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1109 Submissions

[57] viXra:1109.0068 [pdf] submitted on 29 Sep 2011

Cordus Process Diagrams: Symbolic Representation of Annihilation Mechanics

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 14 pages

We introduce a new system-modelling representation for the interaction of particules with internal structures (hidden variable solutions). This is an improvement on Feynman diagrams that only represent points and limited information about state. The notation is able to represent key variables describing the internal states, such as phase and the three dimensional discrete field structures. The latter include the cordus hyff emission directions (HEDs). With this method it is possible to model the different stages in an interaction processes. It is applied to the cordus annihilation mechanics, and the resulting models qualitatively distinguish between the parapositronium and orthopositronium annihilation phenomena.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[56] viXra:1109.0067 [pdf] submitted on 29 Sep 2011

A Comment On the Neutrino Opera in the CNGS Beam

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 7 pages

Related to my previous paper (see the appendix) On the Neutrino Opera in the CNGS Beam, entirely reproduced here throughout the appendix in its revised version, I provide here the calculation for the discrepancy between a correct measure for the experiment and the measure arising due to the effect I derived in my previous paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[55] viXra:1109.0066 [pdf] submitted on 29 Sep 2011

Binary Precession Solutions Based on Synchronized Couplings

Authors: Jamahl Peavey
Comments: 5 pages, The attached article's results were presented at Bulgaria's Sofia Technical University's "Physics Day Conference 2011"

A classical wave function is presented as an interface between a gravitational and an electromagnetic field. Binary star precessions are calculated as a best test for the most important interface in physics. Among the ten most difficult systems tested are DI Herculis, V541 Cygni and AS Camelopardalis. These systems have observed precessions which are not consistent with theoretical predictions. The precession results based on the classical wave function prove there is a fundamental relationship between Newtonian mechanics, general relativity and quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] viXra:1109.0065 [pdf] submitted on 29 Sep 2011

The Milky Way Mythology and the Stories of Creation

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 23 pages

When studying Myths, and especially the Creation Myths, it's very clear, that the modern interpretation is far away from the original meaning. Even present Native People seem to have forgotten the right and clear meaning. Myths are to be interpreted in the way of a concrete cosmological context, and the Myths of Creation is very significantly connected to the Milky Way. When connecting Creation Myths to modern scientifically knowledge of Astronomy and Cosmology, and especially the Milky Way, the Myths very clearly are telling a concrete story of Creation, even so clear that the Myths in many cases supersedes the modern knowledge, partly because ancient people had a circular way of viewing the Cosmos and partly because of their natural sensitivity and spirituality.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[53] viXra:1109.0064 [pdf] submitted on 29 Sep 2011

Tevatron Wij Anomaly for a Model with Two Different Mechanisms for Mass Generation of Gauge Fields

Authors: E. Koorambas
Comments: 11 pages with 1 table, submited to Journal of Physics G, comments and criticism are welcome

The latest Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) anomaly, the excess of dijet events in the invariant-mass window 120-160 GeV in associated production with a W boson, can be explained by a new neutral vector C-boson of mass (145 GeV) that is predicted by the Wu mechanisms for mass generation of gauge field. The Standard Model (SM) W, Z-bosons normally get its masses through the coupling with the SM Higgs of mass 114-200 GeV. Here, the C boson has negligible couplings to leptons, and so is not affected by the dilepton C constraints.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[52] viXra:1109.0062 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2011

Neutrino, Flying from CERN to LNGS, and Brachistochrone

Authors: G. Quznetsov
Comments: 2 pages

The result of the OPERA neutrino experiment [1] at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) is explained by the brachistochrone e ect.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[51] viXra:1109.0060 [pdf] replaced on 20 Oct 2011

Scientist Deduced the Existence of Particles with Faster-Than-Light Speeds Recently Discovered by Cern

Authors: Ion Patrascu
Comments: 2 pages, v1 in Romanian, v3 in English

Physicists at CERN have recently experimentally discovered particles traveling faster than light: the neutrinos! The OPERA experiment, which sent sprays of neutrinos from CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, to INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, found that neutrinos traveled underground 730 km faster than light could do. Dr. Antonio Ereditato of University of Bern, leader of the OPERA scientist team, made the results public and invited scientists all over the world to discuss these astonishing results.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[50] viXra:1109.0058 [pdf] submitted on 27 Sep 2011

The Exact Solution of The Pioneer Anomaly According to The General Theory of Relativity and The Hubble’s Law

Authors: Azzam AlMosallami
Comments: 14 pages

Radio metric data from Pioneer 10/11 indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude ~ , directed towards the Sun[1,2]. Turyshev [7] examined the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly, and concluded that the data a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration with an over 10% improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model. Anderson, who is retired from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is that study’s first author. He finds, so “it’s either new physics or old physics we haven’t discovered yet.” New physics could be a variation on Newton’s laws, whereas an example of as-yet-to-be-discovered old physics would be a cloud of dark matter trapped around the sun[12]. In this paper I introduce the exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly depending on the general theory of relativity and the Hubble’s law. According to my solution, there are two terms of decelerations that controls the Pioneer anomaly. The first is produced by moving the Pioneer spacecraft through the gravitational field of the Sun, which causes the velocity of the spacecraft to be decreased according to the Schwarzschild Geometry of freely infalling particle. This deceleration is responsible for varying behaviour of the Pioneer anomaly in Turyshev [7]. The second term is produced by the Hubble’s law which is constant and equals to the Hubble’s constant multiplied by the speed of light in vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1109.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-10 05:15:02

A Note on the Mass-Energy Relation

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 1 Page.

The famous equation that relates the mass with the energy can be deduced without using the special relativity of Einstein; however, the relation obtained is slightly different.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1109.0056 [pdf] replaced on 26 Oct 2011

On the Neutrino Opera in the CNGS Beam

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 6 pages, Published in the Journal Progress in Physics

In this brief paper, we solve the relativistic kinematics related to the intersection between a relativistic beam of particles (neutrinos, e.g.) and consecutive detectors. The gravitational e ects are neglected, but the e ect of the Earth rotation is taken into consideration under a simple approach in which we consider two instantaneous inertial reference frames in relation to the fixed stars: an instantaneous inertial frame of reference having got the instantaneous velocity of rotation (about the Earth axis of rotation) of the Cern at one side, the lab system of reference in which the beam propagates, and another instantaneous inertial system of reference having got the instantaneous velocity of rotation of the detectors at Gran Sasso at the other side, this latter being the system of reference of the detectors. Einstein’s relativity theory provides a velocity of intersection between the beam and the detectors greater than the velocity of light in the empty space as derived in this paper, in virtue of the Earth rotation. We provide a simple calculation for the discrepancy between a correct measure for the experiment and a measure arising due to the e ect derived in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[47] viXra:1109.0055 [pdf] submitted on 27 Sep 2011

The Structure of Fourier Series

Authors: Valery P. Dmitriyev
Comments: 6 pages

Fourier series is constructed basing on the idea to model the elementary oscillation (–1,+1) by the exponential function with negative base, viz. (–1)n.

Key words: Fourier transform, exponent, negative base.
Category: General Mathematics

[46] viXra:1109.0054 [pdf] submitted on 27 Sep 2011

Expression for the Mathematical Constant e

Authors: Ranganath G Kulkarni
Comments: 3 pages

Mathematical constant e can be expressed in logarithmic functions. There are six expressions for e. Five of them are step functions and another one is a constant function.
Category: Number Theory

[45] viXra:1109.0053 [pdf] submitted on 27 Sep 2011

Classical Mechanics ( Particles and Biparticles )

Authors: Alejandro A. Torassa
Comments: 9 pages, License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

This paper considers the existence of biparticles and presents a general equation of motion, which can be applied in any non-rotating reference frame (inertial or non-inertial) without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[44] viXra:1109.0052 [pdf] submitted on 27 Sep 2011

Rigorous Testing of Fair Sampling Assumption

Authors: Janis Strazdins
Comments: 5 pages

Fair sampling assumption is used in photonic tests of Bell inequalities. However, rigorous testing of this assumption is still to be performed. Here it is argued that without rigorous testing bias can be introduced that would mask indications of unfair sampling. For purpose of argument local realistic model for polarization entangled photons is outlined. According to model coincidence rate and correlation visibility are complementary.
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1109.0051 [pdf] submitted on 26 Sep 2011

Possible Explanation for Speed of Neutrinos, Faster Than Light

Authors: Janko Kokosar
Comments: 2 pages

The recent measurement of speed of muon neutrinos shows that it is possible that speed of neutrinos is faster than speed of light. Here an explanation is suggested, that this is a consequence of Scharnhorst e ect. This e ect shows that photons propagating through vacuum are modifying in virtual pairs electron-positron for a while and thus the measured speed of light is really lower than one maximal possible speed of light in short moments. Because neutrinos are not modifying so, author supposes that their speed is larger than speed of photons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] viXra:1109.0050 [pdf] submitted on 25 Sep 2011

Quantum Tunneling and Time Contraction, According to the New Relativity Theory

Authors: Azzam Almosallami
Comments: 8 pages

In this paper we shall introduce the concept of time contraction that is produced by the New Relativity theory of AlMosallami (NRM)[10]. When this concept is interpreted physically, quantum tunneling exceeds the speed of light in the vacuum as proven by experiment.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[41] viXra:1109.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-20 03:01:25

Annihilation Mechanisms

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 24 Pages. Pons DJ, Pons AD, Pons AJ (2014) Annihilation mechanisms. Applied Physics Research 6 (2):28-46.

This paper develops an ontologically rich explanation of the inner mechanics of the annihilation process, starting from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design. This explains the process in terms of the handedness of matter and antimatter, the interaction of the electron and antielectron as they approach, the collapse of their discrete force structures and their reformation into photon structures. The process is more one of remanufacture than destruction. The resulting Cordus theory successfully explains para- and ortho-positronium annihilation. It explains the different photons output, the relative difference in lifetimes, and why Bhabha scattering sometimes happens instead. The theory exposes a deeper common mechanism for annihilation, pair-creation, and bonding.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[40] viXra:1109.0046 [pdf] submitted on 20 Sep 2011

The Berry-Keating Hamiltonian H=xp and Its Square with Boundary Conditions F(nx) = F(x) N ε N

Authors: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta
Comments: 6 pages

We present a Berry-Keating model with ‘periodic’ conditions in the dilation group ... (see paper)
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1109.0045 [pdf] submitted on 20 Sep 2011

Contrasting Internal Structures: Photon and Electron

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 9 pages

We develop a conceptual model for the internal structures of the photon and electron, based on the cordus model. The main differentiating feature between the photon and electron is identified as the way it deals with its field structures or hyff. The photon has a fibrillating relationship with its field, whereas the electron is a pulsating field-pump. The resulting model permits an explanation of the discrete (approximately quantised) electrostatic force, the propulsion mechanism for the speed of light, and the gravitational bending of light. These are side-effects and the larger advantage of this model is the potential to explain photon-electron interactions generally.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[38] viXra:1109.0044 [pdf] submitted on 19 Sep 2011

The Fine Structure Constant Interpretations of Quantum Theory

Authors: Ke Xiao
Comments: 5 pages

The fine structure constant give a simple derivation of the localized wavefunction, Schrödinger equation and the uncertainty principle in Quantum theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1109.0043 [pdf] submitted on 19 Sep 2011

The Measurement of Retarded Phase In Single Wire Power Transmission

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 5 pages

In this work, we measured the retarded phase in single wire power transmission. It is verified that the retarded phase is dependent on frequency. When the value of retarded phase is 180o, the current through the power source is phase inverted relative to its voltage so that the effective resistance of load is negative. This phenomenon needs to be investigated further for the usage of electric power generation.
Category: Classical Physics

[36] viXra:1109.0042 [pdf] submitted on 19 Sep 2011

Applications of Neutrosophic Logic to Robotics. An Introduction

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper we present the N-norms/N-conorms in neutrosophic logic and set as extensions of T-norms/T-conorms in fuzzy logic and set. Then we show some applications of the neutrosophic logic to robotics.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[35] viXra:1109.0041 [pdf] submitted on 19 Sep 2011

A Geometric Interpretation of the Neutrosophic Set - A Generalization of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of the Neutrosophic Set using the Neutrosophic Cube. Distinctions between the neutrosophic set and intuitionistic fuzzy set are also presented.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[34] viXra:1109.0040 [pdf] submitted on 19 Sep 2011

A Model of Mesons

Authors: R Wayte
Comments: 48 pages

Detailed models of mesons have been derived in terms of real structured particles, in order to replace the formless quark/anti-quark singularities of standard QCD theory. Pion design is related to the muonic mass, and a Yukawa potential is calculated for the hadronic field. A charged pion is produced by adding a heavyelectron or positron in a tight orbit around the neutral core. Other mesons are found to be ordered assemblies of pionic-size masses, travelling in bound epicyclical orbits, with real intrinsic spin and angular momentum. These orbit dimensions are related to the mean lifetimes of the mesons through action integrals. Decay products resemble parts of their parent mesons, as expected for a relaxation process with traceability of particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[33] viXra:1109.0039 [pdf] submitted on 18 Sep 2011

Scope of Center of Charge in Electrostatics

Authors: Kolahal Bhattacharya
Comments: 7 pages, published in "Physics Education Journal" in July-September issue, 2010

The notion of the center of an electrostatic charge distribution is introduced. Then, it is investigated in which problems the notion may be useful. It is seen that in many problems with positive and negative charge contents (for example, image problems) the notion works nice.
Category: Classical Physics

[32] viXra:1109.0038 [pdf] submitted on 18 Sep 2011

Zeno's Paradoxe and the Nature of Points in Quantized Euclidean Universe

Authors: Markos Georgallides
Comments: 9 pages

This article explains the correlation between Euclidean Geometry , Complex Numbers and Physics . A Straight line AB is continuous in Points between A and B [ i.e. all points between AB are the elements which fill AB ] , which Points are also , Nothing , Everything , and maybe Anywhere , without any Dimension , and one has to pass the infinite points between A and B . A point C is on line AB only when exists CA+ CB = AB , or the whole AB is equal to the parts CA , CB , and this is an equation , which differentiates geometries . Since points have not any dimension and since only AB has dimension ( the length AB and for ÃC the length AC ) and since on ÃB exist infinite AC → AB , which have infinite Spaces , Anti-Spaces and Sub-Spaces , then 1. Straight line AB is continuous with points as filling ( Infinitively divisible ) . 2. Straight line AB is discontinuous (discrete) with dimensional Units , ds =AB as filling ( that is made up of finite divisible or indivisible parts the Monads ds ) or ds → AB / n , where n = 1 , 2 , → ∞ ) , and for n = ∞ then ds = 0 . 3. Straight line AB is discontinuous (discrete) with dimensional Units ds , or ds = quantum = AB / n [ where n = 1,2,3 → ∞ , = ( a + b.i ) / n , Infinitively divisible and keeping always the conservation of properties at end points A , B ] as filling , and continuous with points as filling ( for n = ∞ then ds = 0 i.e. a point ) . This is the Vector relation of Monads , ds , ( or , as Complex Numbers in their general form , ds = a + b. i ) , which is the Dual Nature of lines AB , ( discrete and continuous ) . So travelling on Points ( ds = 0 ) between AB one never comes to B , on the contrary travelling with ds > 0 one comes in finite time . 4 . Achilles has to pass every point of line AB which is then as passing from the starting point A , ds =0 , where Velocity of Achilles is v(A) = ds/dt = 0 . The same happens for Tortoise at point B where Velocity v(T) = ds/dt = 0 . On the contrary , Achilles passing AB on dimensional Units , ds , then Achilles velocity v(A) = ds/dt(A) is greater than that of Tortoise v(T) = ds / dt(T) . Since in PNS , v = ∞ , T = 0 , meaning infinite velocity and Time not existing , then Arrow AB in [PNS] is constant because AB = ds = Constant = u . 0 = ∞ . 0 Straight line AB is discontinuous (discrete) with dimensional Units ds = AB / n where n = 1 → ∞ and continuous with points [ n = ∞ ] . Continuously on AB happens also with all discrete ds , ( This is the Dual Nature of lines ( Geometry ), discrete and continuous ) . Monads ds = 0 → ∞ are Simultaneously , actual infinite ( because for n = ∞ then ds = [ AB / n = ∞ ] = 0 i.e. a point ) , and potential infinite , ( because for n = 0 then ds = [ AB / n=0 ] = ∞ i.e. the straight line through AB .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31] viXra:1109.0037 [pdf] submitted on 17 Sep 2011

Higgs as Primitive Idempotents

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 3 Pages.

By identifying the Higgs with Primitive Idempotents of the Cl(8) real Clifford algebra, the Higgs is not seen as a simple-minded fundamental scalar particle, but rather the Higgs is seen as a quantum process that creates a fermionic condensate with which it interacts to make the fermions appear massive. The Primitive Idempotent Higgs is part of my E8 Physics model in terms of which the Primitive Idempotent Higgs is seen to do all the nice things that the fundamental scalar particle Higgs needs to do, and to be effectively a Higgs-Tquark system with 3 mass states (i.e., the LHC should see events that look like 3 standard model Higgs mass states at around 140 GeV and 200 GeV and 250 GeV with the total standard model cross section being divided up among those three states. In particular, the LHC should see a Higgs around 140 GeV but with a lower cross section than expected.) (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30] viXra:1109.0036 [pdf] replaced on 19 Sep 2011

An OpenCL Fast Fourier Transformation Implementation Strategy

Authors: Sven De Smet
Comments: 9 pages

This paper describes an implementation strategy in preparation for an implementation of an OpenCL FFT. The two most essential factors (memory bandwidth and locality) that are crucial to obtain high performance on a GPU for an FFT implementation are highlighted. Theoretical upper bounds for performance in terms of the locality factor are derived. An implementation strategy is proposed that takes these factors into consideration so that the resulting implementation has the potential to achieve high performance.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] viXra:1109.0034 [pdf] submitted on 16 Sep 2011

Can Electromagnetic Scalar Waves be Radiated by a Metal Sphere?

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 24 pages.

There is a lot of chattering on the Internet about Tesla waves, vacuum energy, scalar waves and so on. Professor Meyl says he has a complete theory, experimental evidence and apparatus on these waves. In a theoretical paper Van Vlaenderen introduced a generalization of classical electrodynamics for the prediction of scalar field effects. It is said the Monstein has demonstrated the physical existence of such scalar waves. NASA in a report seems to consider such waves as a promising item to be studied. Some other papers appeared in arXiv. I’ve already showed that such waves are a consequence of “generalized” Maxwell fields which simply mean space time analytic functions not limited by the Lorenz gauge condition, but accepted instead in a wide sense. In this paper I remember my ideas on these waves, together with my doubts about their physical existence. In fact, the deduction of the scalar waves equations, together with their physical interpretation, in my opinion demonstrates nothing about the physical existence of scalar waves. I discuss the experiment of Monstein, and suggest some other experiment. Obviously I think that the lack of demonstration of the existence doesn’t mean the demonstration of inexistence.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[28] viXra:1109.0032 [pdf] submitted on 7 Sep 2011

Wick Rotation with the Condition of Retaining the Validity of the Lorentz Group

Authors: Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena
Comments: 11 pages.

This document reports some of the important results of a theoretical work that performed the Wick rotation with the condition of retaining the validity of the Lorentz group.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1109.0031 [pdf] submitted on 7 Sep 2011

Particularization of the Sequence of Spacetime/intrinsic Spacetime Geometries and Associated Sequence of Theories in a Metric Force Field to the Gravitational Field.

Authors: Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph
Comments: 27 pages, Submitted to Progress in Physics. Author's name recently changed from Joseph Akindele O Adekugbe to Akindele O Adekugbe Joseph.

The two stages of evolution of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and the associated spacetime /intrinsic spacetime geometries in a long range metric force field, isolated in previous papers, are particularized to the gravitational field. The theory of relativity on flat four-dimensional spacetime (E3, ct) and the intrinsic theory relativity on the underlying flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime (φρ, φcφt), due to the presence of a metric force field, as well as the absolute intrinsic metric theory (of the metric force field) on curved ‘two-dimensional’ absolute intrinsic spacetime (φρ^, φc^φt^), which evolve at the second (and final) stage of evolution of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime in a long range metric force field, developed in the previous papers, become the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR) on the flat four-dimensional relativistic spacetime, the intrinsic theory of gravitational relativity (φTGR) on the underlying flat two-dimensional relativistic intrinsic spacetime and the metric theory of absolute intrinsic gravity (φMAG) on the curved ‘two-dimensional’ absolute intrinsic spacetime in a gravitational field. The basic aspects of these co-existing theories in every gravitational field are developed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1109.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2012-04-29 18:28:11

The Atoms of Space

Authors: Bichara Sahely
Comments: 12 Pages. typos corrected and more references added

In this brief note, it will be shown that space may have hidden properties normally attributed to elementary particles, such as mass and charge. We will also elucidate the thermodynamic properties of these atoms of space by modelling these atoms as ideal gas entities propagating disturbances at the speed of light. We have only demanded consistency in the formulas for circular motion, Einstein's mass-energy eqivalance, wave-particle duality, Planck-Einstein equation, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, the Reissner–Nordström metric and black hole thermodynamics. We will then use the adiabatic index formula to elucidate the degrees of freedom of these atoms of space. We will also reinterpret Einstein's theories of relativity, solve the mystery of the double slit experiment, muse on the physical nature of dark energy, and finally uncover a possible blindspot that may have hampered progress in constructing a consistent and complete theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] viXra:1109.0029 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Research on Some Smarandache Problems (Vol. 7)

Authors: Huaning Liu, Jing Gao
Comments: 155 pages

This book systematically introduces the works obtained by using analytic methods on Smarandache problems. The book includes the basic knowledge of analytic number theory, mean value on some Smarandache sequences, infinite series involving some Smarandache functions, hybrid mean value of divisor function and some Smarandache functions, and so on. This book could open up the reader’s perspective, and inspire the reader to these fields. We want to thank all those who have helped and encouraged us to prepare this book. Professor Wenpeng Zhang gave us the first impulse for writing this book, and have read the whole manuscript very carefully. We also thank Yanni Liu and Peng Gao for cover designs. Last but not least, we would like to thank Dr. Minh Perez for his advice and friendly collaboration.
Category: Number Theory

[24] viXra:1109.0028 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

The Fundamental Principle of the Conversion of the Zero-Point-Energy of the Vacuum

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 30 pages

The mechanism of the conversion of zero-point-energy is now understood. This is the basis, on which zero-point-energy converters can be constructed systematically. Here are the details. Nowadays the existence of the zero-point-energy of the vacuum is recognized in several disciplines within physics (as for instance Astrophysics and Quantum Electrodynamics), and the verification is done, that this energy can be converted into classical types of energy in the laboratory (see Casimir-effect and others). Also the possibility of its utilization for practical energy-technology is proven in the laboratory. After the zero-point-energy of the vacuum is made manifest in such way, the task arises to clarify the fundamental principles of physics, which explain the conversion of the zero-pointenergy into any other (classical) type of energy, such as for instance electrical or mechanical energy. These fundamental basics of Physics are now understood and described in the present article. Based on this theoretical fundament, the article also explains, how the construction of zero-point-energy converters can be done systematicially for practical engineering purpose. This is the first time, when a practical method for the systematic construction of zero-pointenergy converters is found. The article gives guidelines for the development dynamic Finite-Element-Algorithm (DFEM), which will enable us to construct zero-point-energy converters systematically. Simple models of zero-point-energy-converters can be developed with this method rather easy. But more complex realistic engines require remarkable effort for computation. The train of thoughts of this article is rounded up by the explanation of some examples for consequences of the zero-point-energy and its conversion within everyday life even now, as for instance the existence of electric charge and the stability of atoms.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1109.0027 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Design Drawings for a Prototype of a ZPE-converter to the EMDR-Principle

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 11 pages

In [1] one of the authors developed the construction guidelines for a magnetic ZPEconverter, which he called Electro-Mechanic Double Resonance principle (EMDR). In [2] he gave a crucial explanation how to make this principle work with low speed rotation. Now we present technical design drawings so that every skilled mechanician can build up an experimental prototype.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1109.0026 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Construction Guidelines for a ZPE-Converter on the Basis of Realistic Dfem-Computations

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 67 pages

In [Tur 11] the theory of a powerful vacuum-energy converter was developed, and such converters have been simulated with a dynamic finite element method (DFEM). The result was a theoretical description of the machine which should be appropriate for technical applications. Due to many questions from colleagues who read the mentioned article, the author decided to continue his development on the DFEM-algorithm in order to simulate a zero-point-energy (ZPE) motor on the computer, as close to reality as possible. The theoretical background of the simulation is explained in detail here, so that every colleague should be able, to use the algorithm in the appendix of the publication and to adapted it to the setup of a vacuum-energy motor according to his own conception.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1109.0025 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Dfem-Simulation of a Zero-Point-Energy Converter with Realisable Dimensions and a Power-Output in the Kilowatt-Range.

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 25 pages

In precedent work, the author presented a method for the theoretical computation of zero-point-energy converters, called Dynamic Finite-Element-Method (DFEM). In several articles some examples for the conversion of zero-point-energy have been demonstrated, which deliver an output power in the Nanowatt- or in the Microwatt- range, which is a fundamental proof of the principle, but not sufficient for any technical application. The way towards a powerful zero-point-energy converter in the Kilowatt-range needed some additional investigation, of which the results are now presented. Different from former fundamental basic research, the new converter has to be operated magnetically, because the energy-density of magnetic fields is much larger the energy-density of electrostatic fields, namely by several orders of magnitude. In the article here, the author presents step by step the solution of the theoretical problems, which now allows the theoretical construction of a zero-point-energy converter in the Kilowatt-range. The result is a model of a zero-point-energy motor with a diameter of 9 cm and a height of 6.8 cm producing 1.07 Kilowatts.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1109.0024 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Dfem-Computation of a Zero-Point-Energy Converter with Realistic Parameters for a Practical Setup

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 20 pages

A theoretical method for the computation of zero-point-energy converters has been presented as dynamic finite element method (DFEM) in [Tur 10a], [Tur 10b], but in these articles, only the method of computation has been described, without taking realizable parameters for an experimental setup into account. The way to calculate a realistic system for an experimental setup is developed here. Therefore, the essential aspect is the question, how to control the speed of propagation of the interacting fields, which are responsible for the force, which drives the zero-point-energy converter. In the work presented here, these are the fields of the electromagnetic interaction, because for our example, a capacitor and a coil have to be adjusted in a way, that the frequency of an electromagnetic oscillation corresponds to the frequency of a mechanical oscillation. It depends on the precision of this adjustment, whether zero-point-energy is converted or not.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1109.0023 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Example of a Simple Algorithm for the Construction of Zero-Point-Energy Converters

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 17 pages

The fundamental principle of the conversion of zero-point-energy has been explained in [Tur 10]. This enables us to construct zero-point-energy converters systematically. The method of computation for such a construction was presented as dynamic Finite-Element-Method (DFEM), which is a Finite-Element-Algorithm with the supplement of taking the finite speed of propagation of the interacting-fields (responsible for the forces between the partners of interaction) between the components of the zero-point-energy converter into account. In order to illustrate the development from the fundamental principle to the real DFEMprogram, we now present a small example for this computation, including a short source-code as a working performance. This algorithm is explained in detail here, so that everybody can use and further develop it. Finally we analyse a possible zero-point-energy motor with this program, explaining its conditions of operation and its machine power.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1109.0022 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2011

Experimental Verification of the Zero-Point Energy of Electromagnetic Waves in the Quantum-Vacuum

Authors: Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Comments: 140 pages

The name “vacuum“ is usually given to the space, out of which nothing can be taken with known methods. But it is well-known, that this vacuum is not empty, but it contains physical objects [Man 93], [Köp 97], [Lin 97], [Kuh 95]. This is also reflected within the Theory of General Relativity, namely by the cosmological constant Λ , which finally goes back to the gravitative action of the “mere space” [Goe 96], [Pau 00], [Sch 02]. Its name “cosmological constant” indicates, that the universe contains huge amounts of space, which lead to measureable effects, namely it influences the universe's rate of expansion [Giu 00], [Rie 98], [Teg 02], [Ton 03], [e1]. The crucial question of course is, whether it is possible to develop new methods, which allow to extract something from the vacuum, which could not be extracted up to now – some of those objects not visible directly up to now.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1109.0021 [pdf] submitted on 8 Sep 2011

The New Gravitational Theory and The Expansion Theory of The Universe

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 6 pages. In Chinese

Using the tachyonic theory we find the new gravitational formula (16) and establish the expansion theory of the Universe see Fig. 2, (22)-(25). We show that gravitons can be converted into the rest mass, see Fig. 2, m-bar → m, (24) and (27). We point out that Newtonian gravitational theory is approximate and the general theory of relativity is wrong.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1109.0018 [pdf] submitted on 8 Sep 2011

Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics in the Theory of Reference Frames: the Origin of Physical Time

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 8 pages.

In this paper the main aspects of the Theory of Reference Frames are presented: in particular we consider the relativistic relation between time and mass, the electrodynamics of a moving charged particle, the quantum electrodynamic behavior of accelerated electron and a new explanation of the Compton effect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1109.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-04 09:43:29

The Theory of Quantum Categorical Algebra

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: Pages.

In this Article I lay down the Theory of Categorical Cohomological Quantum Categorical Spectral Algebra which unify the Theory of Cohomological Quantum Operator Categorical Variational Algebra of Hilbert and the Theory of Cohomological Quantum Categorical Functional Analysis of Weierstrass
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1109.0015 [pdf] replaced on 16 Sep 2011

Clear Explanation of Three Cardinal Mistake of Physics of the 20th Century.

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 2 pages.

In this paper author believes that at least three basic concepts of contemporary physics, Millikan's experiments, de Broglie hypotesis and relations E= mc2 and E=hν must be overviewed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1109.0014 [pdf] replaced on 12 Oct 2011

Particle Consistency of Microscopic and Macroscopic Motion

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 8 pages.

The scenario of particle has been greatly written in the past, but its incompleteness is so serious that the connection of microscopic and macroscopic world is broken. The 19th century’s experiment by both Perrin and Thomson is unable to prove whether the cathode rays are negatively charged or not. Here we propose, the particles of an atom are organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems to orbit, wave-like movement demonstrated in double-slit experiment is nothing but an aggregation of the movement of many fine particles. Along with previous work, it is hopeful to see that hierarchical two-body gravitation may unify different level structures and their motion together.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12] viXra:1109.0013 [pdf] submitted on 7 Sep 2011

New Solar and Galaxy Formation Knowledge

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 10 pages.

Standing cosmology theories and hypothesis are largely based on the modern "single points of views" and on some older theories that doesn't fit the later modern discoveries. The 3 basic electromagnetic forces do not come to their right in the cosmological research and they are by large suppressed by the old Newtonian theories and the newer Einsteinan theories and hypothesis. - It is very odd that traditional modern physicists and cosmologists don’t take offspring in the well known facts from the 3 basic electric forces instead of working with the supposed force of gravity, which is far from understood. The existent theories seem to lack both dynamic and cyclic descriptions instead of the static point of view. The conventional explanation for the formation of our solar system and galaxies, etc. are that gravity collapse gas and matter together, and where gases become stars that later explode and create planets in a solar system, but there may be another explanation? More facts and a thorough analysis of these theories suggest that it may behave even much different. The purpose of this article is to see if there may be existing facts which should be reviewed by the discovery of significant new indications of the formation is our solar system is formed by a process inside the center of our galaxy, as well as a new hypothesis for galaxy formation and the formative movements in the 2 basic types, Spiral Galaxies and Barred Galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1109.0012 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2011

Relating a 10-Dimensional Model of a ‘D-brane and Type I String Structure’ to Space-time and Elementary Particles

Authors: Gary Heen
Comments: 22 pages.

Modern theory states that matter and energy in their most basic form exist in discrete amounts, or quanta. The author proffers that space-time also exists as discrete quanta, and derives a physical model of space-time and elementary particles. The hypothesis for this model is that the quanta for matter and space-time are convertible states of the same elementary building block composed of D-branes and Type I strings: the D-string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1109.0011 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2011

The Nature of Semi-Classical Nature of Gravity Reviewed, and Can We Use a Graviton Entanglement Version of the EPR Experiment to Answer if the Graviton is Classical or Quantum in Origin?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 85 pages. Presentation for San Marino Workshop on Astrophysics and Cosmology for Matter and Antimatter - September 5-9, 2011

We present what is relevant to squeezed states of initial space time and how that affects both the composition of relic GW, and also gravitons. A side issue to consider is if gravitons can be configured as semi classical “particles”,which is akin to the Pilot model of Quantum Mechanics as embedded in a larger non linear “deterministic” background. The final part of the talk will be to examine practical testing of the EPR hypothesis, as given by B. Cocciaro, S. Faetti, L. Fronzoni, as to a lower bound for a superluminal communication signal propagating in space time, with a similar argument made between Graviton entangled states as what is done for photons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1109.0010 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2011

Noncommutative Complex Scalar Field and Casimir Effect

Authors: Farid Khelili
Comments: 23 pages

Using noncommutative deformed canonical commutation relations, a model describing a non-commutative complex scalar field theory is proposed. The noncommutative field equations are solved, and the vacuum energy is calculated to the second order in the parameter of noncommutativity. As an application to this model, the Casimir effect, due to the zero point fluctuations of the noncommutative complex scalar field, is considered. It turns out that in spite of its smallness, the noncommutativity gives rise to a repulsive force at the microscopic level, leading to a modified Casimr potential with a minimum at the point ...
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8] viXra:1109.0009 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2011

Mirror Images: Matter and Antimatter

Authors: D.J. Pons
Comments: 15 pages

Existing theories of physics struggle to explain the difference between matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. This paper offers a reconceptualisation based on the cordus conjecture. We create a new concept of handedness, called ma, and an operational definition based on the energisation sequence of the cordus reactive-ends. Each reactive end for a stable matter particuloid, e.g. the electron, has three orthogonal hyff. The hand of these is held to be the same for all matter particuloids, whether positive or negative charge. For all antimatter particuloids the hand is inverted. The inversion also changes the direction of the hyff, and thus reverses the charge, but this is a secondary effect. This cordus concept permits models to be created differentiating between the electron, proton, and antielectron (positron). This explains why the antielectron is very different to the proton despite the same charge, and why the photon does not have an antiparticle. It also allows the wider integration of bonding and annihilation as manifestations of a single deeper mechanics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] viXra:1109.0008 [pdf] replaced on 19 Sep 2011

The Derivation of the Schwarzchild Solution from a Scalar Model of Spherical Quantum Waves

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 4 pages

It is shown that if space is modeled as an elastic medium that propagates spherical, scalar quantumwaves, then the ratio of the square of the wave velocity to c2 reveals the same results as the familiar time dilation formula that is produced from the Schwarzchild G44 component. The Schwarzchild radius derived from the scalar-wave model is shown to be equal to the radius of the universe, implying that there are no gravitational singularities present within the radius of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1109.0007 [pdf] submitted on 5 Sep 2011

Momentum and Energy in the Schwarzschild Metric

Authors: Douglas L. Weller
Comments: 30 pages

Albert Einstein validated his field equations by demonstrating that they complied with what he called the laws of momentum and energy. The most well-known solution to Einstein’s field equations is the Schwarzschild metric describing the gravitational field of a mass point. Here is examined how what Einstein called the laws of momentum and energy are manifest in the Schwarzschild metric and how these laws limit the geometry of space-time that is defined by the Schwarzschild metric.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1109.0006 [pdf] submitted on 5 Sep 2011

A Fundamental Principle of Relativity

Authors: Douglas L. Weller
Comments: 32 pages

The laws of physics hold equally in reference frames that are in motion with respect to each other. This premise of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity is a fairly easy concept to understand in the abstract, however the mathematics-particularly the tensor calculus used by Einstein to describe general relativity-used to flesh out this premise can be very complex, making the subject matter difficult for the non-specialist to intuitively grasp. Here is set out a fundamental principle of relativity that can be used as a tool to understand and explain special and general relativity. The fundamental principle of relativity is used to independently derive the Lorentz factor, the Minkowski metric and the Schwarzschild metric. The fundamental principle is also used to derive metric tensors for systems with multiple point masses and to explain Newtonian kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy and mass-energy equivalence in the context of special and general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1109.0005 [pdf] submitted on 4 Sep 2011

Particle Count Reduction in an E8 Standard Model

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 24 pages

By definition in Lie Algebras, all roots can be composed from either all positive or all negative combinations of their "simple roots". Taking a modified A.G. Lisi split real even E8 model with 240 fundamental physics particles associated with an extended Standard Model, a particle count reduction (from 240 fundamental particles to 8 "elemental" particles) is determined from these 8 simple roots. Interestingly, by taking account of the particle mass assignments, all known fermions {e/ν, u/d, c/s, t/b}, as well as known (plus the Lisi predicted) bosons {W/B, gluons(g), ω, eφ, xΦ} can be generated with the sum of the simple root masses being less than the resulting composite particle masses (with the exception of the four 2nd and 3rd generation lepton
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1109.0003 [pdf] replaced on 21 Sep 2011

A Simple Numeric Example of a Contradiction in Special Relativity

Authors: Andrew Banks
Comments: 4 pages

Assume the standard configuration under Special Relativity (SR) and a light pulse is emitted when the origins of two coordinate systems are common. Further assume v = .6c and that the spherical light wave (SLW) has attained the unprimed coordinated (2ls,10ls,0) where ls is the distance light travels in 1 second. Then t1 = √104s and using LT, ( x'1 1.25(2-.6√104) ,10 ,0) x1 = - ls . Since x1 > and x'1 < , both frames agree along the line y = 10 the SLW is in between the two origins. According to nature, the SLW will propagate further. So, assume that condition. Both frames conclude, along the line y =10 , any further propagation of the SLW must place the SLW further from its own origin assuming the light postulate in its frame. A valid question to propose is, by considering coordinates only with y =10 and z = 0 , where will the SLW move to after further propagation? If both frames agree the SLW must move further from the respective origin, and the SLW is in between the two origins, then the SLW must move two different directions along the line y = 10 to satisfy the SR conditions of each frame. Based on this fact, it will be proven in the context of either frame, after further propagation of the SLW, Lorentz transformations (LT) will contradict the light postulate in the target frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1109.0002 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2011

Teoria DE la Relatividad, Mecanica Cuantica Y Teoria Conectada (I)

Authors: Xavier Terri Castañé
Comments: 21 pages

Theory of Everything? Any theory is already a theory of everything.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1109.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2011

Process Design for the Shape Controlling of Pulled Growth Crystal

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han, Xiaohong Wang
Comments: 18 pages and 8 figures.

A model relating the diameter variation with the process parameters during a practical crystal growth by pulling has been proposed. The crystal shape evolution under various growth process was analysed. The results prove, in theory, that the most effective and convenient measure to control the crystal diameter is adjusting the pulling rate, and the optimal process for growing a equal diameter crystal is simultaneously decreasing the pulling rate and the heater temperature with dropped decreasing rate. Moreover, the model could be used for designing the process for growing a crystal with a desired shape.
Category: Condensed Matter