[143] **viXra:1302.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 13:44:20*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Nasir Germain describes his newest laws of physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[142] **viXra:1302.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 09:32:15*

**Authors:** Sridhar Natarajan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper is about designing a platform for creating formalized semantic representations to express algorithmic knowledge and their implementations in a high level language program. Representations are mechanisms for expressing any linguistic utterance. Improvements in human understanding of those utterances is achieved when each of those utterances are expressed using representations with the most appropriate semantic properties. This principle is applied for design of this platform. The platform can be used by computer scientists, teachers and engineers who make attempts at conveying their knowledge about a specific algorithm and its corresponding high level language program. The principal objective of the platform is aimed at improving human understanding of representations for algorithmic knowledge.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[141] **viXra:1302.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 09:58:34*

**Authors:** Hartmut Schwab

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is demonstrated in three independent ways that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) describes an
effect derived from a misinterpreted thought experiment, i.e. an effect not existing and therefore is
disproved. Time remains absolute and there is no necessity of a space-time continuum.
The best known effects modelled by the SRT until now are described by classical Newtonian physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[140] **viXra:1302.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 12:06:04*

**Authors:** Hartmut Schwab

**Comments:** 11 Pages. original German paper

@@It is demonstrated in three independent ways that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) describes an
effect derived from a misinterpreted thought experiment, i.e. an effect not existing and therefore is
disproved. Time remains absolute and there is no necessity of a space-time continuum.
The best known effects modelled by the SRT until now are described by classical Newtonian physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[139] **viXra:1302.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-30 14:14:58*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots in the form of micro-black holes or Ball Lightning.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes are the origin of so called universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[138] **viXra:1302.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 08:50:38*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, no figures

Sargent plot, summarizes part of one of the pioneers experiments on nuclear beta decay. Here it is proposed to be used as a motivation, to teach undergraduate students some basic features of the weak interactions. This is done by considering only elementary aspects of special relativity and quantum theories.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[137] **viXra:1302.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 08:55:04*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A list with 23 interesting properties that I found regarding the number 561, in relation with other Carmichael numbers, other Fermat pseudoprimes to base 2, with primes or other integers.

Though is the first Carmichael number, the number 561 doesn’t have the same fame as the third absolute Fermat pseudoprime, the Hardy-Ramanujan number, 1729. I try here to repair this injustice showing few special properties of the number 561.

**Category:** Number Theory

[136] **viXra:1302.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-27 10:59:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Propaganda is a process of manipulation as well as persuasion by using advertising to help the winning candidate. Propaganda is not a type of word play but it is commonly used in political science as well as business and psychology. We all look at propaganda as marketing strategy whether someone is advertising for a political candidate, or for the next, “miracle product”. In the innovation industry, an inventor needs to find out the most cost efficient way to market an idea to entrepreneurs without spending a fortune. Propaganda is sometimes helpful and sometimes not. The main problem is that Propaganda is often considered bias or giving a richer candidate or marketer a higher advantage of winning over the others. A common technique in a presidential election is to insult the other candidates through name calling or mudslides, this is a way of manipulation and deception as well as a commonly thought out method of, “sneezy” advertising mainly because it is used more often in the liberal parties rather than the conservative political parties. Many people think it doesn’t make a difference but insulting the candidate can have up to an 80% difference on voter’s choice. This can let someone who did much worse things to the economy win just because of forms of advertising. This is all a type of marketing strategy. For example, president Obama provided an 8.4mil dollar loan to Google, in exchange they play his advertisements at least an average of 100 times on every monetized video on youtube, this may not seem like much but actually gave him exposure to over 380 mil people a month on that website alone. John Dunn, a major political theorist in cambridge, believes that advertising is one of the main reasons of a politician win, regardless of his moral value. However, this form of advertising can also be used in conservative parties as well, but most conservative parties use methods of repetition or bandwagon based on the idea of their views on the economy. The 8 types of propaganda include: Bandwagon (Everyone else has this hottest new product on the market), Plain Folks (This guy came from a small town and won the heart of america more than once, who thinks he wouldn’t win again, he is a citizen like you and me.), Testimonial (Wow you can get two for the price of one! You will never find this anywhere else!), Transfer (When you go into that ballot tonight, who do you think God would vote for!), Fear (This man is an anarchist and he will ruin your economy, kicking you and your children out of your own homes, vote for the right choice, the choice that will bring this country back up on the right track), Logical Fallacies (RFID Tags are implemented in the hand or the forehead, RFID Tags implements the number 666, RFID Tags are the mark of the beast), Glittering Generalities (We have right as americans and as people of democracy, vote no on proposal 62), Name-Calling (Do you want a weak, bully to run this country, or someone who actually got somewhere in life?).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[135] **viXra:1302.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-27 04:45:42*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Paper is sequel to http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0061

Prevailing and conventional wisdom holds that intermediate gauge Bosons for long range interactions such as the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions must be massless as is assumed to be the case for the photon which mediates the electromagnetic interaction. We have argued in Nyambuya (2013) that it should in-principle be possible to have massive photons. The problem of whether or not these photons will lead to short or long range interactions has not been answered. Naturally, because these photons are massive, one would without much pondering and excogitation on the matter assume that these photons can only take part in short range interactions. Contrary to this and to conventional wisdom; via a subtlety, we show within the confines of Proca Electrodynamics, that massive photons should be able to take part in long range interactions without any problem. While leaving the speed of light as an invariant fundamental constant, the resulting theory leads to a time variation in the Fundamental Constants of Nature, namely the permittivity and permeability of free space. In-turn, this leads to a plausible explanation as to why the fine structure constant strongly appears to be varying over cosmological times.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[134] **viXra:1302.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-27 02:15:35*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages. also published at www.researchgate.net

This article began as a question to an astronomy magazine about the Milky Way which I thought of when reading an article of theirs about astronomers looking billions of years into the past at dwarf galaxies. This led to my second question suggesting universal expansion can be reduced to an inflating cosmic fifth dimension. A 1919 paper by Einstein then combines with fractal geometry to equate it with multiple quantum fifth dimensions. It’s then suggested that the WMAP spacecraft shows dark energy is this fifth dimension and that it possesses mathematical form. This maths borrows ideas from string theory to conclude there are “currents” of binary digits flowing in two Mobius loops that are connected into an infinite number of figure-8 Klein bottles. In this way, in addition to fifth dimensional hyperspace being mathematical, the four dimensions of space-time are also shown to be composed of maths. This offers an explanation of wormholes and cosmic strings; and each figure-8 Klein bottle is said to be a subuniverse (our own being 13.7 billion years old) within an infinite, eternal universe often called the multiverse when subuniverses (which share one set of physics’ laws) are wrongly called parallel universes and claimed to have differing laws. Dark energy is considered to be not merely the fifth dimension but the radiation of binary digits from that hyperspace to create everything (in the form of mathematically-generated gravitational and electromagnetic waves). Since “everything” refers to mass and all the other properties of matter’s particles, they produce the non-Standard Model Higgs field. Binary digits are the cause of the effect known as gravitation and the idea of retrocausality – the time component of space’s quantum entanglement – can remove any separation of cause and effect to make gravitation equal to dark energy … as long as gravity is assumed to be a repelling force. This makes it compulsory to explain its obvious attraction. I’ve addressed various details concerning this in my articles but I’ll just address one point here – Earth’s orbit. This article ends by mentioning the warped nonlinearity of time and the possibility of future human involvement in creation; the existence of God (non-supernatural) via the inverse-square law’s infinite aspect coupled with eternal quantum entanglement; the Law of Conservation; and evolution’s continuing existence as adaptation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[133] **viXra:1302.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-25 17:54:48*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Nasir Germain summarizes fluid mechanics in a quick paper

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[132] **viXra:1302.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-25 14:35:28*

**Authors:** Ibrahima Sambegou Diallo

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Here is the first part of this demonstration, which will soon be complemented. For mathematicians, the main challenge is to judge whether or not to use the Chebotarev theorem and asymptotic formulas for solving the Goldbach hypothesis. Happy reading!

The Goldbach conjecture is a matter of quantity of partitions of even numbers. This is
a consequence of combined four tools: the Chebotarev's density theorem, the Inclusion–
exclusion principle, the Prime number theorem and the Algorithms for evaluating π(x). By
applying these tools on a family of arithmetic sequences, we can establish the validity of this
conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[131] **viXra:1302.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-25 09:50:44*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 pictures, 1 reference

Inconsistencies are abundant in the study of reality in the sciences. One of the most glaring inconsistencies are given in Wikipedia as it will be explained to the reader what is really happening.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[130] **viXra:1302.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-24 17:11:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A short analysis of the issues with black and white labels in the use of language in a scientific context.

**Category:** Linguistics

[129] **viXra:1302.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-26 19:23:08*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

abstract:We make the Jiang periodic table of elements

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[128] **viXra:1302.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-11 07:18:16*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

To formulate the lacking part of ultimate theory, particle physics needs new methods. Theories starting from sizeless bare fermions are non-reversible so incoherent. Within such theories we lose information. Theories starting from flexible, so changing-spin, closed strings and/or based on continuous trajectories of the quantum particles, are incoherent as well. To fit theoretical results to experimental data within the incoherent theories, we apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters i.e. such theories are very messy. New methods are based on the origin of the half-integral spin. This spin is characteristic for all scales/sizes and for all types of interactions (bosons consist of the half-integral-spin fermions), even for the fifth force i.e. the entanglement. This suggests existence of succeeding phase transitions of the fundamental spacetime based on the half-integral-spin constancy. This theorem should be accepted as an axiom. The phase transitions do not need time-dependent equations. They lead to internal structure of bare fermions, to different types of black holes, tori, balls and loops composed of the Einstein-spacetime components and next to coupling constants of interactions. At least for period of spinning, the quantum particles are the stable, so time-independent, structures. Knowing the time-independent statistical arrangements and internal structure of bare particles, we can calculate with very high accuracy physical quantities for whole spectrum of energy. It is the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Such a theory shows a statistical interpretation of the canonical quantum mechanics and only such a theory leads to the origin of the basic physical constants. This theory leads also to the superluminal interpretation of the quantum mechanics and to the abundance of the deterministic mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[127] **viXra:1302.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-24 11:09:29*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity.There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$.The warp drive seems to be very
attractive because allows interstellar space travel at arbitrarily
large speeds avoiding the time dilatation and mass increase
paradoxes of Special Relativity. However it suffers from a very
serious drawback:
\newline
In order to travel significant interstellar distances in
reasonable amounts of time a ship would need to attain at least
$200$ times the speed of light in order to visit a star like
Gliese 581 at $20$ light-years with potential habitable
exoplanets.
\newline
Some years ago Gonzalez-Diaz discovered that a warp drive at
luminal speed develops an Horizon similar to the Schwarzschild
Event Horizon that appears in the $\infty$ and at superluminal
speeds this Horizon approaches the position of the spaceship.This
means to say that as fast the ship goes by then as near to the
ship the Horizon is formed.Plus as fast the ship goes by as hotter
the Horizon becomes placing any ship and its astronauts in a
dangerous thermal bath.
\newline
Gonzalez-Diaz applied its conclusions to the Alcubierre warp
drive.
\newline
In this work we apply the analysis of Gonzalez-Diaz to the Natario
warp drive and we arrive at an interesting result:When at luminal
speed the Horizon is formed not in the $\infty$ but in the end of
the Natario warped region and as fast the ship goes by
superluminally this Horizon do not approaches the ship remaining
inside the Natario warped region and keeping a constant
temperature.This makes the Natario warp drive a better candidate
for interstellar space travel when compared to its Alcubierre
counterpart.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1302.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-30 13:13:59*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 16 formulas, 1 table

In "The Code of Nature" [1] Helmut Söllinger gives Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's (1912-2007) the relationship between the fundamental physical constants. The first section examines the relationship between the mass of protons and electrons, and the fundamental physical constants. The second is about the Weizsacker's assumption of proportionality between the Planck length, Compton wavelength and radius of the Universe. In the third section, I try to explain, the previous relationships, in light of the attractive-repulsive forces of the Ruđer Bošković (1711-1787), the earliest founder of quantum theory. This version is written on the languages of Bošković’s father and mother.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[125] **viXra:1302.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-23 22:49:29*

**Authors:** Karim Khaidarov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In December of 1998, there was published a seminal work using precise measure-ments of supernovae magnitudes and leading to the conclusion of an apparent accel-erated expansion of observed part of Universe. But when we approach the processing of these precise data from a classical ethereal position, without relativistic ad-justments, we get another picture, and we believe it is the correct one. It is presented in this paper.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[124] **viXra:1302.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-23 06:55:54*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological term), discover the spherical solution of the quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[123] **viXra:1302.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-24 01:56:49*

**Authors:** Andraz Pibernik

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The most simple approach to a Quantum Mechanical Solution ever done using Al Zeeper's true Energy Equation E=qA²Z².

This is a new approach to simulation where Q or Quantum Potential Energy is used to design Quantum simulated realities without the need to solve the Schrödinger equation. I present an unique integraion of q or Electrical-Mass aka cosmic-ocean that permeates all space and its pressure is pushing us down to earth wich is gravity. Volume x Pressure = Energy. In my model which is based on the most simple mathematics, I show that Electrical Energy = Quantum Potential Energy when relativistic mass m is replaced by the lighter and universal composite material called q or Electrical-Mass. This is the first step towards my newly invented notion of sapiedelic society that is based on self-betterment and betterment of all kind. An attempt like this has never been done before that is why I would like to dedicate this sicentific paper to my brother and future Univ. Dipl. Ing. of Electrotechnics for his 30th birthday.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[122] **viXra:1302.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-22 18:23:52*

**Authors:** Andraz Pibernik

**Comments:** 108 Pages. Please do not conduct experiments mentioned in the paper at home. If so, self-betterment and betterment of all kind are guaranteed for the price of one's image or even one's life.

This work answers two major scientific questions: 1) Do the theory of the beginning and final theory exist, as time represents only a numerical order of material change and does not exist as such in the vast and infinite universe? 2) How does the scientific society evaluate this as also distance and constant velocity are referred to as dummy units created by the conscious observers? Furthermore a fact from a source among the desperate physicists is provided: ... correct, today we know that the hope into the Theory of Everything has been an overambitious project, although right now, there is no evidence for any “new physics” at higher energies to be on the horizon ... I would like to thank to all scientists who participate in this largest project on the human soil, still being conducted. Main thanks go to TOE Quest forum community and all test entities during the 14 year old simulation and my last 4 month implementation of the simulation results again on the TOE Quest forum test polygon ... I overruled the Theory of Everything, because such blunder does not exist, let alone that such answer would be provided by the physicists. To give such an answer one needs at least 50 years of multidisciplinary work and research ... 30 down 20 to go. I often had a feeling that the science had never been united as it is is with this project that will pave the way for future generations to understand the struggle a single scientist had to go through, before being admitted by the scientific society. The work should remind the reader of the necessity of sparking the scientific disputes in order to fertilize one’s work. Yet it should also show to the old generation and rigid professors who stick to the comic, I repeat, comic constants and theories, being theories for millennia, based on an infinite amount of constants that more conventional and artistic approach is needed. A proof to them that they should sometimes think like kids in order to find a proper solution to a problem that could be solved by any child at the age of six, when kids gain their consciousness. Tell your kind that we are being pushed to the celestial body by the pressure of q Electrical-Mass, not pulled by the mass of the body, a false definition of gravity. Herewith you have already done the first step towards infinity. There was no beginning, just an everlasting ongoing. Nothing is constant in this universe, even the expansion is either accelerated or decelerated. "Try not, do." Quote: Master Yoda. Finally I dedicate this work to my late father and his cousin and my true uncle from Brazil, whom I miss very much and plan to visit soon. I devote all my free time and available financial ressources to this research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[121] **viXra:1302.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-04 16:20:04*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Early in the twentieth century a suitable foundation of quantum physics was found in traditional quantum logic. This idea exploits the lattice isomorphism between the set of propositions of a quantum logic system and the set of closed subspaces of an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space. Later Constantin Piron restricted the choice for the number systems that can be used for specifying the inner product of the Hilbert space to members of a division ring. A slight refinement of the quantum logic system extends the lattice isomorphism to a topological isomorphism. This new logic system will be called Hilbert logic and it has a striking resemblance with a separable Hilbert space. The paper also provides insight in how fields can be interpreted.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[120] **viXra:1302.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-21 22:17:49*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Fridman model of Universe expansion do not
lead to physical consequences for inner objects of Universe. We offer another ways
for explanation of Universe evolution, red shift and asymmetry of elementary
particles composition.
Key words: evolution, scale factor, red shift, neutrino, condensation, chaos,
conservation laws, charges.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[119] **viXra:1302.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-04 23:21:35*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The mass of leptons in the Standard Model has a strange sequence, increasing by orders of magnitude from ~2.2 eV for the lightest electron neutrino to 1.777 GeV for the sixth and largest lepton in the model, the tau electron. This paper details an equation that identifies the sequence and calculation for the mass of the six leptons in the Standard Model. Surprisingly, when identifying the sequence, the magic numbers that were found in the Periodic Table of Elements for the atomic structure are also apparent in the sequence for leptons. As a result, a new table structure for lepton categorization in the Standard Model is proposed in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[118] **viXra:1302.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-22 00:36:15*

**Authors:** Andraz Pibernik

**Comments:** 3 Pages. For this experiment a new notion that can not be found by google was invented. Instead of humans being stoned apes or living in a psychedelic society, I now propose a sapiedelic Consciousness/Mind/Thought society where non-fiscal betterment takes place.

First I show a model how simple Quantum Mathematics and Geometry give birth to a Quantum Gravity equation where Einstein's Cosmological constant is put to Pi/Planck Time squared or Planck Linear and Angular Frequency in order to obtain Quantum Golden Ratio Proportioning or Organic Growth that corresponds Planck Acceleration over Planck Area or √(c x h_bar x G). Than I develop a model of a Planck Sphere with Hamid-Planck Length that puts dice^roulette (author Hamid from Iran) and annihilates the Heissenberg uncertainty principle of Quantum Mechanics, declaring Planck Length for the one and only Physics constant in this universe at (1/6)^37 x 10^-6 meters. Later on and on the page 2, I develop a quantum brain and consciousness model where electrical-thought-mass is applied and 4 Planck values square rooted just in order to keep the mind within the idea of the Special Relativity. Once we remove the square root, electrical-mass that has no velocity ceiling and builds the cosmic ocean we all swim in, gets integrated into the velocity of thought as E=Q in the realm of c or the speed of light to the 4th power integer. (to be discussed in my next paper as this non relativistic concept is being tested at IJS) On the page 3, I post some pictures, where I present a Quantum Gravity Model that proves we do not think straight, but in circles or double helix spiral due to the universal motion or spin, latter represents the seat of consciousness. Enjoy the paper and share it with your friends. I dedicate this work to my little brother and future Univ. Dipl. Ing. Tadej.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[117] **viXra:1302.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-21 13:24:35*

**Authors:** Andraz Pibernik

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This model led me to conclude that there is no theory of the beginning aka Big Bang and no final theory such as TOE.

In his book - Sidelights of Relativity - Albert Einstein wrote:
"Of course it would be a great advance if we could succeed in comprehending the Gravitational Field and the Electromagnetic Field together as one unified conformation. Then for the first time the epoch of theoretical physics founded by Faraday and Maxwell would reach a satisfactory conclusion. The whole of physics would become a complete system of thought just like geometry."
That union has now certainly been unveiled in the very fact that Gravity and Magnetism are both indeed the flow of electrical-mass into the earth, pushing us down as Gravity while also creating the Magnetic field of the earth.
Be sure to understand that any volumetric expansion of the Pressure of electrical-mass that surrounds the earth is what then compresses back and pushes free electrons along any given conductor. This elasticity of space is the very source of "all" generated electricity around the world at this very moment. The Pressure(Density x Temperature2) of that ocean of electrical-mass that surrounds the earth is also the very origin of Gravity (your compared Density). I dedicate this paper to my tutor and 1st physics teacher Alan Zeeper, Zee whose words I quote in this Abstract.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[116] **viXra:1302.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-21 09:18:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages. An overview on the relation between emirps and concatenation, also with respect for the author's special numbers, Fermat pseudoprimes

Observations on generating primes or products of very few primes from reversible primes and Carmichael numbers using the method of concatenation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[115] **viXra:1302.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-21 06:58:42*

**Authors:** Andraz Pibernik

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This is the first documentation of 30 years of observation. Other work follows. Please do not conduct experiments mentioned in the paper at home.

I decided to first explore the micro-cosmos, our brain/mind and consciousness, an important exploration that led to the development of E=mQ² a consciousness acceleration equation on basis of Prospect Theory. The velocity of thinking x frequency or Q variable = acceleration or Gravity which is a pushing force of the electrical-mass we all swim in and not an attractive force of large objects with masses according to Newton.
I am testing this equation using the concept of psychophysics, please do not do it at home, the book on Prospect Theory has 840 pages "Choices Values and Frames" Psychology and Physics combined with mathematic modeling will first not let you sleep and will eventually kill you. I am reading the book for a decade now and still find new insights to use. It is a never ending story of human apparatus and its perception. Though you need to combine Prospect Theory with the model of bundling prices to be found in one German marketing journal from 1996. The entire article is in German and also quoted in Meffert's marketing book referring to the psychophyics of decision making under risk or Prospect Theory.
One needs to combine the right amount of praise and critique, using ones individual force and ones rhetorical force coupled with the reflection effect of the Prospect Theory, where praise is turned into critique and vice versa to experience a full effect of E=mQ². Use humor in praise as well as in critique and you will make best friends out of scientific or other disputes. The whole system when fired up is a pure mental time machine and lets you to adapt past actions taken into the future events that promote your values. So E=mQ² is not a physics equation at all, but is based on the mathematical modeling of decision making and psychology integrated physics, say room temperature difference applied to economic and monetary differences with cognitive biases. No wonder I was able to overrule the theory of the beginning or Big Bang and the Theory of Everything as the physicists are narrow oriented and stick to comic, again comic constants but also works of previous scientists and genius. I dedicate this work to Nikola Tesla who said, the present is theirs, the future for which I have worked so hard is mine and truly is his, because when the last drop of oil is gone, his invented but also hidden technology will be revealed to us. There will be some collective jaw drops among the scientists.

**Category:** Mind Science

[114] **viXra:1302.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-21 22:06:06*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 97 Pages.

This book consists of 6 papers focusing on social and economic issues. The topics covered include graph distance and optimal communication, migration
in Jaipur, urbanization, clan capitalism, world population growth rate, and scientific inquiry. These papers were written in the period between 2009-2010. This book is suitable for economists and also physicists who want to know more about economics issues. Hopefully the readers will find some new insights in this collection of papers.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[113] **viXra:1302.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-20 20:11:39*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Nasir Germian

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Expansions on the basic fundamentals in terms of FHB galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[112] **viXra:1302.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-20 21:39:58*

**Authors:** N. A. Rather, Suhail Gulzar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Let $ P(z) $ be a polynomial of degree $ n $ having all zeros in $|z|\leq k$ where $k\leq 1,$ then it was proved by Dewan \textit{et al} \cite{d} that for every real or complex number $\alpha$ with $|\alpha|\geq k$ and each $r\geq 0$
$$ n(|\alpha|-k)\left\{\int\limits_{0}^{2\pi}\left|P\left(e^{i\theta}\right)\right|^r d\theta\right\}^{\frac{1}{r}}\leq\left\{ \int\limits_{0}^{2\pi}\left|1+ke^{i\theta}\right|^r d\theta\right\}^{\frac{1}{r}}\underset{|z|=1}{Max}|D_\alpha P(z)|. $$
\indent In this paper, we shall present a refinement and generalization of above result and also extend it to the class of polynomials $P(z)=a_nz^n+\sum_{\nu=\mu}^{n}a_{n-\nu}z^{n-\nu},$ $1\leq\mu\leq n,$ having all its zeros in $|z|\leq k$ where $k\leq 1$ and thereby obtain certain generalizations of above and many other known results.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[111] **viXra:1302.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-20 13:01:57*

**Authors:** Joachim Derichs

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

The outline of a programme for restructuring mathematical logic. We explain what we mean by ‘restructuring’ and carry out exemplary parts of the programme.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[110] **viXra:1302.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-20 11:19:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Includes simple definitions of Neuroscience to the possible cures for tomors, parkinson's disease, and Neuro Atrophy.

**Category:** Mind Science

[109] **viXra:1302.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-19 18:53:47*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Witte Effect, that was first observed by R. D. Witte in 1991, and consist of a phase error between two synchronized atomic clocks, due to rotation of the earth, that can be connected to the earth “absolute” movement in the space.
The Witte Effect was explained in context of General Relativity, by R. T. Chaill, based on the Michelson-Morley Interferometer. Dr. Chaill demonstrates that, if the light speed in the medium (that forms the interferometer arms) is smaller than in vacuum (for example, using optical fibers) “absolute” velocities can be obtained. On this way, Chaill proposed that Witte experiments, in fact were measured “absolute” velocities of earth displacement in space, which maybe associated to the large gravitational fields references frames.
In this paper the author explains the Witte Effect, using only the Especial Relativity models, more specifically, rotating the Einstein’s light clock and demonstrate that this Effect not is really connect to the Michelson-Morley Interferometer experiment. If this is true the Witte Effect can be used to update the gravitational wave detector, like the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), and make it work.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[108] **viXra:1302.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-19 21:26:30*

**Authors:** Zhanqiang Bai, Guowu Meng, Erxiao Wang

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is demonstrated that, for the recently introduced classical magnetized Kepler problems in dimension $2k+1$, the non-colliding orbits in the ``external configuration space" $\mathbb R^{2k+1}\setminus\{\mathbf 0\}$ are all conics, moreover, a conic orbit is an ellipse, a parabola, and a branch of a hyperbola according as the total energy is negative, zero, and positive. It is also demonstrated that the Lie group ${\mr {SO}}^+(1,2k+1)\times {\bb R}_+$ acts transitively on both the set of oriented elliptic orbits and the set of oriented parabolic orbits.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[107] **viXra:1302.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-19 13:09:01*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A history of three hand picked rich CEOs and theorizations on how they achieved to get where they are today. This also includes information on the definition of assets, and keys to using SEO in your business.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[106] **viXra:1302.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-19 12:17:49*

**Authors:** M. MADANI Bouabdallah

**Comments:** 04 Pages. French language

We try to prove the Conjecture on Prime Numbers
(n² +1) by elementary geometry by using Pythagore,Fermat,Euler,Lagrange and Gauss theorems.

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1302.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-19 11:25:50*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

It is shown that small quantum effects of the model of low-energy
quantum gravity by the author give a possibility of another
interpretation of cosmological observations without an expansion
of the Universe and dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[104] **viXra:1302.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-19 06:02:43*

**Authors:** Hans W Giertz

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In my paper “Gravity caused by TEM waves operating on dipoles in atoms”, viXra:1302.0066 [pdf], the nature of gravity is explained and that it is caused by TEM waves.

The study displays that the photon consists of a positive charge and a negative charge. A gravitational singularity in the universe generates synchronized, extremely low frequency gravitational waves consisting of extremely low frequency photons. This photon was exposed to a magnetic field resulting in that the photon was split into a separate positive charge and a separate negative charge. These charges were exposed to electric fields, revealing their nature. It is proposed that the photon’s positive charge rotates clockwise and the negative charge rotates counter clockwise perpendicular to the photons radial direction forming a double helix. The photon’s radial speed is equal to the speed of light. The charge’s rotational speed is equal to the photon frequency ν. The study describes how the photon’s charges were measured. The study describes a method to measure how e.g. an incandescent light bulb and a radio transmitter antenna generate photons, revealing the true nature of photons. The study describes the relationship between photon, gravity and the atom’s elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[103] **viXra:1302.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 09:33:28*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

This is the first part of a slide presentation on the hierarchy of objects in the Hilbert Book Model. The HBM is strictly based on quantum logic. It uses a sequence of these logic systems in order to create a dynamic model. In order to establish coherence between the members of the sequence a correlation vehicle is used that maps the atomic propositions onto the base vectors of a Hilbert space. This leads to unprecedented insight in the undercrofts of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[102] **viXra:1302.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 09:41:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This is part of a slide presentation. It treats logic systems that relate to the foundation of physics. Classical logic is well known. Traditional quantum logic has a weaker structure and is often assigned as the base of quantum physics. Hilbert logic restricts quantum logic, such that it fits better with Hilbert spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1302.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 09:35:45*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This is the second part of a slide presentation on the hierarchy of objects in the Hilbert Book Model. The HBM is strictly based on quantum logic. It uses a sequence of these logic systems in order to create a dynamic model. In order to establish coherence between the members of the sequence a correlation vehicle is used that maps the atomic propositions onto the base vectors of a Hilbert space. This leads to unprecedented insight in the undercrofts of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[100] **viXra:1302.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-18 09:23:54*

**Authors:** Dmitry Lande, Olga Barkova

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Ukrainian language

The generalized schema of operation of an electronic libraries network is proposed, which is based on a phenomena of the confluence of the two main functions of library – servicing customers and gathering collections. Some parameters of electronic libraries network have been examined. The estimate of intensity of collections augment of an electronic library as a part of a peer-to-peer network has been performed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[99] **viXra:1302.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-18 04:01:52*

**Authors:** Alexander Egoyan, Karlo Moistsrapishvili

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We propose a new parameterization for describing forward and backward leanings of the straight human body with the feet fixed on the ground. During this motion stability of static equilibrium of the upright human body depends on the basic parameters such as coordinates XCG and YCG of the center of gravity of the body in the upright position and the radius R of the base of support. We introduce two coefficients k1= YCG/R and k2= XCG/R which are enough to calculate critical values of the angle α between the vertical axis OY and the axis of the cylinder the body is fitted into. We have calculated critical values αcr′ and αcr′′ when the body becomes unstable during leanings back and forward correspondingly. It is shown that stability of the upright body may be characterized by the angle αcr= |αcr′ |+|αcr′′| which strongly depends on k1 and weakly depends on k2 and αopt – the value of α for the most stable position when the body’s center of gravity is exactly above the geometrical center of the base of support. Stable equilibrium will be achieved for larger αcr and smaller | αopt|.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[98] **viXra:1302.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 19:20:04*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Has three appendix entries, justifying title change. Also, to be submitted to prespacetime journal later., One table included

The author presents a post-Newtonian approximation based upon an earlier argument in a paper by Clifford Will as to Yukawa revisions of gravitational potentials, in part initiated by gravitons having explicit mass dependence in their Compton wave length. Prior work with Clifford Will’s idea was stymied by the application to binary stars and other such astrophysical objects, with non-useful frequencies topping off near 100 Hertz, thereby rendering Yukawa modifications of Gravity due to gravitons effectively an experimental curiosity which was not testable with any known physics equipment. This work improves on those results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[97] **viXra:1302.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 09:05:56*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This thesis describes plasmonics using the Ultra-Space Field Theory. It describes plasmonics as part of a material’s electromagnetic field.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[96] **viXra:1302.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-24 11:09:02*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

The science of physics possesses today an adequate amount of knowledge that allows us to search for the first principles that govern physical reality. It is in the spirit of this search that we performed the study presented in this edition. The physical theories of the last century did not have the necessary completeness in order to justify the quantum phenomena and the cosmological data. There is a fundamental physical law that prevails from the microcosm to the observations we perform billions of light years away.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1302.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 02:22:09*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Michael Persinger's group reports three very interesting experimental findings related to EEG, magnetic fields, photon emissions from brain, and macroscopic quantum coherence. The findings provide also support for the proposal of Hu and Wu that nerve pulse activity could induce spin flips of spin networks assignable to cell membrane. In this article I analyze the experiments from TGD point of view. It turns out that the experiments provide support for several TGD inspired ideas about living matter. Magnetic flux quanta as generators of macroscopic quantum entanglement, dark matter as a hierarchy of macroscopic quantum phases with large effective Planck constant, DNA-cell membrane system as a topological quantum computer with nucleotides and lipids connected by magnetic flux tubes with ends assignable to phosphate containing molecules, and the proposal that "dark" nuclei consisting of dark proton strings could provide a representation of the genetic code. The proposal of Hu and Wu translates to the assumption that lipids of the two layers of the cell membrane are accompanied by dark protons which arrange themselves to dark protonic strings defining a dark analog of DNA double strand.

**Category:** Mind Science

[94] **viXra:1302.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 02:09:57*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I have been reading two highly interesting articles by Robert Kiehn. There are very many contacts on TGD inspired vision and its open interpretational problems.
The notion of Falaco soliton has surprisingly close resemblance with K\"ahler magnetic flux tubes defining fundamental structures in TGD Universe. Fermionic strings are also fundamental structures of TGD accompanying magnetic flux tubes and this supports the vision that these string like objects could allow reduction of various condensed matter phenomena such as sound waves -usually regarded as emergent phenomena allowing only highly phenomenological description - to the fundamental microscopic level in TGD framework. This can be seen as the basic outcome of this article.
Kiehn proposed a new description for the generation of various instability patterns of hydrodynamics flows (Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities) in terms of hyperbolic dynamics so that a connection with wave phenomena like interference and diffraction would emerge. The role of characteristic surfaces as surfaces of tangential and also normal discontinuities is central for the approach. In TGD framework the characteristic surfaces have as analogs light-like wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced 4-metric changes and these surfaces indeed define boundaries of two phases and of material objects in general. This inspires a more detailed comparison of Kiehn's approach with TGD.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[93] **viXra:1302.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 02:12:16*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Some of the most recent experimental indications for anomalies on astrophysics, cosmology, and particle physicists are briefly discussed with an interpretation based on basic predictions of TGD.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[92] **viXra:1302.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 02:17:26*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The original focus of this article was p-adic icosahedron. The discussion of attempt to define this notion however leads to the challenge of defining the concept of p-adic sphere, and more generally, that of p-adic manifold, and this problem soon became the main target of attention since it is one of the key challenges of also TGD.
There exists two basic philosophies concerning the construction of both real and p-adic manifolds: algebraic and topological approach. Also in TGD these approaches have been competing: algebraic approach relates real and p-adic space-time points by identifying the common rationals. Finite pinary cutoff is however required to achieve continuity and has interpretation in terms of finite measurement resolution. Canonical identification maps p-adics to reals and vice versa in a continuous manner but is not consistent with p-adic analyticity nor field equations unless one poses a pinary cutoff. It seems that pinary cutoff reflecting the notion of finite measurement resolution is necessary in both approaches. This represents a new notion from the point of view of mathematics.
a) One can try to generalize the theory of real manifolds to p-adic context. The basic problem is that p-adic balls are either disjoint or nested so that the usual construction by gluing partially overlapping spheres fails. This leads to the notion of Berkovich disk obtained as a completion of p-adic disk having path connected topology (non-ultrametric) and containing p-adic disk as a dense subset. This plus the complexity of the construction is heavy price to be paid for path-connectedness. A related notion is Bruhat-Tits tree defining kind of skeleton making p-adic manifold path connected. The notion makes sense for the p-adic counterparts of projective spaces, which suggests that p-adic projective spaces (S^{2} and CP_{2} in TGD framework) are physically very special.
b) Second approach is algebraic and restricts the consideration to algebraic varieties for which also topological invariants have algebraic counterparts. This approach looks very natural in TGD framework - at least for imbedding space. Preferred extremals of Kähler action can be characterized purely algebraically - even in a manner independent of the action principle - so that they might make sense also p-adically.
Number theoretical universality is central element of TGD. Physical considerations force to generalize the number concept by gluing reals and various p-adic number fields along rationals and possible common algebraic numbers. This idea makes sense also at the level of space-time and of "world of classical worlds" (WCW).
Algebraic continuation between different number fields is the key notion. Algebraic continuation between real and p-adic sectors takes place along their intersection which at the level of WCW correspond to surfaces allowing interpretation both as real and p-adic surfaces for some value(s) of prime p. The algebraic continuation from the intersection of real and p-adic WCWs is not possible for all p-adic number fields. For instance, real integrals as functions of parameters need not make sense for all p-adic number fields. This apparent mathematical weakness can be however turned to physical strength: real space-time surfaces assignable to elementary particles can correspond only some particular p-adic primes. This would explain why elementary particles are characterized by preferred p-adic primes. The p-adic prime determining the mass scale of the elementary particle could be fixed number theoretically rather than by some dynamical principle formulated in real context (number theoretic anatomy of rational number does not depend smoothly on its real magnitude!).
Although Berkovich construction of p-adic disk does not look promising in TGD framework, it suggests that the difficulty posed by the total disconnectedness of p-adic topology is real. TGD in turn suggests that the difficulty could be overcome without the completion to a non-ultrametric topology. Two approaches emerge, which ought to be equivalent.
a) The TGD inspired solution to the construction of path connected effective p-adic topology is based on the notion of canonical identification mapping reals to p-adics and vice versa in a continuous manner. The trivial but striking observation was that canonical identification satisfies triangle inequality and thus defines an Archimedean norm allowing to induce real topology to p-adic context. Canonical identification with finite measurement resolution defines chart maps from p-adics to reals and vice versa and preferred extremal property allows to complete the discrete image to hopefully space-time surface unique within finite measurement resolution so that topological and algebraic approach are combined. Finite resolution would become part of the manifold theory. p-Adic manifold theory would also have interpretation in terms of cognitive representations as maps between realities and p-adicities.
b) One can ask whether the physical content of path connectedness could be also formulated as a quantum physical rather than primarily topological notion, and could boil down to the non-triviality of correlation functions for second quantized induced spinor fields essential for the formulation of WCW spinor structure. Fermion fields and their n-point functions could become part of a number theoretically universal definition of manifold in accordance with the TGD inspired vision that WCW geometry - and perhaps even space-time geometry - allow a formulation in terms of fermions. This option is a mere conjecture whereas the first one is on rigorous basis.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[91] **viXra:1302.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-17 02:19:53*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry remains still poorly understood. Same is true about the generation of matter. In TGD framework the generation of matter can be explained in terms of cosmic strings carrying dark energy identified as K\ähler magnetic energy. Their decay to ordinary and dark matter would be the analog for the decay of the inflaton field to matter and matter-antimatter asymmetry would be generated in this process. The details of the process have not been considered hitherto.
The attempt to see whether the counterparts for the visions about lepto-genesis from right-handed inert neutrinos, baryo-genesis from leptons, and generation of antimatter asymmetry claimed to be possible in standard model framework, could make sense in TGD led to a much more detailed vision about how the primordial cosmic strings carrying only right handed neutrinos could decay to ordinary matter. It also turned out that the "official" version of TGD for which quarks and leptons correspond to different chiralities of imbedding space spinors is enough to achieve also matter antimatter asymmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[90] **viXra:1302.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-16 17:22:05*

**Authors:** B. Borisson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Experiments at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN (CERN)
have recently announced the discovery of the Higgs boson. They are
shying away from calling it the Higgs boson until its properties have been
measured. Due to the dificulties of measuring the Higgs boson's
properties at CERN, which are exacerbated by the LHC shutdown, we consider
the possibilities of measuring Higgs properties elsewhere. Our analyses
focus on the prospects of Higgs measurements from the Sun, but our
conclusions are probably applicable to other Sun-like objects, such as stars.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[89] **viXra:1302.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-06 09:54:57*

**Authors:** Liu Ran

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Odd prime density regularity
Odd composite number density regularity
The limitation of odd number is composite number
Natural number is limited
Prime is limited

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1302.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-16 07:55:32*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 8 pages, including 31 figures. Published: Progress in Physics, 2010, v.3, p.53-60

Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving
algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding
the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the
fractions of integers (rational numbers), local maxima which meet the ratios of masses
of the elementary particles have been found.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[87] **viXra:1302.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-16 11:49:01*

**Authors:** Vladislav M. Ledin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article describes general conditions for unidirectional displacement of mechanical system of bodies when only the system’s internal forces work. The paper provides theoretical justification and a practical example of this process. It also describes propulsor based on the defined principles.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[86] **viXra:1302.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-20 20:42:51*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics. It is explained how to construct n-ary extensions of Born's reciprocal relativity based on n-ary algebras.

We extend the construction of Born's Reciprocal Phase Space Relativity to the case of Clifford Spaces which involve the use of $polyvectors$ and a $lower/upper$ length scale. We
present the generalized polyvector-valued velocity and acceleration/force boosts in Clifford Phase Spaces and find an $explicit$ Clifford algebraic realization of the velocity and acceleration/force boosts. Finally, we provide a Clifford Phase-Space Gravitational Theory based in gauging the generalization of the Quaplectic group and invoking Born's reciprocity principle between coordinates and momenta (maximal speed of light velocity and maximal force). The
generalized gravitational vacuum field equations are explicitly displayed.
We conclude with a brief discussion on the role of higher-order Finsler geometry
in the construction of extended relativity theories with an upper and lower bound to the
higher order accelerations (associated with the higher order tangent and cotangent spaces).
We explain how to find the procedure that will allow us to find the $n$-ary analog of the Quaplectic group transformations which will now mix the $X, P, Q, .......$ coordinates of the higher order tangent (cotangent) spaces in this extended relativity theory based on Born's reciprocal gravity and $n$-ary algebraic structures.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] **viXra:1302.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-16 01:42:53*

**Authors:** Jinhua Fei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper use Nevanlinna second fundamental theorem of the value distribution theory , give an corollary of Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1302.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-15 20:11:55*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai

**Comments:** 18 Pages. 100 years of quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and cosmology can be refined and unified.

Part-2: Current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. Hubble length (c/H_t) can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. In this report an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. The four key assumptions are : 1) Reduced Planck’s
constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and angular velocity being (H_t), universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Atomic gravitational constant shows discrete behavior. This may be the
root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s total energy. With reference to the present atomic and nuclear physical constants, obtained (H_0) = 69.642 km/sec/Mpc and can be compared with the recent value (H_0)= (69.32 +/-0.80) km/sec/Mpc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] **viXra:1302.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-15 15:32:28*

**Authors:** John R. Springer

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Experiments performed at the HERA Ring Accelerator, Hamburg, Germany have provided a “New View of the Proton” which shows that the “new” proton contains not just three quarks, but a large number of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. A model is presented here which confirms this. It in fact, shows the complete internal quark/gluon structure of the proton, neutron, neutral pi, K, and eta mesons, and the muon. It also includes a possible quark (without gluons) structure for the electron and even the photon. Thus, all particles found in nature may have a quark structure.
The model also shows that although precise mass cannot be assigned to either quarks or gluons, it can be assigned to each gluon/quark pair and to each (of many) quark triads and anti-triads.
Finally, in addition, the model shows the emergence of genuine negative mass in the pairing of quark triads and anti-triads. Perhaps, even more important, it unifies the strong and electromagnetic forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[82] **viXra:1302.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-17 21:37:13*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Reason for replacement - added details about sunspots, black holes, Earth's orbit, and SOHO spacecraft supporting idea of matter's wave packets

The strings of physics’ string theory are the binary digits of 1 and 0 used in computers and electronics. The digits are constantly switching between their representations of the “on” and “off” states. This switching is usually referred to as a flow or current. Currents in the two 2-dimensional programs called Mobius loops are connected into a four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottle by the infinitely-long irrational and transcendental numbers. Such an infinite connection translates - via bosons being ultimately composed of 1’s and 0’s depicting pi, e, √2 etc.; and fermions being given mass by bosons interacting in matter particles’ “wave packets” – into an infinite number of 8-Kleins. Each Klein
1) is one of the universe’s subuniverses (our own is 13.7 billion years old),
2) is made flexible through its binary digits which seamlessly, or almost seamlessly, join it to surrounding subuniverses and eliminate its central hole, and
3) possesses warped time and space because its foundation is the programmed curves in its mathematical Mobius loops (along with the twists they generate [p.7]). The universe functions according to the rules of fractal geometry. So the Mobius does not exist only at the cosmic level. It also manifests at the quantum scale, giving us photons and protons etc. Space and time are no longer separate, but are an indivisible space-time. So if space and the universe are infinite, how can time not be eternal? The past and the future must both extend forever (the idea of time being finite arises from confusion of our subuniverse with the one infinite universe).
BITS (BInary digiTS) only suggest existence of the divine if time is linear. Although a non-supernatural God is proposed via the inverse-square law coupled with eternal quantum entanglement, Einstein taught us that time is warped. Warped time is nonlinear, making it at least possible that the BITS composing space-time and all particles originate from the computer science of humans.
I suspect many readers will be content with reading this abstract. While there are more details, and mathematics, in the content; my natural style of writing is to avoid jargon and maths. I also tend to get philosophical. While I personally feel that there’s a lot of precious information in the content, I realize it won’t all be to everyone’s liking. Other subjects dealt with in this article are - the “Pioneer anomaly”, refinement of gravitational physics, dark energy and dark matter, quantum phenomena like mass and electric charge and quantum spin, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, deflection of starlight by the sun, tides, falling bodies, Earth’s orbit, ancient Greek philosophers, Newton, Kepler, Galileo, Aristotle, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, time travel into the past as well as the future, the elimination of distances in space, humanity’s construction of this universe we live in, The Law of Conservation of Matter-Energy, and support for the science-fiction-like idea of the electronic binary digits of 1 and 0 being the building blocks of our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[81] **viXra:1302.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-15 06:31:51*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of nucleon with two values of isospin, deduced from Heisenberg’ s idea, is one of fundamental concepts on the baryon matter in the Standard Model that considers proton and neutron are two different physical states of the same elementary particle (isotopic symmetry). In the Non-Standard Model proton and neutron are two fully different particles with regard to mass, electric charge and spin (in SM the two particles have the same spin); moreover proton is a really elementary stable particle while neutron is a
non-elementary unstable particle. The complete differentiation of proton and neutron implies a review of both the concept of baryon matter and the physical behaviour of baryon particles that in the new Model, when they are in the unstable state, emit on the decay baryon neutrinos. Specifically charged unstable baryons emit neutrinos inside the hard radiation of the delta band (delta-Y radiation with f≥1,13x10^23Hz) and neutral unstable baryons emit neutrinos inside the soft radiation of the delta band (3x10^21Hz≤f<1,13x10^23Hz).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[80] **viXra:1302.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-15 09:28:46*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 703 Pages.

Cateva mostre din acest volum:
Nu fi de neînlocuit. Dacă nu poţi fi înlocuit, atunci nu o să fii niciodată promovat.
Cine crede în telekinezie, să îmi ridice mâna.
Nu sunt vegetarian pentru că iubesc animalele. Sunt vegetarian pentru că urăsc plantele.
Cum îţi dai seama când rămâi fără cerneală invizibilă?
Care este viteza întunericului?
De ce abreviere este un cuvânt atât de lung?
Intenţionez să trăiesc veşnic. Până acum sunt în grafic.

**Category:** Linguistics

[79] **viXra:1302.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-09 00:23:49*

**Authors:** Hosein Nasrolahpour

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The fractional variational principle represents an important part of fractional calculus and has
found many applications. There are several versions of fractional variational principles and so
different kinds of fractional Euler-Lagrange equations. In this paper, we propose the fractional
sine-Gordon Lagrangian density. Then using the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations we obtain
fractional sine-Gordon equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[78] **viXra:1302.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-14 12:00:53*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The most recent evaluations of the Particle Data Group have made it possible to discern with precision the arrangement of the fundamental massive particles of the Standard Model on the mass levels of a network derived from the Planck Mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[77] **viXra:1302.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-14 12:46:52*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Definition and applications of ACPOW chains of primes.

An interesting type of recurrent sequences of primes which could eventually lead to longer chains of successive primes than known Cunningham chains or CPAP’s . Few conjectures including a stronger version of Legendre’s conjecture and one regarding the Fermat primes. A classification of the set of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[76] **viXra:1302.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 17:20:12*

**Authors:** Alan Williams

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD) and Pulmonary Vein Stenosis (PVS) are both normally non- life- threatening problems for survivors of early
childhood. However, it can be a large hindrance to many patients who want a
normal life. With this proposed solution, patients should be able to achieve
a life mostly free of problems. Hopefully, only regular check-ups will be
required after the initial treatment.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[75] **viXra:1302.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-26 18:38:50*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 33 pages. English. This v3 is to be the final version.

This paper is intended to show the Schrodinger equation, within its structure, allows the manifestation of the wave function collapse within a very natural way of reasoning. In fact, as we will see, nothing new must be inserted to the classical quantum mechanics, viz., only the dialectics of the physical world must be interpreted under a correct manner. We know the nature of a physical system turns out to be quantical or classical, and, once under the validity of the Schrodinger equation to provide the evolution of this physical system, the dialectics, quantum or classical, mutually exclusive, must also be under context through the Schrodinger equation, issues within the main scope of this paper. We will show a classical measure, the obtention of a classical result, emerges from the structure of the Schrodinger equation, once one demands the possibility that, over a chronological domain, the system begins to provide a classical dialectic, showing the collapse may be understood from both: the structure of the Schrodinger equation as well as from the general solution to this equation. The general solution, even with a dialectical change of description, leads to the conservation of probability, obeying the Schrodinger equation. These issues will turn out to be a consequence of a general potential energy operator, obtained in this paper, including the possibility of the classical description of the physical system, including the possibility of interpretation of the collapse of the quantum mechanical state vector within the Schrodinger equation scope.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1302.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 14:43:13*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages. French language. This is the French version of « Link between Allais effect and General Relativity’s residual Arc during solar Eclipse » on viXra.

Le but de cet article est d’établir une relation entre deux anomalies de gravitation : l’une a attiré une partie de la communauté scientifique, l’effet Allais qui arrive pendant l’éclipse solaire ; l’autre, remarquée mais oubliée, le résidu d’arc de la courbure des rayons lumineux dans le champ gravitationnel solaire durant la même éclipse. Il y a une déviation observée systématiquement d’environ 10 % de plus que la valeur théorique de la Relativité Générale, attribuée à des difficultés expérimentales plutôt qu’à un défaut de la théorie, et qui coïncide avec « l’effet d’éclipse » trouvé par Maurice Allais. Ces anomalies concordantes n’ont jamais été expliquées par quelque théorie et semblent préfigurer une nouvelle physique de la gravité.
(The purpose of this article is to establish a relation between two gravitational anomalies: one that has attracted part of the scientific community, the Allais effect that occurs during solar eclipse; the other, noticed but forgotten by the whole scientific community, the General Relativity’s residual arc of the curvature of rays of light in the solar gravitational field during the same eclipse. There is a systematically observed deflection about 10 percent larger than the theoretical value of General Relativity, which coincides with the «eclipse effect» found by Maurice Allais, thrown aside because it upsets the established truths. These corresponding anomalies were never explained by any theories and turn out to be new gravitational physics.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[73] **viXra:1302.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 14:02:30*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to establish a relation between two gravitational anomalies: one that has attracted part of the scientific community, the Allais effect that occurs during solar eclipse; the other, noticed but forgotten by the whole scientific community, the General Relativity’s residual arc of the curvature of rays of light in the solar gravitational field during the same eclipse. There is a systematically observed deflection about 10 percent larger than the theoretical value of General Relativity, which coincides with the «eclipse effect» found by Maurice Allais, thrown aside because it upsets the established truths. These corresponding anomalies were never explained by any theories and turn out to be new gravitational physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1302.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 11:27:51*

**Authors:** Joerg Siegler

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper about indefinite summation describes a natural approach to discrete calculus. Two natural operators for discrete difference and summation are defined. They preserve symmetry and show a duality in contrast to the classical operators. Several summation and differentiation algorithms will be presented.

**Category:** Algebra

[71] **viXra:1302.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 07:44:20*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article "The New Digital Complex Model of Time" (http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0102)

This paper describes some advantages arising from the manipulation of time by means of a complex variable and discusses the possibility of
calculating the extent of the imaginary dimension of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1302.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 09:00:28*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the paper http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0101

This paper introduces a new model for fundamental
particles representation, named Ulianov String Theory(UST).
In the UST model, the space is composed of eight
dimensions, being four of them “rolled up” dimensions while the other four are ”ordinary” dimensions.
Moreover, in the UST, time dimension is modeled as a complex variable and can also be “rolled up”.
This new string model also defines point-like particles named Ulianov Holes (uholes), which, from the imaginary time collapse, is transformed into strings.
These strings allow generation of a series of structures,
which can be associated to configurations of the
observed matter and energy in our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] **viXra:1302.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 09:09:32*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0099

@@In experiments for proton radius measurement that use muonic hydrogen, the value obtained was four percent below the expected standard value, which is not explained by quantum electrodynamics. This article theoretically explains this results and presents an equation that calculates the proton radius, which coincides with the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments, with a difference of only 0.07 percent. These results are based on Ulianov String Theory (UST), a new String Theory, which is able to model the most important particles in our universe as photons, protons, electrons, neutrons, muons and positrons. The author believes that the experiment with Muonic Hydrogen represents a breakthrough in modern physics, because it points out flaws in the standard model and opens space for new theories that model the electron and proton as strings. The experience with muonic hydrogen may lead to a model in which the electron is no longer a "small ball" orbiting the nucleus and it turns into a two-dimensional brane surrounding the nucleus. Thus, this experiment has the potential to be so important, such as the historical experience of the Michelson interferometer, which marked the end of the preponderance of the Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[68] **viXra:1302.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 09:20:04*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0100

@@This article introduces a new model for the non-Euclidean spaces’ representation, in which the coordinates and distances are considered as digital nature. This model, called Ulianov Sphere Network (USN), presents a new way for visualizing the curved spaces, such as those defined in the context of the General Relativity Theory (GRT). USN model has the potential to facilitate the calculation procedures concerning the problems handled by GRT, since it relies on a very simple mathematical formulation, which can be easily implemented in numerical computing systems. The proposed model is a mathematical tool that facilitates the manipulation of non-Euclidean spaces, for the simple expedient of constructing over a continuous plain space, a network of hyperspheres that behaves as a non-Euclidean digital space. Initially, the USN model has no real connection with the observed physics in our universe, being basically a theoretical abstraction. However, as will be shown in this article, the application of the UNS model allows inferring some formulas related to GRT and also with the Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Thus, the hypothesis that the USN model is actually somehow related to the physical basis of operation of our universe is not discarded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[67] **viXra:1302.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 09:49:50*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article http://vixra.org/abs/1302.0026

@@Recent experiments for proton radius measurement, based on muonic hydrogen confirmed that the proton size obtained by muon interaction is 4% smaller than the standard value. This results generate a new problem that was called “the proton size puzzle”. The author believes that this occurs because the proton radius changes, depending on the particle with which it is interacting. In this context the author proposes that the standard proton radius be defined in conditions, where a proton is isolated in space, without interacting with any other particle. In this condition the standard proton radius seems very close to the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments. If this new standard proton radius value be admitted, one solution to the "proton size puzzle" must answer two basic questions: a) Why the proton increase it size when interacting with an electron in a hydrogen atom? b) Why the proton maintain the (new) standard radius value, when interacting with the muon to form a muonic hydrogen atom? The question (a) can be answered, in a context where the electric force that arises between the opposite charges (of the electron and the proton) may be affecting the proton and expanding its radius. Considering the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with the proton as "observer" of the electron position, the proton also not will "know" where the electron position is. Thus the proton is simultaneously attracted to all positions where the electron might be positioned, which are defined by the orbital wave function. Thus the uncertainty principle could explain that the proton is subjected to a radial force field, which tends to increase its size. Another solution for the proton size puzzle, proposed by the author, considers a change in the physical interpretation of the orbital wave functions. These functions are currently associated probability density of the presence of the electron in a given volume of space. In this new interpretation, the wave functions equations are the same, but its final values (that can be expressed in C/m3) can be associated with an effectively density of electric charge, that exists simultaneously, composing a negative charges membrane which are distributed in space around the atomic nucleus, as defined by the orbital wave function charge densities. This new model has been called by the author as “Electron Membrane Paradigm” (EMP), because in it the “electron particle” is turning into an “electron membrane”. The EMP has the potential to solve the proton size puzzle, and allowing the emergence of new theories, that can model both, electrons and other particles, in the form of strings and membranes.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[66] **viXra:1302.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 10:02:41*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Rest mass as defined by a mathematical physicist is a delusion. Everything on Earth and in outer space is moving, meaning nothing is at rest and cannot possibly have rest mass. Their vague definition fails miserably to cover this basic understanding of nature. Explanation is provided.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[65] **viXra:1302.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-13 05:31:43*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using the density of the lines of force, we have obtained the laws of Coulomb, Biot-Savart and Newton.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[64] **viXra:1302.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-18 01:29:07*

**Authors:** Eui Heung Jeong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The theory of colored and electrically charged gauge bosons introduced by the author postulates the existence of colorless and electrically neutral quarks which play the same role in decay processes as neutrinos.
We discuss here about the colorless and electrically neutral quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[63] **viXra:1302.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-12 22:32:18*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 1 Page. emissrto@yahoo.com

Spectrin isoforms are found in erythroid and nonerythroid cells. Spectrin is a component (known as the postsynaptic density (PSD)) for the maintenance of cell cytoskeleton shape the main fibrous component of which is spectrin of the erythrocyte membrane controlling Smad3/4 subcellular localization in TGFβ/Smad signalling resulting in nuclear translocation of activated Smad4. beta subunit-fodrin, spectrin-like protein, is a nonerythroid spectrin analogue alpha Spna-1 related to human erythrocytic 1 (hSPTBN1) Nonerythroid brain spectrin (Spnb-2 Beta-II spectrin). Three isoforms of brain spectrin contains three structural domains. A nonerythroid 9 Kb mRNA which encodes neuronal beta SpIIa occurs also in neonatal cardiomyocytes with ankyrin-B and ELF (Spnb-2), a new isoform of beta-G-spectrin. Spnb2 js found to cross-react with human erythrocyte beta subunit spectrin-ankyrin scaffold in restoring similarity of structure to lateral membrane biogenesis, cross-linking protein alpha-chain, and the Actin binding N-terminal domain of beta-chain, a form of exon/intron usage of two antiparallel dimers usage Complementary DNA synthesized from a messenger mRNA a stem cell adaptor protein is found in two to four cells per 30,000-50,000 cells.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[62] **viXra:1302.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-12 12:47:46*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Thanks

Unambiguous definitions of energy-momentum and spin tensors are cited. It is shown that moment of momentum (i.e. angular momentum) and spin are different concepts, but spin is absent in the modern classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, angular momentum and spin of a rotating dipole radiation is calculated. We notice Jackson’s and Becker’s mistakes, which convinced them of the similarity between spin and angular momentum, and we show that the equality between these concepts is false.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1302.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-12 11:38:19*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Sergey M Bezrukov, Tamas Horvath, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 1 Page. Talk to be persented at the 4th International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics, June 2013, Sigtuna, Sweden

A brain computational scheme is outlined for the efficient/fast comparison of information at two separate parts of the brain such as memory output and perception input. The results explain why neural spike transfer is stochastic.

**Category:** Mind Science

[60] **viXra:1302.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-12 09:50:21*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 7 Pages. small presentation

World play is often a method of constrained writing. It can be used in rhetoric or often sarcastic remarks that can toil with one's emotions and change the method of persuasion. This paper explains the facts and methods of persuasion through an ethical standard.

**Category:** Social Science

[59] **viXra:1302.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-12 11:08:33*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 7 Pages. small presentation

The Quantum model is the location of where an electron is most probably located. This idea provides a conception that an electron moves within the wavelengths of the area that it is located. Schrodinger's equation represented the different possibilities of where an electron is located through variations of wavelengths. However, it was Heisenberg that made the discovery of the Quantum mechanical model using his principle/

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[58] **viXra:1302.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-12 05:16:03*

**Authors:** Edward William Johnson

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Description of Gravity as an operator and mechanism

Abstract
Gravity as an identifiable force or mechanism is one of the greatest physical mysteries alluded physicists since Euclid. This paper reintroduces and reconfirms Sir Isaac Newton’s idea and belief that Space provides us with a ‘Background Absolute’, later discounted by Albert Einstein. It is explained here by the constant emergence of New Primary Space. This same mechanism determines how gravitational information is exchanged but also to, the ability of a photon to transmit and transit in spacetime and determines the local maximum speed of ‘C’. This is central and a key feature in this paper. Both Gravity & Light are subject to this fundamental ‘Absolute’ space mechanism which determines the abilities of both. It introduces the concept of ‘Primary Space’ with a constantly emergent population of 1 dimensional points of time which is the physical key to unlocking this long lasting mystery. If this philosophy is correct then it is necessary to change our current audit of spatial dimensions, and remove temporal time as being one of them. The details presented provide explanation of this system which is dependent upon the following layout of dimensions. Ut, x, y, z and temporal time is excluded from these four. [ Ut is the symbol for Universal Time Constant ] this being the Primary dimension providing Newton’s Absolute.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[57] **viXra:1302.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-18 02:18:54*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

At first we take two definitions: for the asymmetric metric tensor and for the Christoffel
symbols. In order to find the connection of Christoffel symbols with the asymmetric metric
tensor we take the derivative from metric tensor with respect to coordinate. In the resulting
equation we make the cyclic rearrangement of indexes two times and get two more equations.
Then we rearrange the indexes of metric tensor in these three equations and get three more
equations.
After this we represent the metric tensor as the sum of symmetric and antisymmetric tensors.
Also we represent the Christoffel symbols as the sum of symmetric and antisymmetric
symbols.
Resolving our 6 equations we get the formula for Christoffel symbols expressed through the
symmetric and antisymmetric parts of metric tensor.
In the item 4) there is the description of Parts : Part VI, Part VII, Part VIII, Part IX on the
site www.telnin.narod.ru .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1302.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-11 16:56:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This is a small presentation.

The people of Ancient Egypt were much like people today, they were farmers with very fertile land and vast majority or rivers. Many of them built mud brick homes and buildings and had jobs such as: Field Hands, Farmers, Craftsmen, Scribes, and Nobles.

**Category:** Archaeology

[55] **viXra:1302.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-11 20:30:15*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. bcchanyal@gmail.com

In this paper, we have made an attempt to discuss the role of octonions in superstring theory (i.e. a theory of everything to describe the unification
of all four types of forces namely gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong) where, we have described the octonion representation of the superstring(SS) theory as the combination of four complex (C) spaces namely associated with the gravitational (G-space), electromagnetic (EM-space), weak (W-space) and strong (S-space) interactions. We have discussed the octonionic
differential operator, octonionic valued potential wave equation, octonionic
field equation and other various quantum equations of superstring theory in
simpler, compact and consistent manner. Consequently, the generalized
Dirac-Maxwell’s equations are studied with the preview of superstring theory by
means of octonions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] **viXra:1302.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-11 22:15:01*

**Authors:** Vadim V Nazarenko

**Comments:** 99 Pages.

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY (DFT) INVESTIGATION OF RSNNSR SYSTEMS
The structural variations and stabilities of RSNNSR systems were studied using the hybrid density functional theory (B3LYP) at various basis set levels. Computational methodology was based on the locally dense basis set approach (LDBS) that assigns various levels of the basis sets accordingly to the previously calibrated results that could be correlated to the experimental data.
The present study investigated the effect of the substituents (R) on the structure and the stabilities of RSNNSR systems. There were totally ten systems studied where R: H, CH3, CF3, tert-Butyl, C6H6, p-NO2C6H6 , p-CH3OC6H6.
The calculations revealed that the stability of the S-N bond is enhanced if there is a combination of the electron-releasing effect and the electron-withdrawing one that creates a push-pull effect (captodative effect) in the system. An increase of a positive charge on one of the sulfur atoms and a negative charge on the adjacent nitrogen atom increases delocalization of one the S’s lone pairs that creates a conjugation with the neighboring N atom and the β carbons through 2pπ-3pπ interactions.
The push-pull effect also influenced structural characteristics of the systems. One of the most notable ones is the variation of the NSCC dihedral angle in some of our systems from 89° to 21°

**Category:** Chemistry

[53] **viXra:1302.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-11 15:25:10*

**Authors:** Jaivir Baweja

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is the second set of mathematical discoveries made by me, a 15-year old. The current system of mathematics education is failing me, as I am capable of much more as seen below, and yet I am still stuck in the ladder at Algebra II. However, even more potential great mathematicians are being failed too; and so far there is no solution that has been found. For now, the best thing we can do is eliminate the standard mathematics curriculum and replace it with modern mathematics through discovery, like the work in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1302.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-21 04:20:36*

**Authors:** Hans W Giertz

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The study displays the existence of a gravitational singularity in the universe generating synchronized and extremely low frequency plane TEM (transverse electromagnetic) waves. It is proposed that atomic intrinsic electromagnetic fields create resonance with these plane TEM waves, causing particles and atoms to receive and to re-emit synchronized plane TEM waves. The energy flow of synchronized plane TEM waves, travelling in opposite directions between e.g. two atoms, creates mutual force of attraction, i.e. gravity. Consequently, gravity is not an intrinsic atomic feature; however, the result of fully passive atoms exposed to electromagnetic energy. The study describes how plane TEM waves emitted by the gravitational singularity were measured. The study also displays how gravity was measured and how gravity was simulated using an electronic device. The present electromagnetic law of gravity is compared with Newtonian geometric law of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[51] **viXra:1302.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-06 04:04:15*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

From elementary algebra and common sense, we know that , given that V is different from zero. Yet we have lived with one of the daunting paradoxes in the history of science “ , for more than one hundred years, where C is the speed of light and V is the velocity of an observer. All known experiments, including those performed to disprove it, confirmed it. Over a period of one hundred years, the scientific community has exhausted on three theories to define and resolve this paradox: the ether theory, the emission theory and special relativity. The former two have long been rejected decisively. The majority of the scientific community assumes that this paradox has already been resolved by special relativity. Yet scientists outside the mainstream thought have always realized that relativity is not a true theory of nature, and thus looking back to the long rejected ether and emission theories. Special relativity has remained counterintuitive since its inception and has resulted in many unsolved paradoxes, creating many more paradoxes than it solved. The scientific community has been stuck in relativity for over a century because of three factors: 1. The lack of any alternative theory that could explain the long standing problems of reference frames and solve the light speed paradox and the apparent success of special relativity in resolving these paradoxes 2. The subtly unquestioned (yet false) bond between special relativity and the light postulate, which made relativity undefeatable 3. And the firm experimental foundation of the light (the second) postulate. Because of the perceived (and stated) link between the light postulate and special relativity, most attempts to disprove relativity focused on disproving the light postulate, and hence failed. No one ever thought of the possibility that the light postulate could be correct and relativity wrong. Therefore, a scientist who disliked Einstein’s relativity theory automatically rejected the light postulate. This paper introduces a new way to resolve the light speed paradox and hence divorcing Einstein’s light postulate from his theory of special relativity. The light wave contracts towards (or expands away from) the source depending on the relative velocity V of the source and the observer so that the speed of light is always equal to C relative to the observer. The apparent velocity (C’ ) of light relative to the source changes so that the speed of light relative to the observer is always equal to C , i.e. C = C’ ± V (vector sum/difference). This theory is self evident as it is an immediate consequence of the well established facts: constancy of the speed of light and Doppler effect of light, in which wavelength changes and speed of light remains constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1302.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-11 05:00:33*

**Authors:** Helmut Söllinger

**Comments:** 7 Pages. e-mail: helmut.soellinger@aon.at

The concept of dark energy has been integrated in the cosmology in order to explain some phenomena of the universe, such as the flatness of its geometry or its (accelerated) expansion. If dark energy contains information as some physicists are claiming, it has to consist of quantums, being the smallest units of dark energy. Because the universe expands the ultra-long wavelengths of the supposed dark quantums also expand and the dark quantums therefore release energy. The released energy of the dark quantums is sufficient for expanding the universe against gravity. The fascinating idea is, that the universe saves the energy needed for its continuous expansion in it. In this paper the author shows by an appropriate calculation using General Relativity, that an universe only consisting of dark quantums would expand at constant speed. There is no necessity for a cosmologic constant in order to explain the observed (accelerated) expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1302.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-10 15:48:24*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized a physical reason why gravitation happens on large objects without math. An illustration with explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1302.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-10 11:02:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The reason Einstein was wrong was because he didn't include the variable of force. Think of a ballerina dancing. Her mass is causing a force that is accelerating causing burning energy. This idea is so
revolutionary that my term paper was copyrighted, patented, trademarked, and has been authenticated. These theories will be presented to Ameberton University today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1302.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-10 10:04:21*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 18 Pages. it explains the Harold White ideas(NASA) applied to the Natario warp drive spacetime

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity.There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$.The warp drive seems to be very
attractive because allows interstellar space travel at arbitrarily
large speeds avoiding the time dilatation and mass increase
paradoxes of Special Relativity. However it suffers from a very
serious drawback:Interstellar space is not empty:It is fulfilled
with photons and particle dusts and a ship at superluminal speeds
would impact these obstacles in highly energetic collisions
disrupting the warp field and placing the astronauts in
danger.This was pointed out by a great number of authors like
Clark,Hiscock,Larson,McMonigal,Lewis,O'Byrne,Barcelo,Finazzi and
Liberati.
\newline
In order to travel significant interstellar distances in
reasonable amounts of time a ship would need to attain $200$ times
the speed of light but according to Clark,Hiscock and Larson the
impact between the ship and a single photon of Cosmic Background
Radiation(COBE)would release an amount of energy equal to the
photosphere of a star like the Sun.And how many photons of COBE we
have per cubic centimeter of space between Earth and Gliese 581 a
star at $20$ light-years with potential habitable exoplanets?This
serious problem seems to have no solution at first sight.
\newline
However some years ago Harold White from NASA appeared with an
idea that may well solve this problem:According to him the ship
never surpass the speed of light but the warp field generates a
Lorentz Boost resulting in an apparent superluminal speed as seen
by the astronauts on-board the ship and by observers on the Earth
while the warp bubble is always below the light speed with the
ability to manoeuvre against these obstacles avoiding the lethal
collisions.
\newline
Harold White applied its conclusions for the Alcubierre warp
drive.
\newline
In this work we examine the feasibility of the White idea for the
Natario warp drive using clear mathematical arguments and we
arrived at the conclusion that the line of reason of Harold White
is correct and can be applied to the Natario geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1302.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-27 16:00:06*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Keywords: Helmholtz equation, paraxial approximation, Gaussian beam

A new type of exact solutions of the full 3 dimensional spatial Helmholtz equation for the case of non-paraxial Gaussian beams is presented here.
We consider appropriate representation of the solution for Gaussian beams in a spherical coordinate system by substituting it to the full 3 dimensional spatial Helmholtz Equation.
Analyzing the structure of the final equation, we obtain that governing equations for the components of our solution are represented by the proper Riccati equations of complex value, which has no analytical solution in general case.
But we find one of the possible exact solution which is proved to satisfy to such an equations for Gaussian beams.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[45] **viXra:1302.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-09 20:47:04*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A very simple change in wording can show why matter literally is energy. An additional explanation goes over why special relativity is not a revolutionary theory at all it is simply a play on words by a famous mathematician.

**Category:** Linguistics

[44] **viXra:1302.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-09 16:17:07*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The goal of the following document is to demonstrate a proof of the Twin Prime Conjecture by determining bounds for the number of twin prime pairs between a number and its square and then proving that the lower bound is always greater than 1 for sufficiently large numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[43] **viXra:1302.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 11:29:55*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** published in: Metrology and Measurement Systems. Volume XX, Issue 2, Pages 191–204 (open access)

We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme and a new transient protocol for practically-perfect security. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for the non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same.
In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve's information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics.
In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides.
In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out the resistor values at the two ends. Eve must also know the former key.
The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.
Finally, we introduce a new transient-protocol offering practically-perfect security without privacy amplification, which is not needed at practical applications but it is shown for the sake of ongoing discussions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] **viXra:1302.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-02 10:08:02*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A geometric argument is presented that the true ratio between the rest mass of the proton and the rest mass of the electron is 6π5. The deviation of the measured value for this ratio from 6π5 is interpreted to be a relativistic mass correction due to movement through, for lack of a better term, the aether. This aether is a scalar field and consists of electrons in a true rest frame. Based upon the Lorentz Transformation, the velocity of the Earth associated with this motion through the aether is 0.006136 c. This allows for a unification of Special Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The necessary condition for this unification is that the Lorentz Transform of the observer with respect to the aether must be considered. The hypothesis described herein can be supported or disproved by using an observer in a frame of reference at a velocity significantly different than that of the Earth. The hypothesis presented herein can also be supported or disproved by re-analysis of existing particle accelerator data and by examination of cosmological data.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:1302.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-19 02:02:10*

**Authors:** Vadim V Nazarenko

**Comments:** 1 Page.

प (poorna /purna) - is a number and the numerical digit.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[40] **viXra:1302.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-09 11:46:12*

**Authors:** Taiki Takahashi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Impulsivity and loss of self-control in drug-dependent patients have been associated
with the manner in which they discount delayed rewards. Although drugs of abuse have
been shown to modify perceived time duration, little is known regarding the
relationship between impulsive decision-making in intertemporal choice and estimation
of time-duration.
In classical economic theory, it has been hypothesized that people discount
future reward value exponentially. In exponential discounting, a temporal discounting
rate is constant over time, which has been referred to as dynamic consistency. However,
accumulating empirical evidence in biology, psychopharmacology, behavioral
neuroscience, and neuroeconomics does not support the hypothesis. Rather, dynamically
inconsistent manners of discounting delayed rewards, e.g., hyperbolic discounting, have
been repeatedly observed in humans and non-human animals. In spite of recent
advances in neuroimaging and neuropsychopharmacological study, the reason why
humans and animals discount delayed rewards hyperbolically is unknown. In this study,
we hypothesized that empirically-observed dynamical inconsistency in intertemporal
choice may result from errors in the perception of time duration. It is proposed that
perception of temporal duration following Weber's law might explain the dynamical
inconsistency. Possible future study directions for elucidating neural mechanisms
underlying inconsistent intertemporal choice are discussed.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[39] **viXra:1302.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-09 07:59:52*

**Authors:** Baweja Jaivir

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The current system of K-12 mathematics education is a curiosity killer by focusing on step-by-step instructions, tests, nonrelevant and ancient mathematics, arithmetic (even in calculus), and focusing on rules of manipulation that the students cannot play around with and realize the notions of modern mathematics. This note serves to give several ideas that can change this.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[38] **viXra:1302.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-09 08:12:29*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 03 Pages.

All experiments carried out during the last century, by various methods, trying to detect an ether wind resulted null or inconsistent. The best explanation found at the time to cope with the null results was given by physicists George Fitzgerald and Hendrik Lorentz who have attributed the result to a hypothetical contraction of all material bodies in the direction of their movement. And that has been the view point up to now.
People need to understand that not always the word of authority is the best counselor. If the opinion issued seem weird, we should accept it with reserve but continue looking for a better explanation more appropriate for the context. Richard Feynman once said "Science is the organized skepticism in the reliability of expert's opinion". Often, when an opinion is issued, there still does not exist an ample knowledge about the subject in question and the opinion emitted is just the best possible given the knowledge base at the time.
Academics often feel inhibited and discouraged to challenge the opinions of respected authorities and miss-interpretations keep propagating from generations to generations and end up being accepted as the final truth. Nobody argues about it anymore and any further knowledge that in some way derives from the flawed one will, necessarily, be flawed too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1302.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-23 09:04:43*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

In this article we derived an importent example of the inconsistent countable set in second order ZFC (ZFC_2)with Henkin semantics and with the full second-order semantics. Main results are:
:(i) Let M_st be standard model of ZFC. Then
~Con(ZFC+∃M_st),(ii)~Con(ZFC_2),(iii) let k be an inaccessible cardinal,then ¬Con(ZFC+∃k).

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[36] **viXra:1302.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-08 12:34:42*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The model of this paper presupposes that space-time is not a mathematical abstraction, but that space-time is an expanded state of matter. The fundamental quantum of matter is designated the B-string, (for Brane/String complex). The B-string quanta of particle matter and space-time differ from one another only in the volumetric state of the B-string. It is demonstrated how the B-string can be interpreted as 10-dimensional, 11-dimensional, and 26-dimensional. The relationship of the B-string quanta to Planck's natural constants is shown, and a mathematical argument is presented demonstrating the conversion of space-time into particle matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[35] **viXra:1302.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-12 18:37:25*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Version 4 is the final paper which will appear in the Journal of Modern Physics, in their April 2013 "Special Issue on High Energy Physics."

We show how the Koide relationships and associated triplet mass matrices can be generalized to derive the observed sum of the free neutron and proton rest masses in terms of the up and down current quark masses and the Fermi vev to six parts in 10,000. This sum can then be solved for the separate neutron and proton masses using the neutron minus proton mass difference derived by the author in a recent, separate paper. The oppositely-signed charges of the up and down quarks are responsible for the appearance of a complex phase exp(iδ) and real rotation angle θ which leads on an independent basis to mass and mixing matrices similar to that of Cabibbo, Kobayashi and Maskawa (CKM). These can then be used to specify the neutron and proton mass relationships to unlimited accuracy using θ as a nucleon fitting angle deduced from empirical data. This fitting angle is then shown to be related to an invariant of the CKM mixing angles within experimental errors. Also developed is a master mass and mixing matrix which may help to interconnect all baryon and quark masses and mixing angles. The Koide generalizations developed here enable these neutron and proton mass relationships to be given a Lagrangian formulation based on neutron and proton field strength tensors that contain vacuum-amplified and current quark wavefunctions and masses. In the course of development, we also uncover new Koide relationships for the neutrinos, the up quarks, and the down quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[34] **viXra:1302.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-07 16:10:19*

**Authors:** Curtis J. Forsythe

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I propose an exact value for Avogadro’s number of 6.0221396992 x1023 that is derived from theoretical considerations and that is independent of experiment and the Le Gran K. Naturally, a fundamental definition of the kilogram follows by dent of this fixed value. As a further consequence of these considerations, I also propose a fixed and exact value for the fine structure constant of 7.29735252341 x 10-3. These results are precise, elegant, and unchanging with the passage of time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[33] **viXra:1302.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-10 03:32:09*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 2.

NASA incorrectly claims that any cosmic radiation increases deliver energy directly and cause temperature rises. Because this does not happen (the opposite occurs, see Fig. 5), NASA claims that cosmic radiation does not have any effect on climate. However, increases in cosmic radiation increase high altitude cloud cover by the “Wilson cloud chamber” effect (well proved in nuclear physics), and so have a cooling effect on the earth’s climate by increasing Earth’s albedo. This mechanism is justified by a correlation between temperature and the inverse of the cosmic ray intensity (Fig. 5). The only reason why significant CO2 related temperature rises are predicted by all 21 IPCC climate models is that they all contain the same error: assuming that water vapour absorbs sunlight to amplify the CO2 injection by positive feedback, ignoring the fact that it would gain buoyancy, rise and condense into cloud cover. It is easy to prove that any net positive feedback by water vapour (which all IPCC positive feedback climate models assume) would have boiled the oceans off long ago and would have prevented human life from evolving. Since H2O vapour is a greenhouse gas 26 times more powerful in the atmosphere than CO2, it follows that the atmosphere did not need to wait for human CO2 emissions before H2O kicked in. Water positive feedback would have kicked in and endlessly accelerated of its own accord millions of years ago, if it were positive. Whenever the rate of increase of a variable is proportional to that variable, you get self-feedback, thus an exponential rise in that variable. Positive feedback on temperature T implies the rate of rise of temperature, dT/dt, is proportional to temperature, T. Hence dT/dt = cT, where c is a constant. Thus: (1/T)dT = c dt. Integrating gives ln T = ct. Making both sides powers of e (base of natural logs) then gets rid of the natural logarithm, yielding T ~ exp(ct). Thus, net positive feedback leads to an exponential temperature rise. This error in all 21 IPCC climate models is not an opinion, or speculation, but a fact of physics, robustly confirmed by evidence. The temperature, if positive feedback were true, would have boiled off the oceans hundreds of millions of years ago in a runaway greenhouse effect like that on Venus. Water does not have positive feedback.

**Category:** Climate Research

[32] **viXra:1302.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-07 09:44:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 5 pictures

It is believed by proponents of plasma cosmology and electric universe that lightning forms large gashes in landmasses. The author can demonstrate this to be false. Pictures are presented below to illustrate this reality.

**Category:** Geophysics

[31] **viXra:1302.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-07 02:41:06*

**Authors:** Eui Heung Jeong

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We propose a model of baryon and lepton number conserving interactions
in which the two states of a quark, a colored and electrically charged state and a colorless and electrically neutral state, can transform into each other through the emission or absorption of a colored and electrically charged gauge boson.
A novel feature of the model is that the colorless and electrically neutral quarks carry away the missing energy in decay processes as do neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:1302.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-06 20:33:41*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

my new spin on mathematics

**Category:** Topology

[29] **viXra:1302.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-24 22:53:53*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5 color figures, corrected typos, minor edits

The logical structure of the standard model is isomorphic to the geometric structure of the modified cosmological model (MCM). We introduce a new particle representation scheme and show that it is invariant under CPT. In this representation spin arises as an ordinary physical process. The final character of the Higgs boson is predicted. Wavefunction collapse, the symmetry (anti-symmetry) of the wavefunction and some recent experimental results are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1302.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-22 17:22:36*

**Authors:** Robert S. Miller

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This is the final version of this paper. The previous versions contained the assumption that the y-value in an equation f(x,y) wolud be itself a function of x. This has been corrected. Also has graphs of Asyptotes and Temporal Mechanics problem.

In mathematics it has long been held that anything divided by zero is an undefined value. This is because the limits of any such ratio will approach infinity or the indeterminate form as the denominator approaches zero. This article will provide new theory to show the present understanding of zero division is inaccurate and that real number solutions do exist. The ultimate goal will be to complete our currently incomplete picture of division, and thereby multiplication at zero. It will also show why, despite the genius of earlier mathematicians this concept could likely not be understood till the modern era.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[27] **viXra:1302.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-05 17:26:26*

**Authors:** John R .McWhinnie

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Following on from the two part series of documents entitled ” The
Origin of Matter”, in this paper we shall attempt to calculate , using our
previously proposed theories , the properties of the proposed F particle
and later the mass of the F particle as it is used in complex particle
construction. The mass derivation may or may not be possible as these
papers are a journey of discovery and I do not know what kind of results
will be produced. One of the easiest properties to calculate shall be the
size and that should give one an answer to at least the validity of the
theory to a certain extent. It must come out to be in the correct range to
form a proton, If not then the theory is incorrect.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[26] **viXra:1302.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-05 21:09:18*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Potential time trends in relative humidity (RH) were investigated for the Kamloops climate station in south-central British Columbia, Canada, between 1990 and 2012. Mean monthly 6 am and 3 pm RH at Kamloops achieve annual minima during the March to September period with substantially higher early morning RH compared to the mid-afternoon period. Significant temporal declines in RH throughout the year are evident ranging from 1.5 to 5.7\%/decade. No significantly increasing temporal trends in RH were found. The findings indicate that a continuation of declining trends in RH for the study area may increase the quantity of dust and other atmospheric particulate generation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, possibly resulting in additional threats to local and regional air quality, thereby necessitating inclusion in air quality management planning and modeling efforts.

**Category:** Climate Research

[25] **viXra:1302.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-05 23:29:10*

**Authors:** Taiki Takahashi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Criminal behaviors have been associated with risk, time and social preferences in economics (Becker, 1968; Davis, 1988), criminology (Chamlin and Cochran, 1997), and neurolaw (Goodenough and Tucker, 2010). This study proposes a molecular neuroeconomic framework for the investigation into crime and punishment. Neuroeconomic parameters (e.g., risk-attitude, probability weighting, time discounting in intertemporal choice, loss aversion, and social discounting) are predicted to be related to criminal behavior. Neurobiological and neuroendocrinological substrates such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, cortisol (a stress hormone), sex hormones (e.g., testosterone), and oxytocin in brain regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the cingulate may be related to the neuroeconomic parameters governing criminal behaviors. The present framework may help us develop “neurolaw” based on molecular neuroeconomics of criminal and antisocial decision-making processes.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[24] **viXra:1302.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-05 23:39:25*

**Authors:** Taiki Takahashi, Ruokang Han, Fumihiko Nakamura

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Intertemporal and probabilistic choices have been attracting attention in behavioral neuroeconomics. Although recent advances in neuroeconomics demonstrated neural processes underlying intertemporal and probabilistic choices, the roles of psychophysical effects on the choices have largely been understudied. In this paper, we review the roles of psychophysical effects in time and risk attitudes. It is shown that Loewenstein-Prelec’s generalized hyperbolic temporal discount function (Loewenstein and Prelec, 1992) and Prelec’s probability weighting function (Prelec, 1998) are naturally derived from psychophysical laws of time-perception.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[23] **viXra:1302.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-05 09:16:20*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A formula which might lead to a corespondence (maybe even a bijection) between the set of primes and a subset of Poulet numbers.

An amazingly easy to formulate but rich in consequences property of Fermat pseudoprimes to base 2 (Poulet numbers).

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1302.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-04 16:39:12*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 130 pages and 18 figures

A regular expression and region-specific filtering system for biological records at the National Center for Biotechnology database is integrated into an object-oriented sequence counting application, and a statistical software suite is designed and deployed to interpret the resulting k-mer frequencies---with a priority focus on nullomers. The proteome k-mer frequency spectra of ten model organisms and the genome k-mer frequency spectra of two bacteria and virus strains for the coding and non-coding regions are comparatively scrutinized. We observe that the naturally-evolved (NCBI/organism) and the artificially-biased (randomly-generated) sequences exhibit a clear deviation from the artificially-unbiased (randomly-generated) histogram distributions. Furthermore, a preliminary assessment of prime predictability is conducted on chronologically ordered NCBI genome snapshots over an 18-month period using an artificial neural network; three distinct supervised machine learning algorithms are used to train and test the system on customized NCBI data sets to forecast future prime states---revealing that, to a modest degree, it is feasible to make such predictions.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[21] **viXra:1302.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-19 19:35:30*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Recent experiments for proton radius measurement, based on muonic hydrogen, confirmed that the proton size obtained by muon interaction is 4% smaller than the standard value. These results generated a new problem that was called “the proton size puzzle”.
This author believes that it occurs because the proton radius changes, depending on the particle with which it is interacting.
In this context the author proposes that the standard proton radius be defined in conditions, where a proton is isolated in space, without interacting with any other particle. In this condition the standard proton radius seems very close to the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments.
If this new standard proton radius value is accepted, one solution to "the proton size puzzle" must answer two basic questions:
a) Why does the proton increase its size, when interacting with an electron in a hydrogen atom?
b) Why does the proton maintain the (new) standard radius value, when interacting with the muon to form a muonic hydrogen atom?
Question (a) can be answered, in a context where the electric force that appears between the opposite charges (of the electron and the proton) may be affecting the proton and expanding its radius.
Considering the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with the proton as an "observer" of the electron position, the proton also will not "know" where the electron position is. Thus the proton is simultaneously attracted to all positions where the electron might be, which are defined by orbital wave function.
Thus, the uncertainty principle could explain that the proton is subjected to a radial force field, which tends to increase its size.
Another solution for the proton size puzzle, proposed by the author, considers a change in the physical interpretation of orbital wave functions. These functions are currently connected to the probability density of the presence of the electron in a given volume of space. In this new interpretation, the wave function equations are the same, but their given values (that can be expressed in C/m3) can be associated with an effective density of electric charge, that exists simultaneously, composing a negative charge membrane, which are distributed in space around the atomic nucleus, as defined by the orbital wave function charge densities.
The author calls this new model the “Electron Membrane Paradigm” (EMP), because in it the “electron particle” turns as into an “electron membrane”.
The EMP has the potential to solve ’the proton size puzzle’, allowing the emergence of new theories, that can model both, electrons and other particles, in the form of strings and membranes.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20] **viXra:1302.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-04 14:17:03*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A model of modified spacetime is discussed. Implications for causality regarding modern anomalies and paradoxes are made. Topics include a dark energy candidate without induced gravitational screening. The dynamics of the repulsive force of quantum geometry allow the validity of the second law continuously through a universe's death and rebirth. The baryon asymmetry is explained without addressing the Sakharov conditions. Inflation and anisotropies in an FLRW universe are also attributed to quantum bounce phenomena. No attempt at quantification is made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1302.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-04 11:10:19*

**Authors:** Ana L. Teixeira, Rui C. Santos, João P. Leal, José A. Martinho Simões, Andre O. Falcao

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Standard enthalpies of formation are used for assessing the efficiency and safety of
chemical processes in the chemical industry. However, the number of compounds for
which the enthalpies of formation are available is many orders of magnitude smaller
than the number of known compounds. Thermochemical data prediction methods are
therefore clearly needed. Several commercial and free chemical databases are
currently available, the NIST WebBook being the most used free source.
To overcome this problem a cheminformatics system was designed and built with two
main objectives in mind: collecting and retrieving critically evaluated thermochemical
values, and estimating new data. In its present version, by using cheminformatics
techniques, ThermInfo allows the retrieval of the value of a thermochemical property,
such as a gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, by inputting, for example, the
molecular structure or the name of a compound. The same inputs can also be used to
estimate data (presently restricted to non-polycyclic hydrocarbons) by using the
Extended Laidler Bond Additivity (ELBA) method. The information system is
publicly available at http://www.therminfo.com or http://therminfo.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt.
ThermInfo’s strength lies in the data quality, availability (free access), search
capabilities, and, in particular, prediction ability, based on a user-friendly interface that
accepts inputs in several formats.

**Category:** Chemistry

[18] **viXra:1302.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-04 05:20:58*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We make the new periodic table of elements 1-92

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17] **viXra:1302.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-03 17:48:40*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An assessment was done of the gravity data collected at the Mohe Observation Center in China during the March 9, 1997 total solar eclipse. After a search for the original tabulated measured data proved unsuccessful, the data was reconstituted by extracting values from a graph of the data found in a report. The reconstituted measured gravity values were processed by removing an approximation of what the gravity would have been had no eclipse occurred, leaving values of the gravity caused by the eclipse. These values were plotted and analyzed. The plot shows that, contrary to previous claims, there does not appear to be any anomalies in the data. The graph also suggests that the gravimeter collecting the data sensed the eclipse about eight minutes before it was visually noticeable. Based on the gravity profile of the eclipse, it appears to have behaved as expected.

**Category:** Geophysics

[16] **viXra:1302.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-04 20:50:13*

**Authors:** Yongfeng Yang, Baitian Wang, Jinjun Fan, Jian Yin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. It is published at World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59, 2011, pp 2054-2059

The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.

**Category:** Climate Research

[15] **viXra:1302.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-03 10:31:10*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ask yourself what’s the symbol equation of the “Theory” of Relativity. For sure, if you ask a hundred people, eighty of them will answer E=mc2. But this equation looks like that of the kinetic energy of Newton ((1/2)mv2); too much similar, and it’s not so new. On the contrary, in my opinion, the most representative expression, which says you are really dealing with relativity, is the following: (1-v2/c2).
And here you can see what happens after that we use very old equations of electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1302.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-03 10:52:56*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Yanqinq Zhang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman, Feijun Song

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

žIn this paper we define the set-theoretic operators on an instance of neutrosophic set, called Degenerated Neutrosophic Set (DNS).

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[13] **viXra:1302.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-02 14:54:25*

**Authors:** V.A. Etkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Показано, что рассмотрение ряда проблем теоретической физики по принципу «от целого к части» с учетом внутренних связей, придающих исследуемой системе новые свойства, кардинально изменяет результаты исследования. Сделан вывод о
первостепенной важности системного подхода как методологии исследования.
(It is shown, that consideration of some problems of theoretical physics by a principle «from whole to a part» taking into account the internal connections, giving a new properties investigated system, cardinally changes results of research. The conclusion is drawn about vital importance of the system approach as research methodology).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1302.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-02 10:54:53*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. bcchanyal@gmail.com

In this paper, we have made an attempt to discuss the role of octonions in gravity and dark
matter where, we have described the octonion space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces
namely gravitational G-space and electromagnetic EM-space. It is shown that octonionic hot dark
matter contains the photon and graviton (i.e. massless particles) while the octonionic cold dark
matter is associated with the W-;Z (massive) bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1302.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-02 09:29:49*

**Authors:** Jaivir Baweja

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

These are a set of mathematical discoveries made by me, a 15-year old. The
current system of mathematics education is failing me, as I am capable of much
more as seen below, and yet I am still stuck in the ladder at Algebra II. However,
even more potential great mathematicians are being failed too; and so far there
is no solution that has been found. For now, the best thing we can do is eliminate
the standard mathematics curriculum and replace it with modern mathematics
through discovery, like the work in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10] **viXra:1302.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-02 07:56:10*

**Authors:** Jaivir Baweja

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let $M$ be a smooth manifold. In this paper we review the definition of a germ
and show that since it is an equivalence relation, the concept is only locally defined.

**Category:** Topology

[9] **viXra:1302.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-02 07:30:25*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 17 Pages

Dr. Ian J. Cowan joins us in this issue of the Scientific Journal with his landmark paper UPDATE ON ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES www.k1man.com/Cowan130128B.pdf He presented this fine paper at the 26 January 2013 NPA world wide video conference. See this at www.k1man.com/videoconf130126 Dr. Cowan says therein that he has had doubts about Special Relativity for the last 40 years. Dr. Cowan’s presentation was also discussed during our weekly physics conference call (one hour 24 minutes). Listen to this at www.k1man.com/Conf130128.mp3
Participants were Harry H. Ricker, BSEE, Virginia Tech, MSEE, UNH; Glenn A. Baxter, P.E., BSIE URI; Nick Percival, BS Physics, Harvard; Al McDowell, BSEE, Syracuse, PhD. Cornell, Dr. Satya Pal Asija, P.E., BS, MBA, Grad IERE (Lond.), JD, etc.
Dr. D. Sasso of Italy writes (in part): “I looked at (Dr.) Cowan's paper, and I think it has a good scientific value.”
Also joining us this issue is Dr. Herbert Dingle, Dr. Peter Kohut, Harry H. Ricker III, Tom Bethel, and Poicarpo Yoshin Ulianov writing about the Witte effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1302.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-01 17:07:54*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. Historical references identify this field as the luminiferous ether. I will call it the temporal-inertial field (TI field), because I may attribute properties to this field not obtained by classical versions of the luminiferous ether. Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this ether, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to space the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to space. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process moving through that space. Accordingly I assert the existence of the so-called TI field that supports the propagation of photons and occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. The entire thrust of this paper is that geometry does not govern the physics of time dilation; motion relative to the TI field of space does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1302.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-01 20:55:08*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, Tianjin Li, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Starting with the Dirac-Maxwell’s equations in presence of electric and magnetic sources in an isotropic medium of dyons, we have derived the generalized octonion Maxwell’s equations in isotropic medium. And the octonion formulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in chiral medium has also been developed in compect, simple and consistent manner.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1302.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-15 10:59:14*

**Authors:** Alejandro Rivero

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We propose a reorganisation of the standard
model and their mesons in order to
build supersymmetric multiplets. The
presentation is open to improvements
to choose the adequate candidates in
each recombination.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1302.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-01 10:28:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 illustration

Plato described knowledge as a “true justified belief” but this is too complicated because what is true is arguable, what is justified is arguable and what constitutes a belief in relation to the two is arguable. Plato’s definition of knowledge is vague, inconsistent and depends on the opinion of the person or group. A more encompassing easy to understand definition of knowledge is given with a little explanation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4] **viXra:1302.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-20 15:43:19*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Reference hyperlinks corrected.

Feynman’s relativistic path integral replaces the non-relativistic 1st quantization indeterminancy principle (required when using a classical Coulomb field in quantum mechanics) with a simple physical mechanism, multipath interference between small mechanical interactions. Each mechanical interaction is represented by a Feynman Moller scattering diagram (Fig. 1) for a gauge boson emitted by one charge to strike an effective interaction cross-section of the other charge, a cross-sectionl that is proportional to the square of the interaction strength or running coupling. Each additional pair of vertices in a Feynman diagram reduce its relative contribution to the path integral by a factor of the coupling, so for a force with a very small couplings like observable (low energy) quantum gravity, only the 2-vertex Feynman diagram has an appreciable contribution, allowing a very simple calculation to check the observable (low energy) quantum gravity interaction strength. Evidence is given that quantum gravity arises from a repulsive U(1) gauge symmetry which also causes the cosmological acceleration.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1302.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-01 07:30:54*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In 2006, Alan Kogut and his colleagues from the Goddard Space Flight Center, searching for signs of heat from the first generation of stars with the balloon-borne Arcade 2 equipped with sophisticated radiometers, discovered instead an intense radio emission that nobody had still detected, that no physical model had foreseen the existence, and which results from none of the known sources in the Universe. This cosmic background noise has an intensity of synchrotron emission estimated six times higher than the combined radio of all radio sources in the known universe. Our hypothesis is that this radio emission of extragalactic source is the residue of a huge energy burst soon after the recombination, triggering simultaneously the formation of first stars and the reionization. Under the theory of Relation, it is the vestige of a sudden release of energy from a relativistic bang, via a Lorentz energetic transformation, which fills an energy-matter deficit, and generates both the birth of primordial stars and the reionization of neutral gas. This extra ordinary matter would replace the hypothetical cold dark matter theorized to be the missing primitive matter initiating large structures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1302.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-01 19:55:55*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 14 Pages. French language

En 2006, Alan Kogut et ses collègues du centre Goddard de la NASA, ayant mission de rechercher à l’aide d’Arcade 2, un ballon stratosphérique équipé d’un radiomètre sophistiqué, des signes de chaleur de la première génération d’étoiles, découvrirent plutôt le signal d'un rayonnement radio aussi intense que mystérieux dont aucun modèle physique ne prévoyait l’existence, et qui ne provient d'aucune des sources radio connues dans l'Univers. Ce bruit de fond cosmologique serait d’une intensité d’émissions synchrotron à un niveau estimé six fois plus élevé que les émissions de radio combinées de toutes les sources radio connues dans l'univers. Notre hypothèse est que ce rayonnement radio de source extragalactique est le résidu d’une énorme énergie qui jaillit peu après la recombinaison, amorçant la formation des premières étoiles et, simultanément, la réionisation. Dans le cadre de la théorie de la Relation, c’est le vestige d’une brutale libération d’énergie provenant d’un bang relativiste, via une transformation énergétique de Lorentz, qui comble un déficit énergie-matière et génère à la fois la naissance des étoiles primordiales et la réionisation des gaz neutres. Ce surplus de matière ordinaire remplacerait l’hypothétique matière noire froide théorisée comme étant la matière manquante primitive amorçant les grandes structures.
In 2006, Alan Kogut and his colleagues from the Goddard Space Flight Center, searching for signs of heat from the first generation of stars with the balloon-borne Arcade 2 equipped with sophisticated radiometers, discovered instead an intense radio emission that nobody had still detected, that no physical model had foreseen the existence, and which results from none of the known sources in the Universe. This cosmic background noise has an intensity of synchrotron emission estimated six times higher than the combined radio of all radio sources in the known universe. Our hypothesis is that this radio emission of extragalactic source is the residue of a huge energy burst soon after the recombination, triggering simultaneously the formation of first stars and the reionization. Under the theory of Relation, it is the vestige of a sudden release of energy from a relativistic bang, via a Lorentz energetic transformation, which fills an energy-matter deficit, and generates both the birth of primordial stars and the reionization of neutral gas. This extra ordinary matter would replace the hypothetical cold dark matter theorized to be the missing primitive matter initiating large structures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1302.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-01 03:03:12*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Starting with the usual definations of octonions and split octonions in terms of Zorn vector matrix realization, we have made an attempt to write the consistent form of generalized Maxwell’s equations in presence of electric and magnetic charges.
We have thus written the generalized split octonion potential wave equations and the generalized fields equation of dyons in split octonions. Accordingly the split octonion forms of generalized Dirac Maxwell’s equations are obtained in compact and
consistent manner. Accordingly, we have made an attempt to investigate the work energy theorem or “Poynting Theorem”, Maxwell stress tensor and Lorentz invariant for generalized fields of dyons in split octonion electrodynamics. Our theory of dyons in split octonion formulations is discussed in term of simple and compact notations. This theory reproduces the dynamic of electric (magnetic) in the absence of magnetic (electric) charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics