[71] **viXra:1009.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 7 pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, Vol. 1, Issue 8, pp. 1218-1224 (2010)

Hyperdeterminants are generalizations of determinants from matrices to multi-dimensional
hypermatrices. They were discovered in the 19th century by Arthur Cayley but were largely
ignored over a period of 100 years before once again being recognised as important in
algebraic geometry, physics and number theory. It is shown that a cubic elliptic curve
whose Mordell-Weil group contains a Z_{2} x Z_{2} x Z subgroup can be transformed into the
degree four hyperdeterminant on a 2x2x2 hypermatrix comprising its variables and coefficients.
Furthermore, a multilinear problem defined on a 2x2x2x2 hypermatrix of coefficients can
be reduced to a quartic elliptic curve whose J-invariant is expressed in terms of the
hypermatrix and related invariants including the degree 24 hyperdeterminant. These
connections between elliptic curves and hyperdeterminants may have applications in
other areas including physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[70] **viXra:1009.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 18 pages. In Italian, a short English version is included.

Recently gravitoelectromagnetism ("GEM") has been discussed by a number of authors. In this
paper, after a brief reminder of viXra:1008.0042 "An interpretation of the laws of gravity and
inertia", it is shown that the law of motion and the gravitoelectromagnetic fields can be deduced
from the Lagrange function of a non relativistic particle in a non inertial reference frame. The
discussion has been extended to the Faraday induction law: a gravity field can be induced in a loop
if the gravitomagnetic flux through the loop is changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1009.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 6 pages

If light is made of particles or waves which propagate at the same
speed in all inertial frames, then the speed of light is the greatest
speed possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1009.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 pages, 8 figures.

The physical principle at the beginning of electromagnetic waves is different from
that of light. In fact electromagnetic waves are produced by modulation of current
intensity of conduction electrons in metals that generates an electromagnetic field
in the space. Light instead is made up of energy corpuscles, named photons, that
are produced by electron quantum jumps among energy different levels of atom.
In this paper a transition frequency from the wave nature of electromagnetism to
the corpuscular nature of light is defined. We prove further that diffraction isn't
an exclusive property of waves and an original interpretation of diffraction according
to the corpuscular theory is furnished utilizing the Fourier integral. A theoretical
explanation on propagation of photon is finally given through the new concept of
electromagnetic nanofield.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[67] **viXra:1009.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 11:51:40*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. paper is in 3 parts due to length; updated abstract

The Cosmos begins with a (very) high energy form of free electromagnetic energy: light. Light is the purest, simplest, and most symmetric energy form known (massless, timeless, chargeless). But - evidently there is no sufficient reason to prevent this - light also exists in the alternative form of symmetric particle-antiparticle pairs, which usually simply annihilate, reverting to light. Sometimes, however, instead of annihilating, light's alternative form of symmetric particle-antiparticle pairs is converted (through weak-force symmetry-breaking), into asymmetric single particles of bound electromagnetic energy, producing atomic matter. Atomic matter is a bound, massive, and temporally (historically) conserved form of light's free, massless, spatial (and timeless) form. In matter, light's raw energy is conserved as mass and momentum; light's symmetry is conserved as charge and spin; light's entropy (intrinsic motion) is conserved as time; light's spatial continuity is conserved as historical causality. Gravity converts light's spatial entropic domain into matter's temporal entropic domain, and vice versa (gravity creates time from space and vice versa). Energy Conservation, Symmetry Conservation, Entropy, and Causality/Information are the four principle conservation parameters of the "Tetrahedron Model", and constitute the foundation of natural or physical law which underlies and supports the Unified Field Theory of the four physical forces. (See: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' of the Unified Field Theory").
In this paper I explore the connections between of the four physical forces, with special emphasis upon their symmetry relations under the unifying mantle of Noether's symmetry conservation theorem: "The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light". The particles of matter bear light's symmetry debts as charges; these charges produce forces which act to spontaneously return the asymmetric massive system of matter to its symmetric massless origin as light (including such processes as particle-antiparticle annihilations; various astrophysical processes converting bound to free energy (stars, supernovas, quasars, etc.); Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes, and possibly even "proton decay"). "Information" and the carbon atom provide connecting links between Life and the abiotic universe. "Given" or "underived" physical constants are presumed to originate in the "Multiverse".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1009.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Yavar Haghpanah

**Comments:** 4 pages

It is shown that the intention of Dabbatonmenalarz in Koran
or Dajjal, which had been to appear near the
Akherozzaman, is the same computer and internet.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[65] **viXra:1009.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Yavar Haghpanah

**Comments:** 3 pages

Divine reasons endorsing Shia and the five members of the family of
the messenger of Islam and the twelve Imams of Shia especially the
twelfth Imam, Mahdi Sahebozzaman, and the verses said about them
have all been presented in this article all of which almost decisively
(with so little probability for error).

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[64] **viXra:1009.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Yavar Haghpanah

**Comments:** 3 pages

Four systems for numerical value of letters are introduced. Out of
them, it seems, the two systems "Gematrical Value" and "Total
Gematrical Value" have more endorsements for scrutiny of Koran
verses.
A simple way for verifying the divisibility of numbers by 19 is
presented.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[63] **viXra:1009.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Maher Ahmed

**Comments:** 21 pages

Since early 1980 there is no new discoveries for the basic laws of physics[1], the main problem
behind that is the missing of a complete physical description for our universe physics. The concepts
of space time, particles (mass), fields, and energy have a big ambiguity in our deep understanding
of physics. One of reasons for that is the limitation of our experimental technology in high energy
accelerators, and in cosmological observations.
In this research the author follows the creative thinking rules which discovered in the field of
human psychology studies[2{4] for solving difficult problems through human specie history. The
main idea in creative thinking is to borrow ideas and concepts from fields away from the problems
own field, those new ideas and concepts are brought to the field of the problems to help human to
go inside the problems and get the solution[5]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[62] **viXra:1009.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Alvydas Jakeliunas

**Comments:** 1 page

New equations to eliminate spacetime curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:1009.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 13 pages

The purpose of this chapter of nonlinear theory of elementary particles (NTEP) is to describe the
mechanism of generation of massive elementary particles. The theory, presented below, indicates
the possibility of the particle mass production by means of massive intermediate boson, but without
the presence of Higgs's boson. It is shown that nonlinearity is critical for the appearance of
particles' masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[60] **viXra:1009.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Willard Mittelman

**Comments:** 5 pages

We consider a recent attempt by Gogberashvili and Kanatchikov to connect the value of the
fine structure constant α with cosmological parameters. After pointing out an error in
the authors' account, we show that by modifying their treatment of dark energy a suitable
value of a can still be obtained using current values of the relevant cosmological
parameters. We also address the question of α's determination in earlier cosmological
eras

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1009.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 4 pages

Experimental data confirm material change i.e. motion run in space. There is no experimental
evidence time being part of the space. Time is what we measure with clocks. With clocks we
measure numerical order (see paper for full abstract)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] **viXra:1009.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:** 10 pages

Our visual cosmic spectacle is populated with matter formations of sophisticated
geometrical shapes. Many of these are flat, or at least tend to be flat. The geometrical
description of these started, historically, with circles, going through conic sections
and ending with spirals. The flat formations, of matter both static and in motion,
helped creating the modern theory of gravitation. They decided the modern image of
the world we live in. Are they connected? Yes! The geometry of this connection is
presented, starting from its main physical reasons: we cannot see them but in projections
on the canopy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1009.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 15 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1009.3584 [physics.gen-ph].

Recent preliminary data gathered by the Fermilab MINOS Collaboration suggest with 95% confidence
that the mass of the muon neutrino differs from that of its antineutrino partner, which contradicts the
entrenched relativistic quantum theory notion that a free antiparticle is a negative-energy free particle
compelled to travel backwards in time. Also a discrepancy of about five standard deviations in the value
of the proton charge radius recently obtained from muonic hydrogen versus that previously obtained from
electronic hydrogen casts doubt on the calculation of the dominant relativistic QED contributions to
the effects that are actually measured (e.g., the Lamb shift): these QED contributions dominate proton
charge radius contributions less in muonic hydrogen than in electronic hydrogen. The negative-energy "free
particles" of entrenched relativistic quantum theory are well-known features of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac
equations, which are shown to have many other unphysical features as well. The correspondence principle
for relativistic particles is incompatible with these two equations, produces no unphysical features and
implies only positive energies for free particles, which eliminates the very basis of the entrenched notion of
antiparticles, as well as of the CPT theorem. This principle thus requires antiparticles to arise from charge
conjugation (or more generally CP) invariance, whose known breaking is naturally expected to produce
mass splitting between particle and antiparticle, in consonance with the preliminary MINOS data. It also
requires revamping of relativistic QED, which is in accord with the doubt cast on it by the proton charge
radius results, and implies that QED is nonlocal, i.e. has no Hamiltonian density.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[56] **viXra:1009.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

The authors of Arxiv:1009.1630 demonstrate by theoretical
arguments that systems at the quantum level can be erased with
energy release to boot. In other words, erasure, once instigated,
avalanches with a burst of energy. Energy is fed to the system to
initiate erasure, but, once begun, erasing continues on its own.
Could it be that UFOs have this ability to self-disrupt as a means
of aborting a mission? The authors restrain their quantum system
from runaway collapse, but, in nature, a collapse, once begun, is
uncontrollable and irreversible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:1009.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 4 pages

Answers to ten simple questions reveals that the standard
theory of physics defies logic or reason similar to the fairy tales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1009.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Moon Kyom

**Comments:** 9 pages

Added the infinite sign and the infinitesimal sign and defined an operation.
The infinite calculation of number became possible.
The benefits gained by infinite number is as follows.

**Category:** Number Theory

[53] **viXra:1009.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 10 pages.

We show that measured by S.Herrmann et al., Phys.Rev.D 80, 105011 (2009) small (but finite) value of relative variation (δν/ν>0) of the resonance frequency of an evacuated optical resonator, when changing its orientation in space, can not serve as an indication of the absence of a preferred direction concerned with the absolute motion of the setup. On the contrary, the finiteness δν/ν>0 testifies to spatial anisotropy of the velocity of light. In order to detect the absolute motion and determine the value and direction of its velocity, the volume of the resonator should be regarded, at any degree of evacuation, as being an optical medium, with its refractive index *n*>1 to be necessarily taken into account, irrespective of the extent to be the medium's tenuity. In this event the residual pressure of the evacuated medium should be controlled: that will ensure the magnitude of *n* to be known at least to the first significant digit after 1.00000...

If the working body is a gas then, as in the case of the fringe shift in the interferometer, the shift δν of the resonance frequency of the volume resonator is proportional to *n*^{2}–1=Δε and to the square of the velocity υ of absolute motion of the resonator. At sufficiently large values of optical density, δν is proportional to (*n*^{2}–1)(2–*n*^{2})=Δε(1–Δε), and at *n*>1.5 it may possess such a great value that there even becomes possible a jump of the automatic laser frequency trimmer from the chosen *m*-mode of the reference resonator to its adjacent *m*±1 modes. Taking into account the effect of the medium permittivity by introducing in calculation the actual value *n*>1 in experiments with resonators performed by the scheme of the Michelson experiment enabled us to estimate the absolute speed of the Earth as several hundreds kilometers per second.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1009.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Arkadiusz Jadczyk

**Comments:** 38 pages

Using the standard Cayley transform and elementary tools it is reiterated
that the conformal compactification of the Minkowski space involves
not only the "cone at infinity" but also the 2-sphere that is at the base of
this cone. We represent this 2-sphere by two additionally marked points
on the Penrose diagram for the compactified Minkowski space. Lacks and
omissions in the existing literature are described, Penrose diagrams are
derived for both, simple compactification and its double covering space,
which is discussed in some detail using both the U(2) approach and the exterior
and Clifford algebra methods. Using the Hodge ☆ operator twistors
(i.e. vectors of the pseudo-Hermitian space H_{2}. Killing vector fields corresponding
to the left action of U(2) on itself are explicitly calculated.
Isotropic cones and corresponding projective quadrics in H_{p;q} are also
discussed. Applications to flat conformal structures, including the normal
Cartan connection and conformal development has been discussed in some
detail.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1009.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 5 pages

The accelerated expansion rate is no longer surprising. It is the inevitable
consequence of the holographic information storage on the surface screen of the
universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] **viXra:1009.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 5 pages

A General Systems model in the form of an hourglass is used to illustrate the relationships among the four
forces of physics, space, time, and nuclear and elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:1009.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:** 16 pages

The dynamic equations related to Kepler motion are scale-invariant. This means that the
dynamical model is universal: it works on the same principles at the micro level as well
as at the macro level. Why then quantization? Is it telling something we couldn't read
in the classical physics? The answer is negative: both the microcosm and the macrocosm
show the same type of phenomena that could be taken into consideration by the classical
theory. The only thing worth considering from the side of quantum revolution is the
inspiration it could bring, in astrophysics for instance. This was lost, however, due
to the artificial dichotomy of our spirit.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1009.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 70 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime
theorems (691)-(740) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6)
we are able to find the smallest solution. π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[47] **viXra:1009.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John Michael Williams

**Comments:** 10 pages

The Olbers conjecture, that under reasonable assumptions, light from
the stars should sum at the Earth to make the sky bright at night, has
been a subject of study since the early 19th century. It has been
incorporated into some of modern cosmology.
After confirming Olbers's reasoning analytically, we solve the problem
using a new calculation modelled as a projecture in the form of an
imaginary, constant-area star probe. We find that there are not enough
of stars to make the sky bright at night.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[46] **viXra:1009.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-03 15:35:33*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

•ABSTRACT: We study a generalization of the zeta regularization method applied to the case of the regularization of divergent integrals for positive ‘s’ , using the Euler Maclaurin summation formula, we manage to express a divergent integral in term of a linear combination of divergent series , these series can be regularized using the Riemann Zeta function s >0 , in the case of the pole at s=1 we use a property of the Functional determinant to obtain the regularization , with the aid of the Laurent series in one and several variables we can extend zeta regularization to the cases of integrals , we believe this method can be of interest in the regularization of the divergent UV integrals in Quantum Field theory since our method would not have the problems of the Analytic regularization or dimensional regularization
•Keywords: = Riemann Zeta function, Functional determinant, Zeta regularization, divergent series .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[45] **viXra:1009.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this article we'll present an elementary proof of a theorem of Alexandru Pantazi
(1896-1948), Romanian mathematician, regarding the bi-orthological triangles.

**Category:** Geometry

[44] **viXra:1009.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 21 pages, submitted to the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A.

Polyvector-valued gauge field theories in Clifford spaces are used to
construct a novel Cl(3, 2) gauge theory of gravity that furnishes modified
curvature and torsion tensors leading to important modifications of the
standard gravitational action with a cosmological constant. Vacuum solutions
exist which allow a cancellation of the contributions of a very
large cosmological constant term and the extra terms present in the modified
field equations. Generalized gravitational actions in Clifford-spaces
are provided and some of their physical implications are discussed. It is
shown how the 16 fermions and their masses in each family can be accommodated
within a Cl(4) gauge field theory. In particular, the Higgs
fields admit a natural Clifford-space interpretation that differs from the
one in the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action model of Noncommutative
geometry. We finalize with a discussion on the relationship with the
Pati-Salam color-flavor model group SU(4)_{C} x SU(4)_{F} and its symmetry
breaking patterns. An Appendix is included with useful Clifford algebraic
relations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[43] **viXra:1009.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 71 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime
theorems (641)-(690) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6)
we are able to find the smallest solution. π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[42] **viXra:1009.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
14 pages

Applications of Paradoxism in Science (information fusion, cybernetics, robotics,
airspace, medicine, military, logics, set theory, probability and statistics, geometry,
multispace and multistructure theory) at NASA, NATO, University of Berkeley, etc.,
also in Philosophy, Linguistics, Arts...

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[41] **viXra:1009.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
9 pages

Paradoxism can be used in any domain. We can PARADOXISM-IZE (also said To S-Deny) any
theory by partially validating and partially negating it, or only negating it but in multiple ways.
In each case, we put together conflicting ideas in the same theory, whence the paradoxism.
This is the first paradoxist SCIENTIFIC MANIFESTO to be used in the literary work, and the
sixth paradoxist manifesto in general.
By paradoxismizing a <notion> one can get a <pseudo-notion> or <quasi-notion> (for example:
paradoxismizing the norm one gets a pseudo-norm in mathematics, or paradoxismizing the
associativity we get the quasi-associativity in information fusion), but they are still useful in
science.
In this paper we introduce the operators of validation and invalidation (the second one is
paradoxist in nature) of a proposition, and we extend the operator of paradoxismizing (or Sdenying))
a proposition, or an axiomatic system, from the geometric space to respectively any
theory in any domain of knowledge, and show six examples in geometry, in mathematical
analysis, and in topology.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[40] **viXra:1009.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 4 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Square Product Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[39] **viXra:1009.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 6 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Prime Product Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1009.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 4 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Mirror Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1009.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 3 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Factorial Product Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1009.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 5 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Back Concatenated Cube Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1009.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 6 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Back Concatenated Even Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1009.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 6 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Back Concatenated Odd Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1009.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 5 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Back Concatenated Prime Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1009.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 5 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Back Concatenated Square Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1009.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 4 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Concatenated Cubic Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1009.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 6 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Concatenated Even Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1009.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 5 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Concatenated Odd Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[28] **viXra:1009.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 4 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Concatenated Prime Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[27] **viXra:1009.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 4 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Concatenated Square Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1009.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 4 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Cubic Product Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[25] **viXra:1009.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 10 pages

Factoring of the Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1009.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Xin-De Li

**Comments:** 8 pages

This paper introduces the Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) Field and Linear Algebra of
Refined Labels (FLARL) useful for dealing accurately
with qualitative information expressed in terms of
qualitative belief functions. This work extends substantially our previous works done in DSmT framework
which were mainly based on approximate qualitative
operators. Here, new well justified accurate basic
operators on qualitative labels (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, root, power, etc) are presented.
The end of this paper is devoted to an exemples of
qualitative fusion rules based on this new FLARL
approach for decision-making support.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[23] **viXra:1009.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:** 15 pages

The classical treatment of the Kepler problem leaves room for the description of the space region
of the central body by a hyperbolic geometry. If the correspondence between the empty space and
the space filled with matter is taken to be a harmonic mapping, then the region of atomic nucleus,
like the one of the Sun for the planetary system proper, is described by hyperbolic skyrmions.
This fact makes possible the description of the nuclear matter within framework of general
relativity. The classical "hedgehog" solution for skyrmions can then be classically interpreted in
terms of the characterizations of intra-nuclear forces.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22] **viXra:1009.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 11 pages

Connected theory is not only a theory about gravitation. It is the
theory that has eliminate absolute space and inertials reference frames of
Newton-Einstein. Presentation of the relational metric that eliminates absolute rotation
movements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1009.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:** 5 pages

There are a number of good reasons to say that big bang support evolution theory's idea of
creation by pure statistical chance alone. And that is why: some people do think that big
bang can happen out of nothing. That standpoint of view, albeit not new, are reiterated by
stephen hawking from Cambridge, in his latest book: the grand design.
Another middle-point of view, if you are believer of middle-viewpoint, is that there is a
substantial amount of complexity which is irreducible in nature, sufficient enough to say
that there must be the Grand Intelligent Designer, according to Behe and a host of other
proponents of ID.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:1009.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 70 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. In this paper using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime
theorems (591)-(640) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.From (6)
we are able to find the smallest solution. π_{k}(N_{0},2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1009.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
9 pages, 2 figures. Will be brought up as part of poster in DICE 2010, as part of Beckwith's DICE 2010
contribution to the conference proceedings.

The idea is to cut down on the number of independent variables to get as simple an emergent space
time structure of entropy and its generation as possible. Initial assumptions as to
T_{Planck} ~ 10^{19}. An effective electric field, based upon the Cosmological Schwinger
principle is derived, via dimensional analysis, then a heat flux, with subsequent entropy
production in a manner tied in with candidates as to inflaton potentials in a way the author has not
seen in the literature. The effective electric field is important because it enables a direct analogy
with the Schwinger result, 1951, of an E field leading to a numerical count of
pairs of e^{+}e^{-} echarges
nucleated in a space time volume V.t . Note that in most inflationary models, the usual
assumption is for a magnetic field, not electric field. Having an electric field permits a kink anti
kink construction in lieu of what Beckwith did in CDW (PhD dissertation) plus allows for explicit
emergent relic particle frequency range between one to 100 GigaHertz. The novel contribution is
the importance of a relic E field, instead of a B field, in inflationary relic particle formation and
vacuum nucleation for reasons explained in this manuscript.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1009.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
3 pages

This is the first published paradoxist manifesto in the world (1983), written by Florentin
Smarandache who founded the Paradoxism in literature, arts, philosophy, and science.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[17] **viXra:1009.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
2 pages

It was in 1980's when the movement began...

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[16] **viXra:1009.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
3 pages

I left the totalitarianism and emigrated to the United States
for the freedom.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[15] **viXra:1009.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
19 pages

The PARADOXIST DISTICH consists of two verses, antithetic to each other, but
which together amalgamate in a whole defining (or making connection with) the title.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14] **viXra:1009.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:**
2 pages.

In this paper we present the Smarandache's Concurrent Lines Theorem in the geometry
of the triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[13] **viXra:1009.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
3 pages.

Sudoku is a game with numbers, formed by a square with the side of 9, and on each row
and column are placed the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, written only one time; the square is
subdivided in 9 smaller squares with the side of 3x3, which, also, must satisfy the same
condition, i.e. each square to contain all digits from 1 to 9 written only once.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[12] **viXra:1009.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:**
2 pages.

In this paper we present the Smarandache's Cevians Theorem (II) in the geometry of the
triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[11] **viXra:1009.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:**
2 pages.

We present the Smarandache's Cevians Theorem in the geometry of the triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[10] **viXra:1009.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:**
2 pages.

In this paper we present the Smarandache's Ratio Theorem in the geometry of the
triangle.

**Category:** Geometry

[9] **viXra:1009.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Mihai Dicu

**Comments:**
1 page.

The Smarandache-Pătraşcu Theorem of Orthohomological Triangles is the
folllowing:

**Category:** Geometry

[8] **viXra:1009.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-21 03:00:47*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper We present the Smarandache's Orthic Theorem in the geometry of the triangle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[7] **viXra:1009.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-21 15:41:57*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 36 Pages. V032112 ongoing

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a fundamental, multiple particle, system equation for which the Klein-Gordon-Dirac-Schrödinger equations are, and single particle special cases. The basic concept is that there is a broader picture, based on a more general equation that includes the entire system of particles. The first part will be to postulate an equation, and then, by then by defining an action field based on the endpoint action of the particles in the system, develop a solution which properly illustrates internal dynamics as well as particle interactions. The complete function has both real, and imaginary, as well as timelike and spacelike parts, each of which are separable into independent expressions that define particle properties. In the same manner that eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation represents energy levels of an atomic system, particle masses are eigenvalues in an interacting universe of particles. The Dirac massive and massless equation and solution will be shown as factorable independent parts of the Systemfunction. A clear relation between the classical and quantum properties of particles is made, increasing the scope of QM.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1009.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
11 pages

In a previous paper [5] we have introduced the ortho-homological triangles, which are
triangles that are orthological and homological simultaneously.
In this article we call attention to two remarkable ortho-homological triangles (the given
triangle ABC and its first Brocard's triangle), and using the Sondat's theorem relative to
orthological triangles, we emphasize on four important collinear points in the geometry of the
triangle. Orthological / homological / orthohomological triangles in the 2D-space are generalized
to orthological / homological / orthohomological polygons in 2D-space, and even more to
orthological / homological / orthohomological triangles, polygons, and polyhedrons in 3D-space.

**Category:** Geometry

[5] **viXra:1009.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:**
15 pages

The blackbody radiation is an open problem, in the sense that there is no classical counterpart
to describe the spectrum in physical terms. The usual derivation of Planck implicitly assumes
that the spectral density is a mean for a special kind of exponential distributions. There is
however a case where the classical statistics makes sense for the spectrum, if we consider the
spectral density as a probability density for the values of the frequency at a certain
temperature. We show here this case and illustrate it on contemporary COBE-FIRAS data, pointing
out to a special tensor nature of the cosmic background radiation. Some conclusions about the
measurement process and about the progress in general are drawn.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1009.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Kunikazu Tanaka

**Comments:**
21 pages

Showing how to derive new
expressions of generating prime
numbers to demonstrate the
Goldbach's Conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[3] **viXra:1009.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:**
6 pages, including 3 figures.

In a recent paper, Hooper et al. have shown that the excess of low energy
events observed by the CoGeNT collaboration and the annual modulation
observed for some years by the DAMA and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations
could be explained by a dark matter particle with a mass of approximately
7.0 GeV. Such a dark matter candidate could be the missing particle within
a framework that relates particle masses to the Planck Mass. Massive
particles occupy coincident levels and sublevels within three sequences
that descend in geometric progression, with common ratios 1/π, 2/π and
1/e, from the Planck Mass. The putative fundamental particles are arranged
precisely upon or, in partnership, about mass superlevels and their
coincidences within sequences with common ratios (1/π)^{3}, (2/π)^{3} and (1/e)^{3}.
Four close superlevel coincidences, of which three are occupied, occur
within the range of mass scales from that of the electron to that of the top
quark. The fourth and uniquely precise superlevel coincidence occurs at
7.0 GeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1009.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** Fred Alan Wolf

**Comments:**
15 pages

It is shown that the usual quantum field theoretical argument for the vanishing of the
commutator (VC) for spacelike separated fields implying causality is not tenable. For VC to
be tenable negative energy antiparticles traveling forward in time must exist and negative
energy particles traveling backward in time are not allowed. Hence VC denies the existence
of positive energy antiparticles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1009.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-10 00:02:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed several typos. Also re configured to be sent into a journal for analysis

The following document attempts to answer the role additional degrees of freedom have as to initial inflationary cosmology. I.e. the idea is to cut down on the number of independent variables to get as simple an emergent space time structure of entropy and its generation as possible. One parameter being initial degrees of freedom, the second the minimum allowed grid size in space time, and the final parameter being emergent space time temperature. In order to initiate this inquiry, a comparison is made to two representations of a scale evolutionary Friedman equation, with one of the equations based upon LQG, and another involving an initial Hubble expansion parameter with initial temperature TPlanck ~ 10^19 GeV used as an input into T4 times N(T). Initial assumptions as to the number of degrees of freedom has for TPlanck ~ 10^19 GeV a maximum value of N(T) ~ 103 . Making that upper end approximation for the value of permissible degrees of freedom is dependent upon a minimum grid size length as of about lPlanck ~ 10^-33 centimeters. Should the minimum uncertainty grid size for space time be higher than lPlanck ~ 10^-33 centimeters, then top value degrees of freedom of phase space as given by a value N(T) ~ 10^3 drops. In addition, the issue of bits, i.e. information is shown to not only have temperature dependence, but to be affected by minimum 'grid size' as well. A bifurcation diagram argument involving Hemoltz free energy as a 'driver' to push through a transition from a prior universe to the present universe, with classical physics behavior down to a grid size of lPlanck ~ 10^-33 centimeters ( i.e. start of quantum gravity effects) is employed to invoke use of classical physics down to lPlanck ~ 10^-33 centimeters. Subsequent chaotic dynamics during the expansion phase driven by Helmholtz free energy leads to up to N(T) ~ 103 degrees of freedom at the start of the inflationary regime. The possibility this semi classical argument for increase of the degrees of freedom up to N(T) ~ 10^3 is tied in with the possible emergence of space time E8 embedding is included as a speculative bonus. This is akin to Bogolyubov "spontaneous" particle creation arguments outlined in the article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory