[60] **viXra:1109.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 14 pages

We introduce a new system-modelling representation for the interaction of
particules with internal structures (hidden variable solutions). This is an
improvement on Feynman diagrams that only represent points and limited
information about state. The notation is able to represent key variables
describing the internal states, such as phase and the three dimensional
discrete field structures. The latter include the cordus hyff emission
directions (HEDs). With this method it is possible to model the different
stages in an interaction processes. It is applied to the cordus annihilation
mechanics, and the resulting models qualitatively distinguish between the
parapositronium and orthopositronium annihilation phenomena.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[59] **viXra:1109.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 7 pages

Related to my previous paper (see the appendix) On the Neutrino Opera in the CNGS Beam,
entirely reproduced here throughout the appendix in its revised version, I provide here the calculation
for the discrepancy between a correct measure for the experiment and the measure arising due to
the effect I derived in my previous paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[58] **viXra:1109.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Jamahl Peavey

**Comments:** 5 pages, The attached article's results were presented at Bulgaria's Sofia Technical University's
"Physics Day Conference 2011"

A classical wave function is presented as an interface between a gravitational and an electromagnetic field. Binary star
precessions are calculated as a best test for the most important interface in physics. Among the ten most difficult
systems tested are DI Herculis, V541 Cygni and AS Camelopardalis. These systems have observed precessions which
are not consistent with theoretical predictions. The precession results based on the classical wave function prove there
is a fundamental relationship between Newtonian mechanics, general relativity and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[57] **viXra:1109.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Ivar Nielsen

**Comments:** 23 pages

When studying Myths, and especially the Creation Myths, it's very clear,
that the modern interpretation is far away from the original meaning. Even present
Native People seem to have forgotten the right and clear meaning. Myths are to be
interpreted in the way of a concrete cosmological context, and the Myths of Creation
is very significantly connected to the Milky Way. When connecting Creation Myths to
modern scientifically knowledge of Astronomy and Cosmology, and especially the Milky
Way, the Myths very clearly are telling a concrete story of Creation, even so clear
that the Myths in many cases supersedes the modern knowledge, partly because ancient
people had a circular way of viewing the Cosmos and partly because of their natural
sensitivity and spirituality.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[56] **viXra:1109.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** E. Koorambas

**Comments:** 11 pages with 1 table, submited to Journal of Physics G, comments and criticism are welcome

The latest Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) anomaly, the excess of dijet events in the
invariant-mass window 120-160 GeV in associated production with a W boson, can be explained by a new
neutral vector C-boson of mass (145 GeV) that is predicted by the Wu mechanisms for mass generation
of gauge field. The Standard Model (SM) W, Z-bosons normally get its masses through the coupling with
the SM Higgs of mass 114-200 GeV. Here, the C boson has negligible couplings to leptons, and so is
not affected by the dilepton C constraints.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[55] **viXra:1109.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Subodh Vashist

**Comments:** 16 pages, This paper is copyrighted (2011)

Counter-intuitive concept of decrease in rate of time and increase
in mass due to motion are fundamental conclusions of Special Theory
of Relativity(STR). STR successfully explains the decrease in nuclear
decay rates due to motion until recently, when nuclear decay rates are
found to depend on Earth-Sun distance and solar activities like
solar
ares. Present paper is an alternate theory to STR and produces
the same mathematical results of STR but with completely different
meaning of the observed effects due to motion. Utilising simple
spherical model for properties of matter, present theory also explains the
dependence of nuclear decay rates on Earth-Sun distance and solar
activity. On the other hand present theory assumes the rate of time and
mass to be constant, thereby keeping the theory self-contained, while
accounting for all the relativistic effects, including Newton's Second
law of motion which is mathematically inconsistent in STR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1109.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** G. Quznetsov

**Comments:** 2 pages

The result of the OPERA neutrino experiment [1] at the underground
Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) is explained by the brachistochrone effect.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[53] **viXra:1109.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-23 01:05:10*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Two points on disk and exterior disk which have the same equidistant curve coordinates have the relation of the inversion on a circle which divides both regions. An isometry is realized between exterior disk and lower half-plane.

**Category:** Geometry

[52] **viXra:1109.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu

**Comments:** 2 pages, v1 in Romanian, v3 in English

Physicists at CERN have recently experimentally discovered particles traveling faster
than light: the neutrinos!
The OPERA experiment, which sent sprays of neutrinos from CERN laboratory in Geneva,
Switzerland, to INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, found that neutrinos traveled underground
730 km faster than light could do.
Dr. Antonio Ereditato of University of Bern, leader of the OPERA scientist team, made the
results public and invited scientists all over the world to discuss these astonishing results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[51] **viXra:1109.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Azzam AlMosallami

**Comments:** 14 pages

Radio metric data from Pioneer 10/11 indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration
acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude ~ , directed towards the Sun[1,2].
Turyshev [7] examined the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly, and concluded that
the data a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration with an over 10%
improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model. Anderson, who is
retired from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is that study's first author. He finds, so "it's
either new physics or old physics we haven't discovered yet." New physics could be a variation
on Newton's laws, whereas an example of as-yet-to-be-discovered old physics would be a cloud
of dark matter trapped around the sun[12].
In this paper I introduce the exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly depending on the general
theory of relativity and the Hubble's law. According to my solution, there are two terms of
decelerations that controls the Pioneer anomaly. The first is produced by moving the Pioneer
spacecraft through the gravitational field of the Sun, which causes the velocity of the spacecraft
to be decreased according to the Schwarzschild Geometry of freely infalling particle. This
deceleration is responsible for varying behaviour of the Pioneer anomaly in Turyshev [7]. The
second term is produced by the Hubble's law which is constant and equals to the Hubble's
constant multiplied by the speed of light in vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1109.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-10 05:15:02*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The famous equation that relates the mass with the energy can be deduced without using
the special relativity of Einstein; however, the relation obtained is slightly different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1109.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published in the Journal Progress in Physics

In this brief paper, we solve the relativistic kinematics related to the intersection between
a relativistic beam of particles (neutrinos, e.g.) and consecutive detectors. The
gravitational effects are neglected, but the effect of the Earth rotation is taken into consideration
under a simple approach in which we consider two instantaneous inertial
reference frames in relation to the fixed stars: an instantaneous inertial frame of reference
having got the instantaneous velocity of rotation (about the Earth axis of rotation)
of the Cern at one side, the lab system of reference in which the beam propagates, and
another instantaneous inertial system of reference having got the instantaneous velocity
of rotation of the detectors at Gran Sasso at the other side, this latter being the system of
reference of the detectors. Einstein's relativity theory provides a velocity of intersection
between the beam and the detectors greater than the velocity of light in the empty space
as derived in this paper, in virtue of the Earth rotation. We provide a simple calculation
for the discrepancy between a correct measure for the experiment and a measure arising
due to the effect derived in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1109.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Valery P. Dmitriyev

**Comments:** 6 pages

Fourier series is constructed basing on the idea to model the
elementary oscillation (–1,+1) by the exponential function with negative
base, viz. (–1)^{n}.

Key words: Fourier transform, exponent, negative base.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1109.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Ranganath G Kulkarni

**Comments:** 3 pages

Mathematical constant e can be expressed in logarithmic functions. There are six expressions
for e. Five of them are step functions and another one is a constant function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[46] **viXra:1109.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 9 pages, License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

This paper considers the existence of biparticles and presents
a general equation of motion, which can be applied in any
non-rotating reference frame (inertial or non-inertial) without
the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1109.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Janis Strazdins

**Comments:** 5 pages

Fair sampling assumption is used in photonic tests of Bell inequalities.
However, rigorous testing of this assumption is still to be performed. Here
it is argued that without rigorous testing bias can be introduced that
would mask indications of unfair sampling. For purpose of argument local
realistic model for polarization entangled photons is outlined. According
to model coincidence rate and correlation visibility are complementary.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[44] **viXra:1109.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 2 pages

The recent measurement of speed of muon neutrinos shows that it is
possible that speed of neutrinos is faster than speed of light. Here an explanation
is suggested, that this is a consequence of Scharnhorst effect. This effect shows that
photons propagating through vacuum are modifying in virtual pairs electron-positron
for a while and thus the measured speed of light is really lower than one maximal
possible speed of light in short moments. Because neutrinos are not modifying so,
author supposes that their speed is larger than speed of photons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[43] **viXra:1109.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 8 pages

In this paper we shall introduce the concept of time contraction that is produced by
the New Relativity theory of AlMosallami (NRM)[10]. When this concept is
interpreted physically, quantum tunneling exceeds the speed of light in the vacuum as
proven by experiment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1109.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar

**Comments:** 16 pages

This paper shows that a complete theory of gravity can be deduced purely
from special theory of relativity and equivalence principle without using general theory
of relativity or Einstein's field equations. It is shown how the time periods of identical
clocks and lengths of identical measuring rods will vary with change in gravitational
potential, and how we can derive Schwarzschild Metric from this variation, proving that
special theory of relativity is not so special and applies to non-inertial frames as well.
Then the equations of motion and Kepler's Laws are derived from Schwarzschild Metric using
a novel yet simple method of differentiation with respect to time. Equation of motion thus
derived contains a completely new and hitherto unknown term for gravitational acceleration.
Using this new equation of motion it is shown that perihelion advance of mercury, high
orbital speeds in galaxies, deflection of light by the Sun and gravitational lensing in
the galactic clusters are completely explainable. This makes dark matter redundant and
paves way for a new theory of Gravity different from the ones given by both Newton and
Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1109.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-20 03:01:25*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Pons DJ, Pons AD, Pons AJ (2014) Annihilation mechanisms. Applied Physics Research 6 (2):28-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n2p28

This paper develops an ontologically rich explanation of the inner mechanics of the annihilation process, starting from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design. This explains the process in terms of the handedness of matter and antimatter, the interaction of the electron and antielectron as they approach, the collapse of their discrete force structures and their reformation into photon structures. The process is more one of remanufacture than destruction. The resulting Cordus theory successfully explains para- and ortho-positronium annihilation. It explains the different photons output, the relative difference in lifetimes, and why Bhabha scattering sometimes happens instead. The theory exposes a deeper common mechanism for annihilation, pair-creation, and bonding.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[40] **viXra:1109.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 6 pages

We present a Berry-Keating model with 'periodic' conditions
in the dilation group ... (see paper)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1109.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 9 pages

We develop a conceptual model for the internal structures of the photon and electron, based on
the cordus model. The main differentiating feature between the photon and electron is identified as the way
it deals with its field structures or hyff. The photon has a fibrillating relationship with its field,
whereas the electron is a pulsating field-pump. The resulting model permits an explanation of the discrete
(approximately quantised) electrostatic force, the propulsion mechanism for the speed of light, and the
gravitational bending of light. These are side-effects and the larger advantage of this model is the
potential to explain photon-electron interactions generally.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[38] **viXra:1109.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Ke Xiao

**Comments:** 5 pages

The fine structure constant give a simple derivation of the localized wavefunction,
Schrödinger equation and the uncertainty principle in Quantum theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[37] **viXra:1109.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this work, we measured the retarded phase in single wire power transmission. It is
verified that the retarded phase is dependent on frequency. When the value of retarded
phase is 180^{o}, the current through the power source is phase inverted relative to its
voltage so that the effective resistance of load is negative. This phenomenon needs to be
investigated further for the usage of electric power generation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[36] **viXra:1109.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper we present the N-norms/N-conorms in
neutrosophic logic and set as extensions of T-norms/T-conorms
in fuzzy logic and set.
Then we show some applications of the neutrosophic logic to
robotics.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[35] **viXra:1109.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of
the Neutrosophic Set using the Neutrosophic Cube.
Distinctions between the neutrosophic set and intuitionistic
fuzzy set are also presented.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[34] **viXra:1109.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** R Wayte

**Comments:** 48 pages

Detailed models of mesons have been derived in terms of real structured
particles, in order to replace the formless quark/anti-quark singularities of standard
QCD theory. Pion design is related to the muonic mass, and a Yukawa potential is
calculated for the hadronic field. A charged pion is produced by adding a heavyelectron
or positron in a tight orbit around the neutral core. Other mesons are found to
be ordered assemblies of pionic-size masses, travelling in bound epicyclical orbits,
with real intrinsic spin and angular momentum. These orbit dimensions are related to
the mean lifetimes of the mesons through action integrals. Decay products resemble
parts of their parent mesons, as expected for a relaxation process with traceability of
particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[33] **viXra:1109.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Kolahal Bhattacharya

**Comments:** 7 pages, published in "Physics Education Journal" in July-September issue, 2010

The notion of the center of an electrostatic charge distribution is introduced. Then, it is
investigated in which problems the notion may be useful. It is seen that in many problems with positive
and negative charge contents (for example, image problems) the notion works nice.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[32] **viXra:1109.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 9 pages

This article explains the correlation between Euclidean Geometry , Complex Numbers and Physics .
A Straight line AB is continuous in Points between A and B [ i.e. all points between AB are the elements which fill AB ] , which Points are also , Nothing , Everything , and maybe Anywhere , without any Dimension , and one has to
pass the infinite points between A and B . A point C is on line AB only when exists CA+ CB = AB , or the whole AB is equal to the parts CA , CB , and this
is an equation , which differentiates geometries .
Since points have not any dimension and since only AB has dimension ( the length AB and for ÃC the length AC ) and since on ÃB exist infinite AC → AB , which
have infinite Spaces , Anti-Spaces and Sub-Spaces , then
1. Straight line AB is continuous with points as filling ( Infinitively divisible ) .
2. Straight line AB is discontinuous (discrete) with dimensional Units , ds =AB
as filling ( that is made up of finite divisible or indivisible parts the Monads ds )
or ds → AB / n , where n = 1 , 2 , → ∞ ) , and for n = ∞ then ds = 0 .
3. Straight line AB is discontinuous (discrete) with dimensional Units ds , or
ds = quantum = AB / n [ where n = 1,2,3 → ∞ , = ( a + b.i ) / n , Infinitively
divisible and keeping always the conservation of properties at end points A , B ]
as filling , and continuous with points as filling ( for n = ∞ then ds = 0 i.e.
a point ) . This is the Vector relation of Monads , ds , ( or , as Complex
Numbers in their general form , ds = a + b. i ) , which is the Dual
Nature of lines AB , ( discrete and continuous ) . So travelling on Points
( ds = 0 ) between AB one never comes to B , on the contrary travelling
with ds > 0 one comes in finite time .
4 . Achilles has to pass every point of line AB which is then as passing from
the starting point A , ds =0 , where Velocity of Achilles is v(A) = ds/dt = 0 .
The same happens for Tortoise at point B where Velocity v(T) = ds/dt = 0 .
On the contrary , Achilles passing AB on dimensional Units , ds , then Achilles velocity v(A) = ds/dt(A) is greater than that of Tortoise v(T) = ds / dt(T) .
Since in PNS , v = ∞ , T = 0 , meaning infinite velocity and Time not existing , then
Arrow AB in [PNS] is constant because AB = ds = Constant = u . 0 = ∞ . 0 Straight line AB is discontinuous (discrete) with dimensional Units ds = AB / n
where n = 1 → ∞ and continuous with points [ n = ∞ ] . Continuously on AB happens also with all discrete ds , ( This is the Dual Nature of lines ( Geometry ), discrete and continuous ) .
Monads ds = 0 → ∞ are Simultaneously , actual infinite ( because for n = ∞ then ds = [ AB / n = ∞ ] = 0 i.e. a point ) , and potential infinite , ( because for
n = 0 then ds = [ AB / n=0 ] = ∞ i.e. the straight line through AB .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[31] **viXra:1109.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By identifying the Higgs with Primitive Idempotents of the Cl(8) real Clifford algebra, the Higgs is not seen as a simple-minded fundamental scalar particle, but rather the Higgs is seen as a quantum process that creates a fermionic condensate with which it interacts to make the fermions appear massive. The Primitive Idempotent Higgs is part of my E8 Physics model in terms of which the Primitive Idempotent Higgs is seen to do all the nice things that the fundamental scalar particle Higgs needs to do, and to be effectively a Higgs-Tquark system with 3 mass states (i.e., the LHC should see events that look like 3 standard model Higgs mass states at around 140 GeV and 200 GeV and 250 GeV with the total standard model cross section being divided up among those three states. In particular, the LHC should see a Higgs around 140 GeV but with a lower cross section than expected.) (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:1109.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Sven De Smet

**Comments:** 9 pages

This paper describes an implementation strategy in preparation for an
implementation of an OpenCL FFT. The two most essential factors (memory bandwidth
and locality) that are crucial to obtain high performance on a GPU for an
FFT implementation are highlighted. Theoretical upper bounds for performance in
terms of the locality factor are derived. An implementation strategy is proposed that
takes these factors into consideration so that the resulting implementation has the
potential to achieve high performance.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] **viXra:1109.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 24 pages.

There is a lot of chattering on the Internet about Tesla waves, vacuum energy, scalar waves and so
on. Professor Meyl says he has a complete theory, experimental evidence and apparatus on these
waves. In a theoretical paper Van Vlaenderen introduced a generalization of classical
electrodynamics for the prediction of scalar field effects. It is said the Monstein has demonstrated
the physical existence of such scalar waves. NASA in a report seems to consider such waves as a
promising item to be studied. Some other papers appeared in arXiv.
I've already showed that such waves are a consequence of "generalized" Maxwell fields which
simply mean space time analytic functions not limited by the Lorenz gauge condition, but accepted
instead in a wide sense.
In this paper I remember my ideas on these waves, together with my doubts about their physical
existence. In fact, the deduction of the scalar waves equations, together with their physical
interpretation, in my opinion demonstrates nothing about the physical existence of scalar waves.
I discuss the experiment of Monstein, and suggest some other experiment.
Obviously I think that the lack of demonstration of the existence doesn't mean the demonstration of
inexistence.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[28] **viXra:1109.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena

**Comments:** 11 pages.

This document reports some of the important results of a theoretical work that
performed the Wick rotation with the condition of retaining the validity of the Lorentz group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1109.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph

**Comments:** 27 pages, Submitted to Progress in Physics.
Author's name recently changed from Joseph Akindele O Adekugbe to Akindele O Adekugbe Joseph.

The two stages of evolution of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and the associated spacetime
/intrinsic spacetime geometries in a long range metric force field, isolated in previous
papers, are particularized to the gravitational field. The theory of relativity on flat
four-dimensional spacetime (E^{3}, ct) and the intrinsic theory relativity on the underlying
flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime (φρ, φcφt), due to the presence of a metric
force field, as well as the absolute intrinsic metric theory (of the metric force field) on
curved 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic spacetime (φρ^, φc^φt^), which evolve at the
second (and final) stage of evolution of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime in a long range
metric force field, developed in the previous papers, become the theory of gravitational
relativity (TGR) on the flat four-dimensional relativistic spacetime, the intrinsic theory
of gravitational relativity (φTGR) on the underlying flat two-dimensional relativistic
intrinsic spacetime and the metric theory of absolute intrinsic gravity (φMAG) on the
curved 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic spacetime in a gravitational field. The basic
aspects of these co-existing theories in every gravitational field are developed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1109.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-29 18:28:11*

**Authors:** Bichara Sahely

**Comments:** 12 Pages. typos corrected and more references added

In this brief note, it will be shown that space may have hidden properties normally attributed to elementary particles, such as mass and charge. We will also elucidate the thermodynamic properties of these atoms of space by modelling these atoms as ideal gas entities propagating disturbances at the speed of light. We have only demanded consistency in the formulas for circular motion, Einstein's mass-energy eqivalance, wave-particle duality, Planck-Einstein equation, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, the Reissner–Nordström metric and black hole thermodynamics. We will then use the adiabatic index formula to elucidate the degrees of freedom of these atoms of space. We will also reinterpret Einstein's theories of relativity, solve the mystery of the double slit experiment, muse on the physical nature of dark energy, and finally uncover a possible blindspot that may have hampered progress in constructing a consistent and complete theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1109.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Huaning Liu, Jing Gao

**Comments:** 155 pages

This book systematically introduces the works obtained by using analytic methods on
Smarandache problems. The book includes the basic knowledge of analytic number theory, mean
value on some Smarandache sequences, infinite series involving some Smarandache functions,
hybrid mean value of divisor function and some Smarandache functions, and so on. This book
could open up the reader's perspective, and inspire the reader to these fields.
We want to thank all those who have helped and encouraged us to prepare this book. Professor
Wenpeng Zhang gave us the first impulse for writing this book, and have read the whole manuscript
very carefully. We also thank Yanni Liu and Peng Gao for cover designs. Last but not least,
we would like to thank Dr. Minh Perez for his advice and friendly collaboration.

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1109.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 30 pages

The mechanism of the conversion of zero-point-energy is now understood. This is the basis,
on which zero-point-energy converters can be constructed systematically. Here are the details.
Nowadays the existence of the zero-point-energy of the vacuum is recognized in several
disciplines within physics (as for instance Astrophysics and Quantum Electrodynamics), and
the verification is done, that this energy can be converted into classical types of energy in the
laboratory (see Casimir-effect and others). Also the possibility of its utilization for practical
energy-technology is proven in the laboratory.
After the zero-point-energy of the vacuum is made manifest in such way, the task arises to
clarify the fundamental principles of physics, which explain the conversion of the zero-pointenergy
into any other (classical) type of energy, such as for instance electrical or mechanical
energy. These fundamental basics of Physics are now understood and described in the present
article. Based on this theoretical fundament, the article also explains, how the construction of
zero-point-energy converters can be done systematicially for practical engineering purpose.
This is the first time, when a practical method for the systematic construction of zero-pointenergy
converters is found. The article gives guidelines for the development dynamic
Finite-Element-Algorithm (DFEM), which will enable us to construct zero-point-energy converters
systematically.
Simple models of zero-point-energy-converters can be developed with this method rather
easy. But more complex realistic engines require remarkable effort for computation.
The train of thoughts of this article is rounded up by the explanation of some examples for
consequences of the zero-point-energy and its conversion within everyday life even now, as
for instance the existence of electric charge and the stability of atoms.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1109.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 11 pages

In [1] one of the authors developed the construction guidelines for a magnetic ZPEconverter,
which he called Electro-Mechanic Double Resonance principle (EMDR). In [2] he
gave a crucial explanation how to make this principle work with low speed rotation. Now we
present technical design drawings so that every skilled mechanician can build up an
experimental prototype.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1109.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 67 pages

In [Tur 11] the theory of a powerful vacuum-energy converter was developed, and such converters
have been simulated with a dynamic finite element method (DFEM). The result was a theoretical
description of the machine which should be appropriate for technical applications.
Due to many questions from colleagues who read the mentioned article, the author decided to
continue his development on the DFEM-algorithm in order to simulate a zero-point-energy (ZPE)
motor on the computer, as close to reality as possible.
The theoretical background of the simulation is explained in detail here, so that every colleague
should be able, to use the algorithm in the appendix of the publication and to adapted it to the setup
of a vacuum-energy motor according to his own conception.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1109.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 25 pages

In precedent work, the author presented a method for the theoretical computation of zero-point-energy
converters, called Dynamic Finite-Element-Method (DFEM). In several articles some examples for the
conversion of zero-point-energy have been demonstrated, which deliver an output power in the
Nanowatt- or in the Microwatt- range, which is a fundamental proof of the principle, but not sufficient
for any technical application.
The way towards a powerful zero-point-energy converter in the Kilowatt-range needed some
additional investigation, of which the results are now presented. Different from former fundamental
basic research, the new converter has to be operated magnetically, because the energy-density of
magnetic fields is much larger the energy-density of electrostatic fields, namely by several orders of
magnitude.
In the article here, the author presents step by step the solution of the theoretical problems, which now
allows the theoretical construction of a zero-point-energy converter in the Kilowatt-range. The result is
a model of a zero-point-energy motor with a diameter of 9 cm and a height of 6.8 cm producing 1.07
Kilowatts.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1109.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 20 pages

A theoretical method for the computation of zero-point-energy converters has been presented as
dynamic finite element method (DFEM) in [Tur 10a], [Tur 10b], but in these articles, only the method
of computation has been described, without taking realizable parameters for an experimental setup into
account. The way to calculate a realistic system for an experimental setup is developed here.
Therefore, the essential aspect is the question, how to control the speed of propagation of the
interacting fields, which are responsible for the force, which drives the zero-point-energy converter. In
the work presented here, these are the fields of the electromagnetic interaction, because for our
example, a capacitor and a coil have to be adjusted in a way, that the frequency of an electromagnetic
oscillation corresponds to the frequency of a mechanical oscillation. It depends on the precision of this
adjustment, whether zero-point-energy is converted or not.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1109.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 17 pages

The fundamental principle of the conversion of zero-point-energy has been explained in [Tur
10]. This enables us to construct zero-point-energy converters systematically. The method of
computation for such a construction was presented as dynamic Finite-Element-Method
(DFEM), which is a Finite-Element-Algorithm with the supplement of taking the finite speed
of propagation of the interacting-fields (responsible for the forces between the partners of
interaction) between the components of the zero-point-energy converter into account.
In order to illustrate the development from the fundamental principle to the real DFEMprogram,
we now present a small example for this computation, including a short source-code
as a working performance. This algorithm is explained in detail here, so that everybody can
use and further develop it. Finally we analyse a possible zero-point-energy motor with this
program, explaining its conditions of operation and its machine power.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1109.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Claus Wilhelm Turtur

**Comments:** 140 pages

The name "vacuum" is usually given to the space, out of which nothing can be taken with
known methods. But it is well-known, that this vacuum is not empty, but it contains physical
objects [Man 93], [Köp 97], [Lin 97], [Kuh 95]. This is also reflected within the Theory of
General Relativity, namely by the cosmological constant Λ , which finally goes back to the
gravitative action of the "mere space" [Goe 96], [Pau 00], [Sch 02]. Its name "cosmological
constant" indicates, that the universe contains huge amounts of space, which lead to measureable
effects, namely it influences the universe's rate of expansion [Giu 00], [Rie 98], [Teg
02], [Ton 03], [e1]. The crucial question of course is, whether it is possible to develop new
methods, which allow to extract something from the vacuum, which could not be extracted
up to now - some of those objects not visible directly up to now.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1109.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 pages. In Chinese

Using the tachyonic theory we find the new gravitational formula (16) and establish the expansion theory of
the Universe see Fig. 2, (22)-(25). We show that gravitons can be converted into the rest mass, see Fig. 2,
m-bar → m, (24) and (27). We point out that Newtonian gravitational theory is approximate and the general theory
of relativity is wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1109.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 pages.

In this paper the main aspects of the Theory of Reference Frames are presented:
in particular we consider the relativistic relation between time and mass, the
electrodynamics of a moving charged particle, the quantum electrodynamic behavior
of accelerated electron and a new explanation of the Compton effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1109.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-18 13:25:14*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we give the N-th root algorithm in complete normed euclidean semialgebras for every natural number N > 1. The algorithm starts with an input nonzero element with arbitrary length n, thereafter writes O(n) elements in time O(n) to go through O(n) steps in each of which compares, computes and writes O(1) elements in space O(n^2), and so, in time O(n^3).

**Category:** Number Theory

[14] **viXra:1109.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 2 pages.

In this paper author believes that at least three basic concepts of contemporary physics, Millikan's
experiments, de Broglie hypotesis and relations E= mc^{2} and E=hν must be overviewed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1109.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Yongfeng Yang

**Comments:** 8 pages.

The scenario of particle has been greatly written in the past, but its incompleteness is so serious that the
connection of microscopic and macroscopic world is broken. The 19th century's experiment by both Perrin and
Thomson is unable to prove whether the cathode rays are negatively charged or not. Here we propose, the particles
of an atom are organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems to orbit, wave-like movement demonstrated
in double-slit experiment is nothing but an aggregation of the movement of many fine particles. Along with
previous work, it is hopeful to see that hierarchical two-body gravitation may unify different level structures and
their motion together.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12] **viXra:1109.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Ivar Nielsen

**Comments:** 10 pages.

Standing cosmology theories and hypothesis are largely based on the modern "single points of views"
and on some older theories that doesn't fit the later modern discoveries.
The 3 basic electromagnetic forces do not come to their right in the cosmological research and they are by
large suppressed by the old Newtonian theories and the newer Einsteinan theories and hypothesis.
- It is very odd that traditional modern physicists and cosmologists don't take offspring in the well known
facts from the 3 basic electric forces instead of working with the supposed 4.th force of gravity, which is far from understood.
The existent theories seem to lack both dynamic and cyclic descriptions instead of the static point of view.
The conventional explanation for the formation of our solar system and galaxies, etc. are that gravity
collapse gas and matter together, and where gases become stars that later explode and create planets
in a solar system, but there may be another explanation? More facts and a thorough analysis of these
theories suggest that it may behave even much different. The purpose of this article is to see if there
may be existing facts which should be reviewed by the discovery of significant new indications of the
formation is our solar system is formed by a process inside the center of our galaxy, as well as a new
hypothesis for galaxy formation and the formative movements in the 2 basic types, Spiral Galaxies and
Barred Galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11] **viXra:1109.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 22 pages.

Modern theory states that matter and energy in their most basic form exist in discrete
amounts, or quanta. The author proffers that space-time also exists as discrete quanta, and
derives a physical model of space-time and elementary particles. The hypothesis for this model is
that the quanta for matter and space-time are convertible states of the same elementary building
block composed of D-branes and Type I strings: the D-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1109.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 85 pages. Presentation for San Marino Workshop on Astrophysics and Cosmology for Matter and Antimatter - September 5-9, 2011

We present what is relevant to squeezed states of initial space time and how that affects
both the composition of relic GW, and also gravitons. A side issue to consider is if gravitons can be
configured as semi classical "particles",which is akin to the Pilot model of Quantum Mechanics as embedded
in a larger non linear "deterministic" background.
The final part of the talk will be to examine practical testing of the EPR hypothesis, as given by B.
Cocciaro, S. Faetti, L. Fronzoni, as to a lower bound for a superluminal communication signal propagating
in space time, with a similar argument made between Graviton entangled states as what is done for photons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1109.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Farid Khelili

**Comments:** 23 pages

Using noncommutative deformed canonical commutation relations, a model describing a
non-commutative complex scalar field theory is proposed. The noncommutative field equations are
solved, and the vacuum energy is calculated to the second order in the parameter of
noncommutativity. As an application to this model, the Casimir effect, due to the zero point fluctuations of
the noncommutative complex scalar field, is considered. It turns out that in spite of its smallness,
the noncommutativity gives rise to a repulsive force at the microscopic level, leading to a modified
Casimr potential with a minimum at the point ...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1109.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 15 pages

Existing theories of physics struggle to explain the difference between
matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. This paper offers
a reconceptualisation based on the cordus conjecture. We create a new
concept of handedness, called ma, and an operational definition based on
the energisation sequence of the cordus reactive-ends. Each reactive end
for a stable matter particuloid, e.g. the electron, has three orthogonal
hyff. The hand of these is held to be the same for all matter particuloids,
whether positive or negative charge. For all antimatter particuloids the
hand is inverted. The inversion also changes the direction of the hyff, and
thus reverses the charge, but this is a secondary effect. This cordus concept
permits models to be created differentiating between the electron, proton,
and antielectron (positron). This explains why the antielectron is very
different to the proton despite the same charge, and why the photon does
not have an antiparticle. It also allows the wider integration of bonding
and annihilation as manifestations of a single deeper mechanics.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] **viXra:1109.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 4 pages

It is shown that if space is modeled as an elastic medium that propagates spherical, scalar quantumwaves,
then the ratio of the square of the wave velocity to c^{2} reveals the same results as the familiar time dilation
formula that is produced from the Schwarzchild
G_{44} component. The Schwarzchild radius derived from
the scalar-wave model is shown to be equal to the radius of the universe, implying that there are no gravitational
singularities present within the radius of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1109.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Douglas L. Weller

**Comments:** 30 pages

Albert Einstein validated his field equations by demonstrating that they complied with
what he called the laws of momentum and energy. The most well-known solution to
Einstein's field equations is the Schwarzschild metric describing the gravitational field of a
mass point. Here is examined how what Einstein called the laws of momentum and energy
are manifest in the Schwarzschild metric and how these laws limit the geometry of space-time
that is defined by the Schwarzschild metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1109.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Douglas L. Weller

**Comments:** 32 pages

The laws of physics hold equally in reference frames that are in motion with respect to
each other. This premise of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity is a fairly easy concept to
understand in the abstract, however the mathematics-particularly the tensor calculus used by
Einstein to describe general relativity-used to flesh out this premise can be very complex,
making the subject matter difficult for the non-specialist to intuitively grasp. Here is set out a
fundamental principle of relativity that can be used as a tool to understand and explain special
and general relativity. The fundamental principle of relativity is used to independently derive
the Lorentz factor, the Minkowski metric and the Schwarzschild metric. The fundamental
principle is also used to derive metric tensors for systems with multiple point masses and to
explain Newtonian kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy and mass-energy equivalence
in the context of special and general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1109.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 24 pages

By definition in Lie Algebras, all roots can be composed from either all positive or all negative
combinations of their "simple roots". Taking a modified A.G. Lisi split real even E_{8} model with 240
fundamental physics particles associated with an extended Standard Model, a particle count reduction (from
240 fundamental particles to 8 "elemental" particles) is determined from these 8 simple roots. Interestingly,
by taking account of the particle mass assignments, all known fermions {e/ν, u/d, c/s, t/b}, as well as
known (plus the Lisi predicted) bosons {W/B, gluons(g), ω, eφ, xΦ} can be generated with the sum of the
simple root masses being less than the resulting composite particle masses (with the exception of the four
2nd and 3rd generation lepton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1109.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 4 pages

Assume the standard configuration under Special Relativity (SR) and a light pulse is
emitted when the origins of two coordinate systems are common. Further assume v = .6c and that
the spherical light wave (SLW) has attained the unprimed coordinated (2ls,10ls,0) where ls is the
distance light travels in 1 second. Then t_{1} = √104s and
using LT, ( x'_{1} 1.25(2-.6√104) ,10 ,0) x_{1} = - ls .
Since x_{1} > and x'_{1} < , both frames agree along the line y = 10 the SLW is in between the two
origins. According to nature, the SLW will propagate further. So, assume that condition. Both
frames conclude, along the line y =10 , any further propagation of the SLW must place the SLW
further from its own origin assuming the light postulate in its frame. A valid question to propose
is, by considering coordinates only with y =10 and z = 0 , where will the SLW move to after
further propagation? If both frames agree the SLW must move further from the respective origin,
and the SLW is in between the two origins, then the SLW must move two different directions
along the line y = 10 to satisfy the SR conditions of each frame. Based on this fact, it will be
proven in the context of either frame, after further propagation of the SLW, Lorentz
transformations (LT) will contradict the light postulate in the target frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1109.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 21 pages

Theory of Everything? Any theory is already a theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1109.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han, Xiaohong Wang

**Comments:** 18 pages and 8 figures.

A model relating the diameter variation with the process parameters during a practical
crystal growth by pulling has been proposed. The crystal shape evolution under various growth
process was analysed. The results prove, in theory, that the most effective and convenient measure
to control the crystal diameter is adjusting the pulling rate, and the optimal process for growing a
equal diameter crystal is simultaneously decreasing the pulling rate and the heater temperature
with dropped decreasing rate. Moreover, the model could be used for designing the process for
growing a crystal with a desired shape.

**Category:** Condensed Matter