic system based on the composition of market-neutral spreads into a single entity has been considered. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal walk model of returns, modifying a risk aversion according to the investment horizon. The covariance matrix of spread returns has been used for the optimization and modified according to the Hurst stability analysis. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented for the space of exchange traded funds in five period time period of observation. The considered portfolio system has turned out to be statistically more stable than a passive investment into benchmark with higher risk adjusted cumulated return.
Category: Economics and Finance

[150] viXra:1612.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 09:55:34

Magnetic Nano-Structures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the Division of Solid-State Physics and the Division of Materials Physics at Uppsala University have shown how the collective dynamics in a structure consisting of interacting magnetic nano-islands can be manipulated. [16] An international team led by University of Arkansas physicists has discovered drastic changes in material properties occurring in a group of two-dimensional materials that are being investigated as candidates to power the next generation of opto-electronic devices. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[149] viXra:1612.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:01:53

Accounting for the Use of Different Length Scale Factors in x, y and z Directions

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This short article presents a mathematical formula required for metric corrections in image extraction and processing when using different length scale factors in three-dimensional space which is normally encountered in cryomicrotome image construction techniques.
Category: Physics of Biology

[148] viXra:1612.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:01:05

Electron Highway

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[147] viXra:1612.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:04:03

Navier-Stokes Flow in Cylindrical Elastic Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Analytical expressions correlating the volumetric flow rate to the inlet and outlet pressures are derived for the time-independent flow of Newtonian fluids in cylindrically-shaped elastic tubes using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model with two pressure-area constitutive relations. These expressions for elastic tubes are the equivalent of Poiseuille and Poiseuille-type expressions for rigid tubes which were previously derived for the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids under various flow conditions. Formulae and procedures for identifying the pressure field and tube geometric profile are also presented. The results are validated by a finite element method implementation. Sensible trends in the analytical and numerical results are observed and documented.
Category: Physics of Biology

[146] viXra:1612.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:07:35

Variational Approach for Resolving the Flow of Generalized Newtonian Fluids in Circular Pipes and Plane Slits

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this paper, we use a generic and general variational method to obtain solutions to the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids through circular pipes and plane slits. The new method is not based on the use of the Euler-Lagrange variational principle and hence it is totally independent of our previous approach which is based on this principle. Instead, the method applies a very generic and general optimization approach which can be justified by the Dirichlet principle although this is not the only possible theoretical justification. The results that were obtained from the new method using nine types of fluid are in total agreement, within certain restrictions, with the results obtained from the traditional methods of fluid mechanics as well as the results obtained from the previous variational approach. In addition to being a useful method in its own for resolving the flow field in circular pipes and plane slits, the new variational method lends more support to the old variational method as well as for the use of variational principles in general to resolve the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids and obtain all the quantities of the flow field which include shear stress, local viscosity, rate of strain, speed profile and volumetric flow rate. The theoretical basis of the new variational method, which rests on the use of the Dirichlet principle, also provides theoretical support to the former variational method.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[145] viXra:1612.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:09:28

Enigmas of the Genetic Code, Enigma 2: a Second Hidden Arithmetical Algorithm

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 7 Pages.

This second Enigma is standing in relation to Enigma 1 in our previous communication. It is relating to total number of atoms (204) in side chains of 20 protein amino acids, within standard genetic code.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[144] viXra:1612.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:09:55

Methods for Calculating the Pressure Field in the Tube Flow

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we outline methods for calculating the pressure field inside flow conduits in the one-dimensional flow models where the pressure is dependent on the axial coordinate only. The investigation is general with regard to the tube mechanical properties (rigid or distensible), and with regard to the cross sectional variation along the tube length (constant or variable). The investigation is also general with respect to the fluid rheology as being Newtonian or non-Newtonian.
Category: Classical Physics

[143] viXra:1612.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:12:34

Further Validation to the Variational Method to Obtain Flow Relations for Generalized Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 31 Pages.

We continue our investigation to the use of the variational method to derive flow relations for generalized Newtonian fluids in confined geometries. While in the previous investigations we used the straight circular tube geometry with eight fluid rheological models to demonstrate and establish the variational method, the focus here is on the plane long thin slit geometry using those eight rheological models, namely: Newtonian, power law, Ree-Eyring, Carreau, Cross, Casson, Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. We demonstrate how the variational principle based on minimizing the total stress in the flow conduit can be used to derive analytical expressions, which are previously derived by other methods, or used in conjunction with numerical procedures to obtain numerical solutions which are virtually identical to the solutions obtained previously from well established methods of fluid dynamics. In this regard, we use the method of Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney-Schofield (WRMS), with our adaptation from the circular pipe geometry to the long thin slit geometry, to derive analytical formulae for the eight types of fluid where these derived formulae are used for comparison and validation of the variational formulae and numerical solutions. Although some examples may be of little value, the optimization principle which the variational method is based upon has a significant theoretical value as it reveals the tendency of the flow system to assume a configuration that minimizes the total stress. Our proposal also offers a new methodology to tackle common problems in fluid dynamics and rheology.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[142] viXra:1612.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:19:49

Positive Real Order Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Positive Real Order Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm'.
Category: General Mathematics

[141] viXra:1612.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:30:01

The Flow of Newtonian Fluids in Axisymmetric Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 17 Pages.

This article deals with the flow of Newtonian fluids through axially-symmetric corrugated tubes. An analytical method to derive the relation between volumetric flow rate and pressure drop in laminar flow regimes is presented and applied to a number of simple tube geometries of converging-diverging nature. The method is general in terms of fluid and tube shape within the previous restrictions. Moreover, it can be used as a basis for numerical integration where analytical relations cannot be obtained due to mathematical difficulties.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[140] viXra:1612.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:32:16

The Flow of Newtonian and Power Law Fluids in Elastic Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 15 Pages.

We derive analytical expressions for the flow of Newtonian and power law fluids in elastic circularly-symmetric tubes based on a lubrication approximation where the flow velocity profile at each cross section is assumed to have its axially-dependent characteristic shape for the given rheology and cross sectional size. Two pressure-area constitutive elastic relations for the tube elastic response are used in these derivations. We demonstrate the validity of the derived equations by observing qualitatively correct trends in general and quantitatively valid asymptotic convergence to limiting cases. The Newtonian formulae are compared to similar formulae derived previously from a one-dimensional version of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[139] viXra:1612.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:34:38

Analytical Solutions for the Flow of Carreau and Cross Fluids in Circular Pipes and Thin Slits

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 27 Pages.

In this paper, analytical expressions correlating the volumetric flow rate to the pressure drop are derived for the flow of Carreau and Cross fluids through straight rigid circular uniform pipes and long thin slits. The derivation is based on the application of Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney-Schofield method to obtain flow solutions for generalized Newtonian fluids through pipes and our adaptation of this method to the flow through slits. The derived expressions are validated by comparing their solutions to the solutions obtained from direct numerical integration. They are also validated by comparison to the solutions obtained from the variational method which we proposed previously. In all the investigated cases, the three methods agree very well. The agreement with the variational method also lends more support to this method and to the variational principle which the method is based upon.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[138] viXra:1612.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:37:18

Comparing Poiseuille with 1D Navier-Stokes Flow in Rigid and Distensible Tubes and Networks

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 19 Pages.

A comparison is made between the Hagen-Poiseuille flow in rigid tubes and networks on one side and the time-independent one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow in elastic tubes and networks on the other. Analytical relations, a Poiseuille network flow model and two finite element Navier-Stokes one-dimensional flow models have been developed and used in this investigation. The comparison highlights the differences between Poiseuille and one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow models which may have been unjustifiably treated as equivalent in some studies.
Category: Physics of Biology

[137] viXra:1612.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:39:49

The Flow of Power Law Fluids in Elastic Networks and Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 12 Pages.

The flow of power law fluids, which include shear thinning and shear thickening as well as Newtonian as a special case, in networks of interconnected elastic tubes is investigated using a residual based pore scale network modeling method with the employment of newly derived formulae. Two relations describing the mechanical interaction between the local pressure and local cross sectional area in distensible tubes of elastic nature are considered in the derivation of these formulae. The model can be used to describe shear dependent flows of mainly viscous nature. The behavior of the proposed model is vindicated by several tests in a number of special and limiting cases where the results can be verified quantitatively or qualitatively. The model, which is the first of its kind, incorporates more than one major non-linearity corresponding to the fluid rheology and conduit mechanical properties, that is non-Newtonian effects and tube distensibility. The formulation, implementation and performance indicate that the model enjoys certain advantages over the existing models such as being exact within the restricting assumptions on which the model is based, easy implementation, low computational costs, reliability and smooth convergence. The proposed model can therefore be used as an alternative to the existing Newtonian distensible models; moreover it stretches the capabilities of the existing modeling approaches to reach non-Newtonian rheologies.
Category: Physics of Biology

[136] viXra:1612.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-07 22:41:27

The Photon Model and Equations Are Derived Through Time-Domain Mutual Energy Current

Authors: Shuang Ren Zhao
Comments: 47 Pages.

Abstract In this article the authors will build the model of photon in time-domain. Since photon is a very short time wave, the authors need to build it in the time domain. In this photon model, there is an emitter and an absorber. The emitter sends the retarded wave. The absorber sends advanced wave. Between the emitter and the absorber the mutual energy current is built through the combination of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The mutual energy current can transfer the photon energy from the emitter to the absorber and hence the photon is nothing else but the mutual energy current. This energy transfer is built in 3D space, this allow the wave to go through any 3D structure for example the double slits. The authors have proved that in the empty space, the wave can be seen approximately as 1D wave and can transfer energy from one pointer to to another point without any wave function collapses. That is why the light can be seen as light line. That is why a photon can go through double slits to have the interference. The duality of photon can be explained using this photon model. The total energy transfer can be divided as self-energy transfer and the mutual energy transfer. It is possible the self-energy current transfer half the total energy and it also possible that the part of self-energy part has no contribution to the energy transferring of the photon. In the latter, the self-energy items is canceled by the advanced wave of the emitter current and the retarded wave of the absorber current or canceled by the returned waves. This return wave is still satisfy Maxwell equations or at least some time-reversed Maxwell equations. Furthermore, the authors found the photon should satisfy the Maxwell equations in microcosm. Energy can be transferred only by the mutual energy current. In this solution, the two items in the mutual energy current can just interpret the line or circle polarization or spin of the photon. The traditional concept of wave function collapse in quantum mechanics is not needed in the authors’ photon model. The authors believe the concept of the traditional wave collapse is coursed by the misunderstanding about the energy current. Traditionally, there is only the energy current based on Poynting vector which is always diverges from the source. For a diverged wave, hence, there is the requirement for the energy to collapse to its absorber. After knowing that the electromagnetic energy is actually transferred by the mutual energy current, which is a wave diverging in the beginning and converging in the end, then the wave function collapse is not needed. The concept energy is transferred by the mutual energy current can be extended from photon to any other particles for example electron. Electrons should have the similar mutual energy current to carry their energy from one place to another and do not need the wave function to collapse.
Category: Quantum Physics

[135] viXra:1612.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 16:25:37

A Derived Expression of NEWTON’S Law of Gravitation and of the Newtonian Constant G

Authors: Curtis J. Forsythe
Comments: 11 Pages.

I propose a theoretical model of Universal Gravitation based upon hypothetical mass/energy resonance waves, the intensities of which I propose to be casually analogous with those of electromagnetic waves. Using said model, I derive the Newtonian gravitational expression, from which the Newtonian gravitational constant G factors as a combination of other physical constants, resulting in an apparent value of 6.662936 x 10-11m3/kg s2. A second resultant of the theory is a demonstration that the quantum energy states of the hydrogen atom appear related to the length of these waves, shown equal to twice the ground state orbital radius in a Bohr hydrogen atom. Additionally, I have determined apparent values for the Planck mass, length, and time independently of any determination of G.
Category: Classical Physics

[134] viXra:1612.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:22:31

Pore-Scale Modeling of Navier-Stokes Flow in Distensible Networks and Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, a pore-scale network modeling method, based on the flow continuity residual in conjunction with a Newton-Raphson non-linear iterative solving technique, is proposed and used to obtain the pressure and flow fields in a network of interconnected distensible ducts representing, for instance, blood vasculature or deformable porous media. A previously derived analytical expression correlating boundary pressures to volumetric flow rate in compliant tubes for a pressure-area constitutive elastic relation has been used to represent the underlying flow model. Comparison to a preceding equivalent method, the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element, was made and the results were analyzed. The advantages of the new method have been highlighted and practical computational issues, related mainly to the rate and speed of convergence, have been discussed.
Category: Physics of Biology

[133] viXra:1612.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:26:02

The Yield Condition in the Mobilization of Yield-Stress Materials in Distensible Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper we investigate the yield condition in the mobilization of yield-stress materials in distensible tubes. We discuss the two possibilities for modeling the yield-stress materials prior to yield: solid-like materials and highly-viscous fluids and identify the logical consequences of these two approaches on the yield condition. As part of this investigation we derive an analytical expression for the pressure field inside a distensible tube with a Newtonian flow using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model in conjunction with a pressure-area constitutive relation based on elastic tube wall characteristics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[132] viXra:1612.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:29:02

Yield and Solidification of Yield-Stress Materials in Rigid Networks and Porous Structures

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.
Category: Classical Physics

[131] viXra:1612.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:35:45

Non-Newtonian Rheology in Blood Circulation

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 26 Pages.

Blood is a complex suspension that demonstrates several non-Newtonian rheological characteristics such as deformation-rate dependency, viscoelasticity and yield stress. In this paper we outline some issues related to the non-Newtonian effects in blood circulation system and present modeling approaches based mostly on the past work in this field.
Category: Physics of Biology

[130] viXra:1612.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:38:29

Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 37 Pages.

The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.
Category: Physics of Biology

[129] viXra:1612.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:42:02

Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Converging-Diverging Rigid Tubes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 31 Pages.

A residual-based lubrication method is used in this paper to find the flow rate and pressure field in converging-diverging rigid tubes for the flow of time-independent category of non-Newtonian fluids. Five converging-diverging prototype geometries were used in this investigation in conjunction with two fluid models: Ellis and Herschel-Bulkley. The method was validated by convergence behavior sensibility tests, convergence to analytical solutions for the straight tubes as special cases for the converging-diverging tubes, convergence to analytical solutions found earlier for the flow in converging-diverging tubes of Newtonian fluids as special cases for non-Newtonian, and convergence to analytical solutions found earlier for the flow of power-law fluids in converging-diverging tubes. A brief investigation was also conducted on a sample of diverging-converging geometries. The method can in principle be extended to the flow of viscoelastic and thixotropic/rheopectic fluid categories. The method can also be extended to geometries varying in size and shape in the flow direction, other than the perfect cylindrically-symmetric converging-diverging ones, as long as characteristic flow relations correlating the flow rate to the pressure drop on the discretized elements of the lubrication approximation can be found. These relations can be analytical, empirical and even numerical and hence the method has a wide applicability range.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[128] viXra:1612.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 02:54:12

An Identity for Generating a Special Kind of Pythagorean Quadruples

Authors: Brian Ekanyu
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proves an identity for generating a special kind of Pythagorean quadruples by conjecturing that the shortest is defined by a=1,2,3,4...... and b=a+1, c=ab and d=c+1. It also shows that a+d=b+c and that the surface area to volume ratio of these Pythagorean boxes is given by 4/a where a is the length of the shortest edge(side).
Category: Number Theory

[127] viXra:1612.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 02:57:30

Enigmas of the Genetic Code, Enigma 1: a Hidden Arithmetical Algorithm

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a certain way, this enigma is standing in relation to so-called Gaussian arithmetical algorithm, valid for the genetic code (Rakocevic, 2006). However, the difference is, among other things, that there (in the article on the Gaussian algorithm), I said and showed all openly - what is the enigma [classes of AAs (2 x 2), or (4 x 5), or (2 x 4) with 11, 21, 31, 41, – , 61, 71, 81, 91 of atoms within their side chains, respectively]; and here the hidden algorithm is hidden twice: once by the very Nature, the other way from myself. I make here, namely, only a hint of the solution. Certainly, in coming a few weeks (or months), I will present the solution, if someone else, in meantime, offers (or doesn’t offer) the solution.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[126] viXra:1612.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 03:46:53

Conjecture on Odd Semiprimes Which Are Harshad Numbers that Relates Them with 2-Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I conjectured that for any largest prime factor of a Poulet number p1 with two prime factors exists a series with infinite many Poulet numbers p2 formed this way: p2 mod (p1 - d) = d, where d is the largest prime factor of p1 (see the sequence A214305 in OEIS). In this paper I conjecture that for any least prime factor of an odd Harshad number h1 with two prime factors, not divisible by 3, exists a series with infinite many Harshad numbers h2 formed this way: h2 mod (h1 - d) = d, where d is the least prime factor of p1.
Category: Number Theory

[125] viXra:1612.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 13:55:48

Qubit Lifetime for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1612.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 15:52:25

Two Conjectures Involving Harshad Numbers, Primes and Powers of 2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) For any prime p, p > 5, there exist n positive integer such that the sum of the digits of the number p*2^n is divisible by p; (II) For any prime p, p > 5, there exist an infinity of positive integers m such that the sum of the digits of the number p*2^m is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[123] viXra:1612.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:17:21

Alzheimer's Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10], has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[122] viXra:1612.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:37:43

Deep-Brain Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The ability to stimulate neural circuits with very high precision light to control cells—optogenetics—is key to exciting advances in the study and mapping of the living brain. [11] A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10], has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[121] viXra:1612.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:57:55

Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
Category: Condensed Matter

[120] viXra:1612.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 11:28:40

Archimedean Tilings

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Particles self-assemble into these networks, which produce Archimedean tilings when lines are drawn between the particle centers. [25] Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Condensed Matter

[119] viXra:1612.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 11:51:54

Notes About Genetic Code, Note 2: the Relations Between Four Diversity Types of Protein Amino Acids

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 5 Pages.

This Note follows from Note 1(viXra:1612.0127, submitted on 2016-12-08 07:01:10) and it shows further distinctions and splittings within four diversity types of protein amino acids (AAs). First type as in Note 1 (G, P) and second one, also as in Note 1 (A, L; V, I). Within third type there is a chemicaly directed splitting into 4 + 2 AAs [(F, Y, H, W) + (C, M)]. Forth type consists of two halves in form of 4 + 4 AAs; four AAs with nitrogen, and four without: [(N, Q; K, R) + ( S, T, D, E)]. All these distinctions are followed through specific arithmetical regularities.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[118] viXra:1612.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 12:10:50

Getting from the Vacuum a Hidden Secret

Authors: Roald C. Maximo
Comments: 04 Pages.

It seems to me already sufficiently proven that light is a wave phenomenon. Only the excuse that a wave phenomenon could not propagate through a vacuum (through nothing) would justify the ballistic interpretation of the phenomenon. However, with the publication of “A Dynamic Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”, as early as 1865, Maxwell made it established that electric and magnetic fields travel through space like waves moving at the speed of light. Maxwell proposed that light is a wave in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. Later on, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22 1857 1 January 1894) a German physicist who first proved conclusively the existence of the electromagnetic waves as theorized by the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell. Hertz proved the theory through engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures to exclude the possibility of all other hypothetical wireless transmission means. That said, it is clear that the so-called vacuum has, necessarily, some physical attributes essential for these phenomena to occur. Two of these attributes, Permittivity and Permeability will be be the main characters in this script and, once rewritten in a fundamental form, will expose the the energy therein contained
Category: Quantum Physics

[117] viXra:1612.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 05:02:58

Prime Metric Basis Change Theorem

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Prime Metric Basis Change Theorem'.
Category: General Mathematics

[116] viXra:1612.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 05:48:31

Machine Learning of 2-D Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Machine learning, a field focused on training computers to recognize patterns in data and make new predictions, is helping doctors more accurately diagnose diseases and stock analysts forecast the rise and fall of financial markets. And now materials scientists have pioneered another important application for machine learning—helping to accelerate the discovery and development of new materials. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[115] viXra:1612.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:40:27

Catalytic Nanoparticles in 3-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Catalysts are at the heart of fuel cells-devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen to water and enough electricity to power vehicles for hundreds of miles. But finding effective, inexpensive catalysts has been a key challenge to getting more of these hydrogen-powered, emission-free vehicles out on the road. [25] Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[114] viXra:1612.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-05 13:26:24

Experiment on the (Inverted) Fractal Demonstrating Micro Quantum and Macro Astronomical Observations and Conjectures

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether fractal geometry matches observations and conjectures. The Koch Snowflake was inverted to model observations from within an iterating fractal set it: simulating a static or ‘measured’ position. Converse to the fractal snowflake emergence – where triangle sizes diminish; the sizes of new triangles were held constant, and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area expansion of the total fractal, and the distance between points and the ‘observer’ within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was tested for the Hubble's Law. It was found area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from arbitrary locations within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated: a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the observed CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observations – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed and concluded to be as a consequence of fractal behaviour. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[113] viXra:1612.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 07:01:10

Notes about Genetic Code, Note 1: Four Diversity Types of Protein Amino Acids

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this Note is presented the existence of four diversity types of protein amino acids (AAs). Fist type with two AAs (G; P); second with four AAs (A, L; V, I); third with six AAs (F, Y, H, W; C, M); and fourth type with eight AAs (S, T, D, E; N, Q; K, R).
Category: Quantitative Biology

[112] viXra:1612.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:58:44

Examples of Gravitational Polarization of Objects of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Gravitational Polarization is Inherent in All Objects of the Universe

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravitational polarization is inherent in all objects of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[111] viXra:1612.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 14:17:46

Deep-Frozen Helium Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[110] viXra:1612.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 14:49:20

Proton-Electron Geomeric Model

Authors: Harry Watson
Comments: 5 Pages.

A Geometric Model A family of models in Euclidean space is developed from the following approximation. m_p/m_e = 4pi(4pi- 1\pi)(4pi-2/pi) = 1836.15 (1) where (m_p) and (m_e) are the numeric values for the mass of the proton and the mass of electron, respectively. In particular, we will develop models (1) that agree with the recommended value of the mass ratio of the proton to the electron to six significant figures, (2) that explain the “shape-shifting” behavior of the proton, and (3) that are formed concisely from the sole transcendental number pi. This model is solely geometric, relying on volume as the measure of mass. Claim that inclusion of quantum/relativistic properties enhance the accuracy of the model. The goal is to express the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass in terms of (1) pure mathematical constants and (2) a quantum corrective factor. harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[109] viXra:1612.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 17:18:40

Proposol to Disidentify 7

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 1 Page.

"Number" of 7 is unnatural and should be removed. Series numbers is 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10…
Category: General Mathematics

[108] viXra:1612.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 02:14:53

Muon-Neutron and Tauon-Neutron Mass ratio Prediction

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

What determines the mass of particles like the muon and tauon? No, reasonable, mainstream model, has been predictive the mass of particles. Michael John Sarnowski’s empirical equations for the proton and electron use an equation that shows that a resonant frequency created by a resonance between bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov like radiation and the ratio of orbital energy ratios.(1) In those two papers the masses of the electron and proton are due one of the solutions the resonances. In addition a small fraction of the proton mass is due to relativistic effects of most of the electron, a small fraction of the electron is due to relativistic effects of the second solution to the mass equation of the proton. In “Evidence for Granular Granulated Spacetime it is shown that charge is directly dependent on the mass ratio of the electron to neutron and the proton to the neutron(2). These empirical equations are accurate to the CODATA values for the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron and the proton to the neutron. Also this equations are also predictive for the value for elementary charge. The following paper shows that the mass ratios of the muon to the neutron and the tauon to the neutron can be calculated from both solutions to resonant equation of a Cherenkov like radiation and Bremsstrahlung type radiation. These mass ratios are also accurate to the CODATA values for these two particles and are likely predictive of more accurate measurements of these particles in the future. What is unique for the muon-neutron and tauon-neutron is that the mass ratios of the use the same resonance and use one of the solutions for the resonance of the proton to the neutron mass ratio. The consistent use of resonances, consistent use of mass ratios to the neutron, and consistent interdependence of the mass ratios of particles indicates that the developing model is consistent and hints at underlying structure to space-time. When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of both the muon and tauon to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(4), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[107] viXra:1612.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 04:52:05

On the Identical Simulation of the Entire Universe

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and non-observational universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[106] viXra:1612.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:49

Operations on Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Talea, A. Bakali
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the single valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called single valued neutrosophic graph. This model allows attaching the truth-membership (t), indeterminacy–membership (i) and falsity- membership degrees (f) both to vertices and edges. Combining the interval valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called interval valued neutrosophic graph. This model generalizes the fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, the authors define operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join on interval valued neutrosophic graphs, and investigate some of their properties, with proofs and examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[105] viXra:1612.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:01

Night-Vision Specs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[104] viXra:1612.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:29:50

Role of Neutrosophic Logic in Data Mining

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a data mining process of single valued neutrosophic information. This approach gives a presentation of data analysis common to all applications. Data mining depends on two main elements, namely the concept of similarity and the machine learning framework. It describes a lot of real world applications for the domains namely mathematical, medical, educational, chemical, multimedia etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[103] viXra:1612.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:30:49

Selection of Automated Guided Vehicle using Single Valued Neutrosophic Entropy Based Novel Multi Attribute Decision Making Technique

Authors: Nital P. Nirmal, Mangal G. Bhatt
Comments: 10 Pages.

Selection of material handling equipment for typical conditions and handling environment is one of the multi attribute decision making problem. The objective of the research paper is to implement and validate multi attribute selection of automated guided vehicle for material handling purpose. The present paper proposes a single valued neutrosophic set with entropy weight based multi attribute decision making technique. A proposed technique also works with more uncertainty, imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent information. The proposed methodology follows with the example for selection and ranking of automated guided vehicle and in validation and sensitivity analysis of the novel multi attribute decision making technique carried out. The result of the study builds assurance in suitability of single valued neutrosophic set entropy based novel multi attribute decision making for selection of automated guided vehicle alternatives.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[102] viXra:1612.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:31:57

Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets and their Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In 2014, Broumi et al. (S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Dhar, Rough neutrosophic sets, Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 32 (2014), 493-502.) introduced the notion of rough neutrosophic set by combining neutrosophic sets and rough sets, which has been a mathematical tool to deal with problems involving indeterminacy and incompleteness. The real world is full of indeterminacy. Naturally, real world decision making problem involves indeterminacy. Rough neutrosophic set is capable of describing and handling imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent and incomplete information. This paper is devoted to propose several new similarity measures based on trigonometric hamming similarity operators of rough neutrosophic sets and their applications in decision making. We prove the required properties of the proposed similarity measures. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed similarity measures in decision making, an illustrative problem is solved.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[101] viXra:1612.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:33:45

Smooth Neutrosophic Preuniform Spaces

Authors: M. K. El Gayyar
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1998. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic preuniform space, smooth neutrosophic preuniform subspace, and smooth neutrosophic preuniform mappings. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[100] viXra:1612.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:34:46

Some Distance Measures of Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 8 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is a merged form of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets. This set is a useful tool to handle imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information existing in multi-attribute decision making problems. In multi-attribute decision making, distance measures play an important role to take a decision regarding alternatives. In this paper we propose a variety of distance measures for single valued neutrosophic sets. Furthermore, we apply these measures to multi-attribute decision making problem with singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set environment to find out the best alternative. We provide an illustrative example to validate and to show fruitfulness of the proposed approach. Finally, we compare the proposed approach with other existing methods for solving multi-attribute decision making problems
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[99] viXra:1612.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:38:11

The Alexandrov-Urysohn Compactness On Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗Centered Systems

Authors: Saeid Jafari, I. Arockiarani, J. Martina Jency
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we present the notion of the single valued neutrosophic S∗ maximal compact extension in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Moreover, the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ absolute is applied to establish the Alexandrov -Urysohn compactness criterion. Some of the basic properties are characterized.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[98] viXra:1612.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:39:19

TOPSIS Approach for Multi Attribute Group Decision Making in Refined Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Durga Banerjee, B. C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper presents TOPSIS approach for multi attribute decision making in refined neutrosophic environment. The weights of each decision makers are considered as a single valued neutrosophic numbers. The attribute weights for every decision maker are also considered as a neutrosophic numbers. Aggregation operator is used to combine all decision makers’ opinion into a single opinion for rating between attributes and alternatives. Euclidean distances from positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are calculated to construct relative closeness coefficients. Lastly, an illustrative example of tablet selection is provided to show the applicability of the proposed TOPSIS approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[97] viXra:1612.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:40:29

TOPSIS for Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems under Bi-Polar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper investigates a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to solve multi-attribute decision making problems with bipolar neutrosophic information. We define Hamming distance function and Euclidean distance function to determine the distance between bipolar neutrosophic numbers. In the decision making situation, the rating of performance values of the alternatives with respect to the attributes are provided by the decision maker in terms of bipolar neutrosophic numbers. The weights of the attributes are determined using maximizing deviation method. We define bipolar neutrosophic relative positive ideal solution (BNRPIS) and bipolar neutrosophic relative negative ideal solution (BNRNIS). Then, the ranking order of the alternatives is obtained by TOPSIS method and most desirable alternative is selected. Finally, a numerical example for car selection is solved to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach and comparison with other existing method is also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[96] viXra:1612.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:49:28

Dynamic Facilitation Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Condensed Matter

[95] viXra:1612.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:05:09

Explosive Immunisation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Aberdeen have developed a mathematical method to prevent epidemics by vaccinating fewer people than ever before. They have hailed the method – known as 'explosive immunisation'-as the fastest and most efficient way to prevent the spread of disease. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Physics of Biology

[94] viXra:1612.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:18:19

Conjecture Involving Harshad Numbers and Sexy Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that for any pair of sexy primes (p, p + 6) there exist a prime q = p + 6*n, where n > 1, such that the number p*(p + 6)*(p + 6*n) is a Harshad number.
Category: Number Theory

[93] viXra:1612.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:32:26

Radiation Knocks Electrons Out

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers are investigating novel ways by which electrons are knocked out of matter. Their research could have implications for radiation therapy. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[92] viXra:1612.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:51:06

Smoother Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[91] viXra:1612.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 13:15:44

Photonic Crystal Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Professor Brian Cunningham's Nano Sensors group has invented a novel live-cell imaging method that could someday help biologists better understand how stem cells transform into specialized cells and how diseases like cancer spread. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[90] viXra:1612.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:09:57

A New Order Relation on the Set of Neutrosophic Truth Values

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we discuss all possible cases to construct an atom of matter, antimatter, or unmatter, and also the cases of contradiction (i.e. impossible case).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[89] viXra:1612.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:11:06

Applications of Neutrosophic Sets in Medical Image Denoising and Segmentation

Authors: Deepika Koundal, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages.

In medical science, diagnosis and prognosis is one of the most difficult and challenging task because of restricted subjectivity of the experts and presence of fuzziness in medical images. In observing the severity of several diseases, different professional experts may result in wrong diagnosis. In order to perform diagnosis intuitively in the medical images, different image processing methods have been explored in terms of neutrosophic theory to interpret the inherent uncertainty, ambiguity and vagueness. This paper demonstrates the use of neutrosophic theory in medical image denoising and segmentation where the performance is observed to be much better.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[88] viXra:1612.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:12:17

Distance and Similarity Measures for Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Ridvan Şahin, Peide Liu
Comments: 20 Pages.

With respect to a combination of hesitant sets, and single-valued neutrosophic sets which are a special case of neutrosophic sets, the single valued neutrosophic hesitant sets (SVNHFS) have been proposed as a new theory set that allows the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy membership degree and falsity-membership degree including a collection of crisp values between zero and one, respectively. There is no consensus on the best way to determine the order of a sequence of singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy elements. In this paper, we first develop an axiomatic system of distance and similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets and also propose a class of distance and similarity measures based on three basic forms such that the geometric distance model, the set-theoretic approach, and the matching functions. Then we utilize the distance measure between each alternative and ideal alternative to establish a multiple attribute decision making method under single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, a numerical example of investment alternatives is provided to show the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed approach. The advantages of the proposed distance measure over existing measures have been discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[87] viXra:1612.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:13:33

Magnets Instead of Antibiotics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[86] viXra:1612.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:15:01

Extended Projection Based Models for Solving Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems with Interval Valued Neutrosophic Information

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 14 Pages.

The paper develops two new methods for solving multiple attribute decision making problems with interval – valued neutrosophic assessments. In the decision making situation, the rating of alternatives with respect to the predefined attributes is described by linguistic variables, which can be represented by interval - valued neutrosophic sets. We assume that the weight of the attributes are not equal in the decision making process and they are obtained by using maximizing deviation method. We define weighted projection measure and propose a method to rank the alternatives. Furthermore, we also develop an alternative method to solve multiple attribute decision making problems based on the combination of angle cosine and projection method. Finally, an illustrative numerical example in Khadi institution is solved to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[85] viXra:1612.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:17:03

From Linked Data Fuzzy to Neutrosophic Data Set Decision Making in Games vs. Real Life

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

In our lives, reality becomes a game, and in the same way, the game becomes reality, the game is an exercise, simulation of real life on a smaller scale, then it extends itself into reality. This article aims to make a connection between decision making in game which comprises all the issues that intervene in the process and further making a connection with real life. The method for identification involved, detected or induced uncertainties is a jointing process from linked data fuzzy to neutrosophic data set on a case study, EVE Online game. This analysis is useful for psychologists, sociologists, economic analysis, process management, business area, also for researchers of games domain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[84] viXra:1612.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:18:08

GRA Method of Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Set Information

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set has three independent parts, namely the truth membership hesitancy function, indeterminacy membership hesitancy function, and falsity membership hesitancy function, which are in the form of sets that assume values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is considered as a powerful tool to express uncertain, incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information in the process of multi attribute decision making problems. In this paper we study multi attribute decision making problems in which the rating values are expressed with single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[83] viXra:1612.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:19:00

Hausdorff Extensions in Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗ Centered Systems

Authors: J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper explores the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ open sets in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Also the characterization of Hausdorff extensions of spaces in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered systems are established.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[82] viXra:1612.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:20:11

Logistics Center Location Selection Approach Based on Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 14 Pages.

As an important and interesting topic in supply chain management, the concept of fuzzy set theory has been widely used in logistics center location in order to improve the reliability and suitability of the logistics center location with respect to the impacts of both qualitative and quantitative factor. However fuzzy set cannot deal with the indeterminacy involving with the problem. So the concept of single – valued neutrosophic set due to Wang et al. (2010) is very helpful to deal with the problem. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable approach in order to deal with neutrosophic information than fuzzy set. Logistics center location selection is a multi-criteria decision making process involving subjectivity, impresion and fuzziness that can be easily represented by single-valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, we use the score and accuracy function and hybrid score accuracy function of single- valued neutrosophic number and ranking method for single- valued neutrosophic numbers to model logistics center location problem. Finally, a numerical example has been presented to illustrate the proposed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[81] viXra:1612.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:05

Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in Neutrosophic Environment Using a New Aggregation Operator, Score and Certainty Function

Authors: Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets, being generalization of classic sets, fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, can simultaneously represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world. Neutrosophic theory has been developed in twenty first century and not much of arithmetic has been developed for this set. To solve any problem using neutrosophic data, it is desirable to have suitable operators, score function etc. Some operators like single valued neutrosophic weighted averaging (SVNWA) operator, single valued neutrosophic weighted geometric (SVNWG) operator are already defined in neutrosophic set (NS). In this paper an improved weighted average geometric (IWAG) operator which produces more meaningful results has been introduced to aggregate some real numbers and the same has been extended in neutrosophic environment. We further generalize this to include a wide range of aggregation operators for both real numbers and neutrosophic numbers. A new score function and certainty function have been defined which have some benefit compared to the existing ones. Further comparative study highlighting the benefit of this new approach of ranking in neutrosophic set has been presented. A multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the proposed operator and newly defined score function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[80] viXra:1612.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:59

Neutrosophic Applications in E-learning: Outcomes, Challenges and Trends

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

There has been a sudden increase in the usage of elearning to support learner's learning process in higher education. Educational institutions are working in an increasingly competitive environment as many studies in elearning are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. This has resulted in emerging various approaches to handle uncertainty. Neutrosophic logic has been used to overcome the uncertainty of concepts that are associated with human expert judgments. This paper presents current trends to enhance elearning process by using neutrosophic to extract useful knowledge for selecting, evaluating, personalizing, and adapting elearning process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[79] viXra:1612.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:25:24

On a Model of Love Dynamics: a Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: Santanu Ku. Patro
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study is an application of neutrosophy to the dynamics of love, the most interesting social phenomena. The love dynamics were studied earlier by Strogatz (Strogatz, 1994), Radzicki (Radzicki, 1993), Rapport (Rapport, 1960), etc. Although Strogatz’s model (Strogatz, 1994) was originally intended only to motivate students, it makes several interesting and plausible predictions, and suggests extensions that produce even wider range of behavior. This paper has been written in the Strogatz’s spirit, and it has extended Romeo & Juliet model (Sprott, 2004) to the neutrosophic domain. A love impact factor (LIF) has been proposed, and analyzed using neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[78] viXra:1612.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:27:25

On Neutrosophic Sets and Topology

Authors: Francisco Gallego LupiaÑez
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recently, F.Smarandache generalized the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and other kinds of sets to neutrosophic sets. Also, this author defined the notion of neutrosophic topology on the non-standard interval. One can expect some relation between the intuitionistic fuzzy topology on an IFS and the neutrosophic topology. We show in this work that this is false.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[77] viXra:1612.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 17:35:29

Integer Factorization Implemented in Time Polynomial

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 9 Pages. This is a new paper and I changed the title. Thanks.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the integer points in a two-dimensional polyhedron.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[76] viXra:1612.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:09:38

Transistor Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In 2004, electrical engineering pioneers Nick Holonyak, Jr. and Milton Feng at the University of Illinois invented the transistor laser—a three-port device that incorporated quantum-wells in the base and an optical cavity—increasing its capacity to transmit data one hundred-fold. [15] The propagating optical signals along the silver nanowire can be also transformed and detected as electrical signals by an optical signal detector. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[75] viXra:1612.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:34:53

Universes In Parallel Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universes In Parallel Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[74] viXra:1612.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:39:17

Definitions Of True Life And True Redundancy Values Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Definitions Of True Life And True Redundancy Values Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[73] viXra:1612.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:28:06

On One Information-Wave Therapy Metod \\ Об одном методе информационно-волновой терапии

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article describes one and effective method of the information-wave therapy. The method is available for any reader. \\ В статье описан простой эффективный метод информационно-волновой терапии. Метод доступен для любого читателя.
Category: Physics of Biology

[72] viXra:1612.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:29:52

To Stop the Alzheimer's Disease \\ Остановить болезнь Альцгеймера

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

The article deals with the results of research of the Alzheimer’s Disease causes from the perspective of the information-wave medicine. The reasons for neuron death have been introduced. The diagnostic and treatment methods have been proposed. \\ В статье приведены результаты исследования причин возникновения блени Альцгеймера с позиции информационно-волновой медицины. Выявлены причины гибели нейронов. Предложены методы диагностики и лечения этого заболевания.
Category: Physics of Biology

[71] viXra:1612.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:32:03

What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) \\ Что такое син-дром дефицита внимания и гиперактивности (СДВГ)

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article examines the ALS etiology and pathogenesis from the perspective of the infor-mation-wave medicine. The diagnostic and treatment methods have been proposed for this “incurable” disease. \\ В статье рассмотрены этиология и патогенез БАС с позиции информационно-волновой медцины. Предложены пути диагностики и лечения этой «неизлечимой» болезни.
Category: Physics of Biology

[70] viXra:1612.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:45:46

Conjecture Involving Harshad Numbers and Primes of the Form 6k+1

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any prime p of the form 6*k + 1 there exist an infinity of Harshad numbers of the form p*q1*q2, where q1 and q2 are distinct primes, q1 = p + 6*m and q2 = p + 6*n.
Category: Number Theory

[69] viXra:1612.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 13:59:21

Unified Physics and Properties of Elementary Particles

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt
Comments: Pages.

It is demonstrated how to unify all physics on the basis of general relativity. Electrodynamics is revealed to be part of general relativity, as already seen by Rainich. The properties of elementary particles follow from the equations of the unified theory. The way of calculating these properties is indicated, and successful applications of this method are referenced. These insights and results have inevitably to be joined with a criticism of contemporary physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[68] viXra:1612.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 07:24:24

SUSY-Like Electrostatic Background Fields in Metaspace

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Demonstration of SUSY [super-symmetry]-like electrostatic backgrounds fields of quantum differential topological K-theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[67] viXra:1612.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 07:37:04

Hypersphere Mechanics

Authors: Peter J Carroll.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper discusses the idea that fundamental quanta may consist not of ‘point particles’ but of sub-Planck scale hyperspheres (3-balls or 4-spheres) in their particle-like manifestations, and that the Uncertainty Principle constrains them to have wavelengths and frequencies above the Planck scale in their wave-like manifestations. This paper then conjectures that some form of ‘hypersphere mechanics’ may form yet another possible interpretation of quantum physics, which may eventually yield novel testable predictions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1612.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-24 23:18:33

An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages. corrected typos in equations

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] viXra:1612.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 01:51:28

Theory of Nothing is Everything

Authors: S Hussainsha
Comments: 26 Pages. Entanglement is Physical singularity

The principal objective of this paper is to construct the new theory to bring General Relativity and Quantum mechanics on one stage. General Relativity and Quantum mechanics play fundamental roles while developing this theory. This theory unlocks the deeper connection between the physical singularity predicted by General Relativity and Quantum Entanglement. This theory solves some of the problems of physics like Dark matter, Expanding Universe, Causality violation, and unification of General Relativity with Quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[64] viXra:1612.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 04:33:31

Microworld_ 34. Nuclear Fusion

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts.

“Hot” nuclear fusion. “Cold” nuclear fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[63] viXra:1612.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 05:11:35

Universal Filed Theory New

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Field Theory'.
Category: General Mathematics

[62] viXra:1612.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 06:38:50

The Quintic :Z^5+z^4+z-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 12 Pages.

The quintic : p(z)=z^5+z^4+z-1=0,the number pi, and fractals.
Category: General Mathematics

[61] viXra:1612.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:09:38

Co-Decaying Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There isn't as much dark matter around today as there used to be. According to one of the most popular models of dark matter, the universe contained much more dark matter early on when the temperature was hotter. As the universe cooled, the dark matter annihilated away, at least up until a point when thermal equilibrium was reached and the annihilations ceased, resulting in the number of dark matter particles in the universe "freezing out" and remaining roughly constant. [21] Much of the universe is made of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[60] viXra:1612.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:21:42

Anti-gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 84 pages

In this dissertation, we will describe the phenomenon of anti-gravity in the framework of general relativity, and we will give examples of its use, such as black holes and a new model of the universe. Gravity and anti-gravity has layer-like nature. Our Universe can be treated as a gigantic homogeneous black hole. It is isolated from the rest of universe by an area of spacetime where anti-gravity occurs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[59] viXra:1612.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 10:25:41

Quantum Dot Antenna

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists from Russia and the U.K. have developed an antenna that can aid in reducing sources of terahertz radiation down to the size of a fingertip. The antenna is a "sandwich" of semiconductor layers combined with quantum dots. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[58] viXra:1612.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 12:24:08

Spooky Quantum Spin Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1612.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 07:58:35

Universal Field Theory. {Rendition To Completion}.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'The Universal Field Theory'.
Category: General Mathematics

[56] viXra:1612.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:39:43

An Experiment Does not Support the Notion that the Magnetism is a Relativistic Effect of Electrostatics

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In order to prove if the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of the electrostatics, an experiment was designed and performed. The experimental result does not support the notion that the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of Electrostatics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[55] viXra:1612.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:49:11

The Derivation of Quantum Gravity

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: 7 pages - An updated version of this paper may be found at viXra:1701.0676

The well-proven principles of general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics. The key to the solution is a retrieval of the twofold nature of time, that is an absolute time concept on the one hand which is underlying the relative, observer-dependent concept of spacetime on the other hand. The attempts to quantize spacetime revealed to imply big difficulties. We will show that the reason for these problems is the structure of space and time, and that quantum gravity must happen on particle level.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] viXra:1612.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:58:15

Worldwide Quantum Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

On November 30th, for the first time, participants around the world took part in a unique worldwide experiment with the aim of testing the laws of quantum physics. [15] Many self-organized systems in nature exploit a sophisticated blend of deterministic and random processes. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[53] viXra:1612.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 05:04:49

How the Mechanical Clock Slows Down in High Velocity

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, the slowdown mechanism of the moving mechanical clock is derived. The whole deductive process is based on velocity transformation and length contraction of the special relativity. The result shows that when in moving the mechanical clock runs slower in the exactly same proportion as the light clock does.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[52] viXra:1612.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 05:57:21

Magnetic Fields Stellarator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicist Sam Lazerson of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has teamed with German scientists to confirm that the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) fusion energy device called a stellarator in Greifswald, Germany, produces high-quality magnetic fields that are consistent with their complex design. [13] Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields. The sensor may find widespread use in medicine and other areas. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1612.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-07 19:40:36

Does the Strength of a Substance Increase with Its Speed?

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[50] viXra:1612.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-05 09:08:42

The Solutions of the 7 Millenium Problems, the Calculation of Two Primes of More Than One Hundred Millions and One Billion Digits: 19TH and 21ST MILLS’ Primes

Authors: Thomas Pierre Nicolas Jean Brouard
Comments: 1 Page.

NO ABSTRACT.
Category: Mind Science

[49] viXra:1612.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 23:04:13

TRL Universal Recursion Scheme of Perception Or Time. (Universal Engineering Series)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Recursion Scheme of Perception Or Time'.
Category: General Mathematics

[48] viXra:1612.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 23:32:12

UNiversal Communication TEchnologies. {Rendition To Completion}.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about ''Universal Communication Technologies.
Category: General Mathematics

[47] viXra:1612.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 01:42:43

Macroscopic Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Experiments using laser light and pieces of gray material the size of fingernail clippings may offer clues to a fundamental scientific riddle: what is the relationship between the everyday world of classical physics and the hidden quantum realm that obeys entirely different rules? [19] A University of California, Riverside assistant professor has combined photosynthesis and physics to make a key discovery that could help make solar cells more efficient. [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1612.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 10:26:13

Why Black Holes and Galaxies Cannot Grow Infinite (Draft)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 9 Pages.

Nowadays black holes in physics are considered real objects; supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most (all?) galaxies. The creation of black holes is a theory based on space-time. A new theory called space-matter theory has another explanation. The action-reaction phenomenon between space and matter causes that space waves. Masses decrease the energy of the space wave increasing its wavelengths. Lots of masses set up this effect causing very long waves. Black hole is made in a galaxy if the masses of celestial bodies are big "enough". Space regions can be depleted, where the density of the space wave is so small that space as space ceases to exist. This "lack of space" is replaced with space we don't know or with matter we can't find in our physics books.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[45] viXra:1612.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 23:58:49

Method of Organizing Occ Wireless Computer Network

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 4 Pages.

Method of organizing OCC (Optical Camera Communications) wireless computer network is considered.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[44] viXra:1612.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 00:33:11

TRL Universal Communication Technologies. (Universal Engineering SEries).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Communication Technologies'.
Category: General Mathematics

[43] viXra:1612.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 05:02:34

A Wave Pattern Appears on a Spectrum When a Paper Slit is Placed Across the Spectroscope Slit

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: 4 Pages.

I used a spectroscope box with a slit, a cd and a viewing hole. I placed varying sized paper slits across the spectroscope slit at varying angles, this produced a wave pattern across the spectrum. I refer to this as the spectral wave. The spectral wave across the emission lines are seen in a certain way (top to bottom) and the spectral waves across the absorption lines usually are the opposite way (bottom to top). I included pictures of when I had the paper slit parallel to the spectroscope slit (interesting results with a line in each emission line) and at 90 degrees to the spectroscope slit, which showed no spectral wave at these positions. Pictures with multiple spectral waves have more than one paper slit on the spectroscope slit with one paper slit inverted to the other. Perhaps you may think this is diffraction, but the odd thing is that the spectral wave does not appear on a continuous spectrum which may be evidence this phenomenon is not diffraction because if it was, it should also be seen on the continuous (daylight) spectrum. The following images are from a light source that creates a non-continuous spectrum.
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1612.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 10:39:18

Optical Transistors and Multiplexors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The propagating optical signals along the silver nanowire can be also transformed and detected as electrical signals by an optical signal detector. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[41] viXra:1612.0042 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-19 03:14:49

Proof of Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Safa Abdallah Moallim
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we prove that there exist infinitely many twin prime numbers by studying n when 6n ± 1 are primes. By studying n we show that for every n that generates a twin prime number, there has to be m > n that generates a twin prime number too.
Category: Number Theory

[40] viXra:1612.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 11:06:38

Weighing Atoms with Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In the new study, led by Jani Kotakoski, the University of Vienna researchers used the advanced scanning transmission electron microscope Nion UltraSTEM100 to measure isotopes in nanometer-sized areas of a graphene sample. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1612.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-26 04:09:11

Ether

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Theoretical physicists claim that ether doesn't exist, but they are wrong. Those physicists failed to see that there are 4 obvious clues that tell us that ether exists, those clues are frame dragging, the whirlpool (vortex) properties of galaxies, time dilation and a unique property of light. You can trace back that ether exists with those clues, those clues require a medium that acts like a fluid or gas. There are a lot of fallacies in theoretical physics, a lot of wrong conclusions. For example the theories about whirlpools in space (vortex theories), those theories might be incorrect but that doesn't mean that there are no whirlpools in the universe (a fallacy). And physicists made the same mistake with the Michelson/Morley experiment, no ether wind doesn't mean that ether doesn't exist (also a fallacy). There was no ether wind but they forgot to ask themselves a very important question, "why was there no ether wind?". Ether exists and that means that Einstein was wrong about his theory of gravity, space doesn't bend. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1612.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 07:44:56

Inertia. Calculation on the "General Theory of Relativity."

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. -

With the help of the general theory of relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The strength of the interaction on the particle repulsion (Identically charged) is less than the force attracted exactly the same particles (Charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and, therefore, are always attracted, according to the theory of relativity and the principle of least action.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[37] viXra:1612.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 07:47:59

Quantum Photosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A University of California, Riverside assistant professor has combined photosynthesis and physics to make a key discovery that could help make solar cells more efficient. [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1612.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 08:17:53

Quantum Nano-MRI Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[35] viXra:1612.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:10:23

Electron Pair Mimicry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1612.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:22:10

Object Moving Towards the Observer Might Appear to Have Infinite Velocity and Hit Without Giving Any Warning.

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 4 Pages. apparent velocities might be faster than light

The apparent velocity of an object moving towards or away from the observer will be different from its actual velocity. To get the apparent velocity, actual velocity will have to be multiplied by a factor called scale factor. For an object moving away from an observer at considerable speed compared to that of light, scale factor is given by1/1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of the moving object and c = velocity of light in vacuum. So, apparent velocity = Actual velocity/(1+z).But when the object is moving towards an observer, it appears to move faster than actual velocity. This is because Scale factor for objects approaching the observer=1/ (1-z). Most important thing is that the velocity of the object appears to be faster than the velocity of light in vacuum, for all values of z > 0.5.Also, it appears to be approaching at infinite speed for z =1.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1612.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:41:38

Randomness Adaptive Evolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Many self-organized systems in nature exploit a sophisticated blend of deterministic and random processes. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[32] viXra:1612.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 19:09:43

Critical Loss Factor in 2-Dof in-Series System with Hysteretic Friction and Its Use for Vibration Control

Authors: Roman Vinokur
Comments: 17 Pages.

Although the classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), the loss factors of most solid structures are largely controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents new relationships for the dynamics of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteresis damping. The most important among them is a close-form equation for the critical loss factor that was derived as the marginal condition for the degenerate case where the higher-frequency resonance peak fully vanishes in the vibration spectrum of the second mass. The critical loss factor can take values between 0 and 2-3/2 ≈ 0.354 and depends on the ratio of the natural frequencies of 2-DOF system: the closer the undamped natural frequencies, the lower the critical loss factor. The equation may help to interpret the vibration spectra for the second mass in the real 2-DOF systems, in particular on sweep-sine shaker tests. The single resonance peak in the degenerate case for a 2-DOF grows up notably as the natural frequencies get close to each other. By a formal analogy with 1-DOF systems, the peak magnitude can be reduced by increasing the loss factor. But in 2-DOF systems, the vibration can be effectively attenuated for the same loss factor by making the natural frequencies more different from each other (in particular, via increasing the stiffness of the second spring).
Category: Classical Physics

[31] viXra:1612.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 22:08:15

TRL Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Based Collective Parameter Re-Assignment Scheme. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Based Collective Parameter Re-Assignment Scheme'.
Category: General Mathematics

[30] viXra:1612.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 10:17:02

Magnetic Field Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields. The sensor may find widespread use in medicine and other areas. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1612.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 12:28:36

Machine Learning Breakthroughs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Machine Learning Breakthroughs As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[28] viXra:1612.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 08:18:55

Bismuth Superconductivity Jeopardizes Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in India has found that cooling a sample of bismuth to 0.00053 Kelvin caused the material to become a superconductor, putting at risk a decades-old theory regarding how superconductivity works. [32] Researchers from Brown University have demonstrated an unusual method of putting the brakes on superconductivity, the ability of a material to conduct an electrical current with zero resistance. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1612.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 09:03:28

Absorption Photon's Shape

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

National University of Singapore have just shown that a photon's shape also affects how it is absorbed by a single atom. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1612.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 09:56:16

Enormously Large Velocity and Insignificant Mass;

Authors: Grisha Filippov
Comments: Pages.

The non-relativistic regime of quantum gravity, as shown in this paper, can be found in the assumption of the existence of Fundamental length L. See Page 14 IN THIS PAPER.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 06:20:13

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I am able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained. Uri Geller like others, is the man who seems to be able to “tap in” and even influences metal objects like spoons.
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1612.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:09:11

Algebraic Approach to the Derivative and Continuity

Authors: Thomas Colignatus
Comments: 14 Pages.

Continuity is relevant for the real numbers and functions, namely to understand singularities and jumps. The standard approach first defines the notion of a limit and then defines continuity using limits. Surprisingly, Vredenduin (1969), Van der Blij (1970) and Van Dormolen (1970), in main Dutch texts about didactics of mathematics (journal Euclides and Wansink (1970, volume III)), work reversely for highschool students: they assume continuity and define the limit in terms of the notion of continuity. Vredenduin (1969) also prefers to set the value at the limit point (x = a) instead of getting close to it (x → a). Their approach fits the algebraic approach to the derivative, presented since 2007. Conclusions are: (1) The didactic discussions by Vredenduin (1969), Van der Blij (1970) and Van Dormolen (1970) provide support for the algebraic approach to the derivative. (2) For education, it is best and feasible to start with continuity, first for the reals, and then show how this transfers to functions. (3) The notion of a limit can be defined using continuity. The main reason to mention the notion of a limit at all is to link up with the discussion about limits elsewhere (say on the internet). Later, students may see the standard approach. (4) Education has not much use for limits since one will look at continuity. The relevant use of limits is for infinity.
Category: Education and Didactics

[23] viXra:1612.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:48:14

Photons of Two Colours

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Individual photons have been put into a quantum superposition of two different colours by a team of physicists in the US and Germany. Such photons could be useful for connecting different parts of quantum-information networks that operate using differently coloured light. [19] Researchers at FOM institute AMOLF and the University of Texas at Austin have created a compact one-way street for light. [18] Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure. [17] How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1612.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 06:57:58

Water Molecule Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have taken spectroscopic snapshots of nature's most mysterious relay race: the passage of extra protons from one water molecule to another during conductivity. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[21] viXra:1612.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 07:17:06

Machine-Learning and Human Neurology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20] viXra:1612.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 13:35:25

Creative Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Creative achievement can provide a buffer against being anxious about death, research from psychologists at the University of Kent shows. [12] A new study reveals how two populations of neurons in the brain contribute to the brain's inability to correctly assign emotional associations to events. Learning how this information is routed and misrouted could shed light on mental illnesses including depression, addiction, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. [11] In dynamic neuronal networks, pervasive oscillatory activity is usually explained by pointing to pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the network. Recently, however, scientists at The Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel studied synchronized periodic bursting that emerged spontaneously in a network of in vitro rat hippocampus and cortex neurons, finding that roughly 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected from the network – and that each neuron oscillated at its own frequency, which is controlled by the neuron's excitability. [10] Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19] viXra:1612.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 14:59:01

Special Relativity: Understanding the Wave-Particle Duality

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: 7 Pages.

How can interfering light waves transport particle characteristics? Up to now it was supposed that wave-particle duality was a quantum mechanical phenomenon which was not accessible to any classical explanation. The present article is disproving this assumption, by showing o n e single case which is entirely subject to a classical explanation: Photons in vacuum. The suggested classical explanation of wave-particle duality is simple, and it is deriving directly from special relativity: The particle characteristics are transported directly from A to B, without any intermediate of spacetime, because the interval is zero. The observed wave is a sort of placeholder in our spacetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1612.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-23 10:36:38

The Explanation of the Michelson-Morley Experiment Results by Means of the Theory of Ether

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

It is commonly thought that the Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887 and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment from 1932 demonstrated that the universal frame of reference (ether) does not exist and that the velocity of light in vacuum is absolutely constant. The analysis of this experiment led to the creation of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR). The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the universal frame of reference. In this article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference (ether) exists. Ether is a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the ether, the velocity of light may be different. Based on the new transformation, the Special Theory of Ether (STE) was created.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-08 09:48:00

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[16] viXra:1612.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 21:18:06

Predicting Melting point and Viscosity of Ionic Liquids Using New Quantum Chemistry Descriptors

Authors: A. Mehrkesh, A. T. Karunanithi
Comments: 19 Pages. Mehrkesh, A., & Karunanithi, A. T. (2016). New quantum chemistry-based descriptors for better prediction of melting point and viscosity of ionic liquids. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 427, 498-503.

Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging group of chemical compounds which possess promising properties such as having negligible vapor pressure. These so called designer solvents have the potential to replace volatile organic compounds in industrial applications. A large number of ILs, through the combination of different cations and anions, can potentially be synthesized. In this context, it will be useful to intelligently design customized ILs through computer-aided methods. Practical limitations dictate that any successful attempt to design new ILs for industrial applications requires the ability to accurately predict their melting point and viscosity as experimental data will not be available for designed structures. In this paper, we present two new correlation equations towards the more precise prediction of melting point and viscosity of ILs solely based on the inputs from quantum chemistry calculations (no experimental data or simulation results are needed). To develop these correlations we utilized data related to size, shape, and electrostatic properties of cations and anions that constitutes ILs. In this work, new descriptors such as dielectric energy of cations and anions as well as the values predicted by an ‘ad-hoc’ model for the radii of cations and anions (instead of their van der waals radii) were used. An enormous form of correlation equations constituent of all different combinations of descriptors (as the inputs to the model) were tested. The average relative errors were measured to be 3.16% and 6.45% for the melting point, Tm, and ln(vis), respectively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1612.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 22:03:14

TRL Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. {REndition To Completion}. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[14] viXra:1612.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 00:12:06

TRL Stable Configuration Engineering Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed about the Scheme of Slating Any Aspect Primality of concern in Stable Spatial Configuration.
Category: General Mathematics

[13] viXra:1612.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 10:18:23

Geopathic Zones as Enemy No. 1 \\ ГЕОПАТОГЕННЫЕ ЗОНЫ КАК ВРАГ НОМЕР ОДИН

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

The article contains data on geopathic zones obtained by the author as the result of many years' research. \\ В статье приведены сведения о геопатогенных зонах, полученные автором в результате многолетних исследований.
Category: Physics of Biology

[12] viXra:1612.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 10:21:32

When ef Fails \\ Если ЭКО даёт сбой

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article describes one of the pathology types leading to extracorporal fertilization failure. A method to eliminate this pathology has been provided which is unknown to classic medi-cine. \\ В статье описан один из видов патологии, приводящей к сбою экстракорпорального оплодотворения (ЭКО). Приведен метод устранения этой патологии, неизвестный классической медицине.
Category: Physics of Biology

[11] viXra:1612.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 10:24:09

Another Nature’s Puzzle \\ Еще одна загадка природы

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article provides the results of the research of a “mysterious” zone in the radio-wave range of electromagnetic radiation. \\ В статье приведены результаты исследования «загадочного» участка в радиоволновом диапазоне электромагнитных излучений.
Category: Physics of Biology

[10] viXra:1612.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 11:01:55

Atom-Surface Quantum Friction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium are very common in nature. In recent years they have attracted constantly growing attention because of their relevance for fundamental physics as well as for modern nanotechnology. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1612.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 12:44:05

Computer Learns by Watching Video

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In recent years, computers have gotten remarkably good at recognizing speech and images: Think of the dictation software on most cellphones, or the algorithms that automatically identify people in photos posted to Facebook. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[8] viXra:1612.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 08:15:48

Optical Storage Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1612.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 08:21:12

Spacetime Discreteness .A Brief Look .

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 8 Pages.

Will analyze some physical concepts only using natural numbers. We assume a space discrete Physical variables such speed or momentum are considered as result of the sum of discrete contributions .Such discrete contributions can be calculated with natural numbers only . Elementary algebra is used in the analysis of physical subjects .
Category: Classical Physics

[6] viXra:1612.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 09:53:30

Majorana Fermions for Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Majorana fermions are particles that could potentially be used as information units for a quantum computer. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1612.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 04:23:32

Quantum Property of Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

By studying the light emitted from an extraordinarily dense and strongly magnetized neutron star using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers may have found the first observational indications of a strange quantum effect, first predicted in the 1930s. The polarization of the observed light suggests that the empty space around the neutron star is subject to a quantum effect known as vacuum birefringence. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1612.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 06:39:24

A New Model of Ether Reproducing Electromagnetic Phenomena, Including Gravity

Authors: Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus
Comments: 30 Pages. -

This paper is based on the results obtained in our previous articles where an error has been found in Michelson’s analysis of his interferometer experiment, even though Einstein relied on it, while developing the Special Relativity Theory, in which he eliminated ether from physics. Our own results imply that ether can exist. We have also validated the hypothesis that Coulomb’s law would better describe the complex reality, including ether, by adding other terms to the actual term in r-2. As such, the force that exists between two distant dipoles, when computed with a modified version Coulomb’s law, depends on r-2, as in Newton’s law. Numerically, the two forces were practically equal given that the gravitation consists of electromagnetic interactions. For ether’s composition, we proposed the HM16 model, in which the constituents etherons α and β are placed in the nodes of a crystalline network with a cell of approximately 10-27m, then subject to manifesting forces of mutual attraction/rejection. Ether behaves as an ideal mechanism in the form of a perpetuum mobile. The microparticles MPs consisted of local zones of ether where an energy intake induced a state of vibrating or vortex motion. The vibrant MPs, having electrical charges, will transmit fundamental vibrations FV in ether around the MPs, which have a finite velocity cF. Stationary FV vibrations do not transmit energy in the continuous infinite ether, but they do create interaction forces between MPs of an electric (modified Coulomb forces) and magnetic nature. A MP passing through two energetic levels will expel (or absorb) a special MP, namely, the F photon, which moves through the ether at the speed of light c, which is a property granted by the ether, and forms electromagnetic EM waves that transmit energy in ether. The F photon can be constituted similar to an MP, which creates its own FV vibrations in ether. It is likely that the two velocities cF and c will not be equal. As we consider that cF > c, velocity cF corresponds to the “gravitational” waves resulting from the interaction between the electric dipoles produced by the completed Coulomb’s law. The HM16 model of ether can explain the nature of an electric field in terms of volumetric ε strains of ether, while the nature of the magnetic field can be explained by distortional γ strains of ether. The HM16 model can also explain the various interactions between EM waves and MPs, as well as collisions between MPs.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1612.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 06:48:44

The Main Absurd Ideas That Destroy Theoretical Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether¬_theories. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory. We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons. The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1612.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 07:19:35

Ghost Imaging with Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1612.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-03 01:36:05

Generalizations of Schwarzschild and (Anti) de Sitter Metrics in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory