[92] **viXra:1203.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-13 07:26:22*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The value 137.036, a close approximation of the fine structure constant inverse, is shown to occur naturally in connection with a theorem employing a pair of related functions. It is also shown that the formula producing this approximation contains terms expressible using the sines squared of the experimental quark and lepton mixing angles, implying an underlying relationship between these constants. This formula places the imprecisely measured neutrino mixing angle *θ*_{13} at close to 8.09^{°}, so that sin^{2}2*θ*_{13} ≈ 0.0777.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[91] **viXra:1203.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-30 23:06:27*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 70 Pages. 8 Figures

Presently, a new model for neutron structure has been proposed. Because the standard quark model and the other neutron models fail to give explanation of the questions, e.g.: 1. A neutron happens to be unstable in its free state and becomes stable in stable nuclei and systems (e.g. deuterons and alpha particles), but why and how? 2. What does happen or situation is created in stable nuclei/systems such that the neutrons become stable in them? 3. Why and how is that situation not being created in nuclei/systems having, e.g. two-neutrons, three-neutrons and one-proton etc.? 4. Why and how does neutron have unstable and stable, both the states, while the rest of all the elementary particles have only one state, either stable or unstable? 5. Why and how does neutron survive for time t = 885.7 seconds (mean life time of neutron) and then decays, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second? 6. Why and how do neutrons have high penetrating power and distinguishable low and high-energy ranges? The present model gives clear and complete explanation of all the above questions along with very clear and complete explanation of the following several greatly important phenomena/events: 1. Why and how beta particles, which are electrons, are emitted from the nuclei during beta decay while it is believed that the electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 2. Why and how energy of beta particles emitted during beta decay varies in the form of a continuous energy spectrum; 3. Why and how nature has provided us only deuteron while the bound states, di-proton and di-neutron are also theoretically possible but do not exist; 4. Why and how binding energy per nucleon (Eb) of tritium and helium-3 are increased to > 2×Eb of deuteron, and Eb of tritium > Eb of helium-3; 5. Why and how tritium is radioactive and decays into helium-3 through beta decay; 6. How two-neutrons and two-protons are arranged in an alpha particle such that it persists and behaves like a particle and beams of alpha particles are obtained despite having repulsive Coulomb force between them; 7. Why and how Eb of alpha particle is increased to > 6× Eb of deuteron, instead of increasing to 2×Eb of deuteron; 8. How nucleons are arranged in nuclei having mass number A = integer multiple of 4 that the nuclei become most strongly stable; 9. Why and how Eb of beryllium-8 < Eb of helium-4, while Eb of nuclei increases as their A increases in multiple of 4; 10. Why and how nuclei having A not equal to integer multiple of 4 are not strongly stable; 11. Why and how near A = 62, Eb is maximum and then it gradually decreases as A increases and ultimately for A > 200, the nuclei become radioactive and alpha, beta, gamma, neutrino are emitted from them; 12. How gamma and neutrino obtain particle like physical existence and so high energy and penetrating power. Finally an important conclusion has been drawn that the strength of stability of a nucleus does not depend only upon Eb of the nucleus but also upon the strength of stability of neutrons of the nucleus, because the later one too varies.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[90] **viXra:1203.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 13:10:53*

**Authors:** Janne Mikael Karimäki

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Other people have had this idea before me. This may still be interesting for some people interested in the foundations of physics.

In this paper the relationship of classical physics and quantum physics is studied
by introducing a partial differential equation, which describes classical mechanics,
but looks very similar to the Schrödinger wave equation of quantum mechanics.
This work is largely based on David Bohm's causal interpretation of quantum
mechanics, but is in some sense complementary to it. In Bohm's theory the Schrödinger
wave equation is used to derive classical looking equations of motion for quantum
physics. Here exactly the opposite is done. The equations of classical physics
are put into a form resembling the Schrödinger equation of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[89] **viXra:1203.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 13:17:13*

**Authors:** Janne Mikael Karimäki

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is presented
in the spirit of Erwin Madelung’s hydrodynamic formulation of QM [1]
and Louis de Broglie’s and David Bohm’s pilot wave models [2, 3]. The
aims of the approach are as follows: 1) to have a clear ontology for QM, 2)
to describe QM in a causal way, 3) to get rid of the wave-particle dualism
in pilot wave theories, 4) to provide a theoretical framework for describing
creation and annihilation of particles, and 5) to provide a possible connection
between particle QM and virtual particles in QFT. These goals are
achieved, if the wave function is replaced by a fluid of so called virtual
particles. It is also assumed that in this fluid of virtual particles exist a
few real particles and that only these real particles can be directly observed.
This has relevance for the measurement problem in QM and it
is found that quantum probabilities arise in a very natural way from the
structure of the theory. The model presented here is very similar to a
recent computational model of quantum physics [4] and recent Bohmian
models of QFT [5, 6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[88] **viXra:1203.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-28 11:34:16*

**Authors:** Richard Blaber

**Comments:** 10 pages, 21 equations, 0 figures.

In this paper, we shall show how the proton-electron mass ratio is determined by the values of α, the fine-structure constant, g-sub-e, the electron g-factor, and R-sub-K, von Klitzing’s constant.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[87] **viXra:1203.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-28 18:07:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The debate between process infinity and Cantor’s eigentlich Unendliche “completed infinity” has occurred since before Greek times. Prior to Cantor, the prevailing view of infinity was that it is a process that continues on forever and there is only one type of infinity. Cantor, on the other hand, produced the current foundations of mathematics with his hierarchy of completed infinite objects. In particular, the completed infinite set ω contains all natural numbers and none are missing from the set. This paper will demonstrate, however, a specific method under ZFC of assembling all finite ordinals into the completed set ω such that ω ε ω is a necessary condition of that formation. Then, from ω ε ω, it will be shown ZFC is inconsistent.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[86] **viXra:1203.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-28 22:43:35*

**Authors:** Todd J. Desiato

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Presented herein is a revision of the time-independent solutions of the equations of motion for the Refractive Index, in the Polarizable Vacuum (PV) Model. It is demonstrated that these equations may be used to obtain solutions and equations of motion for the metric component functions, identical to General Relativity (GR). The equations of motion in this Revised PV Model are easier to solve than the equations of GR as they do not require Tensor mathematics or geometrical interpretations to be understood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1203.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-28 02:08:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We begin 600 years in the future, looking back and forth in time until we arrive in the next millennium … where science explains Infinity, Eternity and God. Subheadings in this article are – The 27th Century, Electrical Engineering, Relatively Short-Term Benefits, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Equivalence, Unified Field Theory, Resurrection To Eternal Life, Time Travel And Teleporting, The 30th Century, < Doctor Who …
Mathematical Hyperspace And Quantum Spin >, Mobius Loop, Localized Unified Field, The Matrix And The Figure-8 Klein Bottle, Real / Imaginary / Negative, 1000 Years+, Quantum Mechanical God’s-Eye View, Unification Explains Infinity And Eternity And God, Hidden Variables, Virtual Particles

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[84] **viXra:1203.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-27 20:59:35*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Searching, collecting, sorting and compiling the cosmic code is an essential part of unification

Considering the `molar electron mass' an attempt is made to understand the strong, weak and gravitational interactions in a unified approach. Muon \& tau rest masses, nuclear characteristic size, proton size, nucleon rest masses and magnetic moments were fitted. Obtained SEMF energy coefficients are 16.28, 19.36, 0.7681, 23.76 and 11.88 MeV respectively.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] **viXra:1203.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-26 04:52:23*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The often cited book [11] of Asher Peres presents Quantum Mechanics without the use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty
Principle, a principle which it calls an "ill-defined notion". There is, however, no argument in this regard in the
mentioned book, or comment related to the fact that its use in the realms of quanta is not necessary, let alone,
unavoidable. A possible comment in this respect is presented here. And it is related to certain simple, purely logical
facts in axiomatic theories, facts which are disregarded when using "physical intuition" and "physically meaningful"
axioms or principles in the development of mathematical models of Physics, [16-18].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[82] **viXra:1203.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-25 17:17:39*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Available on author's unquantum.net website and uspto.gov since 2005

The method typically uses spontaneous gamma rays from radioisotopes, either cadmium-109 at 88 keV or cobalt-57 at 122 keV, detected with NaI(Tl) or HPGe. After a two-part split, detection pulses are windowed for the characteristic gamma ray pulse amplitude and measured in coincidence. By using high resolution detectors and gamma rays that match the part of the spectrum where the detector has a high photoelectric effect efficiency, coincidence rates are found to substantially exceed the chance rate. This refutes the quantum mechanical prediction of energy quantization. This unquantum effect implies that photons are an illusion, and is explained by an extension of the abandoned loading theory of Planck to derive the photoelectric effect equation. In scattering gamma rays in a beam splitter geometry, changes in response to magnetic fields, temperature, and crystal orientation are tools for measuring properties of atomic bonds. With detectors in a tandem geometry where the first detector is both scatterer and absorber, tests reveal properties consistent with a classical gamma ray model. The method has also shown use in discovering that different crystalline states of the gamma ray source change the extent coincidence rates exceed chance, whereas conventional gamma ray spectroscopy shows no substantial dependence upon these applied variables.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1203.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 17:22:13*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Available on author's www.unquantum.net website since 2003

In a thought experiment, Einstein proposed that a single light quantum (photon) would go one way or
another at a beam-splitter. Here, newly described beam-split tests of the photon implement gamma-rays from spontaneous decay of 109Cd and 57Co, whereby a single primary gamma-ray splits and is detected in coincidence in two detectors. The experimental coincidence rates are found to substantially exceed the chance coincidence rate. These results directly violate the quantum mechanical probabilistic model of light, and indirectly violate the concept of quantized charge. These are full-height pulses, characteristic of the chosen gamma under study. To help understand how all this can possibly be true, I have identified conceptual and experimental flaws in previous works, and have developed the long abandoned loading theory. This developed loading theory avoids wave-particle duality by thresholds, a pre-loaded state, and by having electromagnetic energy emitted quantized but absorbed continuously. By forcing a choice between conservation of energy and photons, the experimental results spell the long overdue death of the photon.
______________________________

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[80] **viXra:1203.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-23 23:28:11*

**Authors:** Todd J. Desiato

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When a space-time warp bubble is moving at velocity (i.e. v > c), Doppler shifted photons with energy tending to infinity, approach from the direction of motion. Event horizons form on the leading and trailing walls of the bubble. It is demonstrated herein that these phenomena mathematically arise from the application of shift-only space-time solutions; derived retrospectively from the geometrical interpretation of General Relativity. Moreover, it shall be demonstrated that these phenomena do not manifest in a properly formulated Polarizable Vacuum warp drive solution, IFF the refractive index within the space-time bubble is precisely controlled. This formalism is consistent within the analog gravity framework of the Polarizable Vacuum Model, representing a variable speed of light interpretation of General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1203.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-24 11:31:41*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It appears not to be known that subjecting the axioms to certain conditions, such as for instance to be physically meaningful, may interfere with the logical essence of axiomatic systems, and do so in unforeseen ways, ways that should be carefully considered and accounted for.
Consequently, the use of "physical intuition" in building up axiomatic systems for various theories of Physics may lead to situations which
have so far not been carefully considered.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[78] **viXra:1203.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 13:06:45*

**Authors:** Martin Thomas Pollner

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The translation of the german part will follow as soon as possible

The three physical elements: three-dimensional space, the time and the energy were generated in the big bang and formed the first quantum of space. This can be identified as a photon. This generation has been reproducing itself since the big bang, which caused the expansion of space. Since the big bang this expansion requires a force of expansion of the space. Based on the fluctuation of the photons the three-dimensional space can be filled infinitesimal completely by quantum of space. Under the influence of the force of expansion the propagation of light occurs completely different as previously described. Mass could condense only after the generation of the photons had been set off in the big bang as it requires space for its existence. The force of expansion of space can be identified as force of gravitation. Based on all these discoveries the questions about the nature of the so-called dark energy and about the cosmic jets of black holes can be answered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[77] **viXra:1203.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-22 09:37:31*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper presents the phenomenon of disconnect in the axiomatic approach to theories of Physics, a phenomenon which appears due to the insistence on axioms which have a physical meaning. This insistence introduces a restriction which is foreign to the abstract nature of axiomatic systems as such. Consequently, it turns out to introduce as well the mentioned disconnect. The axiomatic approach in Physics has a longer tradition. It is there already in Newton's Principia. Recently for instance, a number of axiomatic approaches have been proposed in
the literature related to Quantum Mechanics. Special Relativity, [2], had from its beginning in 1905 been built upon two axioms, namely,
the Galilean Relativity and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in inertial reference frames. Hardly noticed in wider circles, the independence
of these two axioms had quite early been subjected to scrutiny, [5,3], and that issue has on occasion been addressed ever since, see
[8,4,24] and the literature cited there. Recently, [24], related to these two axioms in Special Relativity, the following phenomenon of wider importance in Physics was noted. As the example of axiomatization of Special Relativity shows it, it is possible to face a disconnect
between a system of physically meaningful axioms, and on the other hand, one or another of the mathematical models used in the study of the axiomatized physical theory. The consequence is that, seemingly unknown so far, one faces in Physics the possibility that the axiomatic method has deeper, less obvious, and in fact not considered, or simply overlooked limitations. As there is no reason to believe that the system of the usual two axioms of Special Relativity is the only one subjected to such a disconnect, the various foundational ventures in modern Physics, related for instance to gravitation, quanta, or their bringing together in an overarching theory, may benefit from the study of the possible sources and reasons for such a disconnect. An attempt
of such study is presented in this paper.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[76] **viXra:1203.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-22 14:54:33*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons, A.D. Pons

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The purpose of this paper was to look for non-local designs of particles. We show that the Bell-type theorems are not proof against a hidden variable solution, by presenting such a model complete with the first level of internal functional structures. A design method was used to infer the internal structures that would be necessary to explain the observed phenomena of entanglement. The result is a novel model called the cordus particule, which is proposed to have two reactive ends that are separated in space. The model proposes the internal structures and provides mechanisms showing how the external behaviour arises from those structures. A mechanism is given for superluminal entanglement. The model predicts outcomes from Bell-type tests that are consistent with empirical results. This shows that it is conceptually possible to create hidden-variable solutions that are based on physical sub-structures. We suggest that the better interpretation of entanglement and the Bell-type theorems is that both local realism and the zero-dimensional point construct are false. The cordus model produces a new concept for the mechanism for locality and the extents thereof, and implies the need to abandon strict locality and local realism, at least at the deeper level. Nonetheless an approximate retention of both locality and realism is provided. The results suggest it is worthwhile questioning the established ideas of physics regarding the composition of particules, and we particularly identify the zero-dimensional point construct as ripe for revision.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[75] **viXra:1203.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-21 19:54:13*

**Authors:** D.S. Dihalu, B. Geelhoed

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

One of the most used theories for the sampling of materials for physical, chemical or biological testing is the theory developed by Pierre Gy. After a number of scientific publications, including several in the French language (e.g. Gy, 1953, 1964, 1975), he made –in 1979– his entire new theory available to the worldwide sampling community in a book (Gy, 1979) written in English. This book contains a complete description of Gy’s sampling theory. Later, Gy has made several refinements, but the essential character of the theory has always remained the same as the theory described in his 1979 book.
The impact of this book (and the entire theory of Gy) has been significant; even nowadays this book is regarded as the number one source of sampling-related information for engineers and process operators. Even though the practical impact and the scientific value of this work are unquestionably strong, several critical points of discussion need to be mentioned here, because the development of new technologies, recent experimental results and novel insights show that parts of Gy’s theory need to be updated or revised.

**Category:** Statistics

[74] **viXra:1203.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-20 07:02:58*

**Authors:** Faycal Ben Adda

**Comments:** 24 Pages. A short version of this paper was published in Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Fractional order systems, 42, p733-746, 2008.

In this paper, we introduce a concept of
"apparent" measure in R^n and we define a concept of relative dimension (of real order) with it, which depends on the geometry
of the object to measure and on the distance which separates it
from an observer. At the end we discuss the relative dimension of the Cantor set. This measure enables us to provide a geometric
interpretation of the Riemann-Liouville's integral of order alpha between 0 and 1.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[73] **viXra:1203.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-28 23:57:15*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Available on author's website since 2001

In an analysis of experiments famous for particle models of light and charge, a non-classical wave model is developed to explain these particle-like properties in terms of waves. The experiments and issues examined include: charge diffraction, charge quantization, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, black body radiation, spin, and antimatter. The model has three postulates: (a) a threshold concept whereby charge, mass, and action are maximums at e, m, and h respectively, (b) a ratio concept whereby free space measures of e, m, and h will always reveal themselves in ratios e/m, e/h, or h/m, allowing components of these ratios to individually diminish as the wave spreads while the ratio value remains intact, and (c) an envelope property of the (psi)wave (Schrödinger’s amplitude) whereby the envelope is full and stable with a graphic area of h. The envelope concept is developed by replacing the phase wavelength in de Broglie’s equation with the group length. Some conclusions: Our constants h, e, and m, can only be independently measured in atoms or collisions where the envelopes are full, but not in free-space diffraction, or in deflection experiments. The particle-like properties of charge are explained with envelopes displacing each other in space as they reach threshold h. Particles of light then become an illusion of these threshold and ratio properties of the charge-wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[72] **viXra:1203.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-19 14:15:50*

**Authors:** Marinela Preoteasa

**Comments:** 156 Pages.

În anul 1972 Florentin Smarandache prezentase o ipoteză supraluminala (prin care susţinea că nu există barieră a vitezei în univers), infirmând postulatul einsteinian. Autorul l-a contrazis din nou pe Einstein în 1982 construind, prin calcule matematice simple, o Teorie Absolută a Relativităţii (T.A.R.), din care erau înlăturate fanteziile ştiinţifice din Teoria Specială a Relativităţii precum dilatare a timpului, contractare a spaţiului, simultaneitate relativistă, sau paradoxuri relativiste.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1203.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-19 10:44:15*

**Authors:** Louis D. Grey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is a well known result that for a prime of the form 4k+3, there are more quadratic residues than non-residues in the interval (1,(p-1)/2). Using elementary methods,we provide an asymptotic estimate for the number of residues in the interval.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1203.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-19 10:58:09*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Considering the Avogadro number as a scaling factor an attempt is made to understand the origin of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in a unified approach. Nuclear characteristic size, proton size, nucleon rest masses and magnetic moments were fitted. It is noticed that, nuclear binding energy can be understood with the `molar electron mass' and `fermi energy' concepts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] **viXra:1203.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-19 11:47:19*

**Authors:** Louis D. Grey

**Comments:** Pages. Remove word "louis" after title of paper

We prove a special case of C.L. Siegel's theorem regarding the class number of binary quadratic forms with fundamental discriminant -D<0.

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1203.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-18 12:46:17*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, $F_C \cong \left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. Nuclear weak force magnitude is $F_W \cong \frac{F_C}{N^2}$ where $N$ is the Avogadro number. Relation between the nuclear strong force and weak force magnitudes can be expressed as $\sqrt{\frac{F_S}{F_W}} \cong 2 \pi \ln \left(N^2\right).$ It is noticed that there exists simple relations in between the nuclear strong force, weak force and the force on the revolving electron in the Bohr radius of the Hydrogen atom. An attempt is made to couple the strong coupling constant with these 3 forces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] **viXra:1203.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-18 08:35:34*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The idea of the existence of ether has been abandoned after the theory of relativity was accepted. It appears that the existence of an ether, compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve some enigmas of the present Cosmological model that are very important, for instance the enigma connected to dark matter or to fossil radiation. In this article we show how the existence of ether, being compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve those enigmas. In particular how it can give the nature of dark matter, the origin of its invisibility, the curve of velocities of stars in galaxies (constant) and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1203.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-18 02:07:39*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to the Int. Jour. of Theor. Physics

A unification model of 4D gravity and SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) Yang-Mills theory is presented. It is obtained from a Kaluza-Klein compactification of 8D quaternionic gravity on an internal CP^2 = SU (3)/U(2) symmetric space . We proceed to explore
the nonlinear connection A^a_\mu ( x, y ) formalism used in Finsler geometry to show how ordinary gravity in D = 4 + 2 dimensions has enough degrees of freedom to encode a 4D gravitational and SU (5) Yang-Mills theory. This occurs when the internal two-dim space is a sphere S^2 . This is an appealing result because SU (5) is one of the candidate GUT groups. We conclude by discussing how the nonlinear connection formalism of Finsler geometry provides an infinite hierarchical extension of the Standard Model within a six dimensional gravitational theory due to
the embedding of SU (3) x SU (2) x U(1) \subset SU ( 5 ) \subset SU ( \infty ) .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1203.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 07:57:53*

**Authors:** Robert Watson

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory is
incomplete and generally considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on the
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections and a new cylinder condition are used. General covariance
and global properties are investigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas.
Conserved super-energy is used in place of the energy conditions for 5D
causality. Explanatory relationships between matter, charge and spin are
present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[64] **viXra:1203.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-25 03:11:23*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using Compton Equation(1923) ,
1] Classicl Relativity is Extended to Relativity in N Dimensinal Space.
2] I give the ultimate proof that Nothing can pass speed of light.
3] I have found a beter "compton Equation".
4] The paper gives a hint about how mass and charge curve space .
5] It is also shown that Relativity is necessary also for what we think to be non reletavistic problems

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1203.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-16 20:48:14*

**Authors:** Xiao-meng Li, Xianfeng Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the growth of meromorphic solutions of a class of systems of complex algebraic differentialequations. A general estimate the growth order of solutions of the systems of differential equation is obtained by Zalacman Lemma. We also take an example to show that the result is right.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[62] **viXra:1203.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-05 08:25:08*

**Authors:** Ricardo G. Barca

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Let a (a greater equal than 5042) be an even number such that a is not twice
a prime. Let { p_1, p_2, p_3, ..., p_k } be the ordered set of k primes
less than the square root of a. Every natural number n < a can be
associated with a k-tuple, the elements of which are the remainders of
dividing n by p_1, p_2, p_3, ..., p_k. These k-tuples are classified in
two types: prohibited or permitted, according to the type of the
remainders that form the k-tuple. We prove that if p is a prime number less
than a, therefore if p is not congruent with p_h, for every p_h in { p_1, p_2,
p_3, ..., p_k }, then a-p is a prime or a-p=1. In that case, a permitted
k-tuple is associated with p. We use this fact to prove that every even
number a > 5042 is the sum of two odd primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1203.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-15 17:23:46*

**Authors:** Malcolm H. Mac Gregor

**Comments:** 15 pages, including 6 displays of experimental data systematics

Experimentally, the sum of the W and Z gauge boson masses is equal to the top quark t mass, to an accuracy of better than 1%. This unexpected mass relationship has no Standard Model explanation. It can be related to a precision mass equality in Fermilab and CERN proton-antiproton collision experiments, and to an empirical mass relation between the top-quark and the electron that ties together the lightest and heaviest particle states to 0.1% accuracy. These results, which do not appear to be accidental, can be used as a guide in classifying high-energy particle states. Since these relationships are between different types of particle states, they logically involve the particle energies E = mc^2 rather than their masses, since energies represent a universal property that is essentially independent of particle types and quantum numbers. Particle energies E are proportional to particle inertial masses m. The Standard Model quark energies correspond to constituent-quark masses. The experimental mass/energy relationships mentioned here can be fitted into a comprehensive particle generation formalism based on factor-of-137 kinetic-energy-to-particle-energy transformations in related boson, fermion and gauge boson energy production channels.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[60] **viXra:1203.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-28 15:23:50*

**Authors:** Herman Holushko

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The phenomenon known as “supernova timescale stretching” was discovered by measuring the observed light curve broadening and by measuring the rate of spectra evolution (aging) for Type Ia supernovae. In modern cosmology this phenomenon is widely considered as one that rules out the “tired light” hypothesis. The redefined “tired light” hypothesis presented in this paper not only agrees with the supernova timescale stretching but actually explains it without employing universe expansion. Using Type Ia supernova spectra template, I have conducted a computer simulation study of light propagation from a supernova to an observer based on the tired light assumptions. The results of the simulation for “at rest” UBVRIYJHK bands do not contradict the astronomical observations related to light curve broadening and spectra aging.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:1203.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-15 22:19:10*

**Authors:** Efrain Pantaleón Matamoros

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Right Author Register: 01110-1110 CENDA, Cuba, 1996

The unification of the laws that govern the physical phenomena, it has been research topic for different scientist generations. These investigations have been accomplished by different methods, but mainly in this century with the application of the quantum mechanics which governs the phenomena of the microworld and tends to assume the laws of the macroworld. The function proposed for the unification of the physical processes, is achieved modifying the interpretation that gives origin to the equation of Einstein-Kolmogorov, extrapolating it from the infinitely small to the infinitely large; making possible the obtainment of a unique function that contains the physical laws, taking into account the parameter existence time for each physical state.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[58] **viXra:1203.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-16 02:45:52*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 90 Pages. It is the very important paper for number theory

Using Jiang function we prove the new prime theorems(1441)-(1480).

**Category:** Number Theory

[57] **viXra:1203.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-16 03:56:23*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

A generalization of number concept is proposed. One can replace integer n with n-dimensional Hilbert space and sum + and product × with direct sum ⊕ and tensor product ⊗ and introduce their co-operations, the definition of which is highly non-trivial.

This procedure yields also Hilbert space variants of rationals, algebraic numbers, p-adic number fields, and even complex, quaternionic and octonionic algebraics. Also adeles can be replaced with their Hilbert space counterparts. Even more, one can replace the points of Hilbert spaces with Hilbert spaces and repeat this process, which is very similar to the construction of infinite primes having interpretation in terms of repeated second quantization. This process could be the counterpart for construction of n^{th} order logics and one might speak of Hilbert or quantum mathematics. The construction would also generalize the notion of algebraic holography and provide self-referential cognitive representation of mathematics.

This vision emerged from the connections with generalized Feynman diagrams, braids, and with the hierarchy of Planck constants realized in terms of coverings of the imbedding space. Hilbert space generalization of number concept seems to be extremely well suited for the purposes of TGD. For instance, generalized Feynman diagrams could be identifiable as arithmetic Feynman diagrams describing sequences of arithmetic operations and their co-operations. One could interpret ×_{q} and +_{q} and their co-algebra operations as 3-vertices for number theoretical Feynman diagrams describing algebraic identities X=Y having natural interpretation in zero energy ontology. The two vertices have direct counterparts as two kinds of basic topological vertices in quantum TGD (stringy vertices and vertices of Feynman diagrams). The definition of co-operations would characterize quantum dynamics. Physical states would correspond to the Hilbert space states assignable to numbers. One prediction is that all loops can be eliminated from generalized Feynman diagrams and diagrams are in projective sense invariant under permutations of incoming (outgoing legs).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[56] **viXra:1203.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-16 03:58:04*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Absolute Galois Group defined as Galois group of algebraic numbers regarded as extension of rationals is very difficult concept to define. The goal of classical Langlands program is to understand the Galois group of algebraic numbers as algebraic extension of rationals - Absolute Galois Group (AGG) - through its representations. Invertible adeles -ideles - define Gl_{1} which can be shown to be isomorphic with the Galois group of maximal Abelian extension of rationals (MAGG) and the Langlands conjecture is that the representations for algebraic groups with matrix elements replaced with adeles provide information about AGG and algebraic geometry.

I have asked already earlier whether AGG could act is symmetries of quantum TGD. The basis idea was that AGG could be identified as a permutation group for a braid having infinite number of strands. The notion of quantum adele leads to the interpretation of the analog of Galois group for quantum adeles in terms of permutation groups assignable to finite l braids. One can also assign to infinite primes braid structures and Galois groups have lift to braid groups.

Objects known as dessins d'enfant provide a geometric representation for AGG in terms of action on algebraic Riemann surfaces allowing interpretation also as algebraic surfaces in finite fields. This representation would make sense for algebraic partonic 2-surfaces, and could be important in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds assigned with living matter in TGD inspired quantum biology, and would allow to regard the quantum states of living matter as representations of AGG. Adeles would make these representations very concrete by bringing in cognition represented in terms of p-adics and there is also a generalization to Hilbert adeles.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[55] **viXra:1203.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-16 03:59:53*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In an article in the March 8 issue of the journal PLoS Computational Biology, physicists Travis Craddock and Jack Tuszynski of the University of Alberta, and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff of the University of Arizona propose a mechanism for encoding synaptic memory in microtubules, major components of the structural cytoskeleton within neurons. The self-explanatory title of the article is "Cytoskeletal Signaling: Is Memory Encoded in Microtubule Lattices by CaMKII Phosphorylation?". The basic ideas of the model are described and criticized and after than TGD inspired model is discussed.

**Category:** Mind Science

[54] **viXra:1203.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-15 03:50:37*

**Authors:** Martiros Khurshudyan, Amalya Khurshudyan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article we proposed a new Game called as 'Cellular Fights'. It takes a long time for giving such title to this game. Before and after publishing this letter, rules are not tested and are not classified, by other words they are given as they were born in our minds and we have not any idea about issues. Fight does not mean, that the game claims and propagates inhumanity. It is pure mathematical game where we need to develop moves and provide beautiful winning over opponent, which is big art not only in desk games but in everyday life. In physics, chemistry, biology as well as in our life fight exists
continuously: our healthy biological cells struggle with ill cells, political parties are involved in very hot debuts etc. Other interesting example of the fight can be considered natural reaction occurring
between two chemical elements during chemical reactions. Of course many examples can be given to
readers, but it is reasonable to restrict ourselves and start our trip. All basic ideas of Cellular Automata are given. Then flat jump to main purpose is given: Rules, objects for the fight as well as an environment for the fight are presented. At the and of article some problems are given for future
investigations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1203.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-09 15:12:48*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Although studies into the relation between the effects of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes produced in particle
colliders relative to those which may be produced in nature due to cosmic ray (CR) collisions have already been conducted
in some detail [1] this short paper re-explores the relationship between the two. Herein
the same figures of CR flux and the planned number of collisions over the lifetime of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are
used to determine a comparison between the two, though different results are concluded due to account taken to some
less-considered differences between sub-Keplerian phenomena (<11.186km/s) and faster
phenomena which would evade gravity capture.
The relative flux and the consequential effects of such stable MBH are considered herein due to recently published
research [2] which disputes the effectiveness of Hawking Radiation (HR) in the widely anticipated (though sometimes
challenged [5][6][7]) evaporation of any such phenomena.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[52] **viXra:1203.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-18 14:25:19*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show the core and central issue where Relativity and the speed of light are so commonly misunderstood by virtually every 21st century physicist, engineer, university professor, high school teacher, physics book author, and encyclopedia author. The problem stems from Dr. Einstein’s famous 1905 paper and the resulting over complication of the relativity principle, which got thoroughly “masked” by some unfortunate higher math, which is totally inappropriate to describe what is a principle that even an 8th grader can understand, and a physics PhD cannot. Very few scientists really understand Dr. Einstein’s 1905 paper, which has never been properly subjected to detailed analysis by a professional engineer, with said proper engineering analysis being accepted by the traditional physics peer reviewed community.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1203.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-24 08:51:45*

**Authors:** Kelly Loum

**Comments:** 5 pages

This paper describes an extremely simple and fundamentally different view of the concept of “photon” which removes the mystery of wave-particle duality, locality versus non-locality (entanglement, etc.), causality, wave-particle duality for massive particles, superposition, and reveals the basic tenets of distance, time, and gravity. A proof is provided.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1203.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-15 15:28:45*

**Authors:** Kelly Loum

**Comments:** 1 page. See copyright notice in document

There has been much discussion, planning, and experimentation concerning the
possibility that antimatter may be repelled by the gravity field of matter, and vice versa.
This short paper dispels that myth.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1203.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-15 12:27:22*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

By plotting the polynomials corresponding to several iterations of the logistic map, it is found that the entropy of a branching path can be larger than what is intuitively expected.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[48] **viXra:1203.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-14 19:21:00*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

using Jiang function we prove the new prime theorems(1491)-��1540��

**Category:** Number Theory

[47] **viXra:1203.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-24 23:33:01*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In equidistant curve coordinate system, the two expressions of the length between two points in disk and upper half-plane are the same.

**Category:** Geometry

[46] **viXra:1203.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-22 09:46:39*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosingr

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Recently, [3], it was shown that Special Relativity is in fact based just about on one single physical axiom which is that of Reciprocity.
Originally, Einstein, [1], established Special Relativity on two
physical axioms, namely, the Galilean Relativity and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in inertial reference frames. Soon after, [2,4,5], it was
shown that the Galilean Relativity alone, together with some implicit mathematical type conditions, is sufficient for Special Relativity. The
references in [7,3] can give an idea about the persistence over the years, even if not the popularity, of the issue of minimal axiomatic
foundation of Special Relativity. Here it is important to note that, implicitly, three more assumptions have been used on space-time
co-ordinate transformations, namely, the homogeneity of space-time, the isotropy of space, and certain mathematical condition of smoothness type on the
coordinate transformations. In [3], a weaker boundedness type condition on space-time coordinate transformations is used instead of the usual
mathematical smoothness type conditions. In this paper it is shown that the respective boundedness condition is related
to the Principle of Local Transformation Increment Ratio Limitation, or in short, PLTIRL, a principle introduced here, and one which has
an obvious physical meaning. It is also shown that PLTIRL is not a stronger assumption than that of the mentioned boundedness in [3], and yet it
can also deliver the Lorentz Transformations. Of interest is the fact that, by formulating PLTIRL as a physical axiom, the possibility is opened
up for the acceptance, or on the contrary, rejection of this physical axiom PLTIRL, thus leading to two possible theories of Special Relativity.
And to add further likelihood to such a possibility, the rejection of PLTIRL leads easily to effects which involve unlimited time and/or space
intervals, thus are not accessible to usual experimentation for the verification of their validity, or otherwise. A conclusion is that a more careful
consideration of the assumptions underlying Special Relativity is worth pursuing. In this regard, a corresponding trend has lately been observable
in Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. In the former, the respective analysis is more involved than has so far been the case for Special Relativity.
As for the latter, the technical and conceptual diffculties are considerable. Regarding Quantum Field Theory, the situation is, so far, unique in
Physics since, to start with, there is not even one single known rigorous and comprehensive enough mathematical model. This paper is a new version of [20].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1203.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-13 21:16:16*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Nucleon behaves as if it constitutes molar electron mass. In a unified way nucleon's mass, size and other characteristic properties can be studied with this idea. If strong interaction is really $10^{39}$ times stronger than the strength of gravity, this proposal can be given a chance. Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, $F_C \cong \left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. It can be considered as the upper limit of the cosmic string tension. Weak force magnitude $F_W$ can be considered as the characteristic nuclear weak string tension. Until the measurement of $\left(F_C \;\&\; F_W\right)-$ it can be assumed that $\frac{F_C}{F_W}\cong N^2$ where $N$ is Avogadro like number.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1203.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-13 14:49:49*

**Authors:** Dalius Balciunas

**Comments:** 7 pages

The remarkable feature of life is its ability to self-reproduce. Self-replicating systems fit in naturally with Darwin's evolution scheme. However, I argue here that what Darwin thought was natural selection driven by the struggle for existence is indeed a manifestation of the zeroth law of thermodynamics. When this law is applied to competing self-replicating entities biological evolution appears to be a spontaneous process.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[43] **viXra:1203.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-13 15:35:04*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. AMS Subject Classification: 70F15, 70F07. Key Words: Yarkovsky effect, YORP-effect, photogravitational restricted three body problem, stability, equilibrium points, libration points, oblateness

Here is presented a generalization of photogravitational restricted 3-bodies problem to the case of influence of Yarkovsky effect (or more general, YORP-effect).
Asteroid is supposed to move under the influence of gravitational forces from 2 massive bodies, as well under the influence of pressure of light from both the primaries.
It is proved the existence of maximally 256 different non-planar equilibrium libration points when the 2-nd primary is non-oblate spheroid.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[42] **viXra:1203.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-10 02:21:53*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

After the expansion of universe was observed in the 1920s, physicists and astronomers introduced the concept of ”space expands" into physics and many observations and research results were used based on this. However, we can’t explain why space expands and why it has a specific velocity and is no observations of expansion of space. This study proves that the expansion of the universe and Hubble’s law doesn't result from the expansion of space, but is a dynamical result from the movement of galaxies in space. We could confirm that Hubble’s law was always valid when the effect of acceleration was smaller than initial velocity. We can define the center of the universe and find it. There is a possibility that 2.7K background radiation is not radiation in the early days of the universe. In that case, we can't estimate that our universe is isotropic and uniform from CMBR. Also, this shows that cosmological red shift comes out from the Doppler effect of light. Expansion of space was explained that it was related to red shift and scale factor. Therefore, it is influencing many areas of astronomy and cosmology. Therefore, if this discovery is true, all matters related to red shift and scale factor should be reviewed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1203.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-12 15:52:25*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Earlier work on the mass distribution in black hole interiors left the question of what happens to a plunging particle unanswered. This issue is resolved here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1203.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-12 05:27:04*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is broadly believed that general relativity --a geometric theory-- is fully equivalent to the field theory of a massless, self-interacting, spin-2 field. This belief is reinforced by statements in many textbooks. However, an increasing criticism to this belief has been published. To settle this old debate about the precise physical nature of gravitation, this author introduces a simple but exact argument --based in the equivalence principle-- that shows that general relativity is not equivalent to a field theory of gravity. Subsequently, both the general relativistic Lagrangian for a particle and the Hilbert & Einstein equations are obtained as an approximation from a field theory of gravity, somehow as geometric optics can be derived from physical optics. The approximations involved in the geometrization are two: (i) the neglect of $T_{grav}^{\mu\nu}$ and $T_{int}^{\mu\nu}$ in the field-theoretic tensor $\Theta^{\mu\nu}$ and (ii) the approximation of the effective metric by the curved spacetime metric $g_{\mu\nu} = \hat{g}_{\mu\nu} + O(h_{\mu\nu}^2)$. Further discussion of this derivation and of the approximations involved is given.
Several misunderstandings about the consistency and observability of the flat spacetime theories of gravity are corrected. A detailed analysis of the fundamental differences between geometric and field-theoretic expressions reveals that all the well-known deficiencies of general relativity --including the impossibility to obtain a consistent quantum general relativity-- are direct consequences of the geometrization of the gravitational interaction. Finally, remarks about the status of dark matter are given, from the perspective of a generalized theory of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1203.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-12 14:52:23*

**Authors:** Piotr Ogonowski

**Comments:** The article has been published as: P. Ogonowski, "Time Dilation as
Field," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 200-207.
(DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.32027). You may also find proof and tensor based
generalization at: www.tp-theory.net/eng/proof-theory.html

It is proved, there is no aether and time-space is the only medium for electromagnetic wave. However, considering time-space as the medium we may expect, there should exist field equations, describing electromagnetic wave as disturbance in time-space structure propagating in the time-space.
I derive such field equations and show that gravitational field as well as electromagnetic field may be considered through one phenomena – time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1203.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-20 09:08:54*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In 2012 all eyes on elusive Higgs thought to give all particles mass and neutrinos may be tahyons.Both which are false and unobservable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1203.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-19 08:23:30*

**Authors:** James B Gallagher

**Comments:** 7 Pages. v2 small revisions/corrections

We suggest that 3 "spatial" degrees of freedom are dynamically emergent from unitary evolution
of the state vector

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1203.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-11 08:37:50*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we establish finte Yang-Laplace Transform on fractal space, considered
some properties of finte Yang-Laplace Transform.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[35] **viXra:1203.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-11 08:40:07*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper deals with the theory of the local fractional Stieltjes transform. We derive
the Stieltjes transform. This is followed by several examples and the basic operational properties
of Stieltjes transforms.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[34] **viXra:1203.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-10 18:18:53*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 2007, the JPL researchers Anderson, Campbell, Ekelund, Ellis, and Jordan found an empirical prediction formula which describes anomalous orbital-energy changes for six Earth flybys. The Rañada-Milgrom effect might explain the empirical prediction formula found by these JPL researchers.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33] **viXra:1203.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-12 15:27:40*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Changed title, reduced clutter, submitted to journal.

It is presumed a priori that there is an entropy-area relationship inherent to the iterations of the logistic map. Several
interesting results are produced.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[32] **viXra:1203.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-10 08:47:55*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation yields a precise probe of the universe’s largest structures. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data revealed anomalies at the largest angular scales (> 60º). Statistical analysis showed that there exist statistically significant correlations between features of the microwave sky and both the motion of the solar system and the orientation of the plane of the ecliptic. From a qualitative viewpoint, these anomalous statistical correlations are what one would expect if Sun-caused gravitational lensing were slightly different from the predictions of general relativity theory. Thus, there is a qualitative indication that the Rañada-Milgrom effect is empirically valid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:1203.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-10 10:37:41*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Two of the great mysteries of physics are the origin of mass and the mysterious mass ratio between the proton and electron of ~1836. In this paper it is shown that the mass-energy of the proton is equivalent to the vacuum energy excluded by a spherical Casimir cavity with an average radius equal to the charge radius of a proton. Likewise the electron mass is shown to be equivalent to the vacuum energy excluded by a spherical shell with an average diameter equal to the Compton wavelength of the electron. The ratio ~1836 is derived as a natural consequence of the vacuum energy exclusion.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[30] **viXra:1203.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-08 17:17:24*

**Authors:** Glen Gilchrist

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The impact of video games on adolescent behaviour is well studied, with literature reporting both negative and positive relationships. This paper demonstrates a link between video game playing and time to complete a manual task. We conclude that the playing of 1 hour of video games has a dramatic effect on assembly time, more than halving the time to assemble the equipment, from 8 seconds to 4 seconds.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[29] **viXra:1203.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-08 23:33:30*

**Authors:** M. Fabre de la Ripelle

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Asymptotic Equations for Two-Body Correlations
M. Fabre de la Ripelle
An asymptotic equation for two-body correlations
is proposed for a large number of particles in
the framework of the Integro-Differential Equation
approach. The quality of the equation is discussed
with examples.
Adiabatic and asymptotic properties of the
two-body correlations are investigated.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[28] **viXra:1203.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-08 22:45:49*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper deals with the theory and applications of the local fractional Mellin
transform of the real order α . We define the local fractional Mellin transform and its inverse
transform. This is followed by several examples and the basic operational properties of local
fractional Mellin transform. We discuss applications of local fractional Mellin transforms to local
fractional boundary value problems.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[27] **viXra:1203.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-08 22:49:14*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study Local fractional improper integrals on fractal space. By
some mean value theorems for Local fractional integrals, we prove an analogue of the classical
Dirichlet-Abel test for Local fractional improper integrals.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[26] **viXra:1203.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-08 16:14:53*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Original paper split in two parts due to excessive length.

@@The strong force is responsible for the binding of compound atomic nuclei and the binding of quarks in the class of heavy composite particles, the hadrons. Hadrons consist of baryons (containing 3 quarks) and mesons (containing quark-antiquark pairs). The weak force is responsible for the creation, destruction, and transformation of single, unpaired elementary particles (quarks and leptons). Both forces are to be understood in terms of energy, charge, and especially symmetry conservation. The strong force conserves whole quantum units of charge and achieves "least bound energy" nuclear configurations; the weak force ensures the invariance of all conserved parameters in elementary particles during the creation, destruction, or transformation of single, unpaired particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[25] **viXra:1203.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-11 20:07:08*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg (quoted in New Scientist 7 March 2012) said: "One Higgs would be very sad ... If all we see at the LHC is one Higgs, it's not going to help us ... see clearly what the road ahead is ...” ...”. My view of the data from Tevatron and LHC presented at Moriond (7 Mar 2012 and (in version 2 of this paper) 11 Mar 2012) is that Steven Weinberg should be Very Happy. Instead of a single Standard Model Higgs at 125 GeV, I think the data indicates the following phenomena: 125 GeV - pion-type meson T0 (low-mass Tquark-antiUpquark); 126.5 GeV - pion-type meson T0c (low-mass Tquark-antiCharmquark); 136 GeV - SM Higgs (low state of 3-state Higgs); 195 GeV - SM Higgs (middle state of 3-state Higgs); 244 GeV - SM Higgs state near Higgs VEV (high state of 3-state Higgs). Matt Strassler in his 6 Dec 2011 guest post on Cosmic Variance proposed a flow chart for two phases in the LHC Hunt for Higgs: Phase 1 being Search for a Single Standard Model Higgs; Phase 2 including Search for 2 or more Higgs. My view is that Phase 1 has failed to clearly find a Single Standard Model Higgs so that the LHC should now in 2012 begin the Phase 2 Hunt for Multi-Higgs. Version 2 incorporates material from 11 Mar 2012 Moriond presentations. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[24] **viXra:1203.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-05 15:40:49*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a reason for the existence of the wave function. Most physicist use a complex wave function as the representative of a quantum physical item without further thinking about why that choice is made.
A slightly different choice for the wave function throws a completely new light on fundamental physics. For example, a quaternionic wave function converts each linear equation of motion into a balance equation and turns fundamental physics into a space streaming problem.
The fact that such a slight change has such deep and unexpected effects shows that the fundaments of physics are still not well comprehended.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1203.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-07 10:36:56*

**Authors:** J. P. Baugher

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The meaning and existence of the cosmological constant has come to the forefront of physics as a dark energy that could be responsible for an accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as having an extremely large magnitude as predicted by quantum field theory. This presents the most challenging physics problems known today. In this work I ask questions of a simple equivalency substituted into the Einstein field equation and demonstrate that this results in a repulsive Newtonian gravity that can be explained in terms of a large cosmological constant as well as a proposed path for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1203.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-07 09:06:44*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Many theorists in grand unification physics, empirical nuclear physics and other areas have had considerable interest in “soliton” models of particles as extended objects in space, starting from classical field theories. Perhaps the most famous are the Skyrme model ,and the Bogomolnyi-Prasada-Sommerfield (BPS) monopoles in a classical model field theory developed by ‘tHooft, Polyakov, Jackiw, Rebbi and others. But these models achieve stability (or near-stability) by exploiting a single topological charge, commonly interpreted as magnetic charge, which does not capture the complexity of what we see in nature. This brief note provides an example of a new type of classical field theory which would appear to allow two topological charges, left-handed and right-handed, with a closer link to the standard model of physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[21] **viXra:1203.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-07 02:27:32*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A brief visual demonstration of the presence of the golden ratio in the logistic map is given.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[20] **viXra:1203.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 05:11:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 160 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST) is the lacking part of the ultimate theory and is free from singularities and infinities. There are the two long-distance interactions. This suggests that there are two parallel spacetimes i.e. the Newtonian-spacetime/modified-Higgs-field directly associated with gravity, and the luminal Einstein spacetime directly associated with quantum physics. The very different properties of these two spacetimes cause that unification of gravity and quantum physics within the same methods is impossible. The succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field lead to different symmetrical scales in physics i.e. to the quantum-entanglement scale, Planck scale, quantum-physics scale and cosmological scale. The symmetry of the scales follows from the fact that in the three last scales there appear torus with condensate in its center (sizes and masses of the tori are different). The symmetrical decays of bosons lead to the atom-like structure of baryons. Within S-ST, applying only seven initial parameters and three very simple initial formulae, we calculated hundreds quantities (the physical constants as well) which are consistent with experimental data and observational facts. For example, S-ST leads to rigorous mass, spin and two radii of protons whereas the new cosmology gives following abundances of matter and energy: baryonic matter 4.91%, dark matter 26.46% and dark energy 68.63%. Within S-ST we calculated the masses of quarks also. The mainstream theories are incomplete because they neglect internal structure of bare particles and they are partially incorrect because there appear the mathematical indeterminate forms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1203.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-20 03:33:29*

**Authors:** Igor V. Limar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper deals with the version of Jung’s synchronicity in which correlation between mental processes of two different
persons takes place not just in the case when at a certain moment of time the subjects are located at a distance from each
other, but also in the case when both persons are alternately (and sequentially, one after the other) located in the same point
of space. In this case, a certain period of time lapses between manifestation of mental process in one person and manifestation
of mental process in the other person. Transmission of information from one person to the other via classical communication
channel is ruled out. The author proposes a hypothesis, whereby such manifestation of synchronicity may become possible
thanks to existence of quantum entanglement between the past and the future within the light cone. This hypothesis is based
on the latest perception of the nature of quantum vacuum

**Category:** Mind Science

[18] **viXra:1203.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-06 19:53:44*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

All eyes are on the Riemann hypothesis,zeta and L-functions ,which are false ,please read this paper.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17] **viXra:1203.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-06 00:55:39*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 37 Pages. Well known results on singletons in standard theory are generalized to the case of a quantum theory over a Galois field.

Dirac singletons are exceptional irreducible representations (IRs) of the so(2,3) algebra found by Dirac.
As shown in a seminal work by Flato and Fronsdal, the tensor product of singletons can be decomposed into massless IRs of
the so(2,3) algebra and therefore each massless particle (e.g. the photon) can be represented as a
composite state of singletons. This poses a fundamental problem of whether
only singletons can be treated as true elementary particles. However, in standard quantum theory (based on
complex numbers) such a possibility encounters difficulties since one has to answer the following
questions: a) why singletons have not been observed and b) why the photon is stable and its decay into singletons
has not been observed. We show by direct calculations that in a quantum theory over a Galois field (GFQT),
the decomposition of the tensor product of singletons IRs contains not only
massless IRs but also special massive IRs which have no analogs in standard theory. In the case of supersymmetry
we explicitly construct a complete set of IRs taking part in the decomposition of the tensor product of supersingletons.
Then in GFQT one can give natural explanations of a) and b).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1203.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-05 15:09:28*

**Authors:** Glenn A.Baxter (P.E.)

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We explore, newly published physics papers by Dr. D. Sasso and Dr. M. S. Khan, both of whom dispute Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity. Dr. Sasso writes about On Primary Physical Transformations of Elementary Particles: the Origin of Electric Charge (www.k1man.com/a14) and Relativistic Theory of Black Holes www.k1man.com/a15 All of Dr. Sasso’s papers are at www.k1man.com/k Dr. Khan writes about On The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies By Albert Einstein is Based On Trickeries, Michelson Morley Experiment: A Misconceived and Misinterpreted Experiment, Experimental & Theoretical Evidences of Fallacy of Space-time Concept and Actual State of Existence of the Physical Universe, and Energy Theory of Matter and Cosmology See www.k1man.com/k8

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1203.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-05 09:03:57*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In September 2011, OPERA researchers observed muon neutrinos that seemed to travel faster than the speed of light, but in February 2012, re-analysis suggested that a loose fiber optic cable might have caused the problem.
The explanation of the OPERA neutrino anomaly might have 3 alternatives:
(1) There are one or more serious experimental errors.
(2) Quantum field theory is slightly wrong.
(3) General relativity theory is slightly wrong.
Is alternative (3) known to be true? Overwhelming empirical evidence shows that Milgrom is the Kepler of modern cosmology. Combination of the ideas of Fernández-Rañada and Milgrom might explain the OPERA neutrino anomaly, because the GPS timing differs slightly from the predictions of general relativity theory. Professor Antonio Fernández-Rañada and I have exchanged e-mails on the Rañada-Milgrom effect and he wants to be more thorough before going into print. He and I might, or might not, be regarded as implicit collaborators. His ideas seem to indicate that the Rañada-Milgrom effect is approximately correct, but my ideas favor the effect as a precise indication of the existence of alternate universes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1203.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 21:52:13*

**Authors:** Sukanto Bhattacharya, Kuldeep Kumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Handling uncertainty is an important component of most intelligent behaviour – so
uncertainty resolution is a key step in the design of an artificially intelligent decision system
(Clark, 1990). Like other aspects of intelligent systems design, the aspect of uncertainty
resolution is also typically sought to be handled by emulating natural intelligence (Halpern,
2003; Ball and Christensen, 2009).
A three-valued extension of classical (i.e. binary) fuzzy logic was proposed by Smarandache
(2002) when he coined the term “neutrosophic logic” as a generalization of fuzzy logic to
such situations where it is impossible to de-fuzzify the original fuzzy–valued variables via
some tractable membership function into either of set T or its complement TC where both T
and TC are considered crisp sets. In these cases one has to allow for the possibility of a third
unresolved state intermediate between T and TC.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13] **viXra:1203.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 07:03:44*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As shown, the famous formula E=mc2 is a direct consequence of Maxwell´s theory of electromagnetic radiation known long before its mistaken derivation by A. Einstein from the relativistic viewpoint.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1203.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 07:09:09*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Contemporary fundamental theoretical physics has been in crisis for a long time, as it cannot provide an answer to the most important question: “What is the basic structural unit of matter (space, time, energy) and how is the universe constructed of these elementary units?” The reason for this situation is explained below. Also shown, is the way to find answers to these basic questions.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[11] **viXra:1203.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 07:15:34*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The elementary building unit of the Universe - quantum connection of opposite poles (quantum dipole) represents the elementary quantum of space. The Universe pulsates thanks to its dialectic contradiction between attraction and repulsion. The cosmic expansion is caused by systematic expelling of new quantum dipoles accompanied with the transition of the Universe from one quantum state to the next by elementary quantum jump, which represents the elementary quantum of time. This fact can be expressed by simple space-time equation of the Universe, which has important consequences and enables to calculate such cosmic characteristics like mass and energy of the Universe, its volume, average density, radius of cosmic curvature and others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1203.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 13:41:15*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This article distills many of the essential definitions from the very thorough book, Clifford Algebras: An Introduction, by Dr D.J.H. Garling, with some minor additions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1203.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-03 19:49:18*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho

**Comments:** 10 Pages. marcelocarv12@gmail.com

We investigate the twin paradox assuming the acceleration acts instantaneously in one of the twins and whose effect is just to revert the relative movement of the twins keeping the same relative speed. The relative motion of the twins is then split in two stages: one where they move away and another when they approach each other. Each stage is described by specific Lorentz transformations that obey certain boundary conditions related to the reversion of motion. We then show how the paradox arises from the particular form of the Lorentz transformation describing the approaching movement of the twins.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1203.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-05 04:29:21*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A model is proposed for the photon as a material particle having zero mass. It is based on the supposition that antimatter has negative gravitational mass and that mass is an additive quantum value. Considerations of special relativity lead to a model for the photon as a
compound bipolar system comprising a particle and its antiparticle equivalent.
Consideration is given to the dynamics of such a system. The forces are found to be in balance provided that certain velocity terms are taken to be affected by relativity, leading to a system which is stable and one in which the photon can exist in a vacuum without recourse to an ether or ether like substance. The photon is found to have a finite bandwidth and a velocity profile which varies with frequency.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7] **viXra:1203.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-02 14:01:07*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Amal

**Comments:** 193 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce the notion of fuzzy linguistic topological spaces. These linguistic topological spaces enjoy many properties depending on the problem and the linguistic variables associated with them.
These structures find applications in mathematical modeling and fuzzy linguistic neural networks.

**Category:** Algebra

[6] **viXra:1203.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-03 03:23:21*

**Authors:** Jake Vlastos

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

our universe has 5 dimensions adn this project is the proof for this theory

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1203.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-02 10:47:14*

**Authors:** Marcos Georgallides

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Article < The Six , Triple Concurrency Points , Line > is an extension of two Fundamental branches of geometry that of Perspectivity ( Desargues`s theorem , where 3 concurrency Points in a center of Perspectivity and 3 concurrency points on a line of Perspectivity , per two sides ) and that of Projective geometry ( Pascal`s theorem , with the 3 concurrency Points on a line , per two sides ) . Analyzing Extremum Principle ( Extrema ) on lines and Points , it was found that in any triangle ( three points only , which form a Plane ) and on the circumcircle exist one Inscribed and one Circumscribed , Extrema Triangle , such that on the six Extrema lines ( with a common concurrency point ) , both Perspectivity and Projective geometry concurrence on Common points on Extrema Lines . i.e. 18 lines concurrence in Six Points , per three , on a line , six triple concurrency points line.
This Compact logic of Extrema exists on Points and in lines of Euclidean geometry.
Article < Energy Laws follow Properties of Euclidean geometry > , is the deeper concept of Pythagoras theorem , where Conservation laws , referred to Physics and Mechanics , follow Euclidean moulds because these Principles belong to geometry as Points and Spaces ( geometry ) create Quantities and Qualities . Analyzing Euclid Spaces , it was found that on any two Equal and perpendicular , One dimensional Units , exists a Plane Formation ( A changeable and constant Tensor ) of constructing Squares , such that the Sum of Areas of the two Changeable Squares ( the Sum of the Squares of sides) is constant and equal to that of the circumscribed Square .The same also exists in Space Formation , where then ,
The Total Resultant Volume (cube of Resultant Sphere ) is the Sum of Changeable Volumes ( the Sum of the Cubes of Spheres of sides ). In Space Formation Changeable Volumes are Perpendicular each other , meaning that Conservation in Space ( Solid geometry ) occurs on Perpendiculars since first dimensional Units are Vectors .
This geometrical mould of Conservation , is followed by Energy in Mechanics and Physics . i.e.
The referred Energy Conservation laws in Mechanics and Physics , follow the Principle ( mould ) of Conserved Areas for Pythagoras` theorem on the moving machine of the two changeable Squares , and Conserved Perpendicular Volumes for Spaces on the Three Changeable Spheres .

**Category:** Geometry

[4] **viXra:1203.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-02 04:06:06*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The evidence comes from an alternative calculation of deviations in the dipole fine-structure constant (α). The alternative calculation reveals α deviations spatially and timely connected to a curved dark flow that fits a closed-curved and cyclic Double Torus Universe. This opens-up a new perception the Big Bang is spinning inside another cosmological model. In reality this means the deviation in the dipole α represents the recalculation of the electromagnetic force. Hence, in terms of a cosmological completeness, with also the other forces involved, one could say reality is recalculated by new features of the Double Torus Universe. The features are described earlier in papers posted in the Vixra-archive. Specifically this paper gives the derivations and calculations to show the evidence α deviations are spatially and timely connected in the Double Torus Universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1203.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-01 07:34:13*

**Authors:** V. V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 Figures

Galaev's experiments of 1998-2002 (Kharkov, Ukraine) are positive, since regular nonzero shifts of the interference fringe are obtained in them. His experiments are unique because he was the first who used non-mechanical (electrical) instantaneous rotation of the interferometer at 180 degrees. Owing to this Galaev appeared to be the third experimenter in the world who revealed the daily trend of these fringe shifts qualitatively consistent with measurements of daily trends of the horizontal projection of speed of "aether wind" in Miller's (1926) and Demjanov’s (1970) works.
But Galaev, like Miller, incorrectly interpreted his experiments, having ignored the necessity for account-ing the relativistic structure of refractive index n≠1 of light carriers of the interferometer; it lessened the value of his results, having made them negative ones. We eliminate these incorrection of Miller and Galaev on the basis of modern times Lorentz-invariant interpretation of his experiments, that gives the speed υ of motion of the Earth relative to stationary aether not units, but hundreds km/s.
After the experiment by Michelson&Morley (1887) the nonzero shift of fringe is invariably present in measurements of all experimenters in different countries. On the basis of my own measurements of the same trends I have found the right algorithm of their Lorentz-invariant interpretation which takes into account the re-lativistic binary structure (n^2–1)/n^2 of the polarization of translationally moving particles of the light-carrying optical media of the interferometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1203.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-01 03:31:20*

**Authors:** Charanjeet Singh Bansrao

**Comments:** Pages 10, Language English

We know that internal energy of an ideal gas is a state function and it solely depends on the temperature of the gas. The temperature of the gas can be changed by many ways. We can change it by compressing the gas or by supplying the heat from outside or by injecting more molecules into a given volume of the gas. We know that Carnot principle is based on the temperature difference of thermal reservoirs and their thermal capacities. Due to different ways of production of heat the temperature difference between two thermal reservoirs can be created in different ways. There are many ways for creating such temperature gradients. One way is to pump the heat from one reservoir to another reservoir by the means of an ideal heat pump. Second way is to heat up one reservoir by burning some sort of fuel. Third way is to heat up one reservoir by stirring its fluid or by passing electric current through it whatever the medium may be. In the fourth way we can compress one reservoir made up of gas and can expand the second reservoir of the gas simultaneously as happens in sound waves. From all of these four methods of creating temperature differences, first and fourth methods are striking and this lead to a very interesting result. This result is that Carnot principle and second law of thermodynamics are not consistent.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1203.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-01 05:51:13*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A reformulation of the area of a planar two-dimensional object in the frequency domain allows for the computation of the true area of a band-limited boundary to be calculated.

**Category:** Geometry