[161] **viXra:1311.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-29 05:53:26*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

There is widespread confusion about the concept of tropical year. Although it is correctly defined from the average length of the Sun, at the same time it is identified with the movement of the Sun with respect to the seasonal points. In this study, we distinguish between the tropical year, as it is commonly defined, and the seasonal year, or time between two consecutive passages of the Sun by a particular seasonal point. We found that the mean value of the possible four years seasonal averages (Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter) coincides with the tropical year. We evaluated the variation of the seasonal years for an interval of time of a few thousands of years. And finally we estimated the durations of the various types of years in universal time units, adapting them for use in the calculation of the calendarists’ errors.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[160] **viXra:1311.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-30 07:54:04*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 1 Page. Abstract with 18 published references

In our earlier published papers [1-18] we suggested that: 1) At any time Hubble length can be considered as the characteristic ‘electromagnetic’ and ‘gravitational’ interaction range. 2) There exist three cosmological variables in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and with reference to the increasing cosmic time, ‘rate of change’ in their magnitudes, the absolute cosmic rate of expansion can be understood. 3) Magnitudes of nuclear charge radius, inverse of the Fine structure ratio and the reduced Planck’s constant seem to increase with cosmic time whereas there will be no change in the magnitude of Planck’s constant. 4) Atomic gravitational constant seems to be squared Avogadro number times the ‘classical’ gravitational constant. 5) Fermion-boson mass ratio seems to be close to 2.26 but not unity and all the observed mesons seem to be SUSY bosons only. 6) There exist integral charge quark family particles and integral charge Higgs family particles. With these concepts it is possible to develop a consistent model of physics that connects the micro physics and macro physics in a trouble-free solid approach

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] **viXra:1311.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-30 04:15:06*

**Authors:** Dmitri Abramov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper derives a function that estimates number of unique ways you can write z as z = p + q, where p and q are prime numbers, for every z E N that can be written in that form.

**Category:** Number Theory

[158] **viXra:1311.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-29 06:53:37*

**Authors:** Prygunov A. I.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The results of comparative analysis of gravitation-wave observatory LIGO data
associated with gamma-ray burst GRB 051103 at maximum sensitivity frequency
domain (100-200 Hz) are presented. The non-stationarity of the L1 detector’s signal
in time-frequency domain with the exact binding its manifestations at GRB 051103
was observed. Based on known astrophysical models and data an interpretation of
results is offered. The interpretation supposes the indirect registration via detector
L1 LIGO of gravitational waves which are associated with GRB 051103.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[157] **viXra:1311.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-29 07:39:44*

**Authors:** Douglas L. Weller

**Comments:** 8 Pages. An earlier work. It illustrates concepts, though some details may be debatable.

Light transmitted towards the event horizon of a black hole will never complete the journey. Either the black hole will disintegrate or the light itself will disintegrate before the light can reach the event horizon. The incomplete journey illustrates how locations where time is dilated observe and experience an increase in the rate that things disintegrate. When a mass is compacted so that the Schwarzschild radius is near its surface, the very significant increase in time dilation at the surface results in a corresponding increase in the rate of surface disintegration, explaining the existence of quasars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[156] **viXra:1311.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-29 04:40:14*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English and russian texts

capability of self-acceleration is a feature of electrons, neutrons, protons, electron-antielectron dipoles etc

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[155] **viXra:1311.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 17:54:16*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published on Peer reviewed Journal: http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/6/4/ijp-1-6-4.pdf

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of known subatomic particles. The current formulation was finalized based on the existence of quarks. Because of its success in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the Standard Model is sometimes regarded as a "theory of almost everything". Mathematically, the standard model is a quantized Yang-Mills theory. Therefore, the Standard Model falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental fields. It neither explains force hierarchy nor predicts the structure of the universe. Fortunately, Unified Field Theory (UFT) explains fundamental forces and structures of sub-atomic particles and grand universe. One of the important applications of the Unified Field Theory is that the mass of each sub-atomic particle has a formula. These formulas are structural formulas which can calculate mass of the particles. The mass of a particle decides its structure and characteristics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[154] **viXra:1311.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-30 09:17:51*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 11 pages; mostly font 11; A4 paper; UK English; Freelance scientist.

This answers fundamental questions from Wikipedia about Generations of Matter [**web 1] and related properties.
Why are there three generations of quarks and leptons? Why are the ratios of masses of quarks and leptons as they are?
Also, is the ratio of fundamental force strengths related to the size of the universe and why are the ratios as they are?
This theory defines a “fundamental sub-structure" that is a tetrahedron with the further “sub-structure" of spheres.
Another geometrical possibility, with the same values, is based on the spatial axes.
The big picture could be the arrangement of the “fundamental spheres” along the axes of space.
There seems to be a “universal template” for the properties of the universe. The ratio numbers can be thought of as "quantum numbers". The ratios for each of these “fundamental sub-structure", “quantum numbers” are 1, 3 & 6; simple integer values. The 1, 3, 6 “quantum numbers” ratios in this theory show why the relative masses & radii of quarks and the “heavy leptons” are their “known values”. The cube root of the mass was used to calculate a diameter ratio parameter for these. These ratios are also applied to other basic properties of the universe. This “fundamental sub-structure" has also been applied to the relative strengths of the fundamental forces determining the size of the universe at the time of their creation.
The universe is believed to have gone through creation of forces, inflation stages & must, of necessity, have gone through “phase changes". These could be interconnected.
This theory combines the above items into ONE overall theory. Unexpected conclusions of the theory is
[1] that gravity (like the nuclear force holding protons and neutrons together) is just another aspect of the strong nuclear force. This would mean that gravity works without gravitinos as force carriers or gavity waves! It also ties the force of gravity to its interaction with space!
[2] Mass is an ATTRACTION ONLY “CHARGE”! [No repulsive gravity = dark energy.]
[3] This gives numerical values to different inflation stages.
[My unpublished work:- accelerated expansion = “localised view” of start of a new inflation period! Natural evolution of the universe!]

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[153] **viXra:1311.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-29 02:24:21*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 page

A formula for the Fine structure constant from the 3D Universe Theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] **viXra:1311.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-20 17:46:37*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 19 pages, 5 figures, accepted in Algebras, Groups and Geometries

In this preliminary work, we focus on a particular iso-geometrical, iso-topological facet of iso-mathematics by suggesting a developing, generalized approach for encoding the states and transitions of spherically-symmetric structures that vary in size. In particular, we introduce the notion of "effective iso-radius" to facilitate a heightened characterization of dynamic iso-sphere Inopin holographic rings (IHR) as they undergo "iso-transitions" between "iso-states". In essence, we propose the existence of "effective dynamic iso-sphere IHRs". In turn, this emergence drives the construction of a new "effective iso-state" platform to encode the generalized dynamics of such iso-complex, non-linear systems in a relatively straightforward approach of spherical-based iso-topic liftings. The initial results of this analysis are significant because they lead to alternative modes of research and application, and thereby pose the question: do these effective dynamic iso-sphere IHRs have application in physics and chemistry? Our hypothesis is: yes. To answer this inquiry and assess this conjecture, this developing work should be subjected to further scrutiny, collaboration, improvement, and hard work via the scientific method in order to advance it as such.

**Category:** Topology

[151] **viXra:1311.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 14:11:46*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published on peer reviewed Journal American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2013, pp. 292-298. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.14

This paper proposes the Unified Field Theory (UFT) [1] that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation. Finally, the paper unifies the four funda-mental fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] **viXra:1311.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-29 09:37:27*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Here are two versions: English (page 1-15) and Russian (pages 15-30)

One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in other one, including [the absolute speed] in the ARF, are considered in the paper

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[149] **viXra:1311.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-15 09:13:30*

**Authors:** Dan visser

**Comments:** 5 Pages. I hope the press takes notice. The result violates GRT. Signed: Dan Visser, Almere, the Netherlands

In particular calculations have been made for the detection of extraterrestrial high energy neutrinos. Additional the rest-energy of a neutrino is calculated (equivalent to its rest mass). But both calculations are not standard. The calculations are made from the perspective of a new model for the universe: The Double Torus hypothesis. The alternative calculation shows that the result matches a neutrino-incident in the ICECUBE-project in Antartica for a value of 250 TeV energy. Moreover, an extra calculation is made for the expected neutrino rest-energy by the Standard Model (equivalent for its rest-mass). This shows time 21 times smaller than the Planck-time can generate a neutrino-rest-energy of 2.2 eV. It also shows time 100 times smaller than the Planck-time can generate a neutrino-rest-energy of 0.1 eV. This delivers evidence for the existence of a sub-quantum-domain of refined time that affects dark vacuum-particles; this is dark matter described in the Double Torus-framework. That generates visible quantum-gravitational particles. Such a calculation could also be performed for an electron or a quark. But that is not (yet) performed in this paper. But one of the conclusions is that the detection of high energy neutrinos could turn out to be additional evidence for the existence of rotational Double Torus Universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[148] **viXra:1311.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 11:02:28*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The electric and magnetic forces would be produced by a polarization of the space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1311.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 11:14:45*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The microwaves of the CMBR behave like stationary waves (or standing waves). They serve as an absolute framework of reference at rest.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[146] **viXra:1311.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-11 02:32:11*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. rus (русский)

String theorists delete forcibly any mention of tachyons from the equations of string theory. It is believed that the tachyon in string theory - wrong decision, the strings can not move faster than light. However, quantum mechanics for describe the phenomenon of entanglement requires a essence (particle), which moves faster than the speed of light. A tachyon (and a graviton) arose in string theory consistently, against the wishes of the researchers, as a mathematical consequence. The tachyon suggested a possible description of the mechanism of quantum correlations. Theory of Everything cannot escape the description of nonlocality.

П.В.Путенихин. В первых струнных теориях проявилась частица с мнимой массой - тахион. В квантовой теории запутанные частицы обмениваются квантовой информацией со сверхсветовой скоростью. В качестве носителя этой информации может быть тахион.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[145] **viXra:1311.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 04:31:36*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Nardozza

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new method for multiplying Distributions is proposed. The method is used to prove interesting equalities involving products among elements of D'.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[144] **viXra:1311.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 04:46:27*

**Authors:** David Norrman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The problem to fit Newtonian, Einsteinian and Keplerian predictions with observations have been subject for discussion for a long time. The rotational curves of galaxies, the cosmic coincidence problem and astrophysical jets are examples of severe discrepancies between theory and actual observations. The scientific community is currently weighted towards the dark matter solution to the rotational curve problem while Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND) still has some support even though MoND over the last couple of years have been subject to criticism most notably for being unable to explain observations of the so called bullet cluster.
What hasn’t been done recently is a re-evaluation of our understanding of gravity as a natural phenomenon. Previous works have thoroughly addressed problems separately, but few have examined the similarities and differences between the unsolved problems and searched for a unifying solution.
This paper will seek a common denominator concerning the conditions where the traditional theories are inadequate. Thereafter a theoretical solution will be proposed and tested on each of the astrophysical problems. Finally the solution will be used to describe two fundamental observations of Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[143] **viXra:1311.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 04:16:59*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

All the fermion masses may be determined from merely two numbers dependent on π , e , and a few rational fractions, and all the fermion charges thereafter., In this, now, dimension independent revision; the electron mass and the ratio of the muon mass to the electron mass are shown calculable from simple quadratic functions of π , e , and a few rational fractions. All the remaining masses may be determined from from these constants and their indexes determined by the mass-generalized Maxwell's equations. These calculated masses are all well within current specs as of this publication. In fact, more recent neutrino measurements and estimates have put their values into a rather tight range which the computed values in this update fall within.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[142] **viXra:1311.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-03 10:20:55*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 9 Pages. misspellings corrected.

This paper serves two aims: First, it wraps up the previous parts. Second, it shows that vast areas of particle physics are yet waiting to be explored through relatively inexpensive and small experiments. I divided these into three sections. It is my hope that a future generation of physicists will rediscover the wealth of experimental simplicity for its own, and not for the pleasure and confirmation of any given physical theory. Experiments document the current state of affairs. They live through their repetition and continuous revision by experts and amateurs. This demands experiments to be cheap, common, and ubiquitously carried out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1311.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-27 12:30:45*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 140 Pages. Keywords: Neutrosophics, Neutrosophic Measure, Neutrosophic Integral, Neutrosophic Probability, Neutrosophic Logic, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophy.

In this book, we introduce for the first time the notions of neutrosophic measure and neutrosophic integral, and we develop the 1995 notion of neutrosophic probability. We present many practical examples.
It is possible to define the neutrosophic measure and consequently the neutrosophic integral and neutrosophic probability in many ways, because there are various types of indeterminacies, depending on the problem we need to solve. Neutrosophics study the indeterminacy. Indeterminacy is different from randomness. It can be caused by physical space materials and type of construction, by items involved in the space, etc.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[140] **viXra:1311.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-27 04:20:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present a formula based on 2-Poulet numbers which seems to conduct always to a prime, a square of prime or a semiprime, a conjecture that this formula is generic for 2-Poulet numbers, and, in case that the conjecture doesn’t hold, I present another utility for this formula, namely to generate sequences of n-Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[139] **viXra:1311.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 17:29:45*

**Authors:** S J Nettleton

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This research demonstrates a solution for the DICE 2007 integrated assessment model in the continuous domain through the use of a Runge-Kutta sampling technique for solving differential transcendental equations. The use of a savings ratio helper constraint was not required. It is shown that the introduction of a savings ratio constraint leads to a 12% underestimation of maximum atmospheric temperature rise. In addition, evidence of a savings ratio within economic data was unable to be confirmed using the equivalent proxy of an investment ratio and model selection techniques for mixed Gaussian probabilistic graphical models. However, evidence of a dilute intertemporal relationship between investment and an increase in production was detected. The results of this research support the use of Runge-Kutta sampling differential transcendental solvers with Chebyshev function outputs for continuous solutions in integrated assessment models without the requirement for helper constraints.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[138] **viXra:1311.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 18:09:43*

**Authors:** S J Nettleton

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Extreme transcendental differential equations are found in many applications including geophysical climate change models. Solution of these
systems in continuous time has only been feasible with the recent development of Runge−Kutta sampling transcendental differential equation
solvers with Chebyshev function output such as Mathematica 9's NDSolve function. This paper presents the challenges and means of solving the
widely used DICE 2007 integrated assessment model in continuous time. Application of the solution technique in a mobile policy tool is discussed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[137] **viXra:1311.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 06:51:46*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The lenght of the period of the rational number which is the sum, from n = 1 to n = ∞, of the numbers 1/(Cn – 1), where {C1, C2, ..., Cn} is the ordered set of Carmichael numbers, i.e. {561, 1105, 1729, 2465, ...}, seems to be always multiple of 66. This property doesn’t apply always when C1, C2, ..., Cn are not consecutive, so this pattern could be a way to determinate if between two known Carmichael numbers there exist other unknown Carmichael numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[136] **viXra:1311.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 06:37:04*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Also available of viXra log

2013 has been a great year for viXra. We already have more than 2000 new papers taking the total to over 6000. Many of them are about physics but other areas are also well covered. The range is bigger and better than ever and could never be summarised, so as the year draws to its end here instead is a snapshot of my own view of fundamental physics in 2013. Many physicists are reluctant to speculate about the big picture and how they see it developing. I think it would be useful if they were more willing to stick their neck out, so this is my contribution. I don’t expect much agreement from anybody, but I hope that it will stimulate some interesting discussion and thoughts. If you don’t like it you can always write your own summaries of physics or any other area of science and submit to viXra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[135] **viXra:1311.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-28 04:22:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nature is the inseparable mixing of the classical structures (the bare particles) and the quantum fields in which the quantum effects are turbulent i.e. there are rapid random changes in local densities of quantum field. The quantum time is going turbulently so the precise quantum methods should by free from such time. The internal structures of the classical bare particles/objects determine the possible interactions of them with quantum fields so we cannot neglect these structures. Such structures are neglected in the mainstream theories (there appear the sizeless points or flexible loops). In the string/M theory, a classical structure is defined but there is the fundamental wrong assumption that we can reduce all classical structures to the same closed string. Moreover, the fundamental closed strings have smaller size than it is assumed in the string/M theory and they are inflexible. To fit theoretical results to experimental data there appear approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. Such incoherent methods cannot lead to the lacking part of ultimate theory. Instead applying the incoherent methods we should seek interactions that lead directly to statistically stationary distributions of energy and/or matter i.e. we should directly look for eigenstates. To describe the inflation we should seek the metastable states (the regions of the expanding Cosmos with relatively slower changes in density) and stable states. Such methods are presented in this paper. The VEV and Planck values are calculated as well and we described the phenomena that stopped the inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[134] **viXra:1311.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 11:51:24*

**Authors:** Salahdin Daouairi

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Under peer-review / Copyright 2013, All right Reserved

Abstract: This discrete mathematical dynamical model for the theory of everything is based on a coded numerical equation that I unlocked. This numerical model puzzle which is the key to understanding the universe is beyond physics for interpreting physical laws of the universe. The equation will uncover the hidden secret of time and will also explain large important properties of the universe, it will describe the vortex ring model: a transformation of a hexagonal lattice related to a square lattice into a torus that represents the dynamical system of the particles and the space/time and will show how the system:
S= {Space/Time/Matter/Energy/Gravity/Electromagnetism} is homogeneous, connected and unified.
This mathematical model is an application and a special case of Langland Program that describes the dynamical system of a particular elliptic curve a “Modular knot”; it will define in quantum field theory the phenomena of quantum entanglement for a higher dimension. The system is based in a discrete quantum space with the concept of spinors and modular representation” Galois” through the theory of harmonic oscillator with the asymmetry properties to describe the system’s phase transformations. The system is determined through two important mechanisms of singularity which rely on fixed point and periodicity.
The universe is generated through a super-computer that codes, decodes and corrects error codes: By introducing the notion of spin related to Hadamard operator known for its application in error correcting codes and quantum entanglement, integrated with Lie Algebra, embedded with Clifford graded Z2-Algebra for a non-commutative algebra to explain how gauge symmetry works and to describe the quantum circuit for the bosonic and fermionic fields through fields ramifications. Some important properties in the algorithm of strings, simplex theory, knot theory, graph theory and computer algorithms were also introduced to use in this discrete model to describe the system. The equation will divulge the hidden code of the mystery puzzle in Pascal’s triangle which is the resource and the base of everything. The equation will answer all unknown physical, biological, philosophical and spiritual questions! As a result, it will unlock the true nature of the universe, correct most fundamental theories of physics and will finally disclose the hidden bridge between quantum physics and the general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[133] **viXra:1311.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 00:01:06*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By playing with one of my favorite class of numbers, Poulet numbers, and one of my favorite operation, concatenation, I raised to myself few questions that seem interesting, worthy to share. I also conjectured that, reiterating a certain operation which will be defined, eventually for every Poulet number it will be find a corresponding prime. Then I extrapolated the conjecture for all composite positive integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[132] **viXra:1311.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-22 08:25:49*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 27 pages, 3 figures

A model is presented where the Higgs mechanism of the Standard Model is deduced from the alignment of a strongly correlated fermion system in an internal space with $A_4$ symmetry. The ground state is constructed and its energy calculated. Finally, it is claimed that the model may be derived from a field theory in 6+1 dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[131] **viXra:1311.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-28 14:20:49*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Keywords: Helmholtz paradox, constant vortex, incompressible ideal flow

The reverse side of Helmholtz paradox is presented here. Helmholtz paradox itself had been formulated as follows: - in the ideal (non-viscid) newtonian fluids any vorticity should be stable (constant) during infinite time. It means that if vortex arise in non-viscid newtonian fluid, such a vortex should have the constant strength all the time.
In our note to Helmholtz paradox, we proved that Vortex with constant angular velocity of rotation could be generated only by the flow with zero Laplacian (thus, such a flow is not viscid for the case of incompressible newtonian fluids).
Thus, we could conclude in addition to Helmholtz paradox: not only any vortex should be constant in the ideal (non-viscid) newtonian fluids, but if vortex is constant it means that such a flow is proved to be ideal (unviscid) due to zero Laplacian.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[130] **viXra:1311.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-25 14:52:28*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

We will try to find out the minimum volume of corrective amendments, which are necessary for bringing in thermodynamics to make its method suitable for research enough wide range of scientific disciplines, processes and systems.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[129] **viXra:1311.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-25 08:50:03*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Abstract: This article attempts to give a simple and logical explanation to the mechanism of shift in directions of tides on planetary bodies. It is based on a radically different dynamics, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ [1]. Linear motion of a planetary body changes symmetry of additional distortions in universal medium about it. Asymmetry of latticework-squares in planetary body’s matter-field (about direction of ‘central force’) shifts direction of its action, which in turn shifts zenith points of tides from local meridians (facing sun or moon) and on opposite side. Real orbital motion of a spinning macro body enhances deflection of tides from local meridian. Currently, directions of deflections of tides are misinterpreted to suit observation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[128] **viXra:1311.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-25 04:48:10*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The article sets forth the identification procedure for parameters of the formula for quantitative description of neutron interactions. There is a description for an objective mechanism of “mass defect” formation given.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] **viXra:1311.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-04 21:51:28*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This paper is summary of Q&A in researchgate.net. Comments and suggestions are welcome. Send your comments to victorchristianto@gmail.com

American interest in 'gravity control propulsion research' intensified during the early 1950s. Literature from that period used the terms anti- gravity, anti-gravitation, barycentric, counter- bary, electrogravitics (eGrav), G-projects, gravitics, gravity control, and gravity propulsion. Their publicized goals were to develop and discover technologies and theories for the manipulation of gravity or gravity-like fields for propulsion. Although general relativity theory appeared to prohibit anti- gravity propulsion, several programs were funded to develop it through gravitation research from 1955 to 1974. The names of many contributors to general relativity and those of the golden age of general relativity have appeared among documents about the institutions that had served as the theoretical research components of those programs. This question is intended to explore possibilities to control gravitation using an electromagnetic field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[126] **viXra:1311.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 02:41:37*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The fluid equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term - hence describing viscous flow. Due to specific of NS equations they could be transformed to full/partial inhomogeneous parabolic differential equations: differential equations in respect of space variables and the full differential equation in respect of time variable and time dependent inhomogeneous part. Finally, orthogonal polynomials as the partial solutions of obtained Helmholtz equations were used for derivation of analytical solution of incompressible fluid equations in 1D, 2D and 3D space for rectangular boundary. Solution in 2D and 3D space for any shaped boundary was expressed in term of 2D and 3D global solution of Helmholtz equation accordantly.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[125] **viXra:1311.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-23 19:43:28*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In their article, Voutchkova et al. (Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2373) claim to use a dataset of 865 neutral organic compounds. Because a substantial proportion of the compounds that the authors do provide molecular identifiers for in their supporting information are not neutral organic compounds as the authors claim, one must reasonably conclude that the true set of ionizable compounds among the total dataset of 865 molecules is likely larger than presented herein. Properties such as the molecular weight, partitioning coefficients between various matrices (where at least one of the matrices is water), aqueous solubility, solvent accessible surface area, polar surface area, molecular volume, number of H-bonds, HOMO/LUMO energies, etc., are all pH dependent (i.e., speciation dependent) for ionizable compounds. Since Voutchkova et al. appear to have conducted all their molecular modeling efforts on the neutral forms of all compounds, the authors appear to have obtained molecular descriptors for speciations of the compounds that are not relevant for the toxicological properties being modeled against.

**Category:** Chemistry

[124] **viXra:1311.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-23 19:46:38*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In their article, Voutchkova et al. (Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1001) claim to use a dataset of 865 neutral organic compounds. Because a substantial proportion of the compounds that the authors do provide molecular identifiers for in their supporting information are not neutral organic compounds as the authors claim, one must reasonably conclude that the true set of ionizable compounds among the total dataset of 865 molecules is likely larger than presented herein. Properties such as the molecular weight, partitioning coefficients between various matrices (where at least one of the matrices is water), aqueous solubility, solvent accessible surface area, polar surface area, molecular volume, number of H-bonds, HOMO/LUMO energies, etc., are all pH dependent (i.e., speciation dependent) for ionizable compounds. Since Voutchkova et al. appear to have conducted all their molecular modeling efforts on the neutral forms of all compounds, the authors appear to have obtained molecular descriptors for speciations of the compounds that are not relevant for the toxicological properties being modeled against.

**Category:** Chemistry

[123] **viXra:1311.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-06 22:36:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The first rescue was by Planck the man. Max Planck – who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918, for the “discovery of energy quanta” - was editor of the journal "Annalen der Physik" when Albert Einstein submitted his Theory of Special Relativity. Einstein's paper contained no experimental data of his own, and no references from scientists (on p.191 of his book “Coming of Age in the Milky Way”- published by The Bodley Head, 1988 – Professor Timothy Ferris writes: “The emergence of the special theory of relativity was as unconventional as its author. The 1905 paper that first enunciated the theory resembles the work of a crank …”). The theory opposed accepted thinking and was highly speculative. It would probably be rejected today, and the world would never have known of it. But Max Planck was impressed and saw its beauty. The paper was quickly published without much revision.
The second rescue is by the Planck spacecraft - named after Max Planck and launched in 2009 to investigate the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The craft is currently searching for B-mode polarization.^ Thus I believe it will, when it detects the B-mode, support Albert Einstein's claim that gravitation plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles (in “Do Gravitational Fields Play An Essential Part In The Structure Of The Elementary Particles Of Matter?”, a 1919 submission to the Prussian Academy of Sciences). This is because the B-mode signal, which is produced by gravitational waves, is largely contained within the E-mode signal, which results from CMB photons changing directions as they collide with and then scatter off electrons. Einstein’s paper was the next step after his theory of gravitation proposed in General Relativity - when forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence, Einstein said: time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.*
^ An online article (“B-mode polarization spotted in cosmic microwave background” by Jon Cartwright - http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/jul/25/b-mode-polarization-spotted-in-cosmic-microwave-background) reported on July 25, 2013 that the South Pole Telescope (SPT) has already made the first detection of B-mode polarization - “The CMB does not only contain variations in temperature, however. Its radiation was scattered towards us from the universe's earliest atoms in the same way that blue light is scattered towards us from the atoms in the sky. And in the same way that the blue light from the sky is polarized – a fact you can check by wearing polarized sunglasses – so too is the light from the CMB polarized. Variations in CMB polarization were first detected in 2002 by the DASI interferometer in Antarctica and helped cosmologists understand the dynamics of the early universe. These polarization variations were known as E-mode or gradient variations because they describe how the magnitude of polarization changes over the CMB. But there are even subtler variations known as B-mode variations, which describe the rotation or "curl" of CMB polarization. The majority of B-mode polarization is produced by galaxies acting as gravitational lenses, twisting the E-polarized light on its 14-billion-year journey from the other side of the observable universe. It is incredibly faint, producing temperature variations of about 0.4 μK and accounting for just one part in 10 million in the CMB temperature distribution. "B-mode polarization is very difficult to measure," says Duncan Hanson, a member of the SPT team who is based at McGill University in Canada.”
(Note referring to “Planck Comes to Einstein’s Rescue … Again” –
10^24 parts of the 10^25 strength of the gravitational waves is spent producing a particle [in this case, photon or electron i.e. the B-mode signal is largely contained within the E-mode signal]. The remainder is a long-wavelength, very weak gravitational wave that could be misinterpreted as entirely separate from the E-mode [more info about the numbers in “Why Is Gravity Weak?]. Assuming the B-mode polarization has been accurately measured – and it’s “very difficult to measure” – the 10^25-10^24 strength of gravitational waves is, since the space-time warps known as gravity waves are composed of binary digits that also compose electromagnetism’s bosons as well as matter’s fermions [see “Digital String Theory” below], represented as the one part in ten million of the CMB’s temperature variation.)
* Suppose Albert Einstein was correct when he said gravitation plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles. And suppose he was also correct when he said gravitation is the warping of space-time. Then it is logical that 1) gravitation would play a role not only in elementary particles and their masses but also in the constitution of the forces associated with those particles i.e. the nuclear strong force and the electroweak force (combination of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force), and 2) the warping of space-time that produces gravity means space-time itself plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles, their masses, and in the forces. Therefore, if electromagnetism is related to gravitation (see “c^2 and the Atom”), time is unified with the gravitational and electromagnetic fields (overcoming the 50-year-old objection to Einstein's Unified Field Theory which was put forth by England's Professor Penrose).
Earlier in 2013, I tried to promote Einstein’s idea during a discussion at researchgate.net. There, scientists told me that Einstein’s paper will be regarded as erroneous and useless speculation, some kind of misunderstanding, nothing of interest, and not really useful as long as the Standard Model of interactions between particles and forces dominates scientific thinking. I’ll merely say that if I was placing a bet, my money would be on the Standard Model going extinct one day and Einstein then being given credit for a deeper understanding of the relation between mass and gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[122] **viXra:1311.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-23 14:01:45*

**Authors:** Jakov Foukzon

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This article about foundation of paralogical nonstandard analysis and its applications to the continuous function without a derivative presented by absolutely convergent rigonometrical series and another famous problems of trigonometrical and orthogonal series.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[121] **viXra:1311.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-23 14:07:45*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Carleson’s celebrated theorem of 1965 [1] asserts the pointwise convergence of the partial Fourier sums of square integrable functions. The Fourier transform has a formulation on each of the Euclidean groups R , Z andΤ .Carleson’s original proof worked on Τ.Fefferman’s proof translates very easily to R. M´at´e [2] extended Carleson’s proof to Z.Each of the statements of the theorem can be stated in terms of a maximal Fourier multiplier theorem [5]. Inequalities for such operators can be transferred between these three Euclidean groups, and was done P. Auscher and M.J.Carro [3. But L.Carleson’s original proof and
another proofs very long and very complicated. We give a very short and very “simple” proof of this fact. Our proof uses PNSA technique only, developed in part I, and does not uses complicated technical formations unavoidable by the using of purely standard approach
to the present problems. In contradiction to Carleson’s method, which is based on profound
properties of trigonometric series, the proposed approach is quite general and allows to
research a wide class of analogous problems for the general orthogonal series.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[120] **viXra:1311.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-23 09:27:04*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

PACS 11.25. -w; 03.65.Ud; 11.90.+t; 12.90.+b
String theorists delete forcibly any mention of tachyons from the equations of string theory. It is believed that the tachyon in string theory - wrong decision, the strings can not move faster than light. However, quantum mechanics for describe the phenomenon of entanglement requires a essence (particle), which moves faster than the speed of light. A tachyon (and a graviton) arose in string theory consistently, against the wishes of the researchers, as a mathematical consequence. The tachyon suggested a possible description of the mechanism of quantum correlations. Theory of Everything cannot escape the description of nonlocality.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[119] **viXra:1311.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-22 16:38:56*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Two anomalies observed during lunar eclipses, the enlargement of the Earth`s shadow and the excessive clarity of the penumbra, which have been usually attributed to the Earth's atmosphere, would be largely due to the Allais eclipse effect. This effect, in conformity with the specificity of each eclipse, would cause a slight decrease in gravitational potential: the curvature of sun's rays would be flatter, the light would end at on average 2 % farther than what is expected, thus enlarging the cone of shadow of the Earth. On the other hand, the rays emanating from the Moon would have a shorter wavelength and therefore the luminescence would increase by anti-Stoke Raman effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1311.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-22 19:38:11*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. This is the French version of « LUNAR ECLIPSES AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra: Reference #: 7770866.

Deux anomalies observées lors les éclipses lunaires, soit l’agrandissement de l’ombre terrestre et une clarté excessive de la pénombre, dont la cause est généralement attribuées à l’atmosphère terrestre, seraient dues en majeure partie à l’effet d’éclipse Allais. Selon la spécificité de chaque éclipse, cet effet provoquerait une légère baisse du potentiel de gravité : les rayons solaires courberaient moins, la lumière aboutirait en moyenne 2% plus loin que ce qui est attendu, agrandissant ainsi le cône d’ombre de la Terre. Par contre, les rayons émanant de la Lune auraient alors une longueur d’onde plus courte et par conséquent la luminescence augmenterait par effet Raman anti-Stokes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[117] **viXra:1311.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-22 20:22:35*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English.

Hypothesis of Captain and Reverend Thomas Scott Zolotor proven true with more of his predictions coming to fruition.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[116] **viXra:1311.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-19 15:51:54*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 5 Pages. version 2 repairs a calculation ommision

The title of this article presents evidence-based insights of the manner entropy-gravity might work in detail. Entropy-gravity stands in the picture of actuality in physics, while simultaneously my Double Torus theory posits the universe can no longer be maintained as Big Bang cosmology. So from the point of view of the Double Torus theory both theories could be theoretically related. The Double Torus hypothesis is point-particle related, but entropy-gravity used string-mathematics. Moreover, entropy-gravity also used the holographic principle. So, string-mathematics seems not to be useful as a fully expectable physics model, because it is limited to the conservative Big Bang cosmology. Therefore it might be unexpectedly true that the universe is shaped as a rotating torus (ring) with sub-quantum dynamics based on dark vacuum-particles (rings). In this paper the calculation-result of the dark vacuum-particle is presented on 0.984 x 10^-18 eV per cubical zepto-meter multiplied by squared zepto-second and radials squared (zepto is the scale of 10^-21 m). The dark vacuum particles are shaped as instable rings and generate quantum-gravity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[115] **viXra:1311.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-21 01:53:33*

**Authors:** Surajit Chattopadhyay

**Comments:** ISRN High Energy Physics, Volume 2013, Article ID 414615, 7 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/414615

In the present work, we have studied some features of the generalized Brans-Dicke (BD) model in which the scalar field is allowed
to couple nonminimally with the matter sector. Extended holographic Ricci dark energy (EHRDE) has been considered in the
above framework of BD cosmology. Some restrictions have been derived for the BD parameter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[114] **viXra:1311.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-21 01:56:45*

**Authors:** Surajit Chattopadhyay

**Comments:** ISRN High Energy Physics Volume 2013, Article ID 895614, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/895614

We have investigated the effects of the interaction between a brane universe and the bulk in which it is embedded. Considering
the effects of the interaction between a brane universe and the bulk, we have obtained the equation of state for the interacting
holographic Ricci dark energy density in the flat universe.We have investigated the impact of $

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[113] **viXra:1311.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-21 02:16:07*

**Authors:** Surajit Chattopadhyay

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences, 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s40010-013-0090-8

The present work reports study on the interacting Ricci dark energy in a modified gravity theory named $f(R,T)$ gravity. The specific model $f(R,T)=\mu R+\nu T$ (proposed in \cite{Myrza1}) is considered here. For this model we have observed a quintom-like behavior of the equation of state (EoS) parameter and a transition
from matter dominated to dark energy density has been observed through fraction density evolution. The statefinder parameters reveal that the model interpolates between dust and $\Lambda$CDM
phases of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1311.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-20 12:51:39*

**Authors:** Yaremko O., Yaremko N.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The author proves statements from mathematical analysis by using methods of Probability theory. Inequalities were proved by means of geometric probability, the relationship of convex functions and random variables is grounded, the decomposi-tion theorems in the limit shape are proved with the help of the law of large numbers, the normal distribution is used to calculate the volume and surface of the n-dimensional unit ball, some integrals are calculated as corollaries.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[111] **viXra:1311.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-20 13:32:27*

**Authors:** Domingo Rosales, Erick Vidal, Jacinto Arroyo

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Latinmag Letters, Volume 3, Special Issue (2013), PA01, 1-8. Proceedings Montevideo, Uruguay, language Spanish

The Chapman-Miller method is used for analysis of lunar daily variations in geomagnetic and atmospheric pressure data recorded in Huancayo Observatory. Hourly mean data were used for the years 2008 and 2009, because it corresponds to the period of minimum solar and geomagnetic activity. A marked Lunar semidiurnal contribution is observed in the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field, also the contribution is observed in the others lunar semidiurnal geomagnetic components and atmospheric pressure

**Category:** Geophysics

[110] **viXra:1311.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-20 11:38:44*

**Authors:** Patrick Lee Nash

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Inflation supported by
a real massless scalar inflaton field $\varphi$
whose potential is identically equal to zero is described.
Assuming that inflation takes place after the Plank scale
(after quantum gravity effects are important),
zero potential is concomitant with an initial condition for $\varphi$ that is exponentially more probable
than an initial condition that assumes an
initial inflaton potential of order of the Planck mass.
The Einstein gravitational field equations are
formulated on an eight-dimensional spacetime manifold
of four space dimensions and four time dimensions.
The field equations are sourced by a cosmological constant $\Lambda$
and the real massless scalar inflaton field $\varphi$.
Two solution classes
for the coupled Einstein field equations are obtained that exhibit
temporal exponential
\textbf{deflation of three of the four time dimensions}
and temporal exponential inflation
of three of the four space dimensions.
For brevity this phenomenon is sometimes simply called ``inflation."
We show that
\textbf{the extra time dimensions do not generally induce the exponentially rapid growth of fluctuations of quantum fields.}
Comoving coordinates for the two \textbf{unscaled} dimensions are chosen to be
$(x^4 , x^8 )$ (unscaled means a constant scale factor equal to one).
The $x^4$ coordinate corresponds to our universe's observed physical time dimension, while
the $x^8$ coordinate corresponds to a new spatial dimension that may be compact.
$\partial_{x^8}$ terms of $\varphi$ and the metric are seen to play the role of an effective inflaton potential
in the dynamical field equations.
In this model, after ``inflation" the observable physical macroscopic world appears to a classical observer to
be a homogeneous, isotropic universe with three space dimensions and one time dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[109] **viXra:1311.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-11 22:25:43*

**Authors:** Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Interpretations try to explain emergence of the world we observe from formal quantum theory. Impedances govern the flow of energy, are helpful in such attempts. We include quantum impedances in comparisons of selected interpretations.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[108] **viXra:1311.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-13 19:53:33*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We generalize inversion.

**Category:** Geometry

[107] **viXra:1311.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-27 18:51:46*

**Authors:** Roberto Luis Recalde

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The third version of this work involves fixes made in the second one and a better explanation of the work itself, to a better understanding.

In this paper, we discover a new technique to build quadratic sequences wich converge to a number in the form K(2^(1/2)).

**Category:** Number Theory

[106] **viXra:1311.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-29 03:48:36*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here we show an electromagnetic method for blocking the action of external neutrons, alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays upon atomic nuclei. This method can be very useful for stopping nuclear fissions, as the chain reactions that occur inside a nuclear fission reactor, and also those nuclear fissions that continue occurring, and generating heat (decay heat) , even after the shut down of the reactor.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[105] **viXra:1311.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-19 10:58:04*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I was following an interesting “track”, i.e. the pairs of primes [p,q] that apparently can form strictly Carmichael numbers of the form p*q*(n*(q – 1) + p), like for instance [23,67] and [41,241], when I observed that also all the Poulet numbers P which have the numbers p = 30*k + 23 and q = 90*k + 67 respectively p = 30*k + 11 and q = 180*k + 61 as prime factors can be written as P = p*q*(n*(q – 1) + p) and I made few conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[104] **viXra:1311.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-19 04:18:53*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The objective of this book is to generalize the methods pertaining to thermodynamics of irreversible processes and to create on this basis energodynamics – a fundamental discipline studying the general laws covering nonstatic (running with finite rate) processes of energy transfer and conversion in any forms regardless of the field of knowledge they belong to.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[103] **viXra:1311.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-21 18:24:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Five figures added / subsequent edits will be in preparation of what to do for the submission of this document for peer review

Using Tokamak physics for improving the Grischuk and Sachin modus operandi as to detectable GW amplitudes on the z axis ( axis of symmetry) of a Tokamak device. Explicit use of Plasma drift current due to fusion is the new step used, as opposed to use of current created by E and B fields in a Plasma and prior ignoring the contribution of temperatures 10 KeV or higher in GW generation

**Category:** Classical Physics

[102] **viXra:1311.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-19 17:37:47*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 179 Pages. This book is being reviewed by LAP LAMBERT Publishing

The present book consists of 17 select scientific papers from ten years of work around 2003-2013. The topic covered here is quantization in Astrophysics. We also discuss other topics for instance Pioneer spacecraft anomaly. We discuss a number of sub-topics, for instance the use of Schrödinger equation to describe celestial quantization. Our basic proposition here is that the quantization of planetary systems corresponds to quantization of circulation as observed in superfluidity. And then we extend it further to the use of (complex) Ginzburg-Landau equation to describe possible nonlinearity of planetary quantization. Some of these papers have been published in journal form, but they were scattered around in a number of publications, so they are not easy to locate. So we decide to collect them all in one book for easy reading. Other papers included here have not been published before in journal or book form.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[101] **viXra:1311.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 18:09:19*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that creation of the machines showing reception of surplus power at the expense of force fields energy, does not contradict physics laws. Specificity of such devices is analyzed and bases of their theory are stated.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[100] **viXra:1311.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 21:06:02*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In stellar metamorphosis stars obey the mass-energy equivalence principle. This means as a star radiates it loses mass. As it loses mass it will shrink and cool. Explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[99] **viXra:1311.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-10 17:38:22*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The beginning of the era of dominance of the vacuum energy or dark energy, and the change in the sign of acceleration of the Universe expansion leads to change in the sign of density of quantum radiation of vacuum in the expanding Universe. This effect is similar to the Unruh effect, but differs from it. The dominance of dark energy leads to the emission of energy flow with negative density, which is absorbed by objects moving in a vacuum. This effect may be due to the formation of cosmic structures, including the origin of the phenomenon of life.
Keywords: vacuum, dark energy, Unruh radiation, expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1311.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 13:34:44*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This article was published on Feb 18, 2013 in JCER, 4(1): pp. 52-68. See http://jcer.com/index.php/jcj/article/view/281

In this article, we address the nature and substrates of human Consciousness, the nature and attributes of Universal Consciousness and the relationship between the two in light of the groundbreaking new results obtained by Persinger’s group. These new results together with what have already been achieved by herein authors, Persinger’s group and some of the other researchers shed important light on these fundamental issues of life and existence.

**Category:** Mind Science

[97] **viXra:1311.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 09:12:03*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Email me genebarbee@msn.com

Feynman’s quantum mechanical equation for absorption of light leads to a sharp response as wavelength matching occurs. It appears that our sensory system utilizes this equation and a model of color vision is demonstrated that agrees well with the measured color sensitivity in humans. The manner in which color responses add together into meaningful perception supports the author’s view that nature is based on a specific information theory “code” described in reference [1]. It is speculated that life is an emergent property of chemicals that absorb energy and use information. Other papers by the author are listed after References. These papers show that information theory “code” applies to our physical structure and the present paper extends the work to our mental structure.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[96] **viXra:1311.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 11:28:20*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract The argument is given here that absolute time is a principle of our physical world. Any physical theory that violates this principle would be found to be invalid. So it is not surprising that special relativity is trivially repudiated by the Dingle observation. General relativity predicts gravitational time dilation. There have been claims of it being verified with cesium clocks - but it is no verification. Gravitational time dilation is unverifiable and it is only an internal logical contradiction of a theory. The argument is made that a physical theory is acceptable only if it is found to be valid for all clock-time type. Newtonian mechanics is clearly valid whether it is with pendulum-clock time or cesium-clock time; not a single failure was ever found. But general relativity's gravitational time dilation prediction is clearly contradicted with pendulum-clock time. It is presented here that the refutation of general relativity based on this contradiction is clearly founded on sound scientific principles and rigorous scientific reasoning.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1311.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 06:14:33*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

SUMMARY. Using gravitational vectors on interacting galaxies we find the origin of:
Double spiral figures; galactic tails; spiral arms; continuing movement and constant angular velocity of spiral arms; galactic disc and bulge; plane of galactic disc; different plane of galactic gravitation centres; activity of Seyfert galaxies; opposite direction of warps; the biggest elliptical galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[94] **viXra:1311.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 06:39:16*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 13 Pages. I hope the press will take notice of the Double Torus hypothesis and in particular this paper.

Einstein’s energy is connected to a new dark energy force, refined-time, the fundamental constants of Planck and Newton and prove the universe is a rotational Double Torus Universe. Also is proven that an accelerated space-expansion in a stand-alone Big Bang cosmology is an optical illusion. This paper presents a new energy-equation connecting Einstein’s relativistic-energy to a new dark matter-force in a new dark energy force. This new equation is the result of combining a rather new energy-formula of E. Verlinde (UvA-NL) with my new dark energy force-formula of my Double Torus hypothesis. The Double Torus hypothesis is a new model for the universe and against Big Bang Cosmology. A second new equation proves indeed the accelerated space-time expansion is an optical illusion. The new dark energy force uses refined time, which is smaller than the Planck-time. Such causes a cyclic refined time-process from a sub-quantum scale recalculating dark matter towards the quantum scale, but in a rotational Double Torus Universe. This has consequences for the philosophy of past and future.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[93] **viXra:1311.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 06:55:29*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An alternative view of Black-Hole objects is presented which avoids the singular aspect they receive in General Relativity. Purely qualitative argumentation, based on conceivably extremely high temperatures in such high density objects and the corresponding associated generation of antimatter, leads to the expectation that they are sources of antimatter which is expelled by matter-antimatter repulsion. Positron-electron production at the surface leads to the emission of such pairs a slow velocities which would provide a mechanism for galactic 511-keV radiation. High temperatures at the center of such objects suggests on the one hand a simple mechanism for the observed relativistic jets in “Black-Holes”, with their conspicuous properties. On the other hand, a more isotropic expulsion of antimatter would provide an additional steady generation of antimatter which may give rise to a partial solution of the dark- matter problem.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1311.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 05:07:30*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The first of a series of papers based on Reality

Is what we observe real? In this paper I argue that the physical world is as real as we feel – the term 'reality' is defined unambiguously. The domain of physics includes only real situations, whereas the domain of mathematics includes non-real situations also. So the role of mathematics (in the domain of physics) has to be clearly defined. Here I propose a new philosophical approach (to define the role of mathematics): the properties are physical, but the laws are mathematical.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[91] **viXra:1311.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 05:07:57*

**Authors:** Adefokun Tomiwa Michael, Adefokun Tayo Charles

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Innovation Game Theory (IGT) is designed to help businesses, organizations and communities in formulating an approach to their innovation activities in the form of scientific game. As such, leaders, growth managers, theorists, inventors, innovators and consumers visualize the process of overcoming challenges their businesses or communities face (known or unknown) as though it is a game where all strategic actions and resources involved in tackling the challenges are expressed in terms of quantifiable values which are ultimately tied to certain competitive reward mechanisms.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[90] **viXra:1311.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-18 07:49:39*

**Authors:** David Harding

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Planck Interaction stands at the “center” of the universe. There is no being without this continuing event. As Planck observed, “There can be no doubt that the constant h plays a definite role at an emission center of the elementary oscillation process… The thermodynamics of radiation will have arrived at an entirely satisfactory conclusion only when the constant h is understood in its full universal significance”.
Space-time and the tension of the vacuum are formed in its activity. It is the universal symmetric source for the fine structure constant (α), charge, and the force parameter of all black holes in this universe. This yielded force value, (being in every case equivalent, at exactly 1/4th of the Planck force) along with the other constants is important for having a direct connection with the universal frame.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[89] **viXra:1311.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-28 13:07:36*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 16 pages, 4 figures, accepted in Algebras, Groups and Geometries

In this work, we deploy Santilli's iso-dual iso-topic lifting and Inopin's holographic ring (IHR) topology as a platform to introduce and assemble a tesseract from two inter-locking, iso-morphic, iso-dual cubes in Euclidean triplex space. For this, we prove that such an "iso-dual tesseract" can be constructed by following a procedure of simple, flexible, topologically-preserving instructions. Moreover, these novel results are significant because the tesseract's state and structure are directly inferred from the one initial cube (rather than two distinct cubes), which identifies a new iso-geometrical inter-connection between Santilli's exterior and interior dynamical systems.

**Category:** Geometry

[88] **viXra:1311.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-16 09:52:58*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 126 Pages.

WTC7 (World Trade Center 7), that is the third out of three buildings fallen on 9/11 in New York, is known to be the weak point (one out of many) of all science fiction official versions provided by the world of officiality on facts around 9/11. Here, we are going to treat many topics which confirm the existence of multiple weak points.
Moreover, multiple are the situations in which the official science shows serious perplexities. Some of the situations just mentioned will be presented in this file. One point must be clear, since the beginning: as long as you do not want to suspect the official versions, provided by governments and courts, the physical interpretations and laws would have to be suspected.
In the title we talk about illiteracy, even though we are here talking about something else,
actually. Next time I’ll tell you what it really is…

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[87] **viXra:1311.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-16 08:11:18*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** Pages.

Further to the paper A Unified Field Theory [1], certain details have been reviewed and modified in this paper. Dark energy is now considered to be the inflaton field after inflation. As a consequence the cosmological density ratios are re-calculated to be: Dark energy 0.68, Dark Matter 0.27, Matter 0.05. A transition within the Higgs vacuum followed by inflation forms the Big Bang state, ie the spontaneous creation of the universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1311.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-15 17:49:13*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** Pages.

This paper presents a possible elementary proof of the Riemann hypothesis. We say possible or potential, you have to be very cautious and skeptical of the potential of the evidence presented, is free of a crucial error that
invalidate the proof. After several months of extensive review, the author, having found no error we have decided to publish it in the hope that someone will find the error. However, it is considered that the method may be useful in some way. This potential proof uses
only the rudiments of analysis and arithmetic inequalities.
It includes a first part of the reason why we think that the Riemann hypothesis seems to be true.

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1311.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-15 17:53:32*

**Authors:** Iván Guzmán de Rojas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author analyses the difficulties in describing accelerated motion trajectories in M4 in the framework of the Special Relativity Theory due to the lack of time as an independent scalar parameter. It is proposed reinstating the Newtonian time in an Integral Relativity Theory (IRT) without detriment to the Lorentz transformations. It is shown that in the frame of IRT it is possible to exceed the speed of light in accelerated motion. The formula is deduced for the composition of relative velocities with acceleration in M4. As an illustrative example the radial velocity is calculated in the course of the cosmic cloud G2 orbiting Sagittarius A* comparing results with the observed data and the author suggests the possibility that in the G2 cloud there is a system of two or three stars. He proposes an explanation of the phenomenon of "black hole" as the passage to the hyperluminic subspace in M4. Further research is suggested towards an IRT capable of handling in M4 the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics and relativistic quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1311.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-16 01:26:45*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

At first the 4-dimensional real basis spinors are set in accordance to usual 2-dimensional complex basis spinors. This is the first step. Then the 4-dimensional space of real basis spinors represents as the tensor product of two 2-demensional spaces. Further the sum of these two 2-dimensional spaces represents as the tensor product of two new 2-dimensional spaces. And this operation repeats infinitely.The metric tensor defines for each of derived in this process spaces (as for 2-
dimensional, so for 4-dimensional). The shortage of data at this process compensates by the simplicity principle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[83] **viXra:1311.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-15 12:11:45*

**Authors:** Valerii V. Galitskii

**Comments:** 13 pages. Russian. Materials of the Third National scientific conference Mathematical modelling in ecology, October, 21-25st, 2013, Pushchino, Russia

Modeling peculiarities of evolution of the tree's branches system on allometric (fractal) parameter µ which connects a green biomass of a tree with its height, are considered, basing on the sectional model of a branches system presented earlier. It is shown that the initial stage of the (endo)symbiotic growth of the first dot "plants" (µ<1) must be characterized by a group placement of photosynthesizing points and growth of µ with the increasing the number of points in group, i.e. with increasing the efficiency of the use of light. Value µ not depends on type of a groups' allocation, but depends on a kind of the points' distribution in group. Thus, in an early ontogenesis of such "protoplants" there should be a stage of gradual growth μ from 0 which may be manifested in the form (usually observable) initial slowdown of growth and in the recapitulation phenomenon.
Key words: sectional model of system of tree's branches; green biomass vs. height; fractal parameter; group dot pattern at line segment; endosymbiose of cyanobacteria and protists; origin of "protoplant"; initial slowdown of growth; recapitulation;

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[82] **viXra:1311.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-15 10:10:07*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Proof Beal Concecture over circle radius 1

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1311.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-15 08:00:08*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I propose a protocol for the filtration of carbon dioxide and other carbon based compounds, which are the central cause of greenhouse gases, from an emission. The protocol involves the addition of the carbon emission to a diffusion friendly gas (such as H2O) at high temperature in vapour form. The combination of the two gases will allow a formation of a liquid/solid chemical mixture upon cooling. There are numerous possibilities of the final chemical state of the mixture. The final step of the protocol is to simply filter the liquid and solid chemicals from the water for safe disposal.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[80] **viXra:1311.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-15 23:13:09*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 70 Pages. Submitted to Int. J. Mod. Phys. A

A Clifford $ Cl ( 5, C ) $ Unified Gauge Field Theory formulation of Conformal Gravity
and $ U (4 ) \times U ( 4 ) \times U(4) $ Yang-Mills in $ 4D$, is reviewed, along with its implications for the Pati-Salam group $ SU (4) \times SU(2)_L \times SU(2)_R$, and $Trinification$ GUT models of $3$ fermion generations based on the group $ SU (3)_C \times SU (3)_L \times SU(3)_R$. We proceed with a brief review of a unification program of
$4D$ Gravity and $SU(3) \times SU (2) \times U (1)$ Yang-Mills emerging from $8D$ pure Quaternionic Gravity. A realization of $E_8$ in terms of the $Cl(16) = Cl (8) \otimes Cl(8)$ generators follows, as a preamble to Tony Smith's $E_8$ and $ Cl(16) = Cl(8) \otimes Cl(8)$ unification model in $8D$. The study of Chiral Fermions and Instanton Backgrounds in $ {\bf CP}^2, {\bf CP}^3$ related to the problem of obtaining $3$ fermion generations is thoroughly studied. We continue with the evaluation of the coupling constants and particle masses based on the geometry of bounded complex homogeneous domains and geometric probability theory. An analysis of neutrino masses, Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix parameters and neutrino-mixing matrix parameters follows. We finalize with some concluding remarks about other proposals for the unification of Gravity and the Standard Model, like string, $M, F$ theory and Noncommutative and Nonassociative Geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1311.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-15 06:04:47*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that the existing theory of irreversible processes not applicability
to biological processes of energy transformation. It is offered way of overcoming of arising difficulties.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[78] **viXra:1311.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-14 12:53:12*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 30 Pages; 45 References

The paper provides a crucial elementary derivation of new superluminal spatio-temporal transformations based on the idea that, conceptually and kinematically, each subluminal, luminal and/or superluminal inertial reference frame has,in addition to its relative velocity, its proper specific kinematical parameter,which having the physical dimensions of a constant speed. Consequently,the relativity principle and causality principle are coherently extended to superluminal velocities and, more importantly, this original approach constitutes the first basic step toward the formulation of superluminal relativistic mechanics in which the standard special relativity theory should be a particular case.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[77] **viXra:1311.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-14 10:23:49*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since neutron stars do not exist an actual physical explanation for why pulsars pulse is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[76] **viXra:1311.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-16 03:39:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 135 Pages. Published by Education Publishing, USA. Copyright 2013 by Marius Coman.

About the works of Florentin Smarandache have been written a lot of books (he himself wrote dozens of books and articles regarding math, physics, literature, philosophy). Being a globally recognized personality in both mathematics (there are countless functions and concepts that bear his name) and literature, it is natural that the volume of writings about his research is huge. What we try to do with this encyclopedia is to gather together as much as we can both from Smarandache’s mathematical work and the works of many mathematicians around the world inspired by the Smarandache notions. We structured this book using numbered Definitions, Theorems, Conjectures, Notes and Comments, in order to facilitate an easier reading but also to facilitate references to a specific paragraph. We divided the Bibliography in two parts, Writings by Florentin Smarandache (indexed by the name of books and articles) and Writings on Smarandache notions (indexed by the name of authors). We treated, in this book, about 130 Smarandache type sequences, about 50 Smarandache type functions and many solved or open problems of number theory. We also have, at the end of this book, a proposal for a new Smarandache type notion, id est the concept of “a set of Smarandache-Coman divisors of order k of a composite positive integer n with m prime factors”, notion that seems to have promising applications, at a first glance at least in the study of absolute and relative Fermat pseudoprimes, Carmichael numbers and Poulet numbers. This encyclopedia is both for researchers that will have on hand a tool that will help them “navigate” in the universe of Smarandache type notions and for young math enthusiasts: many of them will be attached by this wonderful branch of mathematics, number theory, reading the works of Florentin Smarandache.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:1311.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-13 16:38:50*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We study the Standard Model in light of the Zero-Postulation of the Theory of Abstraction. Yukawa Coupling, chiral superfields, the SUSY model, Interacting Boson Models (IBMs), Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM), etc., are some of the concepts that we study in this paper. Non-commutative geometry seems to come very handy in describing the quantum world. Bosons and fermions both seem to be governed by the rules of such geometry. The principle of conservation of boson number inside a system is seen to follow directly from the Abstraction Model. The IBMs are seen to obey the Laws of Physical Transaction that follows from Zero-Postulation. The chaotic superfields at the requisite scaling-ratio yields necessary equation-parameters needed to describe them at that given scaling-ratio. This is seen to be independent of the choice of scale, but at smaller scaling-ratios, we have less loss of information. At a higher scale, we seem to have less number of parameters required to describe them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1311.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-13 09:33:55*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I propose a thought experiment for instant communication with an action taken on a single member of two polarization entangled Bell state photons. The action is that of quenching the one entangled beam with an emission of identical photons in a 45° polarized state. It is argued that the quenching has the effect of coincidence annihilation between the entangled pair, leaving the second beam in a state of unentangled polarization where interference may be observed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1311.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 09:40:15*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 22190 Pages.

This is a booknoted PDF book containing the web site work of Tony Smith on math, physics, history, etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[72] **viXra:1311.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-17 06:34:41*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A different explanation of the gravity is possible using the Fatio-Le Sage idea with the cosmic microwave background radiation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[71] **viXra:1311.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-12 22:28:06*

**Authors:** Patrick S. Walters

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Trends in studies of the σ meson are briefly discussed, particularly those involving the radiative decay channel φ → π+π−γ. The properties of this decay channel are compared with those of the decay ω → π+π−γ. Arguments are presented highlighting the prospect of finding a σ signature in ω decay. From these points, an experiment is proposed in which the existence of the σ resonance may be confirmed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[70] **viXra:1311.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-12 05:27:20*

**Authors:** Hashem Sazegar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In 1742, Goldbach claimed that each even number can be shown by two primes.
In 1937, Vinogradoff Russian Mathematician proved that each odd large
number can be shown by three primes. In 1930, Lev Schnirelmann proved that
each natural number can be shown by M-primes. In 1973, Chen Jingrun proved
that each odd number can be shown by one prime plus a number that has
maximum two primes. In this article, we state one proof for Goldbach's conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[69] **viXra:1311.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-12 04:08:29*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From the fact, that 2-dimensional basis spinors are complex, there are made two conclusions. The first is that it is possible to change them by
4-dimensional real basis spinors. The second is that it is possible to enter 12 more dimensions in addition to 4 ordinary dimensions of our space.
There is found connection of the basis of that 16-dimensional space with the basis of 4-dimensional space of real basis spinors.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[68] **viXra:1311.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-07 11:37:48*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 12 Pages. From Thesis. New version with slight improvements.

This paper presents a summary of research to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to achieve high efficiency despite small temperature differences with the reservoir. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic and Electrodynamic analysis and experiment validates the new cycle.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[67] **viXra:1311.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 15:56:00*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Schwinger's Source Theory combined with the Complex Domain geometry of Hua and the approach of Wyler allow calculation of realistic physics masses and force strengths.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1311.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 16:34:27*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, the author argues that evolution of life solely on this planet is not the general case given panspermia (even colonisation/infestation given space technology) and statistically there ought to be life in this vast universe that didn't originate on the planet it resides upon. This raises too, the not insignificant prospect, that life can even been created or genetically modified and brought to a planet, whereupon it could develop in isolation by Darwin/Wallace Laws of Evolution. Inescapably, by the possibility of Evolution giving rise to intelligent life, it must feature a component of Intelligent Design too and to deny this is ironically quasi-religious dogma.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[65] **viXra:1311.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 18:52:59*

**Authors:** Robert Kardien Vanderhoek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An oscillating proton model, describing electron atomic orbital capacity, based on electromagnetic-like field dynamics, that is a mirror image of our universe at the largest astrophysical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1311.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-12 09:48:36*

**Authors:** Patrick S. Walters

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A brief discussion on the problems of light scalar meson spectroscopy is given. A mass mixing regime for pure scalar tetraquarks, pure scalar mesons, and a pure scalar glueball is presented, resulting in the realization of the experimentally observed masses in the scalar I = 0, I = 1, and I = 1/2 channels. The matrix elements are calculated according to SU(3) flavor symmetry, OZI rules for process diagrams, and best fit to experimental data. The glueball-meson mixing elements are taken to be imaginary in order to account for the reduction in mass of the mixed glueball. The mixing matrix elements are used to compute the unitary flavor amplitude matrices, which are presented and further used to calculate theoretical partial widths for the decays S → PiPj. New theoretical mass and error for f0 (600), as well as an approximate two-pseudoscalar total width, are given in summary, along with the predicted branching ratio Γ(fgg → ηη)/Γ(fgg → ππ) for the pure glueball state which may be present in E760 neutral data. The new states f0 (1200 – 1600), f0 (1790), and X(1810) are mentioned as well, and explained briefly according to the new mixing scheme.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[63] **viXra:1311.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 23:08:39*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract：This article puts forward a proposition concerns twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1311.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 13:04:00*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 formulas, 1 table

Abstract: Using the formula with the proton mass and the Rydberg constant, I
obtained the value of the universal gravitational constant by three orders of
magnitude more accurate than the recommended CODATA values [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1311.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 13:33:31*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In Russian

The conclusion of the interconnected transfer processes kinetic equations is offered from the first principles of energodynamics and is shown, that phenomenological laws of independent processes contain in contrary to Onsager's postulate unique (resultant) force whose disappearance conducts to the termination of this process. It allows to reduce number of phenomenological coefficients in them with n (n+1)/2 to n and to extend the thermodynamic theory of the transfer processes to nonlinear systems and the conditions far from equilibrium

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[60] **viXra:1311.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-05 14:41:42*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 92 Pages. Thesis. New version with newer refs, B-H (M-H) curve for ferrofluid loss, some cosmetic changes and minor change at start of chapter 4.

The objective of this research is to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to achieve high efficiency despite small temperature differences with the reservoir. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic and Electrodynamic analysis validates the new cycle. Experiment, both physical and by numerical solution have laid the foundations for this work showing: that a property of the system is a strong function of temperature, that a temporary independent flux remains after magnetisation and that a cancellation scheme is required to achieve energy transduction in excess of the magnetisation energy input. This research shows that a new type of heat engine/refrigerator/heat pump is possible.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[59] **viXra:1311.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-07 10:57:01*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 14 Pages. New version with three new refs. and some improvements

This paper presents a summary of research to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to irrefutably build a Maxwell Demon. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic, Electrodynamic analysis and experiment validates the new cycle.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[58] **viXra:1311.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 15:05:00*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In an earlier paper the author expounded an interferometer scheme to communicate classical data over an entangled quantum channel. We return to this concept to show that the laws of Quantum Mechanics are not violated and that the device is able to affect the statistical blend of the quantum states (and that this can be detected) but not the statistics – i.e. the physics of observables. The ideas of superluminal information transfer, discussed in the previous paper, are taken forward to develop a notion of absolute space, time and motion with relativistic effects ascribed to motion through an absolute reference frame – as the logical consequences dictate, permeated with a material causing the ‘relativistic’ effects. The reciprocal nature of the Lorentz Transform is shown to fail under superluminal signalling – one frame will be absolutely time dilated and length contacted; thus a full ‘Ether Transformation’ (though this cannot be a group) and a velocity addition law are derived, the Twin’s Paradox is reconsidered. It would seem, in Special Relativity at least, that the phenomenological effects of motion are placed in an absolute, logical, materialistic setting, rather than a confusing relative one that, perhaps, allows no further inspection of just ‘what it is’ causing the effects. The author then discusses whether this programme can be carried forward into General Relativity with the space time distortions ascribable to changes in the properties of the ether but on the whole describable in 3-space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:1311.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 15:05:41*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A means and protocol is presented to send information on the Bell Channel to achieve the effect of superluminal signalling. The method is to use detection of a photon entangled state as one binary digit and either of the collapsed states as the complement digit – this is the protocol. The means to affect this detection is by use of an interferometer set-up able to resolve two interfering pathways corresponding to the two polarization states of the photon. To achieve interference of the horizontal and vertical components Faraday rotators are used to bring both components into diagonal polarization, this operation is unitary. Modulation is caused by the remote signaller collapsing one aspect of the photon wavefunction; a physically secure channel sending information superluminally results. A preliminary discussion into the clash and the hopeful resolution with Relativity theory is presented – it is noteworthy that at the instant of transmission between the two stations that there is no transfer of mass-energy to instigate communication but the transmission of a quantum state - pure information only.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[56] **viXra:1311.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 11:03:19*

**Authors:** Asaf Farhi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Calculating free energy differences is a topic of substantial interest and has many applications including chemical
reactions which are used in organic chemistry, biochemistry and medicines. In equilibrium free energy methods that
are used in molecular simulations, one molecule is transformed into another to calculate the energy difference. However,
when the compared molecules have different number of atoms, these methods cannot be directly applied since the
corresponding transformation involves breaking covalent bonds which will cause a phase transition and impractical
sampling. Thus, Quantum Mechanical Simulations, which are significantly more demanding computationally, are usually
combined to calculate free energies of chemical reactions. Here we show that the free energies can be calculated
by simple classical molecular simulations followed by analytic or numerical calculations. In this method each molecule
is transformed into its replica with the VDW and Coulomb terms of the different atoms relaxed in order to eliminate
the partition function difference arising from these terms. Then, since each transformed system can be treated as
non interacting systems, the remaining difference in the (originally highly complex) partition function can be directly
calculated. Since molecular force fields can often be automatically generated and the calculations suggested here are
rather simple the method can form a basis for automated free energy computation of chemical reactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[55] **viXra:1311.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 04:52:03*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Sum and Difference of Square Numbers

**Category:** Number Theory

[54] **viXra:1311.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 01:37:03*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A brief history of Relativity from the origins to these days is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1311.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-10 13:20:39*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The main objective of this paper is to develop an infinite product formula for the ratio of consecutive prime numbers, using Jacobi elliptic functions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1311.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-10 09:54:13*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 8 Pages. English. Astronomy.

REV. and Captain Thomas Scott Zolotor's Hypotheses proven true many more times. More of my predictions have came true. Read this to find out about the universe. More of my hypothesis were proven true.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[51] **viXra:1311.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-10 11:05:26*

**Authors:** David Harding

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The mass of the universe has often been cited to be approximately 1053 kg, [1-3] a finite number. Current values are derived from either critical density estimations, the average number of stars including interstellar and intergalactic matter, or Hoyle based steady-state estimates, and all imply a finite universe.If the universe is somehow (as thought) accelerating, then a force is somehow (as Max Planck insisted) being applied, yet what force, and how? We know that as a whole, the universe seeks equilibrium. Specific, temporary, or local trajectories and/or accelerations may achieve partial equilibriums, and lead to further “adjustments” in differing magnitudes. Where, again the seeking of equilibrium continues. In the end, the universe as a whole can be seen as being in a multiple state (or in multiple phases) of continuously seeking both partial and complete equilibriums. This conclusion is remarkable; it implies that some partial equilibrium is already achieved, for it “continuously” seeks equilibriums, yet it also implies that the universe is actively seeking some quotient of further equilibrium. It is this partial, already achieved, yet integral equilibrium which this paper describes.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1311.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-19 12:31:31*

**Authors:** David Harding

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The stability of the physical constants suggests quite strongly some sort of cosmological equilibrium. Thermodynamic equilibrium is fundamentally involved in electromagnetic and gravitational equilibrium, yet describing how these realtionships interact encounters certain limitations because of having to describe one constant in terms of the others. The inverse relationship (E=hf) between energy and (time and length), has led to the idea of the point particle, the singularity. This reduction is only partially justifiable. We consider the existence of a universal quantum background, effectively dominated by a unique quantity, the force required to contain electromagnetic energy. This singular force value (required of all black holes) is in every case equivalent, making it likely that there is really only one force acting, and that the universe as a whole is in equilibrium.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[49] **viXra:1311.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-23 18:18:40*

**Authors:** Harold Kyriazi

**Comments:** 40 Pages. This work is copyrighted under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

A purely mechanical, atomistic aether-based paradigm for our universe is proposed. The theory’s hypothetical, indestructible corpuscles must be extremely hard, tiny, and fast, and constitute a dilute but highly energetic gas. They must also be capable of violating the second law of thermodynamics so as to produce dynamic structures out of chaos. Needle-like corpuscles, termed gyrons, with a high degree of orientation-stabilizing axial spin, are conjectured to be able to organize themselves throughout space into a fine 3-D matrix of toroidal vortices that constitutes the vacuum. These vortices, both to exist and to explain gravity, must continually eject longitudinally-oriented, greatly superluminal speed “gravitational gyrons” (GGs). According to the theory developed here, 1) matter consists of collections of right- and left-twisting, stronger versions of the vacuum vortices, and gravitates due to the smaller reactive cross-section and hence lower pressure of GGs ejected from other matter versus from the vacuum, 2) the large-scale organization of galaxies into walls and filaments is at least partly explained by the gravitational pressure differential transitioning from attractive to repulsive at very large distances, 3) the dynamic aspects of the vacuum and its interactions with matter may explain the measured constancy of the speed of light as well as various quantum mechanical phenomena, 4) the Big Bang is an illusion, with the redshift-distance relationship being due to a slow, progressive weakening of the matrix over cosmic time scales–and possibly a concomitant strengthening of matter vortices–owing to competition between vacuum and matter vortices for ideal spin-rate gyrons, and 5) the present cycle of the universe began with a Big Crystallization–of which the cosmic microwave background radiation is a remnant–and will end with a Big Dissolution, of all vortices. The theory is testable at both the cosmological and subatomic levels, by data fitting and 3-D animation simulations, respectively.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[48] **viXra:1311.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-09 05:09:59*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Simple but strict talk about homeomorphism in topology. The World. Shape. The Beginning and End are shown.

**Category:** Topology

[47] **viXra:1311.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-11 12:59:10*

**Authors:** Anton Lipovka

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Published in journal: Invurnus (2013), v.8(2) pp. 29-37

In the present work we suggest a non-local generalization of quantum theory which includes the quantum theory as a particular case. On the basis of the idea, that Planck constant is an adiabatic invariant of free electromagnetic field, we calculate the value of Plank constant from first principles, namely from the geometry of our Universe. The basic nature of the quantum theory is discussed. The nature of the dark energy is revealed. Within the framework of the Einstein – Cartan theory, the expression for the blackbody spectrum is obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[46] **viXra:1311.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-08 12:25:58*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Russian

Futility of attempts of the unified field theory creation induces to search alternative ways.
It is shown, that from macroscopical positions such alternative is the uniform method of a determination of obviously distinguishable forces

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[45] **viXra:1311.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-08 05:20:04*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English and russian texts

The hypothesis of neutrino existence is wrong.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[44] **viXra:1311.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-08 03:27:45*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Planck Model is summarised and some new observations are made. The fundamental particles are shown in systematic arrangement on mass levels. Hadrons are arranged on sublevels. Length and mass scales of atomic and particle physics are shown to derive from Planck scale. 100 years after the publication of Niels Bohr’s atomic model, the Bohr Radius has been found to be a constant of the Planck Model with implications for dark energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[43] **viXra:1311.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-07 11:47:52*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I propose a thought experiment which is intended to achieve the forbidden effect of instant action-at-adistance
by means of an action taken on a lone member of an entangled pair of downconverted photons.
Single photon interference is achieved with the other photon of the pair because the action performed on
the entangled partner has two consequences, induced coherence and coincidence annihilation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[42] **viXra:1311.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-23 15:00:40*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we answered the big questions that cannot be answered within the mainstream theories. What is the origin of the dark matter and dark energy? What is the cause of the exit of our Universe from the black-hole state? What is origin of the VEVs (the vacuum expectation values)? What is the difference between the mainstream electroweak interactions and electroweak interactions described within SST? Why renormalization does not act in the General Relativity? What is the origin of the “spontaneously” broken symmetries? Why equations can be symmetrical whereas their solutions are not? Why all energies are so low in comparison with the Planck energy? Why the string/M theory is useless? What is the origin of the physical constants and mathematical constants applied in physics? All these questions can be answered within the phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field (of the inflation field).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:1311.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-07 04:41:30*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rejected in Nature and Phys.Rev.D

Are given simplest, concise answers to the astronomical open questions. The first Einstein's equations did not described all of the observations. Thus, already Einstein added to the space-time the non-material cosmological constant, describing so the non-material Dark Energy. As You know the historical Einstein equations G=T explore the space, gaps (non-material things on left) with matter tensor on the right. To empirically describe early states near Singularity, one is introducing the f(R) Gravity. Last is non-material Dark Matter, as proved in this paper. These non-material things I simply call "ethers".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1311.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-16 14:50:51*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout, Cameron Rout

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

PACS:98.62.-g An analytical model of galactic morphology is presented. This model presents resolutions to two inter-related parameters of spiral galaxies: one being the flat velocity rotation profile and the other being the spiral morphology of such galaxies. This model is a mathematical transformation dictated by the general theory of relativity applied to rotating polar coordinate systems that conserve the metric. The model shows that the flat velocity rotation profile and spiral shape of certain galaxies are both products of the general theory. Validation of the model is presented by application to 878 rotation curves provided by Salucci, and by comparing the results of a derived distance modulus to those using Cepheid variables, water masers and Tully-Fisher calculations. The model suggests means of determining galactic linear density, mass and angular momentum. We also show that the morphology of NGC 3198 is congruent to the geodesic of a rotating reference frame and is therefore gravitationally viscous and self bound.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[39] **viXra:1311.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 06:41:58*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The Paul Davies hypothesis states: Applications of physical laws yield universal Turing machine computable events and, hence, the universe lends itself to simulation via such a machine. In this article, this hypothesis is falsified. It is shown that various physical events are not universal Turing machine computable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1311.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 08:00:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Mustiness basement of Science were blown up, in time of rising Einstein. He has not taken any of the Newtonian principles (three dimensional World with absolute time) into General Relativity. The beam of starlight passing in Sun's low gravity, showed, that even in weak field limit the General Relativity empirically contradicts the Newton's theory. Nowadays the Science is slow. I propose to critically examine its foundations once again. Because there are experiences, which contradict the Science. And the entropy, as it not being sold on market, is mystical enough.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[37] **viXra:1311.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 09:31:14*

**Authors:** Yusuke Iwahashi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper develops a new calculus on the ring of symmetric functions and introduces its application. In the last of this paper, the author describes a new
general method to expand any symmetric function in terms of a basis in the ring of symmetric functions. For application of it, the author also mentions a general way to evaluate the transition matrix between any two bases in the ring of symmetric functions.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[36] **viXra:1311.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-25 22:16:48*

**Authors:** Daniel Shanahan

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The "Schrödinger cat" states supposed by quantum mechanics need not be considered intrinsically probabilistic or otherwise inconsistent with the existence of the particle in the physically real state assumed by classical physics. The further states contemplated by the formalism of standard quantum mechanics could be states, not of the particle itself, but of the apparatus - oscillatory disturbances induced by reaction as the particle is measured and mimicking the wave characteristics of a particle. If quantum states are understood in this way, much of what has seemed mysterious in quantum behaviour becomes consistent with local realism.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1311.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-05 15:44:19*

**Authors:** Vitaly Kuyukov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I present to you a simple explanation of the Hawking radiation on the basis of my new idea of quantization of the black hole surface. Event horizon of a black hole is a two-dimensional surface in the form of a sphere. On this sphere considered purely as a geometric object that has properties similar to the membrane. Membrane may fluctuate, there arise elastic waves.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1311.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 00:50:36*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 616 Pages.

Folclor umoristic internetist.

**Category:** Linguistics

[33] **viXra:1311.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 00:52:42*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 241 Pages.

Special type of subset topological spaces introduced by the authors pave way for the topological spaces, which basically inherit the algebraic structures from which the subsets are taken. This study is new and happens to be a mixture of algebra and topology.

**Category:** Algebra

[32] **viXra:1311.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 00:54:17*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 254 Pages.

The authors use the subset semigroups over the semifields to build the semilinear algebras of both finite order and infinite order. The concept of subset linear independence and subset linear dependence which leads to the dimension and basis of subset semilinear algebras is analyzed in this book.

**Category:** Algebra

[31] **viXra:1311.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 00:56:16*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

This book contains 21 papers of plane geometry.
It deals with various topics, such as: quasi-isogonal cevians,
nedians, polar of a point with respect to a circle, anti-bisector,
aalsonti-symmedian, anti-height and their isogonal.
A nedian is a line segment that has its origin in a triangle’s vertex
and divides the opposite side in n equal segments.
The papers also study distances between remarkable points in the
2D-geometry, the circumscribed octagon and the inscribable octagon,
the circles adjointly ex-inscribed associated to a triangle, and several
classical results such as: Carnot circles, Euler’s line, Desargues
theorem, Sondat’s theorem, Dergiades theorem, Stevanovic’s
theorem, Pantazi’s theorem, and Newton’s theorem.
Special attention is given in this book to orthological triangles, biorthological
triangles, ortho-homological triangles, and trihomological
triangles.
Each paper is independent of the others. Yet, papers on the same or similar
topics are listed together one after the other.
The book is intended for College and University students and instructors that
prepare for mathematical competitions such as National and International
Mathematical Olympiads, or for the AMATYC (American Mathematical
Association for Two Year Colleges) student competition, Putnam competition,
Gheorghe Ţiţeica Romanian competition, and so on.
The book is also useful for geometrical researchers.

**Category:** Geometry

[30] **viXra:1311.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 00:59:35*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

Autorul introduce o noua specie poetica: poemele cu poeme. [Octavian Blaga]
Si in acest volum, fiecare poem este compus din versuri independente. Dar o legătură subtilă între versuri transcende. Aşadar, ‘poeme’ cu ‘poeme într-un vers’ [sau meta-poeme].
Cartea putea fi structurată şi diferit, ca un simplu volum de poeme într-un vers. Stilul volumului este eliptic.

**Category:** Linguistics

[29] **viXra:1311.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 01:05:22*

**Authors:** Dana Petras

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

O diagonală la activitatea literară şi ştiinţifică
a lui Florentin Smarandache

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[28] **viXra:1311.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-06 02:32:27*

**Authors:** Vladimir I. Rogozhin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This Essay titled "It from Δ-Logit" participated in the Contest FQXi Essay 2013

Total ontological unification of matter at all levels of reality as a whole, its “grasp” of its dialectical structure, space dimensionality and structure of the language of nature – “house of Being” [1], gives the opportunity to see the “place” and to understand the nature of information as a phenomenon of Ontological (structural) Memory (OntoMemory), the measure of being of the whole, “the soul of matter”, qualitative quantity of the absolute forms of existence of matter (absolute states). “Information” and “time” are multivalent phenomena of Ontological Memory substantiating the essential unity of the world on the “horizontal” and “vertical”. Ontological constructing of dialectics of Logos self-motion, total unification of matter, “grasp” of the nature of information leads to the necessity of introducing a new unit of information showing the ideas of dialectical formation and generation of new structures and meanings, namely Delta-Logit (Δ-Logit), qualitative quantum-prototecton, fundamental organizing, absolute existential-extreme. The simplest mathematical symbol represents the dialectical microprocessor of the Nature. Ontological formula of John A. Wheeler «It from Bit» [2] is “grasped” as the first dialectic link in the chain of ontological formulas → “It from Δ-Logit” → “It from OntoMemory” → “It from Logos, Logos into It”. Ontological Memory - core, semantic attractor of the new conceptual structure of the world of the Information Age, which is based on Absolute generating structure («general framework structure»), the representant of onto-genetic code and algorithm of the Universe.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[27] **viXra:1311.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-05 07:56:11*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 illustration

In astrophysical scientism an impossible object has been discovered called Kepler-78b. It is not an impossible object according to stellar metamorphosis it simply means that the nebular hypothesis has yet again been 100% falsified. It is predicted that the falsification of the nebular hypothesis will not be accepted, and scientists who believe in the nebular hypothesis will continue to find objects that are “impossible” and try their best to explain them away.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[26] **viXra:1311.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-05 04:07:24*

**Authors:** Ralf Stephan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short note we give an expression for some numbers $n$ such that the polynomial $x^{2p}-nx^p+1$ is reducible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[25] **viXra:1311.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-08 15:45:08*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 13 pages, 2 figures, accepted by the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary work, we use a dynamic iso-unit function to iso-topically lift the "static" Inopin holographic ring (IHR) of the unit sphere to an interconnected pair of "dynamic iso-sphere IHRs" (iso-DIHR), where the IHR is simultaneously iso-dual to both a magnified "exterior iso-DIHR" and de-magnified ``interior iso-DIHR". For both the continuously-varying and discretely-varying cases, we define the dynamic iso-amplitude-radius of one iso-DIHR as being equivalent to the dynamic iso-amplitude-curvature of its counterpart, and conversely. These initial results support the hypothesis that a new IHR-based mode of iso-geometry and iso-topology may be in order, which is significant because the interior and exterior zones delineated by the IHR are fundamentally "iso-dual inverses" and may be inferred from one another.

**Category:** Topology

[24] **viXra:1311.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-20 19:31:09*

**Authors:** Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 14 pages, 2 figures, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

In this introductory work, we use Santilli's iso-topic lifting as a cutting-edge platform to explore Mandelbrot's set. The objective is to upgrade Mandelbrot's complex quadratic polynomial with iso-multiplication and then computationally probe the effects on this revolutionary fractal. For this, we define the "iso-complex quadratic polynomial" and engage it to generate a locally iso-morphic array of "Mandelbrot iso-sets" by varying the iso-unit, where the connectedness property is topologically preserved in each case. The iso-unit broadens and strengthens the chaotic analysis, and authorizes an enhanced classification and demystification such complex systems because it equips us with an additional degree of freedom: the new Mandelbrot iso-set array is an improvement over the traditional Mandelbrot set because it is significantly more general. In total, the experimental results exemplify dynamic iso-spaces and indicate two modes of topological effects: scale-deformation and boundary-deformation. Ultimately, these new and preliminary developments spark further insight into the emerging realm of iso-fractals.

**Category:** Topology

[23] **viXra:1311.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 16:22:11*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that replacements of principle of processes invisibility, underlying the relativity theory, on opposite principle their discernability lead to the absoluteness theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1311.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 13:23:39*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the paper [1] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in General Relativity. In this paper we consider the concept of the EMT but in the aspect of the gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1311.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 09:17:55*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An explanation is offered of the mechanism of turbulent flows emergence, based of the Maxwell-like gravitation equations, updated after some known experiments. It is shown that the moving molecules of flowing liquid interact like electrical charges.
The forces of such interaction can be calculated and included to the Navier-Stokes equations as mass forces. Navier-Stocks equations complemented by these forcesbecome equations of hydrodynamics for turbulent flow. For the calculations of turbulent flows the known methods of Navier-Stokes equations solution may be used.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20] **viXra:1311.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 12:15:36*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In russian

The work is dedicated to the development of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field (EMF). On the basis of EMF representation by an antisymmetric tensor field of the second rank, the symmetric tensor of EMF is constructed. This tensor describes the deformation of EMF in Minkowski space. Coupling equations of its components supplement the system of Maxwell's equations. The new equations describe connection between volumetric and shear deformations of EMF. Coupling equations between strain tensor components and tensor components received. It is shown that members of calibration condition of Lorentz are components of a spherical tensor of volumetric deformation of EMF. It is shown that the electric charges produce volumetric deformation of EMF. The wave equation of tensor waves of volumetric deformation of EMF is received.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1311.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-03 11:16:35*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Maxwell-similar gravitation equations and the experiments of Samokhvalov are considered. It is noted that the observed effects are so significant, that in order to explain them within the said Maxwell-similar gravitation equations these equations should be supplemented by a certain empirical coefficient that may be named gravitational permeability of the medium. Then it is shown that with such supplement the results of experiments are in good agreement with so modified gravitation equations. A crude estimate of this coefficient is given. Some corollaries of these equations are considered, in particular, the gravitational excitation of electric current, the impact of gravito-magnetic induction on the electric current. Some phenomena that can be explained with the aid of these equations are indicated.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1311.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-01 23:03:14*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. numerous small changes

Both the "Standard" and the "Tetrahedron Model" rely on symmetry principles to create unified theories of the "four forces of physics" (in the sense of Emmy Noether's great theorem relating symmetry and conservation). But in general I use the symmetries of the "forest", while the standard model uses the symmetries of the "trees". Obviously, these cannot be mutually exclusive categories; in most respects the two theories complement each other. Another major difference is that I use the concept of symmetry "debts" to solve qualitative "why" or conservation problems (Why gravity? What is the conservation reason that gravity must exist as a force in the universe?), whereas the "establishment" uses the concept of symmetry-in-action to solve quantitative "how" or mechanistic problems (how does gravity produce its effects and how can we calculate them?). (See: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' VS the 'Standard Model' of Physics: A Comparison".)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[17] **viXra:1311.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 03:08:30*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Present-day thermodynamics has long outgrown the initial frames of the heat-engine
theory and transmuted into a rather general macroscopic method for studying kinetics
of various transfer processes in their inseparable connection with the thermal form of
motion. However its primary notions and mathematical instrument as before based on
concepts of thermostatics, to which time, speed and productivity of processes are alien,
and on the equations transitory in case of irreversible processes in inequalities. It is
offered essentially other approach at which the thermostatics equations follow from
thermokinetics of spatially non-uniform systems.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[16] **viXra:1311.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-03 07:14:57*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away with $3$ potential habitable exo-planets(Gliese $667c$) at superluminal speeds in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!! Some years ago Barcelo,Finazzi and Liberati published a work in which the composed mixed tensor $\langle {T_\mu}^\nu\rangle$ obtained from the negative energy density tensor $T_{\mu\nu}$ $\mu=0,\nu=0$ of the $1+1$ dimensional Alcubierre warp drive metric diverges when the velocity of the ship $vs$ exceeds the speed of light.(see pg $2$ in \cite{ref19}).We demonstrate in this work that in fact this do not happens and their results must be re-examined.We introduce here a shape function that defines the Natario warp drive spacetime as an excellent candidate to low the negative energy density requirements from $10^{48}$ to affordable levels.We also discuss Horizons and Doppler Blueshifts that affects the Alcubierre spacetime but not the Natario counterpart.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1311.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-03 07:21:22*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In any system of macro bodies, relative considerations can provide only parameters of their relative positions. Use of reference frame, related to a static central macro body, causes planetary orbital path to appear as closed geometrical figure around the central macro body. As central macro body is a moving macro body; this does not reflect physical reality. Although this helps to explain cyclic phenomena, properties attributed to elliptical/circular planetary orbital paths are unreal. Due to constant linear motions of free macro bodies in space, it is practically impossible for a free macro body to orbit around another, in any type of closed geometrical path. However, they may orbit about each other and follow a common median path in space. Real orbital path of a planetary body is wavy about median path of central body, with the planetary body moving to front and rear of central body, cyclically.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14] **viXra:1311.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-03 08:50:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article redefine the prime number in angle with irreducible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13] **viXra:1311.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 15:03:09*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 34 pages, 7 figures, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

We propose a preliminary framework that engages iso-triplex numbers and deformation order parameters to encode the spatial states of Iso Open Topological Strings (Iso-OTS) for fermions and the temporal states of Iso Closed Topological Strings (Iso-CTS) for bosons, where space and time are iso-dual. The objective is to introduce an elementary Topological Iso-String Theory (TIST) that complies with the holographic principle and fundamentally represents the twisting, winding, and deforming of helical, spiral, and vortical information structures---by default---for attacking superfluidic motion patterns and energy states with iso-topic lifting. In general, these preliminary results indicate a cutting-edge, flexible, consistent, and powerful iso-mathematical framework with considerable representational capability that warrants further examination, collaboration, construction, and discipline.

**Category:** Topology

[12] **viXra:1311.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 15:26:41*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Paper discusses Empirical metaphysics, Epistemology, Noetic, Plato, Transcendence

Galileo is credited with bringing us from the age of Logic and Reason to the age of Empiricism;
This document describes the next step which also completes the tools of epistemology - That of the utility of
transcendence (or noetic insight as ancient Greek Philosopher Plato termed it) as a tool in scientific theory
formation. An example of this controversial concept is illustrated here giving birth to an ‘Empirical
Metaphysics’ that was used to open the door to large-scale additional dimensionality and in the process allow
access to a 3rd regime of reality (Classical Newtonian - Quantum - Unity) founding the field of Unified Field
Mechanics.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11] **viXra:1311.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 10:23:47*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The well known expectations to unify general relativity with
quantum mechanics did not give some essential results up to now.
If quantum gravity has such a poor set of tiny effects as in
existing models, it may not be of great interest for physics. But
there is another approach to quantum gravity, in which it seems to
be a common ground of general relativity and quantum mechanics
rather than their consequence. Important features of the author's
model of low-energy quantum gravity, such as the quantum mechanism
of classical gravity, the quantum mechanism of redshift and the
specific relaxation of any photonic flux, are described here. In
the model, the Newton and Hubble constants may be computed, but
the latter is not connected with any expansion. The model fits
SN1a and GRB observations very well without dark energy. Some
possibilities to verify the model in ground-based experiments are
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1311.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 10:53:49*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that the energodynamics lead to new results practically in each its area
applications, allowing to extend of classical and a quantum mechanics, theories of thermal and not thermal machines, physical chemistry and biophysics, electrodynamics and theories of evolution laws.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1311.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 07:24:05*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In Russian

The negative consequences of the quantum-relativist revolution which have led to
modern crisis of theoretical physics are discussed. The necessity of construction of the
"neoclassical" interdisciplinary theory of real processes excluding from the
bases any hypotheses and postulates and transition from the relativity the absoluteness theory is proved.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1311.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 09:04:59*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper we present an anachronistic pre-YM and pre-GR attempt to formulate an alternative mathematical physics language in order to treat the problem of the electron in twentieth century physics. We start the construction of our alternative to the Minkowski-Laue consensus by putting spin in the metric. This allows us to simplify Lorentz transformations as metric transformations with invariant coordinates. Using the developed formalism on the Pauli-Dirac level,we expand the quantum helicity operators into helicity rotators and then extend them from the usual 3-D expressions to 4-D variants. We connect the resulting 4-D Dirac-Weyl hyperbolic rotators to mathematical expressions that are very similar to their analogues in the pre General Relativity attempts towards a relativistic theory of gravity. This relative match motivates us to interpret the 4-D hyperbolic rotation angle as possibly gravitational in nature. At the end we apply the 4D hyperbolic rotator to the Dirac equation and investigate how it might change this equation and the related Lagrangian. We are curious to what extend the result enters the realm of quantum gravity and thus might be beyond pre-GR relativistic theories of gravity of Abraham, Nordstr{\"o}m, Mie and Einstein.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1311.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 06:50:44*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

The "diagonal" form of phenomenological laws is offered, containing unique (resultant)
motive force and allowing to describe effects of superposition by smaller number of kinetic factors.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1311.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 05:09:02*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 2 Tables, 6 formulas

Abstract. Using mathematical constants ("2", "e" and "2π"), physical constants (ά - inverse fine-structure constant and μ – the proton/electron mass ratio), postulates and methods, we obtain relations among other physical constants. It is crucial to accept the important role of cyclicity. The cyclicity and the bit lead to reality, which is presented by the relations between physical constants featuring 2x. Alsaw, here is original relation between the masses of proton, neutron and electron.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1311.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-01 20:36:44*

**Authors:** Henry Gu Cao, Zhiliang Cao

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published on http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/5/5/index.html

An experiment is proposed, consisting of a Java UDP program that performs simple tests using two different servers connect by the internet. These tests can be repeated using the source code provided in the paper. The test results conclude that the two clocks, in different geographical locations, are drifting throughout the twenty four hour day.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1311.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-01 20:54:48*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published on http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20130206.14.pdf

The paper "SR Equations without Constant One-Way Speed of Light" brings us a century back by discussing contradictory Relativity postulates. Instead of dealing with the aether theory, this paper proposes the Unified Field Theory (UFT) that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The ideal Torque Grids have same size and String movement cycle is the same as the Grid size in all directions. When Torque Grids have different sizes, the Torque Grids have size dis-tortions. When Torque String movement speeds are different between two opposite directions, the Torque Grids have charge distortion. Both size and charge distortion can be measured by energy. The charge distortion can be measured by electronic charge in addition to the energy. The Gravity interactions and Strong interactions are related to Torque Grids’ size distortions. The electron-magnetic interactions and weak interactions are related to charge distortions. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation and explains why the electron is stable. The electron has a single Torque Grid distortion on its shell and is in resonance with its wavelength. Therefore, electron is stable and electronic field is formed. Strong force and weak force are result of two additional main resonance wave forms on the shell of the electron. Finally, the paper unifies the four fundamental fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1311.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-20 01:44:25*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Mironov, Victor L. Mironov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This is revised version of our previous paper

In the present paper we develop the description of massive fields on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. The generalized sedeonic second-order equation for the potential of massive field is proposed. It is shown that this equation can be reformulated in the form of a system of Maxwell-like equations for the field strengths. We also discuss the generalized sedeonic first-order equation for massive field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1311.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-01 05:02:15*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 238 Pages. In Russian

The monography gives the developed statement of two new directions of modern thermodynamics - theories of irreversible processes and thermodynamics in finite times which concern classical thermodynamics as dynamics to a statics. It is distinguished by consistently thermodynamic substantiation of all positions of the theory of irreversible processes and its generalisation on nonlinear systems and the conditions far from equilibrium. The book offers a new method of a irreversible processes superposition effects from conditions of partial equilibrium that allows to simplify their laws, to reduce number of unknown coefficients and to establish additional connections between them. Along with it the book contains the application of this theory to processes of useful transformation of energy and offers the productivity theory of energy transformation processes, founded on the theory of its similarity.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] **viXra:1311.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-01 05:52:11*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract.
Based on the earlier developed by author hypothesis of the exploding electron the actual value of the electric field around the electron in motion is proposed.
Instantaneous electrical field around the electron has empty regions and axial symmetry. Owing to the space isotropy the axis of symmetry takes equiprobable positions in space, and thus the averaged field acquires the central symmetry. Relationship for the actual electric intensity of the field around the moving electron is proposed which differs from that based on the special relativity theory. With increasing speed the electric intensity of the field around the moving electron tends to the finite value in the direction orthogonal to the movement.

**Category:** Classical Physics