[180] **viXra:1401.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-31 15:47:02*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Studying the relation between the two prime factors of a 2-Poulet number I found an interesting recurrent formula involving these numbers that seems to lead often to a value which is semiprime; based on this observation I made three conjectures about semiprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[179] **viXra:1401.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-31 14:15:39*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Nineteen Pageg

Dr. Peter Kohut has a new paper out now which has an interesting slant on physics. See www.k1man.com/Kohut140127A.pdf Dr. William Charles Lucas and Dr. Han Leunen present Saturday morning FUZE video teleconferences this month. Engineer David Tombe and Dr. Hasmukh K. Tank also join us in this issue. Dr. Tank says there is no wave – particle duality in the double slit experiments, which Dr. Richard Feynman was fond of saying represents the heart, body, and soul of quantum mechanics. Karl Virgil Thompson weighs in on this also, and we revisit his related paper. www.k1man.com/Thompson140116A.pdf Also joining us this issue is Leo Vuyk – www.k1man.com/Vuyk140127A.pdf

**Category:** Classical Physics

[178] **viXra:1401.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-23 12:12:03*

**Authors:** Nikolay G. Zoub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In Russian.

Исходя из квантовых представлений об электромагнитных колебаниях, показана связь между поглощенной частью энергии квантов межзвездной средой и смещением спектров пропорциональных относительному расстоянию между источником и приемником квантов, а так же влияние на смещение спектров движения объектов относительно друг друга. Based on the concepts of quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, shows the relationship between the absorbed part photon energy of the interstellar medium and the displacement spectra are proportional to the relative distance between source and receiver rays, as well as the effect of the displacement spectra of the motion of objects relative to each other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[177] **viXra:1401.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 04:29:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) are explored. The latter theory provides a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. Furthermore, an elegant $nonlinear$ momentum-addition law is derived in order to tackle the ``soccer-ball'' problem in DSR. Neither derivation in $C$-spaces requires a $curved$ momentum space nor a deformation of the Lorentz algebra. While the constant (energy-independent) speed of photon propagation is always compatible with the generalized photon dispersion relations in $C$-spaces, another important consequence is that these generalized photon dispersion relations allow also for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, while breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. This does $not$ occur in DSR nor in other approaches, like the presence of quantum spacetime foam. We conclude with some comments on the quantization program and the key role that quantum Clifford-Hopf algebras might have in the future developments since the latter $q$-Clifford algebras naturally contain the $ \kappa$-deformed Poincare algebras which are essential ingredients in the formulation of DSR.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[176] **viXra:1401.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 16:23:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Combining two of my favorite topics of study, the recurrence relations and the Smarandache function, I discovered a very interesting pattern: seems like the recurrent formula f(n) = S(f(n – 2)) + S(f(n – 1)), where S is the Smarandache function and f(1), f(2) are any given different non-null positive integers, leads every time to a set of seven values (i.e. 11, 17, 28, 24, 11, 15, 16) which is then repeating infinitely.

**Category:** Number Theory

[175] **viXra:1401.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 19:09:29*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

ABSTRACT:
In this article I propose the following:
(1) Probability is an intrinsic property of the space-time continuum similar to the spatial dimensions and time.
(2) This probability space has certain specific characteristics.
(3) The probability space is affected by matter just as the other dimensions of space-time continuum.
(4) The effect of matter on the probability space is of a specific characteristic.
(5) This effect of matter on the probability space can be tested in a simple experiment using modern technology and thereby prove/disprove it's existence.
(6) If the existence of the probability space is proved, then certain profound consequences follow which have both theoretical and practical implications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[174] **viXra:1401.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 19:31:01*

**Authors:** Rei Beaumanner, Carl-Gustav Hedenby

**Comments:** 1 Page. Signed and faxed on January 7th of 2003 to Albert Einstein Institute, Swedish National Space Board and Theoretical Physics, Lund, Sweden. Also published on the Internet that same day. Rei Beaumanner islter ego for Carl-Gustav Hedenby

Here will be presented a formula that explains the de Broglie wave length as being generated by the Compton wave length in relative motion.
Moreover, the Planck quantum energy emergent in this context fits right into Einstein's *E = mc²* when it is expressed like a function of
momentum *mv*. The equation is the *Beaumanner relative quantum formula* and the associated energy *vmc* I call the relativistic energy of mechanical momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[173] **viXra:1401.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 20:14:19*

**Authors:** Rei Beaumanner, Carl-Gustav Hedenby

**Comments:** 1 Page. Signed and e-mailed as PDF on September 11 of 2005 to Albert Einstein Institute, Swedish National Space Board and Theoretical Physics, Lund, Sweden. Published on Internet the following day. Rei Beaumanner islter ego for Carl-Gustav Hedenby

Among the exciting outcomes of the *Beaumanner relative quantum formula RQF* is the linking of de Broglie's matter wave length to the velocity of light. I show that a phase velocity introduced by de Broglie is not believable since it comes from relating his matter wave length to the total Einstein energy. Instead it should relate to the energy of mechanical momentum which I have defined. In an additional argument I show that the strange phase velocity also can be viewed as coming from an assumption that mechanical momentum is linearly coupled to the total energy, which it is not.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[172] **viXra:1401.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-03 17:57:07*

**Authors:** Jay D Rynbrandt

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This paper accompanies "Alternative Mechanisms of Dark Matter, Galactic Filaments and the Big Crunch"

Black holes (BH) hold immense energy. In most cases, when BH collide, they release a sufficient pulse of energy that they do not combine. These collisions are supra elastic so that BH leave them with extra kinetic energy. With mutual BH rejection, new mechanisms emerge for the big bang (BB), inflation, galaxy formation and quasars.
Mutual BH rejection also held separate, highly energetic, ultra-massive, (galaxy-acquired) black holes (UMBH), of a dying universe, as they accelerated their collapse into a universal black hole. However, an instant before complete collapse, UMBH reached a critical temperature/pressure and detonated the big bang (BB) to consume all UMBH. The BB released energy, mass and space constrained by billions of UMBH. The relativistic mass, that had been created with as galactic components fell into their UMBH, enlarged this succeeding universe. The freed space produced inflation, and the matter mass steered the new universe toward continued matter domination. But a few (hundred billion), much smaller (and previously far more numerous) stellar BH (stBH) survived both the collapse and BB, aligned themselves at the intersections of inflation bubbles, grew to super-massive size (due to BB pressure) and then began building galaxies as continuing inflation converted accretion disk trajectories into stable galactic orbits.
These galaxies retained filament associations, which their central BH had established earlier. (A mechanism to maintain and sharpen these structures is discussed in the “Alternative Mechanisms…” note, which follows.) In rare cases, super massive BH (SMBH) also survived the BB, grew into astoundingly massive black holes (~10+13 solar mass, AMBH) and then organized clusters of galaxies like the Coma cluster.
Also rarely, the extreme differential energy/mass accretion pressures following the BB held some colliding BH together while they paired as intimately-coupled, binary SMBH. We see them today as ancient, energetic quasars spewing immense plasma radiation, or as younger, radio frequency, active galactic nuclei (AGN) -- depending their SMBH-orbital separation. Plasma quasars orbit each other within their reactive (surface disruptive) distance, and radio AGN exceed it. BH precursors needed to be present at the time of the BB to be pressure-joined as close-coupled, equal-mass, SMBH pairs, and the high efficiency of their plasma-based, light-generating mechanism suggests that current quasar size estimates may be high. Plasma quasars expire when their SMBH separation distance exceeds their surface-disruptive distance; and they leave behind energetic, radio frequency AGN. As this paired AGN whips their intense, intertwined magnetic fields through the narrow gap between them, their compressed fields tear electrons from their atomic nuclei and eject both as relativistic, radio frequency electrons and as extreme energy cosmic rays, respectively.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[171] **viXra:1401.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-21 01:29:25*

**Authors:** Jay D. Rynbrandt

**Comments:** 8 Pages. A companion paper: "Novel Descriptions of the Big Bang, Inflation, Galactic Structure and Energetic Quasars" vixra: 1401.0231 may also be of interest.

This note describes some effects of: an attraction of space to mass, black holes’ (BH) spatial capture, and an intrinsic property of space to expand:
1.Local, constant-(radial)speed, spatial rotation within galaxies and clusters explains stable, flat-speed, stellar orbits within galaxies and stable galactic orbits within clusters. Spatial movement enhances gravitational lensing around galaxies and clusters. Both of these phenomena are currently ascribed to dark energy.
2.Space, captured by super massive black holes (SMBH) and other BH, reduces spatial expansion pressure (an attribute of space itself) in the vicinity of galactic filaments, to maintain and sharpen these structures.
3.As the universe expands, galactic, spatial rotation rates increase to promote galactic collapse into ultra massive black holes (UMBH). These galactic masses acquire additional relativistic mass during accretion, which promotes universal collapse.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[170] **viXra:1401.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 13:19:14*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The article describes the transients in segments of long lines.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[169] **viXra:1401.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 18:15:47*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Valery A. Kotov

**Comments:** 34 Pages. In spite of important endorsement, this article refuting the non-scientific Multiverse was rejected without explanation in November 2013 by the arXiv of Cornell University, containing several articles favoring the Multiverse.

A Coherent Quantum Cosmology resolves the main cosmical enigma: Large Number correlations, dark matter, baryon density, vacuum energy. This is obtained from a non-reductionism analysis of data, and taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental theory and the non-Doppler cosmic oscillations with period tcc = 9600.606(12) s. The absence of Doppler effect (apart dephasages) induces the Tachyonic Principle: the world is divided in the c-visible part and a weakly interacting tachyonic one. In a gravitational Hydrogen Molecule, the Coherence Principle (identifying the ratio energy/h to an unifying frequency) gives the redshift (or Hubble) radius compatible with cT, where T ≈ 13.80(4) Gyr is the standard so-called Universe age. This model introduces an external Grandcosmos, considered as the source of the microwave background, the lacking element of the steady-state cosmology, and is tied to the vacuum energy, explaining its relative density about 10^120. In the critical Universe, classical and quantum energies egalise, in a new application of the Coherence Principle, and the Eddington's Number 136 × 2^256 of hydrogen atoms gives a baryon energy density 0.045 = (3/10)^2/2 related to the black matter one 3/10. With t_eF ≡ ħƛ_e^3/G_F the electron Fermi time, a c-free analysis defines a time 2t_cc²/t_eF, again compatible with T, confirming this is not any age but a fundamental period (Cycling Principle). In a Galilean critical steady-state Universe, the Coherent Principle applies a third time with the kinetic and potential energies equalised with the Eddington's one. The corresponding density is 3/10, resolving an unsolvable mystery of mainstream cosmology: the black energy density, compatible with the density 7/10. This Eddington model is shown to corresponds to a gravitational deuterium atom. This triple concordance, confirmed by many (40 or so) other correlations giving our proposal for TU = R_U/c, calls for an unification of the two major cosmologies; the Primordial Big Bang is then toppled in favor of the Permanent (13.812 Gyr Cycling) Vibrating Universe (t_U ≈ 0.838 10^-103 s), with a predicted value 70.79 km s-1 Mpc^-1 for the invariant recession constant, connected plausibly with a matter-antimatter scanned oscillation, resolving the antimatter and parity violation dilemma.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1401.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-26 21:46:36*

**Authors:** Chi-Yi Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Based on the consideration of naturalness and physical facts in Einstein's theories of relativity, a nontrivial spacetime physical picture, which has a slight difference from the standard one, is introduced by making a further distinction on the absolute background of spacetime and the relative length or duration of base units of spacetime. In this picture, the coordinate base units in gravity-induced spacetime metric are defined by the standard clock and ruler equipped by the observer, and duplicated onto the every position of the whole universe. In contrast, the local intrinsic base units of spacetime in gravitational field are defined by the length and duration of physical events intervals in the same-type standard clock and ruler which are really located at every position of the universe. In principle, the reading number of the standard clock is counted by the undergone times of unit intervals defined depending on a certain kind of local intrinsic events. But the size of the base units of spacetime is essentially depicted by the length of the line segment, which is cut from the absolute background of spacetime by the local intrinsic events of unit interval. The effect of gravitation is just to change the length of this segment for base spacetime units. On the basis of such a physical picture of spacetime, in a fairly natural way we re-derive a new classical dynamical equation which satisfies a more realistic and moderately general principle of relativity. To further examine this physical picture including of gravitation and spacetime, we also reinterpret the gravitational redshifts for solar gravity tests.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[167] **viXra:1401.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 08:45:58*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Are there 3 dimensions of space because there are 3 generations of fermions? Are the Leech lattice, the monster group, and the 6 pariah groups nature’s most fundamental mathematical structures? Is string theory the only plausible way to understand the foundations of physics? Assume that ultimate reality is adequately described by one of two alternatives: string theory with the infinite nature hypothesis or string theory with the finite nature hypothesis. Do the Leech lattice, the monster group, and the 6 pariah groups enable M-theory to have a computational method? Do superpartners occur in nature if and only if nature is infinite? What is dark matter? What is the explanation for the space roar? What is measurement and why does it exist? Measurement might be a natural process that separates the boundary of the multiverse from the interior of the multiverse. Measurement might exist because there is a 26-dimensional bosonic string theory. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might suggest 3 decisive empirical tests; if any 1 of the 3 tests is falsified the finite nature hypothesis is likely to be wrong or irrelevant to testable physics. This communication offers a somewhat vague approach to developing a computational method for M-theory. The string landscape and the curling up of extra spatial dimensions might be the results of string theory with the infinite nature hypothesis and with thinking about strings as measurable physical entities. Three decisive empirical tests and the building up of approximations to quantum information might be the results of string theory with the finite nature hypothesis and with thinking about strings as deterministic machines that transfer information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[166] **viXra:1401.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 20:04:19*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Valery A. Kotov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. refused by arXiv in spite of endorsment

A Cosmological Coherence Principle (CCP) is proposed, meaning each well-defined phenomena is mono-frequency. When applied to the steady-state critical cosmology, with scale factor exp(t/T_U), the CCP leads to three independent formula for T_U compatible with the so-called Universe age 13.80(4) Gyr, estimated by the recent Planck's mission, so refuting the Primordial Big Bang model, in favor of the Vibrating Universe model with frequency 10^103 Hz and pseudo-period T_U. The matter density is simply shown to be 3/10 and the baryonic one (3/10)²/2 = 0.0450.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[165] **viXra:1401.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 02:45:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper are made five conjectures about a type of pairs of primes respectively Fermat pseudoprimes which have the property to generate an infinity of primes respectively Fermat pseudoprimes via a recurrence formula that will be defined in this paper; we name the pairs with this property Coman pairs of primes respectively Coman pairs of pseudoprimes. Because it is easy to show that two given primes respectively pseudoprimes do not form such a pair and it is very difficult to prove that they form such a pair, the correct expression about two odd primes (or pseudoprimes) p, q, where p = 30*k + d and q = 30*h + d, where k, h are non-null positive integers and d has the values 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, is that the pair (p,q) is not a Coman pair respectively that the pair (p,q) is a possible Coman pair of primes (or pseudoprimes).

**Category:** Number Theory

[164] **viXra:1401.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 13:42:44*

**Authors:** Patrick G. Tardif

**Comments:** 12 Pages. A new section on why the universe is expanding has been added. The abstract and the conclusion have been updated as well.

This paper will show through several experiments that time dilation, or modiﬁcation of space-time, occurs only when there is a consciousness ﬁeld or link (CFL) involved, along with velocity and/or acceleration. It also shows that consciousness can be applied remotely at great distance, can be connected directly or indirectly with an event, and that it is only when such a link exists that the relativity theories are applicable. It also reformulates one of the postulates of the special theory of relativity that the frame of reference is not regardless of position and velocity, but it is from the position where the consciousness link is made between all the elements regardless of the velocity. Furthermore, it explains why the universe is ﬁnite rather than inﬁnite and that the CFL is responsible for the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[163] **viXra:1401.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-06 10:49:45*

**Authors:** Philip E Gibbs

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Lebesgue’s universal covering problem is re-examined using computational methods. This leads to conjectures about the nature of the solution which if correct could provide a blueprint for a complete solution. Empirical lower bounds for the minimal area are computed using different hypotheses based on the conjectures. A new upper bound of 0.844112 for the area of the minimal cover is derived improving previous results. This method for determining the bound is suggested by the conjectures and computational observations but is proved independently of them. The key innovation is to modify previous best results by removing corners from a regular hexagon at a small slant angle to the edges of the dodecahedron used before. Simulations indicate that the minimum area for a convex universal cover is likely to be around 0.84408.

**Category:** Geometry

[162] **viXra:1401.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 10:14:03*

**Authors:** Theodore J. St. John

**Comments:** Pages. email: stjohntheodore@gmail.com

The purpose of this paper is to propose and support a simple theory: that space and time are complementary aspects of the exact same essence – a process that separates itself into both a physical and temporal aspect. This Unity Theory postulates that the spacetime continuum is primarily a unity that manifests as a duality with two seemingly independent base quantities and that treating one (space) as three-dimensional and the other (time) as one-dimensional unnecessarily complicates the math and distorts interpretation of the results. Because length and duration are different by definition, their independence cannot be disputed, but they are not different in essence, only in the way they are measured. It is also shown that measurement itself, being a snapshot of the aspect measured, locks the other aspect out of the equation forcing the conclusion comparable to concluding that one’s image in the mirror can only look at itself.
The Unity model of spacetime is developed mathematically and explained by analogy with the two ways to describe the level in a glass of water (fullness and emptiness). Allowing balanced representation by each provides a perspective that transcends the two-dimensional plane in which space and time appear to be fundamentally separate.
Application of this theory to the Special Theory of Relativity provides a simple and sensible explanation of why the speed of light is constant as well as why distortions appear in both length and time for a particle approaching this limit. Application to Quantum Theory provides a common sense explanation of the particle-wave duality. The space-time diagram is used to illustrate the multivector that unifies all aspects of electromagnetic theory; it demonstrates a logical explanation for the arrow of time and provides the template for a Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[161] **viXra:1401.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 08:58:39*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is proposed that all radiative hyperon decays occur due to the variation of a new quantum number associated to quarks which for the transition s>d is always equal to +1.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[160] **viXra:1401.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 09:21:36*

**Authors:** M.Varman, H. Miyafuji, S. Saka

**Comments:** 21 Pages. M.Varman, H. Miyafuji, and S. Saka. "Fractionation and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as treated by supercritical water" Journal of Wood Science 56(6) (2010): 484-494.

In order to investigate a potential for the efficient utilization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), supercritical water treatment (380ºC/100MPa/8s) has been applied to fractionate into water-soluble portion and water-insoluble portion composing of methanol-soluble portion and methanol-insoluble residue for various parts of oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp fibers, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kernel cake. These fractionated products were then characterized analytically, in which the water-soluble and methanol-soluble portions were determined to be mainly composed of carbohydrate-derived products and lignin-derived products, respectively. Besides, the methanol-insoluble residue was mainly composed of lignin more than 84wt%, and the phenolic hydroxyl contents determined by aminolysis method was higher than the untreated oil palm sample. In addition, an alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis indicated that, the methanol-insoluble residue was less in oxidation products. These lines of findings implicate that the water-soluble portion could be utilized for organic acid production, whereas the methanol-soluble portion and its insoluble residue for phenolic chemical production.

**Category:** Chemistry

[159] **viXra:1401.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 17:16:17*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning
warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel
to a "nearby" star at $22$ light-years away with $3$ potential
habitable exo-planets(Gliese $667C$) at superluminal speeds in a
reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about
$200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density
at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$
which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in
magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!! We introduce here a
shape function that defines the Natario warp drive as an excellent
candidate to low the negative energy density requirements from
$10^{48}$ to affordable levels.We also discuss other warp drive
drawbacks:collisions with hazardous interstellar matter(asteroids
or comets) that may happen in a real interstellar travel from
Earth to Gliese $667C$ and Horizons(causally disconnected portions
of spacetime).We terminate this work with a description of the
star system Gliese $667C$

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[158] **viXra:1401.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 19:45:28*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This file is uploaded here to stimulate further investigation. It is not yet submitted to any journal.

Erik Verlinde has proposed in 2010 that gravitation is related to entropy. He managed to derive Newton law from this assumption. His paper attracts many new papers around similar idea, for example there is proposal of entropic dark energy by Smoot et al. But deep behind the new entropic gravity approach, there is a question about whether gravitation can be expressed as information. This article is a summary of discussion about this question in researchgate.net. It is put here to stimulate further discussion. It is not yet conclusive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[157] **viXra:1401.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-05 22:52:01*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This file is uploaded here in order to stimulate further investigation. It is not yet submitted to any journal.

Krogdahl in his critique to general relativity suggests that we should better consider Lorentz-invariant cosmology (see http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.1145.pdf). Then this writer asks a question in researchgate.net about whether Lorentz-invariant gravitation theory is a valid alternative to general relativity. Some responses are recorded here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[156] **viXra:1401.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 12:41:26*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here we are going to formulate and prove variational extremum principle for electrodynamics, asserting that there exists a functional that depends on powers. This functional always has a single extremum, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of this extremum existence are represented by Maxwell equations. This principle is realized also in the case when the system contains magnetic charges and magnetic currents. Besides, this principle is valid also if there are heat losses in the system. The method for solving the Maxwell equations system by gradient descent to extremum is indicated.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[155] **viXra:1401.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 11:12:34*

**Authors:** Nikolay G. Zoub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian.

Квантовые эффекты смещения излучения в длинноволновую и коротковолновую части спектра.
Quantum effects of radiation displacement to longer and shorter wavelengths.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[154] **viXra:1401.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 11:43:21*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not PSPACE. If P is PSPACE, we can derive P is L from relation of logarithm and polynomial reduction. But this result contracit Space Hierarchy Theorem. Therefore P is not PSPACE.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[153] **viXra:1401.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 07:44:13*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 24 pages, 228 equations, 18 references

In an 18-dimensional gravidynamic unification model the spacetime and the internal symmetries of 4 generations of leptons and quarks are consolidated in a 256-component Majorana-Weyl-Dirac fermion. In such a framework, the dynamics of vector bosons as well as Higgs scalars would be generated at the quantum level through a unified coupling of an antisymmetric tensor of rank 3 to the fermions. We exhibit the complete U7 structure of the latter coupling. This extensive work begins by writing the Lorentz algebra of 18 dimensional spacetime in terms of its 4-dimensional Lorentz subalgebra and an internal O14 factor. The latter is expressed via its U7 subalgebra. The 256-component fermion is expressed in terms of 64 Weyl fermions, and their Dirac conjugates, in 4 dimensions. Likewise the 3rd rank antisymmetric tensor is expressed in terms of vectors and scalars in 4 dimensions. The emerging picture regarding the fundamental fermions, and their interactions, would lead to aspects that are well described by a complementing O14 and SU7 grand unification schemes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[152] **viXra:1401.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 07:59:49*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In my previous paper «Twenty-four conjectures about “the eight essential subsets of primes”» are made three conjectures about each one from the following eight subsets: the primes of the form 30*k + 1, 30*k + 7, 30*k + 11, 30*k + 13, 30*k + 17, 30*k + 19, 30*k + 23 respectively 30*k + 29. The conjectures from that paper state that each from these eight sets of primes has an infinity of terms and also that each one of them can be entirely defined with a recurrent formula starting from just three given terms. In this paper are generalized the three conjectures for an infinity of subsets, each having possibly an infinity of terms which are primes or squares of primes, subsets of integers of the form 2*p(1)*p(2)*...*p(m)*k + d, where p(1), p(2), ..., p(m) are the first m odd primes, k is a non-null positive integer and d an odd positive integer satisfying certain conditions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[151] **viXra:1401.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 05:00:08*

[150] **viXra:1401.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-27 18:59:05*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** Pages.

A PC code based on the quantum mechanical Langevin equation to simulate dynamic motion of deuterium (or hydrogen) cluster with three dimensional symmetry has been developed for studying very fast condensation or oscillation behavior in time-step of 0.001 as (1.0E-21 second) for overall time interval of several fs to 500 fs. Some numerical results are typically shown for two cases of condensation behavior; 1) reaching to ground state oscillations as for D(H)2+ ion molecule, dμd muonic molecule, 3D+ ionic molecule, 6D/OSC and others, and 2) making fast collapse to get in the strong/weak nuclear interaction range of d-d (or p-p) inter-nuclear distance as for 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)/Rhombic-dodecahedron, 8D(H)/Rhombic-dodecahedron and 20D(H)/Rhombic-triacontahedron.
Keywords: PC code, D(H)-cluster dynamics, ground state oscillation, fast collapse, 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)-Rhombic-dodecahedron, larger clusters, nuclear interaction, simulation of cold fusion

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[149] **viXra:1401.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-27 14:36:58*

**Authors:** Zan kaon

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new Nature of Time model

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[148] **viXra:1401.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-27 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Barar Stelian Liviu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

sieve

**Category:** Number Theory

[147] **viXra:1401.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-28 05:53:30*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page note

1. If the galaxies are receding from each other, as per the general relativistic metric expansion of space, then the 'inverse-square-law of brightness of light' predicts that brightness of distant super novae should go on decreasing with time. And in the past six-seven decades after Hubble, astronomers should have noticed some reduction in the brightness of distant super novae. 2. In addition to that, the reduction in amplitude of the waves of light with time, should also cause some additional red-shift; depending upon the rate at which the brightness is reducing. 3. Has such reduction in brightness, and additional red-shift proportional to the rate of reduction of brightness, been noticed? If not, then it is quite possible that the universe may not be expanding!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[146] **viXra:1401.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 17:31:42*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A natural unit of length, determined by applying the Holographic Principle to the Hubble sphere, matches the diameter of the proton, the smallest relevant size in nature. Unlike traditional Large Numbers coincidences, which are accurate only to order of magnitude, this agreement is precise.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[145] **viXra:1401.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 20:06:44*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Expecting your valuable comments...

In the previously published papers the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way. In this model, forever rotating at light speed, high temperature and high angular velocity small sized primordial cosmic black hole of mass $\frac{e^2}{4 \pi \epsilon_0 G}$ gradually transforms into a low temperature and low angular velocity large sized massive primordial cosmic black hole. At any time $H_t$ represents the angular velocity. At its ending stage of expansion, for the whole cosmic black hole as practically remains constant, its corresponding thermal energy density will be ‘the same’ throughout its volume. This ‘sameness’ may be the reason for the observed ‘isotropic’ nature of the current CMB radiation. Observed cosmic red shift can be re-interpreted as an index of cosmological galactic atomic light emission phenomenon. Validity of this model can be well confirmed from the combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena. Finally it can be suggested that, the cosmological time is real and absolute. By interconnecting the present cosmic time with the present CMBR energy density the authors made an attempt to fit and estimate the current cosmic age and its obtained magnitude is close to 282 trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[144] **viXra:1401.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-12 06:47:10*

**Authors:** Srinivasulu Charupally

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Investigate possibility formulation of Expansion theory of Light with the help of Universe expanding concept which was practically well proven. It is often assumed that in the course of the evolution of the universe, the dark energy either vanishes or becomes a positive constant. However, recently it was shown that in many models based on super gravity, the dark energy eventually becomes negative and the universe collapses within the time comparable to the present age of the universe which never is the case in reality. Here describe how Hubble constant was changing over the time and what was the impact of dark energy, also show that how mass particles and Plank constant affected by the dark energy. Any theories of this type have certain distinguishing features that can be tested by cosmological observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1401.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-27 02:14:18*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article results from a Ludwig Combrinck' s communication, in ResearchGate, on his experimental project of measuring the deflection of light, coming from the stellar field, in the sun gravitational field on the occasion of the solar eclipse in 2015 March. A brief exchange of ideas has convinced me on cogency of his project and I have decided to verify qualitative and quantitative deductions deriving from the application of the Theory of Reference Frames to the deflection of light in the sun gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[142] **viXra:1401.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-16 02:46:06*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c. The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-Structure Constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The World – Universe Model explains experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology over the last decades: the size and age of the World; critical energy density and the gravitational parameter; temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation and cosmological redshift. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak) and recommends introducing a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values for calculating time dependent parameters of the World.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1401.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 10:45:19*

**Authors:** Victor Demjanenko

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this brief note, suggestions are made for an improved black hole model. Prof. Hawking has just rescinded some of his thoughts on what a black hole is or isn’t. The suggested model characteristics are the result of back-to-basics thoughts about the interactions of a black hole and its surroundings.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[140] **viXra:1401.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 11:30:55*

**Authors:** Yoël Lana-Renault

**Comments:** Pages.

Con la fuerza débil de Aspin Bubbles se puede construír un objeto volador que anula la fuerza de la gravedad.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[139] **viXra:1401.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 06:27:06*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article describes the kinetics of transformation of energy in the collision of material bodies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[138] **viXra:1401.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 06:37:54*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article describes a new system of units, which does not use the concept of
time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[137] **viXra:1401.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 09:01:02*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not NP by using difference of symmetry.
Turing Machine (TM) change configuration by using transition functions. This changing keep halting configuration. That is, TM classify these configuration into equivalence class. The view of equivalence class, there are different between P and coNP. Some coNP problem have over polynomial size totally order inputs. These problem cannot reduce P because these totally order must keep. Therefore we cannot reduce some coNP problem to P problem. This means P is not NP.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[136] **viXra:1401.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 09:06:19*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The seventh paper based on Reality

It is proposed that the physical world is infinite in space, and contains a finite number of universes - may be ‘just a few’ or ‘billions’ because the limit is arbitrary; in its entirety, we can call it ‘the Ensemble’ because it is not a ‘system of universes’. Each universe is a system made up of fundamental particles moving at speed ‘c’. How these particles integrate into a universe, and what intermediate structures the universe has, are explained in this paper, using classical concepts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[135] **viXra:1401.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-25 19:03:13*

**Authors:** X.Yin, L. Groening, I. Hofmann, W. Bayer, W. Barth, S.Richter, S. Yaramishev, A. Franchi, A. Sauer

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the European framework ‘High Intensity Pulsed Proton Injector’ (HIPPI), the 3D linac code comparison and benchmarking program with experiment have been implemented. HALODYN and PARMILA are two of the codes involved in this work. In this paper, the phase space distributions of the Alvarez DTL section are compared with the obtained distribution from experiment results which were carried out on the GSI UNILAC. Between the predictions from two codes, these results show some agreement comparing with the experiment results for low current case. And the physics aspects of the different linac design and beam dynamics simulation codes are also discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[134] **viXra:1401.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 02:06:25*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The special features of the use of vector analysis in the electrodynamics are examined

**Category:** Classical Physics

[133] **viXra:1401.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 02:14:29*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Work examines the new, previously not known method of investigating of models and materials, based on the measurement of the electric potential of models. Method gives the possibility to investigate their thermal characteristics, phase pass the mechanical characteristics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[132] **viXra:1401.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-25 10:16:32*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Aerospace, aviation particularly need, in any era, the strongest and most thermostable materials available, often at nearly any price. The Space Elevator, space ships (especially during atmospheric reentry), rocket combustion chambers, thermally challenged engine surfaces, hypersonic aircraft materials better than any now available, with undreamed of performance as the reward if obtained. As it is shown in this research, the offered new material allows greatly to improve the all characteristics of space ships, rockets, engines and aircraft and design new types space, propulsion, aviation systems.
At present the term ‘nanotechnology’ is well known – in its’ ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter, and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter.
But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows this new ‘AB-Matter’ has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency, zero friction, etc.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for space ships, rockets, aircraft, sea ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armour, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux, etc.)
People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought – nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts, metamaterials, etc) and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature!) and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times—surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them.
Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[131] **viXra:1401.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-25 11:05:09*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A method and facilities for delivering payload and people into outer space are presented. This
method uses, in general, engines located on a planetary surface. The installation consists of a space
apparatus, power drive stations, which include a flywheel accumulator (for storage) of energy, a
variable reducer, a powerful homopolar electric generator and electric rails. The drive stations
accelerate the apparatus up to hypersonic speed.
The estimations and computations show the possibility of making this project a reality in a short
period of time (for payloads which can tolerate high g-forces). The launch will be very cheap at a
projected cost of $3 - $5 per pound. The authors developed a theory of this type of the launcher.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[130] **viXra:1401.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-25 04:26:40*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Spanish

A rotating body induces a gravitational force on a test particle perpendicular to its motion, similar to what happens with the magnetic force. In complete analogy with electromagnetism there is an interaction between a rotating body and a gravitomagnetic dipole moment: that is, a gravitomagnetic rotation-rotation coupling. We study this interaction and apply it to the study of orbital perturbations of a gyroscope orbiting the Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[129] **viXra:1401.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-26 01:30:38*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The mechanism of the formation of ball lightning is examined. It is assumed that the formation of plasmoid with the lightning stroke into the material objects is the consequence of its formation. The small mobility of ball lightning is explained by its aerodynamic properties.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[128] **viXra:1401.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-31 16:39:56*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The main objection against cold fusion is based on the theoretical understanding that the Coulomb barrier of the very small nucleus is extremely strong. The size of the atomic nucleus is determined by scattering experiments in which a metal target is usually struck by alpha particles. These experiments yield only energy and angular resolution and their interpretation rely on the assumption that the atomic nuclei and all elementary particles are spherical. A non-spherical nucleus made of thinner non-spherical particles like a torus or a twisted or folded torus will provide similar data for a limited range of the particle energy. At the time of Rutherford, alpha particles with energy from 4 to 8 MeV were used. Modern scattering experiments with energy above 25 MeV show a sharp deviation from the Rutherford theory. They also show a wavelike shape of the scattering cross section as a function of scattering angle. A new interpretation of the scattering experiments leads to the idea that the Coulomb field near the nucleus has a manifold shape with a much larger overall size and therefore is not so strong. The BSM-SG models of atomic nuclei are in excellent agreement with this conclusion. Applying the approach described in the monograph Structural Physics of Nuclear Fusion with BSM-SG atomic models, the highly exothermal process between nickel and hydrogen is analyzed. It leads to the conclusion that a proton capture may occur at an accessible temperature in a range of a few hundred degrees. The process is assisted by an intermediate state of hydrogen, known as the Rydberg atom, the magnetic field of which interacts constructively with the recipient nucleus if it is in a proper nuclear spin state. The final conclusion is that it is theoretically possible to obtain nuclear energy without radioactive waste by proper isotope selection of involved elements.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] **viXra:1401.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-11 00:48:49*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Final revisions

In 1918 the German mathematician Hermann Weyl developed a non-Riemannian geometry in which electromagnetism appeared to emerge naturally as a consequence of the non-invariance of vector magnitude. Although an initial admirer of the theory, Einstein declared the theory unphysical on the basis of the non-invariance of the line element ds, which is arbitrarily rescaled from point to point in the geometry. We examine the Weyl theory and trace its failure to its inability to accommodate certain vectors that are
inherently scale invariant. A revision of the theory is suggested that appears to refute Einstein’s objection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1401.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-24 22:19:28*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, defines the tetrad that moves in r-axis in the curved time-space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[125] **viXra:1401.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-24 09:49:32*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper are made twenty-four conjectures about eight subsets of prime numbers, i.e. the primes of the form 30*k + 1, 30*k + 7, 30*k + 11, 30*k + 13, 30*k + 17, 30*k + 19, 30*k + 23 respectively 30*k + 29. Because we strongly believe that this classification of primes can have many applications, we refered in the title of this paper to these subsets of primes as to “the eight essential subsets of primes”. The conjectures state that each from these eight sets of primes has an infinity of terms and also that each one of them can be entirely defined with a recurrent formula starting from just three given terms.

**Category:** Number Theory

[124] **viXra:1401.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-24 04:46:31*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A five-page note

The particle-interference-experiments, with the photons and electrons have clearly shown that they are always detected as localized ‘particles’; and the density of their detections exhibit a pattern similar to the interference of waves. This experimental-observation is alternatively interpreted here, different from the current, ‘probabilistic interpretation’. The ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized as an ‘impulse function’ in space; and then Fourier-transformed into the wave-number-domain, as a wide band of constituent-waves as shown in the fig. 1&2. The ‘particle’ is an ‘event’ of constructive-superimposition of a wide band of ‘pre-quantum-waves’. This ‘event’ occurs in space at regular distances; and at regular instances in time. In the particle-interference-experiments, they are the wide band of ‘pre-quantum-waves which interfere physically. This physical interference of the pre-quantum-waves determines the position and time of emergence of the ‘impulse in space’ detectable as the ‘particle’. In the real-world-situation, the ‘pre-quantum-waves of a wide bandwidth arrive from all the directions, so the amplitude and phase of every constituent wave keep changing; so the place of constructive superimposition of all the spectral-components, keep varying unpredictably; and only the ‘probability’ of detection in a given volume is possible in practice. Thus, form the theoretical view-point, there are only the pre-quantum-waves; and ‘particle’ is a specific situation of constructive-superimposition of all the spectral-components of pre-quantum-waves; so there is no wave-particle-duality. The ‘probabilistic-interpretation’ is only a ‘practical-limitation’, detector being able to detect only the ‘particle’, and not the spectrum of constituent waves.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[123] **viXra:1401.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-15 10:16:15*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** New version, 8 pages, 2 tables

We present an alternative type of sixteen-component hypercomplex scalar-vector values "space-time sedenions", generating associative noncommutative space-time Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[122] **viXra:1401.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-23 23:46:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Nima Arkani-Hamed's amplituhedron is a multidimensional, geometric shape that dramatically simplifies calculations of particle interactions and challenges the notion that space and time are fundamental components of reality. In my opinion, it relates to the 5th dimension, dark matter, string theory (digitized) and renormalization. These relations can be deduced via a 1919 paper by Einstein concerning gravity’s role in the constitution of elementary particles, plus the hidden variables of quantum mechanics echoing string theory and assuming a digital nature. The result is a repulsive gravity usually labelled dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[121] **viXra:1401.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-24 08:42:17*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work it is theoretically shown that a millisecond pulsar spinning with angular velocity close to 1000 rotations per second (or more) has its gravitational mass reduced below its inertial mass, i.e., under these circumstances, the gravitational and the inertial masses of the millisecond pulsar are not equivalents. This can easily be experimentally checked, and it would seem to be an ideal test to the equivalence principle of general relativity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[120] **viXra:1401.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-23 09:11:42*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The FIFA World Cup is a quadrennial tournament staged every four years with a three year qualification/draw process. I propose here a biennial format of the FIFA World Cup that has a six month qualification process and no draws. Pure genius!

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[119] **viXra:1401.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-23 01:01:35*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 16 pages, 55 equations, 8 references

We construct the O14 algebra in terms of the tensorial representations of its SU7 subalgebra. Subsequently, we construct the gauge-invariant boson-fermion coupling, and decompose it completely into terms exhibiting color SU3 and family SU3 symmetries. A picture of the particle spectrum emerges where quarks and leptons, as well as vector bosons, would appear as singlets or triplets with respect to family SU3. Accordingly, we conjecture the possible existence of a 4th generation of fermions, as well as the imminent existence of other $W$-like vector bosons, in high-energy collider experiments.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[118] **viXra:1401.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-22 23:48:12*

**Authors:** Charles L. Chandler

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Earth's crust is sub-divided into plates, whose relative motions are well known. But the energy driving those motions remains enigmatic. Convective potential (as gauged by radiative heat loss) is insufficient, amounting to merely 4% of the total crustal energy expenditure. Furthermore, it is going in the wrong direction, since temperatures in subduction zones are higher than in the mid-ocean ridges, and therefore the buoyancy should send the oceanic plates upward and outward from the "subduction" zones, and downward at the mid-oceanic ridges, if convective potential was powerful enough to be the driving force anyway. Deformation from tidal forces is another source of energy, but it supplies only 0.01% of the energy consumed in tectonic friction. Recent research has found a wide variety of evidence of electric and magnetic fields associated with tidal and seismic deformation, though the origin of those fields is unknown. The present work explores the possibility that the mantle below the Mohorovičić discontinuity is positively charged by electron degeneracy pressure. If so, there is an electric field between the positive ions below the Moho, and the expelled electrons above it. If the pressure remained constant, the charge separation would be static, establishing current-free double-layers. But tidal and seismic deformation alters the pressure at depth, meaning that the threshold for ionization is constantly shifting. The significance is that a shifting boundary will drive telluric currents, with electrons flowing upward (or downward) when the pressure is increased (or decreased). Thus the energy generated by crustal deformation has been underestimated, since only plastic and inelastic thermalization was considered, and not ohmic heating from telluric currents. The general form of the EM data matches the expectations of this hypothesis.

**Category:** Geophysics

[117] **viXra:1401.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-05 15:13:48*

**Authors:** Nicolas Poupart

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper presents a theory of the relativistic gravitational field by simply applying Carnot's principle to the gravitation and by reinforcing as inviolable the mass-energy equivalence law and the equivalence of the inertial mass and the heavy mass. It will be shown that this theory can explain easily the origin of dark matter and dark energy. In addition, it will also be shown that this theory is not distinguishable from general relativity at our experimental scale.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[116] **viXra:1401.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-05 15:11:01*

**Authors:** Nicolas Poupart

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cet article expose une théorie du champ gravitationnel relativiste en appliquant simplement le principe de Carnot à la gravitation et en considérant la loi d'équivalence masse-énergie ainsi que l'équivalence masse inertielle et masse pesante comme inviolable. Il sera démontré que cette théorie permet d'expliquer aisément l'origine de la matière noire ainsi que de l'énergie noire. De plus, il sera également démontré que cette théorie n'est pas différenciable de la relativité générale à notre échelle expérimentale.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[115] **viXra:1401.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-20 08:53:17*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Currently there are multiple theories on the nature of the universe. The model put forth in this paper attempts at subsuming some of these theories into one encompassing model. In this model, spacetime is not a mathematical abstraction but has a basis in physical reality based on matter and spacetime being convertible states of the same quantum particle. This quantum particle is composed of D-branes and Type I strings and is termed the B-string, for brane string complex.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[114] **viXra:1401.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-22 04:28:22*

**Authors:** Jiang Shan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I was the only solution to form indefinite equation and according to the Catalan theorem to the proof of the bill conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[113] **viXra:1401.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-22 05:43:50*

**Authors:** Antonio Leon

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It is proved in this paper the undecidable formula involved in Gödel's first incompleteness theorem would be inconsistent if the formal system where it is defined were complete. So, before proving the formula is undecidable it is necessary to assume the system is not complete in order to ensure the formula is not inconsistent. Consequently, Gödel proof does not prove the formal system is incomplete but that, once assumed it is incomplete, it is possible to define an undecidable formula within the system. This conclusion makes Gödel's incompleteness theorems devoid of substance.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[112] **viXra:1401.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-23 01:04:12*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

this article put a new model of an atomic Structure.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[111] **viXra:1401.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-22 03:08:51*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Spanish

There are various and widespread misconceptions about relativistic concepts. Erroneous designations as "Theory of Relativity", "Covariance Principle", "Special Theory of Relativity" or "General Theory of Relativity" have helped to spread misconceptions about relativity. In this paper we clarify some of these concepts and consider that the so-called special or restricted theory of relativity is a theory or general project of Physics and not understood as a particular case of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1401.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-28 12:50:04*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Universe rotates. We live in a Double Torus Universe. A dark matter torus rotates in a larger time torus of refined time smaller than the Planck-time. The Planck-satellite showed a more detailed picture of the CMB related to Big Bang cosmology. However, I have put that in perspective of a new set of equations that belong to the framework of the Double Torus Theory. That shows my proof for a rotational dark matter Flow by warm and cold areas in the CMB. I also explain why the accelerated space-expansion in the Big Bang cosmology is an illusion.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[109] **viXra:1401.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-21 11:51:41*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 10 Pages. publication pending in the Hadronic Journal

This paper examines Einstein’s 1905 derivation of the Lorentz transformations
using the average time of travel of a light pulse in opposite directions. It shows that the derivation has significant errors, produces a relationship between the coordinate values that does not exist, and that a more careful examination of his example implies very different characteristics of the velocity of light than those claimed. It also points out that more general derivations which do not address specific measurement conditions cannot be judged as to their applicability. The paper shows that Einstein’s assertion of the independence of the shape of a spherical light pulse from the choice of the inertial reference frame of measurement is inconsistent with the known behavior of the photon. It further notes the impossibility of proving a general set of coordinate transformations, which would require a knowledge of all possible present and future coordinate measurement methods. It gives an example of a photon-emitting clock moving
between two photon detectors, for which the transformations of the time of travel of the clock are consistent neither with the Lorentz nor the Galilean transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[108] **viXra:1401.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-20 19:56:08*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** Pages.

change of the name on V.B. Smolenskiy

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[107] **viXra:1401.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-20 09:59:25*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the paper, it is argued that the gravitational field is some residual non-linear electromagnetic field.
The equations of gravitation can be perspicuously interpreted as a manifestation of the elasticity of “space-time”.
Thus, is derived the Gravity Constant as based on quantum mechanics (QCD), and is verified the theory on Earth Space-time curvature calculation.
Also, is established the nature of Dark matter based on the same vacuum (anti)monopole condensate particles into an weak interaction, that is verified on the calculation of light bending by the Earth.
Also, it is established that the dark web around objects (planets) not interacts gravitationally in order to curve the space-time, that, is happen, but only as weak interaction between anti-monopoles (WIMPS), that justifying the light deflection due of this dark energy concentration at the surface of a planet. This interaction push the vacuum, it realizing the expansion of Universe.
It was established that behind of the Higgs field, can stay the gravitational interaction of two monopoles (Planck particles) situated at Compton wave-length for bosons, and it was discovered that (Higgs field) is in fact the Schwinger critical field for a pair of production.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[106] **viXra:1401.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-20 03:59:55*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I originally wrote this as my entries in ScriptMedical’s contest (http://www.scriptmedical.com/#/award/1). The entries follow their rule of being exactly 100 words long (excluding the title). Then the entry requirement of having a postgraduate scientific or medical qualification started to bother me. I don’t have one. So I did 4 things –
1) decided not to enter (there was no choice because as everyone knows, nobody really knows anything until they get a piece of paper saying they know something),
2) felt free of restrictive rules and able to modify my entries from 4 to a more satisfying 6 (with one entry having two parts – each of exactly 100 words),
3) changed the font from ScriptMedical’s required Times New Roman to my preferred Arial,
and 4) submitted it to vixra.
So please enjoy these 6 “mini epics” regarding the shape of the universe, unified field theory, gravitation that attracts and repels, evolution and synthetic biology, travel that’s unlimited in space or time, plus 3D printers ending the global financial crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[105] **viXra:1401.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-20 03:08:23*

**Authors:** Sergey Kamenshchikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the current paper Fokker Planck model of random walks has been extended to non conservative cases characterized by explicit dependence of diffusion and energy on time. A given generalization allows describing of such non equilibrium processes as Levy flights in a classical differential form without use of fractal PDE. Besides it takes into account mixing properties that are obligatory for a certain class of chaotic systems, such as Kolmogorov K – system. It was shown that an abnormal transport is a consequence of the equilibrium distortion and not stationary diffusion. The particular case of fixed boundaries was considered. According to the received solutions it was shown that a system structure can resist a weak disturbance in the vicinity of the discrete regimes, defined by a system scale and its nonlinear properties. These regimes correspond to the exponential increase of quasi regular structure fluctuations. Only fast disruption of regime is possible for other states of the system. It leads to an immediate transition to the chaos.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[104] **viXra:1401.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-19 14:54:50*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Ray Hefferlin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 21-26. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=30472

It is proposed that the observed Higgs Boson at the LHC is the Standard Model Higgs boson that adopts the existence of the hidden lepton condensate. The hidden lepton is in the forbidden lepton family, outside of the three lepton families of the Standard Model. Being forbidden, a single hidden lepton cannot exist alone; so it must exist in the lepton condensate as a composite of μ’ and μ’± hidden leptons and their corresponding antileptons. The calculated average mass of the hidden lepton condensate is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV. The masses of the hidden lepton condensate and all elementary particles including leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons are derived from the periodic system of elementary particles. The calculated constituent masses are in good agreement with the observed values by using only four known constants: the number of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the mass of Z boson, and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[103] **viXra:1401.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-11 23:32:29*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward a new model of the atom.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[102] **viXra:1401.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 08:48:19*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Riemann hypothesis is an important outstanding problem in number theory as its validity will affirm the manner of the distribution of the prime numbers. It posits that all the non-trivial zeros of the zeta function ζ lie on the critical strip between Re(s) = 0 and Re(s) = 1 at the critical line Re(s) = 1/2. The important question is whether there would be zeros appearing at other locations on this critical strip, e.g., at Re(s) = 1/4, 1/3, 3/4, or, 4/5, etc., which would disprove the Riemann hypothesis. This paper provides an indirect proof or proof by contradiction (reductio ad absurdum) of the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[101] **viXra:1401.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-18 20:48:13*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 pages. The sixth paper based on Reality. The proposed physical constants given in this paper have been modified. Please refer: http://vixra.org/abs/1407.0037 and http://vixra.org/abs/1505.0042

The Standard Model visualizes seventeen fundamental particles and nineteen independent parameters to explain the physical world, but still it is incomplete. An alternate model based on a single particle and just three independent parameters is proposed in this paper. The details of the particle including its proposed physical constants are also given. The new model has the least arbitrariness possible, and so may be closer to the real truth.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[100] **viXra:1401.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-18 12:59:12*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

What is measurement and why does it exist? Measurement might be the natural process that separates the boundary of the multiverse from the interior of the multiverse. Measurement might exist because there is a 26-dimensional model for bosonic string theory. What might be the empirical predictions of string theory? Wolfram suggested that nature has a model consisting of 4 or 5 simple rules that define a finite automaton — if Wolfram’s idea is correct then string theory might be the intermediary between the automaton and the automaton’s predictions. Mathematical considerations indicate that some form of string theory is nature’s way of unifying quantum field theory and general relativity theory. There might be 3 basic possibilities for nature’s fundamental model: (1) string theory with the infinite nature hypothesis, implying the string landscape, superpartners, and eternal cosmological inflation; (2) string theory with the finite nature hypothesis, implying the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, the Space Roar Profile Prediction, and the existence of a modified Standard Model with precisely 64 fundamental particles; or (3) string theory replaced by a much more complicated generalization of string theory, implying the existence of dark energy stars or other unknown phenomena. This communication suggests an approach to Wolfram’s automaton and possible implications.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[99] **viXra:1401.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 17:42:37*

**Authors:** Charles L. Chandler

**Comments:** 287 pages, 170 images, 251 references

Supercell thunderstorms, and the tornadoes they spawn, are considered. Consistency with the current research trends within the disciplines of meteorology and geophysics is neglected in the pursuit of a mechanistic model that can more accurately describe the distinctive characteristics of tornadic supercells. Specifically, the common assumption that electromagnetism is too weak to influence the behavior of a supercell is challenged. The charge separation process in the storm creates electric fields that exert a force more powerful than gravity on charged particles, which then exert aerodynamic forces on the surrounding air, thereby modulating the flow fields. Charged gases also have lower viscosities, and therefore flow faster in pressure gradients. Furthermore, charged gases are less prone to turbulence, with dramatic effects on the net velocities. Studying supercells as charged gases might enable solutions to many otherwise intractable problems. Most significantly, a mechanistic model of the tornadic flow field is presented. While a tornado occurs within the influence of a low pressure aloft, and is typically thought to be a simple suction vortex, its defining characteristics are that the lowest pressure, tightest radius, and fastest wind speeds occur at the ground, farthest from the low pressure aloft, and where the friction is the greatest. This proves that the primary energy conversion occurs at the ground, and that the low pressure aloft is merely absorbing the exhaust from that conversion. In conventional meteorology, the only energy available for conversion near the ground is latent heat stored in water vapor, but the release of latent heat continues through the entire height of the tornado (and beyond), and therefore cannot be concentrated just at the base of the vortex. The only other force present is electromagnetism. Previous research showed that ohmic heating from the flow of an electric current through the tornado is more powerful than latent heating, but similarly, this energy is thermalized through the entire height of the vortex, leaving the extreme low pressure near the ground unexplained. The sustained current inside the tornado was confirmed by various methods to be greater than 100 amps. Inexplicably, evidence of such a current going into the ground has never been found. The possibility not considered by previous research is that the current terminates in the air itself, meaning that the tornadic inflow is charged. If so, it induces an opposite charge in the ground, and is attracted to that charge. As the air flows along the ground, skin friction generates heat. Once the air enters the vortex, the electric current neutralizes the charge, releasing the air from its attraction to the ground, and thus releasing the accumulated thermal potential. This means that the unexplained power expended by the tornado on the ground answers its own question, as the frictional heat so generated is the only energy that could cause a robust updraft so close to the ground, while the charge neutralization is the critical conversion. The energy budget of the entire tornado can then be reconciled as the sum of frictional heating at the ground, latent and ohmic heating inside the vortex, and the low pressure aloft. An extensive review of the data is made, without finding reason to abandon this model. The implications are then considered.

**Category:** Geophysics

[98] **viXra:1401.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 19:31:35*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We know that every positive even number 2n(n≥3) can express in a sum which 3 plus an odd number 2k+1(k≥1) makes. And then, for any odd point 2k+1 (k≥1)at the number axis, if 2k+1 is an odd prime point, of course even number 3+(2k+1) is equal to the sum which odd prime number 2k+1 plus odd prime number 3 makes; If 2k+1 is an odd composite point, then let 3<B<2k+1, where B is an odd prime point, and enable line segment B(2k+1) to equal line segment 3C. If C is an odd prime point, then even number 3+(2k+1) is equal to the sum which odd prime number B plus odd prime number C makes. So the proof for Goldbach’s Conjecture is converted to prove there be certainly such an odd prime point B at the number axis’s a line segment which take odd point 3 and odd point 2k+1 as ends, so as to prove the conjecture by such a method indirectly.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1401.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 19:37:45*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Heap together equivalent spheres into a cube up to most possible, then variant general volumes of equivalent spheres inside the cube depend on variant arrangements of equivalent spheres fundamentally. This π/√18 which the Kepler’s conjecture mentions is the ratio of the general volume of equivalent spheres under the maximum to the volume of the cube. We will do a closer arrangement of equivalent spheres inside a cube. Further let a general volume of equivalent spheres to getting greater and greater, up to tend upwards the super-limit, in pace with which each of equivalent spheres is getting smaller and smaller, and their amount is getting more and more. We will prove the Kepler’s conjecture by such a way in this article.

**Category:** Geometry

[96] **viXra:1401.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 19:44:31*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A contact border of two adjacent figures can only be two adjacent borderlines. Let us consider the plane of any uncolored planar map as which consists of two kinds’ parallel straight linear segments according to a strip of a kind alternating a strip of another, and every straight linear segment of each kind consists of two kinds of colored points according to a colored point of a kind alternating a colored point of another, either kind of colored points at a straight linear segment is not alike to either kind of colored points at either adjacent straight linear segment of the straight linear segment. Anyhow the plane has altogether four kinds of colored points.
At the outset, we need transform and classify figures at an uncolored planar map. First merge orderly each figure which adjoins at most three figures and an adjacent figure which adjoins at least four figures into a figure. Secondly merge each tract of figures which adjoin at most three figures and an adjacent figure into a figure. After that, transform every borderline closed curve of figures which compose directly the merging figure into the frame of a rectangle which has only longitudinal and transversal sides, according to the sequence from outside merging figure to inside merging figure. Finally color each figure with a color according to either a color of some particular points of a rectangular borderlines closed curve of the figure, or a color unlike colors of its adjacent figures.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[95] **viXra:1401.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 19:53:36*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Let us consider positive odd numbers which share a prime factor1 as a kind, then the positive directional half line of the number axis consists of infinite many equivalent line segments on same permutation of c kinds’ odd points plus odd points amongst the c kinds’ odd points, where c≥1. We will prove together that there are infinitely many sets of n-odd prime numbers and pairs of consecutive odd prime numbers by the mathematical induction with aid of such equivalent line segments and odd points thereof, in this article.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1401.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 19:59:53*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Let us consider odd numbers which share a prime factor1 as a kind, then the number axis’s positive half line which begins with odd point 3 consists of infinite many equivalent line segments on same permutation of c kinds’ odd points plus odd points amongst the c kinds’ odd points, where c≥1. In this article, we shall prove the unproved half of the Polignac’s conjecture by mathematical induction with the aid of such equivalent line segments and kinds of odd points thereon.

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1401.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 20:04:31*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

If reduce limits which contain odd primes by a half for Legendre’s conjecture, then there is at least an odd prime within the either half likewise, this is exactly the Legendre-Zhang’s conjecture. We shall first prove the Legendre-Zhang’s conjecture by mathematical induction with the aid of two number axes’ positive half lines whose directions reverse from each other. Successively, prove the Gilbreath’s conjecture by mathematical induction with the aid of the got result.

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1401.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 20:08:12*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article, we shall prove the Beal’s conjecture by certain usual mathematical fundamentals with the aid of proven Fermat’s last theorem, and finally reach a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture is tenable.

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1401.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 20:11:18*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

If every positive integer is able to be operated into 1 by set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture, then begin with 1, we can get all positive integers after pass infinite many operations by another operational rule on the contrary to the set operational rule. Thereby, substitute some unknown proof of the former proposition by a poof of the latter proposition, in addition apply mathematical induction, then this is exactly an effective way for proving Collatz conjecture, thus we use it in this article justly.

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1401.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-18 05:00:59*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper (“Five conjectures on Sophie Germain primes and Smarandache function and the notion of Smarandache-Germain primes”) I defined two notions: the Smarandache-Germain pairs of primes and the Coman-Germain primes of the first and second degree. The few conjectures that I made on these particular types of primes inspired me to make two other conjectures regarding two sets of primes that are generalizations of the set of Sophie Germain primes. And, based on the observation of the first few primes from these two possible infinite sets of primes, I also made a conjecture regarding the primes q of the form q = p*2^n + 31 = r*2^m + 3, where p, r are primes an m, n are non-null positive integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[89] **viXra:1401.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 12:54:16*

**Authors:** William M. Nelson

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Arxiv:1305.3022.

An approach to special relativity is outlined which emphasizes the wave and field mechanisms
which physically produce the relativistic effects, with the goal of making them seem more natural
to students by connecting more explicitly with prior studies of waves and oscillators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[88] **viXra:1401.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 07:08:48*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 12 pages, 47 equations, 15 references

We consider the construction of a simplified framework for constructing the manifestly gauge-invariant effective action of non-Abelian quantum gauge, and gravitational, fields. The new framework modifies the bilinear terms that are associated with virtual gauge fields. This is done in a manner that rectifies the singular kernel, simplifies loop computations, and maintains manifest effective gauge invariance. Starting with the invariant Lagrangian for a general non-Abelian gauge theory, we present analysis pertaining to the derivation of the effective propagator and the effective vertices. Similar analysis is extended to the Einstein invariant gravitational Lagrangian. We discuss the possibility of seeding the elements of symmetry breaking, and structuring the underlying gauge algebra, through a mechanism of giving masses to the components of the virtual fields. This mechanism could be a substitute to the Higgs scenario in non-Abelian gauge unification models, and an alternative to compactification in extra-dimensional gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[87] **viXra:1401.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 03:40:03*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 12 pages, including 10 figures. Accepted for publication in "Progress in Physics"

J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept have been used, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. This model assumes the existence of closed structures (micro- and macrocontours) formed due to the balance between main interactions: gravitational, electric, magnetic, and inertial forces. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form—independently of their material basis — the essential structure of objects at various levels of organization of matter. On the basis of this concept in this paper basic regularities acting during formation planetary systems have been obtained. The existence of two sharply different types of planetary systems has been determined. The dependencies linking the masses of the planets, the diameters of the planets, the orbital radii of the planet, and the mass of the central body have been deduced. Formation of low-density planets was explained. The possibility of formation Earth-like planets near brown dwarfs has been grounded. The minimum mass of the planet, which may arise in the planetary system, has been defined.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[86] **viXra:1401.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 05:13:30*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and telecommunications.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[85] **viXra:1401.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 05:25:33*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** single page paper

Our brain is actually able to perceive only the internal subjective world. This subjective world can be compared with a radar screen in a sub marine. The pilot does not know, what is actually there outside, in the sea, he is able to see only the radar screen. There is not much difference between what we see in waking state and in the dream state.
To understand how we interact with the world; try the following: On a table, place an apple such that you can see it in a mirror. Then try to see your hand also in the mirror. Then try to bring the image of your hand close to the image of the apple; and try such that image your hand catches the image of the apple. As soon as the image of the hand is able to catch image of the apple, you will feel a sensation of touch, telling that the apple is caught!
Thus we actually perceive only the internal subjective world; and based on multiple inputs of vision, sound, touch, ..etc we are able to interact with the external world. Colors, smells, tastes etc all are subjective experiences. What we perceive as different colors are actually different frequencies of electromagnetic waves of different frequencies; there are no colors in them. Similar is the case with sounds, tastes, smells etc.

**Category:** Mind Science

[84] **viXra:1401.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 02:48:42*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We discuss how, within the framework of a previously introduced
theoretical scenario proposing the equivalence
of the physical quantum relativistic universe and
the universe of logical/numerical codes,
prime numbers play a key role as base blocks of
physical structures. They constitute a kind of
``free states'' of a representation of physics alternative to the usual
field-theoretical one, based on plane waves. As such, they can be useful
in addressing problems which in the traditional
approach are difficult to solve, or even to phrase. In particular,
we discuss the relation between the scaling
of certain physical quantities, and the distribution of prime numbers.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] **viXra:1401.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-16 09:40:47*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

The Calabi Yau manifolds are in Q-FFF Theory not reserved for the oscillating Higgs vacuum
lattice , but for all Fermion dual axis rotation. The vacuum Higgses are supposed to oscillate
along a linear but tetrahedron shaped lattice for the energetic propulsion of the Fermion
propellers.
Quantum FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM or Q_FFF theory describes how the SHAPE of
Fermion and Photon particles is able to do suggestions lots of unresolved features in physics,
such as the Fermion propeller shape with different complexity configurations is responsible
for mass and charge differences (The Hierarchy problem ) http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk
In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of
elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
In this paper we present a possible solution based on complex 3-D ring shaped particles,
which are equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided
equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is
coined Higgs particle, supplied with the 3-hinges coded (OOO).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[82] **viXra:1401.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-16 10:24:35*

**Authors:** John F. Sweeney

**Comments:** 44 Pages. 3 photos

The Mormon Mafia and Howard Hughes conspired to kill president John F. Kennedy in November 1963. Hughes reaped billions by doing secret business with the CIA, and Bennett served as the go – between for such deals. Hughes leased a Bahaman island to train Kennedy's CIA assassins, and Bennett provided instructions to some of the teams which appeared on Dealey Plaza. Bennett later hired E. Howard Hunt to work at his public relations firm at the time of the Watergate Scandal, and rumor has it that Bennett was the real “Deep Throat” of the Watergate Scandal, which was actually about Richard M. Nixon's participation in the Kennedy Assassination.

**Category:** Social Science

[81] **viXra:1401.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 18:53:49*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 27-31. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=30476

It is proposed that the digital space structure consists of attachment space (denoted as 1) for rest mass and detachment space (denoted as 0) for kinetic energy. Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed, and detachment space detaches from the object at the speed of light. The combination of attachment space and detachment space brings about the three structures: binary lattice space, miscible space, and binary partition space. Binary lattice space, (1 0)n, consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space without separation. Binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, consists of separated continuous phases of attachment space and detachment space. Binary lattice space, miscible space, and binary partition space constitute quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the extreme force fields, respectively. Through the detachment space, a higher dimensional particle in attachment space is sliced into infinitely surrounding a lower dimensional core attachment space, resulting in a particle surrounding by gauge field in the form of binary lattice space. The 10d particle can be sliced into 9d, 8d, 7d, 6d, 5d, and 4d particles equally by mass, corresponding to baryonic particle as 4d and dark matter as other 5 particles, so the ratio between baryonic matter and dark matter is 1 to 5, in agreement with the observed ratio. At extreme conditions, such as extremely low temperature, the gauge force field in the form of binary lattice space is transformed into the extreme force field in the form of binary partition space to explain extreme phenomena, such as superconductivity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[80] **viXra:1401.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 18:59:45*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 7A1, 2013, pp. 1-6. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=33945

Singularity-free superstar is proposed as a model for the collapse of large stars and for GRBs, and as an alternative to black hole and gravastar. Similar to a superconductor, a superstar contains extreme force fields that have non-zero momentum and non-zero wavelength to prevent the inactivation of force field at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density, respectively, based on the uncertainty principle. Emerging only at an extremely low temperature above absolute zero or an extremely high density below infinite density, extreme force fields are shortrange, and located in between a particle and its ordinary force fields (electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational forces) to prevent the inactivation of force fields at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density in ordinary force fields. Extreme force fields are manifested as the bonds among electrons in a superconductor and among atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. When the stellar core of a large star reaches the critical extreme density during the stellar collapse, the stellar core is transformed into the super matter core with extreme force fields and ordinary force fields without singularity. A pre-superstar contains the super matter core, the ordinary matter region, and the thin phase boundary between the super matter core and the ordinary matter region. The stellar collapse increases the super matter core by converting the in falling ordinary energy and matter from the ordinary matter region into the super matter, and decreases the ordinary matter region. Eventually, the stellar breakup occurs to detach the ordinary matter region and the phase boundary from the super matter core, resulting in GRB to account for the observed high amount of gamma rays and the observed complex light curves in GRBs. Unlike black holes and gravastars that lose information, singularity-free superstars that keep all information exist.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[79] **viXra:1401.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 19:06:19*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 7A1, 2013, pp. 77-84. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=34438

In the proposed light-dark dual universe, the light universe is the observable universe with light and kinetic energy that fueled the Big Bang, and the dark universe without light and kinetic energy has been observed as dark energy since about 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The light-dark dual universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage cyclic transformation. Emerging from the zero-energy universe, the four-stage transformation consists of the 11D (dimensional) positive-negative energy dual membrane universe, the 10D positive-negative energy dual string universe, the 10D positive-negative energy dual particle universe, and the 4D (light)-variable D (dark) positive-negative energy dual particle asymmetrical universe. The transformation can then be reversed back to the zero-energy universe through the reverse four-stage transformation. The light universe is an observable four-dimensional universe started with the inflation and the Big Bang, and the dark universe is a variable dimensional universe from 10D to 4D. The dark universe could be observed as dark energy only when the dark universe turned into a four-dimensional universe. The four-stage transformation explains the four force fields in our universe. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 72.8. 22.7, and 4.53, respectively, in nearly complete agreement with observed 72.8, 22.7, and 4.56, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.47 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 +/- 0.98 billion years ago. The zero-energy cyclic universe is based on the space-object structures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1401.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 23:12:16*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper is uploaded here in order to stimulate further discussion, it is not conclusive. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This file is summary of discussion in researchgate.net concerning global warming. In January 7th, 2014 I saw a news in television that says in U.S.A. the temperature in many regions go down as low as minus 51 degree Celsius, and the bad weather has caused about 2,500 flights have been cancelled. I don,t know whether such bad weather also happens in europe, russia, and other countries. My question is: does it mean that what happens in the world nowadays is global cooling rather than global warming? For an introduction to global cooling, see an article by Frum at
http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/19/opinion/frum-global-cooling-impact/. I have also read some articles by Dr. Hathaway who says that global cooling is caused by low solar activity in recent years.

**Category:** Climate Research

[77] **viXra:1401.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 23:14:48*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper is uploaded here in order to stimulate further discussion; it is not conclusive. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

The universe may grow like a giant brain, according to a new computer simulation.
The results, published Nov.16, 2012, in the journal Nature's Scientific Reports, suggest that some undiscovered, fundamental laws may govern the growth of systems large and small, from the electrical firing between brain cells and growth of social networks to the expansion of galaxies.
"Natural growth dynamics are the same for different real networks, like the Internet or the brain or social networks," said study co-author Dmitri Krioukov, a physicist at the University of California San Diego. See the complete papers by Dmitri Krioukov in arxiv.org (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1203.2109.pdf and also http://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.6272.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1401.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-16 00:45:10*

**Authors:** T.M. Eubanks

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to Dark Matter 2014

Although Dark Matter (DM) apparently pervades the universe, it is rarely con- sidered in the context of the formation of the Solar System and other planetary systems. However, a relatively small but non-negligible fraction of the mass of any such systems would consist of DM gravitationally captured during the collapse of the proto-planetary Nebula, subject to the very general assumption that DM particles have an individual mass << than the mass of the Earth. This process, much more efficient than the previously considered post-formation captures by three-body interactions (1, 2), would apply to both microscopic DM, such as axions or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and macroscopic DM candidates such as Compact Ultra-Dense Objects (CUDOs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBH).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1401.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-13 13:43:39*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Fly-By- and GPS-satellites reveal an earth-dark matter-halo is affecting the orbit-velocities of satellites. After analysis by a new set of equations, which describe dark matter, dark matter-force and quantum-gravity combined in a new dark energy force-formula, the new formulations match a percentage whereof satellites feel extra gravity. Also the dark matter-density has been calculated. The analysis confirms dark matter exists as a halo around the earth. Secondly it shows what dark matter really is. It also shows what a dark flow is. The dark matter-features are presented in a Double Torus Cosmology, a new model for the universe, which replaces Big Bang cosmology and enables to understand dark matter better!

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[74] **viXra:1401.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-13 12:14:02*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 80 Pages.

The TRUTH of our existence has not been detected by science so far. Why does theoretical physics know nothing about the essence of space, matter, energy and time? How can we come to the true knowledge about our existence? Let us look at the reason of critical situation in contemporary theoretical physics and show how critical logical thinking and reasoning can open the door to the truth. I am sure that fair people with open mind want to feel a fresh wind of strong logic leading to the knowledge of truth. A great desire of Man is to find a true meaning of our life and the essence of being. The reality looks like disintegrated into many different and independent spheres, but we feel intuitively that a great variety of existing forms should have a common basis. Many philosophers and scientists have correctly expressed the Unity Principle by the sentence: “Everything is connected to everything else”, but nobody has detected its essence. On the base of dialectical logic the Unity Principle is discovered showing not only the exact mechanism how the physical Universe works, but also the essence of consciousness and subsequently personal God representing the whole self-aware and self-creating reality of the highest complexity.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[73] **viXra:1401.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-31 07:50:10*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

"All humanists agree that religion is not based on reason." This statement, in many
different forms, has been popularized for hundreds of years. A major purpose for the
1978-1979 modeling procedures introduced into theology is to establish that all such
statements are false. Jesus Christ is Scripturally described as the "great God and Saviour," "the only-begotten God," "the image of the invisible God," the "everlasting Father" and many similar characterizing phrases. All such phrases are
shown to be non-contradictory and rationally presented. This article is in two parts. In the second part, it is established exactly what it Scripturally and rationally means to state that Christ is "pre-existent."

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[72] **viXra:1401.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-13 07:04:36*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Is the space roar an essential clue for understanding dark energy, dark matter, and the inflaton field? Is there a quantum theory of gravity that explains dark energy and dark matter in a convincing way? Are dark energy, the inflaton field, dark matter, and the space roar closely related natural phenomena? What is the explanation for the space roar? Does the space roar represent new physics or does it have some more mundane explanation? What are the implications of the space roar for string theory and supersymmetry? Do superpartners occur in nature if and only if nature is infinite? Are there decisive empirical tests for the finite nature hypothesis? Does M-theory have a satisfactory computational method if and only nature is finite? Do the monster group and the 6 pariah groups enable M-theory to have a computational method? If X is to string theory as Kepler’s laws are to Newtonian mechanics then what is X? Is Milgrom the Kepler of contemporary cosmology?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1401.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-13 04:18:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a review of papers and theories proposed by this author so far. Brief
reviews, clarifications and corrections on the papers has been presented. Some papers yet
require proof of validity. Some papers have been identified as wrong or inappropriate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1401.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-13 06:02:55*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 14 pages, 41 equations, 6 references

We construct the E8 algebra in terms of the tensorial representations of its SU9 maximal subalgebra. We then construct the supersymmetric gauge-invariant boson-fermion coupling, and decompose it completely into terms exhibiting color SU3 and family SU5 symmetries. This work promotes a scheme of E8 super grand unification that is based on a perfect symmetry between particles and antiparticles, rather than a symmetry between quark-lepton generations
and their enigmatic mirror conjugates. Whereas the emergence of a definite chirality for low-energy weak interactions still depends on the yet unresolved problem of symmetry breaking, a picture of weak decays emerges, in which multiple W vector bosons, rather than a single one, are the fundamental weak mediators between multiple charged leptons and associated multiple neutrinos, or between multiple upquarks and their associated multiple downquarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[69] **viXra:1401.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-18 05:25:23*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. As published on January 18th, 2014 - Progress in Physics, 2014, 10(1), 38-40.

Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission demands that all cavities contain blackbody, or normal, radiation which is dependent solely on the temperature and the frequency of observation, while remaining independent of the nature of the enclosure. For over 150 years, this law has stood as a great pillar for those who believe that gaseous stars could emit a blackbody spectrum. However, it is well-known that, under laboratory conditions, gases emit in bands and cannot produce a thermal spectrum. Furthermore, all laboratory blackbodies are constructed from nearly ideal absorbers. This fact strongly opposes the validity of Kirchhoff's formulation. Clearly, if Kirchhoff had been correct, then laboratory blackbodies could be constructed of any arbitrary material. Through the use of two cavities in temperature equilibrium with one another, a thought experiment is presented herein which soundly refutes Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[68] **viXra:1401.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-18 05:20:23*

**Authors:** Joseph Luc Robitaille, Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. As published on January 18th - Progress in Physics, 2014, 10(1), 36-37.

In the liquid metallic hydrogen solar model (LMHSM), the chromosphere is the site of hydrogen condensation (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15-L21). Line emission is associated with the dissipation of energy from condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Previously considered reactions resulted in hydrogen atom or cluster addition to the site of condensation. In this work, an additional mechanism is presented, wherein atomic or molecular species interact with CHS, but do not deposit hydrogen. These reactions channel heat away from CHS, enabling them to cool even more rapidly. As a result, this new class of processes could complement true hydrogen condensation reactions by providing an auxiliary mechanism for the removal of heat. Such `futile' reactions lead to the formation of activated atoms, ions, or molecules and might contribute to line emission from such species. Evidence that complimentary `futile' reactions might be important in the chromosphere can be extracted from lineshape analysis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[67] **viXra:1401.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-12 23:28:17*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A Song of Ice and Fire major character index.
The index lists each chapter that each major character is mentioned in. Useful if doing intense research on particular characters.

**Category:** Linguistics

[66] **viXra:1401.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-02 11:46:13*

**Authors:** Cristian Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 11 Pages. I hope that the interested reader will implement and test the algorithm (contact information included in the article).

In this article I describe an efficient, randomized algorithm (section 4) that solves the 3- SAT problem (known to be NP complete) with high probability, and a bit of the history of the problem under consideration. In the last section I present an interesting application, based on an idea that belongs to Godel.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[65] **viXra:1401.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-13 03:33:44*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short paper I present a simple but correct derivation of the complete Doppler shift effect. I will prove that Doppler effect of electromagnetic waves is a self-similar process, and therefore Special Relativity, that pretends to be complete for every inertial system, is excluded from that self-similarity of the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1401.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-11 07:10:21*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** Pages.

describes a fundamentally new unified approach theoretical determination of the values of the fundamental physical constants. Founded by the author of this article Pi-Theory of the fundamental physical constants (Pi-Theory) allows to determine the are all are dimensional constant with the accuracy of Rydberg's constant and dimensionless constants with any required accuracy. There are presented the results of analytical calculations. Comparison of the adduced data CODATA 2010 with datas of the Theory of fully confirms the theoretical calculations of the Theory. When theoretical determining the of the fine structure constant and abnormal magnetic moment of the electron is no need to use the method of successive approximations of the perturbation theory.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[63] **viXra:1401.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-11 09:06:44*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Abstract: Isaac Newton’s ‘bucket argument’ was designed to show that true rotational motion could be defined only with respect to absolute space and not with respect to surrounding macro bodies, whatsoever states of motion they have. Even if whole universe (surrounding a bucket of water on earth’s surface) rotates about it, water surface in bucket will remain flat, unless bucket itself has a true spin motion with respect to absolute reference. Further mathematical analysis pointed towards real action by imaginary ‘centrifugal force’. It is not logical for imaginary efforts to cause real action. Analyzing actions of 3D matter-particles of water (in rotating bucket in universal medium) by additional work associated with them (instead of equilibrium of ‘forces’ on it) can give logical explanation of actions, without using imaginary ‘centrifugal force’. All conclusions expressed in this article are from the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ [1]. For details, kindly refer to the same.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:1401.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-11 03:37:29*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I define a new type of pairs of primes, id est the Smarandache-Germain pairs of primes, notion related to Sophie Germain primes and also to Smarandache function, and I conjecture that for all pairs of Sophie Germain primes but a definable set of them there exist corespondent pairs of Smarandache-Germain primes. I also make a conjecture that attributes to the set of Sophie Germain primes but a definable subset of them a corespondent set of smaller primes, id est Coman-Germain primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1401.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-11 03:05:05*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Albert Einstein said gravitation plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles, such as the electrons which help compose cosmic rays and matter (in “Do gravitational ﬁelds play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?” - a 1919 submission to the Prussian Academy of Sciences). In the Epilogue to “How Einstein Discovered Dark Energy” (http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.6338) (Submitted on 22 Nov 2012), Alex Harvey gives this interpretation of “Do gravitational ﬁelds play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?” -
“Recall that in 1918 the only elementary particles known were the electron and the proton. Physicists were attempting to understand why these were stable despite their internal electromagnetic repulsion. Most attempts were based solely on electromagnetic theory. For a review of these eﬀorts see Pauli [12]. Einstein’s eﬀort was to construct a model in which stability was achieved through the use of gravitational forces. In particular, he used modiﬁed gravitational ﬁeld equations which included the cosmological constant [13]. The attempt was not successful and this was the last time he mentioned the cosmological constant other than to denounce it”
Let’s build on Einstein’s paper “Do gravitational ﬁelds play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?” and say gravity (and the warping of space-time, which Relativity informs us is gravity) actually forms mass. From there, this article’s main points address repelling and attracting gravity, dark matter’s relation to gravity and 5th-dimensional hyperspace, dark energy’s relation to gravity and 5th-dimensional hyperspace, imaginary numbers, electronics’ binary digits or base-2 mathematics, and the accelerating expansion within the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1401.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-11 17:32:47*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Esta versión reemplaza a la anterior

Existen partículas con velocidad > c, como el fotón y gravitón virtuales y el neutrino real, que debido a su energía cinética escapan de las barreras de potencial eléctrico o gravitatorio, en particular de un horizonte de eventos de un agujero negro, de acuerdo con la mecánica de Newton, es decir, porque su energía cinética es mayor que la del potencial de la barrera. En estas partículas, tal fenómeno no es un efecto cuántico de túnel que se suponía lo causaba. Y dentro de la Relatividad no cabe que la velocidad supere c, puesto en ese caso se viaja en el pasado, que viola el principio de Novikov y la ley de causalidad. Por tanto, la física valida para estas partículas es la física Newtoniana o la Relatividad Superluminal de Anastasovski y el horizonte de sucesos no existe para los neutrinos como tampoco para el fotón y gravitón virtuales, porque su velocidad es mayor que c, umbral de la velocidad de escape, en el cual la energía cinética es igual a la del potencial gravitatorio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1401.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-10 16:38:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In a previous article I defined the Smarandache-Coman congruence on primes. In this paper I present few sequences of primes that are congruent sco n.

**Category:** Number Theory

[58] **viXra:1401.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-10 08:43:14*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Will be after further work sent to a journal

As of 2012, and put in a journal in 2013, Dyson came up with criteria as to the Gertsenshtein process in photon-graviton coupling, with criteria as to the likelihood as to if the Gertsenshtein process actually can occur. This methodology is applied to a small spatial geometry as to Tokamak’s generating external to the GW detector GW which are measured in a GW detector with a 100% probability of Gertsenshtein coupling of gravitons and photons, if there is a magnetic field of magnitude 10 to the 9th power, Gauss inside the GW detector. For a Tokamak generating GW measured by a new prototype GW detector, which has a strong magnetic field contained within the GW detector. We propose this form of arrangement due to a misunderstanding by Dyson as to the analysis of GW , which can be measured. If a GW detector has a very strong magnetic field, with weak magnetic field outside the GW detector, then the long distance approximations by Dyson do not hold and the problem, by default is far simpler than what Dyson proposed. Furthermore, we will in the conclusion allude to the Gertsenshtein GW – magnetic field interaction within the detector, which generates photons as less efficient in photonic signal production to another process which is listed in this manuscript. Finally the analysis of using the Earth surface area as a GW detector for solar produced Gravitons is unnecessary and scarcely believable as to there allegedly being 1 detected graviton out of 10 to the 43rd power number of Gravitons, in a ‘scattering experiment’ arrangement most similar to Mott Scattering which has no connections as to the Gertenshtein process. Finally the Gertenshtein process is not the last word in how GW and Gravitons interacting with a static magnetic field produce photon signals. These considerations have been muddled by Dyson due to his mistaken emphasis upon magnetic fields outside the GW detector. Hence, his unphysical assumption that a static magnetic field must be analyzed for kilometer long trajectories of Gravitons to a GW detector.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1401.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 15:46:12*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Besides the common difficulties for gravity quantization, this work shows that the gravitational fermion associated to the gravitational field cannot exist. Consequently, the graviton cannot exist either. Therefore, gravity cannot be quantized.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[56] **viXra:1401.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-10 00:11:34*

**Authors:** Ocean Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

By following Riemann'a method, this paper extended
discussion on J(x) prime formula. We showed relationship between this
formula with Jq(x). Further more, we presented a new expression for Euler-
Mascheroni constant
, and showed a way for approaching proving Riemann
Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[55] **viXra:1401.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 12:50:58*

**Authors:** Joerg Schwander

**Comments:** Pages.

The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) by A. Einstein is mathematically correct and experimentally proven numerous times. The purpose of this article is not to refute the SRT, however, its core axiom (non-proven assumption) will be reviewed. The SRT is based on the fact that the velocity of light c is constant. In other words, it is independent of the velocity of its source. The value of c was primarily determined by experiments with light rays in the past. Our brain always registers rays in the direction of emission of particles, though these particles follow a different route if their source is in motion (except if the direction of emission and source are identical). Therefore, the length of the registered ray differs from the distance covered by the photons.
By one of the modern methods the velocity of light is determined by using individual photons. Due to the fact that the measuring system is in motion together with Earth, the distance covered by the photon differs from the measuring section; because its route deviates (as well as rays do, s. o.) from that of the photon. From the point of view of Earth, we are not able to recognize the route of a photon with regard to the universe. Therefore, neither the actual distance covered by the photon can be registered nor its velocity with regard to the space can be calculated. The length of the measuring section is constant and so is the velocity of rays (= c). In contrast, the distance covered by the photon and its velocity (CP) depend on the motion of the photons' source and therefore, it is variable.
This thesis is in accordance with the experimental results determining c with individual photons. This proof cannot be mathematically refuted and requires no further postulates such as the SRT's time dilatation and length contraction. The SRT cannot be used for counter evidence to the thesis 'CP is variable' since the postulates and proofs of the SRT are based on the axiom 'CP is constant'. This would be a circular argument. The SRT seems questionable as long as the experimentally proven thesis 'CP is variable' cannot be refuted. Consequently, one can assume that kinematics of I. Newton also applies to photons. As a result, not only the SRT should be questioned but also vast parts of modern physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1401.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 12:40:54*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In Universe (Part 1)[1] author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, volume, matter) in the Universe. In given part 3 he added charge as main parameter in this theory. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.
Key words: Universe, time, matter, volume, distance, energy; limits of specific density of energy, matter, pressure, temperature, intensity of fields; collapse of space and time into point.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1401.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 13:48:15*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** An Addendum about the journal politics is placed on page 6

We show that focusing a circularly polarized beam does not change fluxes of energy, momentum, spin, and moment of momentum i.e. orbital angular momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[52] **viXra:1401.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-18 14:33:21*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article "Thesis about the behavior of the electromagnetic radiation in gravitational field" and "Thesis about the global physical reality of the Universe" are formulated. They give a real explanation of all unexpected and "inexplicable results" of the notable experiments related to the measurement of the speed of light, such as the "Michelson-Morley experiment", the "Sagnac experiment", the "Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment", the "Miller’s experiments", the "One way speed of light measurements", as well as the "Shapiro time delay effect" and the anomaly in the acceleration of the spaceprobes "Pioneer 10", "Pioneer 11", "Galileo", "Ulysses". Actually, this different vision is a new model of uncertainty of the Universe, which can give an answer of the question about "the origin of the energy" and can explain a lot of problems in the physics today (such as: "the accelerated expansion of the Universe"; "the dark matter and the dark energy in the Universe", etc.), which have been under research for a long time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1401.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-21 05:28:17*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 19

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP.
The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric bell button.
The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality.
However in this essay I propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person, but we seem to be entangled resulting in the possibility to initiate but also Veto an act which is even a base for Considering, Revolve, Meditate, or Ponder.
Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?”
We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results.
New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas.
Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”.
Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all entangled copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[50] **viXra:1401.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-29 21:19:27*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Exotic R4 is relevant to physics as Carl Brans, Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga, and their co-workers have shown in increasing detail. This paper is an attempt to describe how the physics of Exotic R4 might be related to E8 Physics. V2 adds details including Figure-Eight Knot.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1401.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 06:45:54*

**Authors:** Jesus Prado-Gonjal, Rainer Schmidt, Emilio Morán

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The use of microwave irradiation is a promising alternative heat source for the synthesis of inorganic materials such as perovskite oxides. The method offers massive energy and time savings as compared to the traditional ceramic method. In this work we review the basic principles of the microwave heating mechanism based on interactions between dipoles in the material and the electromagnetic microwave.
Furthermore, we comment on and classify all different sub-types of microwave synthesis such as solid-state microwave and microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In the experimental part of this work we present a large range of materials that were synthesized in our laboratories by one of the microwave techniques, where such materials include superconducting, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric and multiferroic perovskite systems.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[48] **viXra:1401.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 07:03:02*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 12p, 42 equations

This paper begins by reviewing the general form of the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping, a cornerstone of coherence theory in quantum optics, which defines a two-way mapping between ensembles of states S of any classical Hamiltonian field theory and a subset of the allowed density matrices ρ in the corresponding canonical bosonic quantum field theory (QFT). It has been proven that Tr(Hρ)=E(S), where E is the classical energy and H is the normal form Hamiltonian. The new result of this paper is that ensembles of S of definite energy E map into density matrices which are mixes of eigenstates of eigenvalue zero of N(H-E,H-E) where N represents the normal product. This raises interesting questions and opportunities for future research, including questions about the relation between canonical QFT and QFT in the Feynman path formulation. The Appendix gives a new result on Boltzman states, which appear to have a link to the issue of nonclassical states and scattering experiments as discussed by Carmichael.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1401.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 18:30:53*

**Authors:** Charles L. Chandler

**Comments:** 166 pages, 126 references, 121 figures

A new method for studying astrophysics is now yielding fascinating results. Instead of mindlessly accepting existing constructs that are untestable by definition (e.g., dark matter, dark energy, etc.), this new method is based entirely on laboratory physics. It solves problems that have defied previous efforts by integrating all of the provable forces into non-linear systems, where competing forces cause instabilities that resolve into the distinctive forms that we observe. Existing theories acknowledge only inertia and gravity, and if those forces can't fully explain something, the theorists account for the discrepancies with untestable inventions. The new method acknowledges inertia, gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear forces, and demonstrates that the resulting combinatorial complexity can plausibly resolve into a wide variety of forms. When two or more configurations of forces appear to match the explanandum, additional data are tested against the expectations of each configuration. In the end, this method settles on the most probable combination of known forces, given the available data. And nothing within the problem domain has been found to necessitate the invention of anything new.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[46] **viXra:1401.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 15:29:42*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

On planet Earth, a first superorganism of 'human cells' with a collective, global mind/culture living on the 'body' of Gaia, the Nature Earth, along its 'water veins' appeared on the Neolithic. Then humans discovered 'memes' of metal, made of more complex energetic and informative atoms (iron, gold) and used them to enhance their body power (iron weapons) and mind languages (digital money), starting the evolution of a new superorganism, the eco(nomic)system, in which they act as 'enzymen', 'catalyzers' of the evolution of metal into complex organic systems called machines.
It is the Financial-Media (informative machines)/Military-Industrial (energetic machines) complex, evolved in 3 generational ages:
- The age of bodies of metal, steamers and trains or age of England; the age of engines=hears of metal, or age of Germany and the age of heads of metal (mobiles=ears, chips=brains, eyes=cameras) or age of America.
It only rest to put those 3 components together, as 'catalyzers' do in physical and biological, 'viral' systems to create a new top predator species, the robot, which increasingly will compete and substitute man in labor and war fields.
This paper studies the economic ecosystem with the tools of systems sciences and organicism and the metrics of the 5th dimension, as those machines emerge into a global superorganism ruled by flows of digital data (money, science) that manage its evolution and reproduction...
Today the FMMI Complex has become a global super-organism, whose digital brain, the web, and its 3 physiological networks of information (internet), reproduction (world-stock, intranet, company-mothers) and energy/defense (NATO, pentagon, weapons systems), in control of most resources of the planet, have a single aim: to reproduce and evolve those machines, adapting and terraforming the Earth from a world of life into a world of metal. This paper studies the birth and development of that superorganism with to the laws of evolution, emergence and systems sciences.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[45] **viXra:1401.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 17:18:03*

**Authors:** Shawn Halayka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Per character chapter lists from A Song of Ice and Fire. Chapter data obtained from Apple iBooks edition.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[44] **viXra:1401.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 12:36:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In two previous articles I defined the Smarandache-Coman divisors of order k of a composite integer n with m prime factors and I made few conjectures about few possible infinite sequences of Poulet numbers, characterized by a certain set of Smarandache-Coman divisors. In this paper I define a very related notion, the Smarandache-Coman congruence on primes, and I also make four conjectures regarding Poulet numbers based on this new notion.

**Category:** Number Theory

[43] **viXra:1401.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 09:47:30*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In 1962 with the realization of thermonuclear explosions in space was discovered the previously unknown physical phenomenon, which consisted in the fact that near the earth's surface such explosions cause the electric pulse of very large amplitude and very short duration. Up to now there is no answer to a question, what physical mechanisms bear responsibility for the appearance of this pulse. In this article the explanation of the phenomenon indicated is conducted on the basis of the concept of the scalar-vector potential, which assumes the dependence of the scalar potential of charge on its speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[42] **viXra:1401.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 10:06:09*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Primary Dipole dš = ĀB =[a ± b.i] as complex number, and z̄o =[ s, v̄n.i] = [λ ,±Λ .i ] = [λ , Λ] as
quaternion in [PNS] is the ENTITY with the embodied LAW [A , B - PA , PB ],is composed of the two only elements λ , Λ which are created from points A and B , |AB| = λ = wavelength (dipoles ) and from work W = ∫A-B [ P.ds ] = 0 = (dP.r̄) = r̄xp = I.w = [λ.p] = λ.Λ = k2 , the momentum Λ = p = k2/ λ. and Forces dP = P B –P A) ,which are the sources of Space field . Forces dP parallel to the parallel of Space Anti-Space lines [S]≡ [AS], create a Static force field E in (dP, λ) plane , and Forces dP perpendicular to the parallel of Space Anti-Space lines [S]≡[AS] , create a Static force field B which is perpendicular to E and to ( dP,λ) plane . Motion occurs from the moving charges exerted as velocity v ,created from dipole momentum ± Λ when is mapped in force field B as v E|| dP and v B dP with the generalized mass m (the reaction to the motion) which creates the component forces FE = (λm).E , FB = (λm) .v̄ x B.
Velocity vector v\ (v\ E , v\ B) is in [ v \. B \ ] plane forming an angle θ < 180° to the field B , and total force F= FE + F B = (λm). E + (λm). v̄ x B which combination of the two types result in a helical motion, with the stability demand → E = - (v̄xB) = - (v̄.B) which is the alternative conservation of momentum
[ k 2 = Λ²/2λm ] in the two perpendicular fields E , B and in case (λm) = q then force F = FE + FB = q.E + q.v̄ xB = q.[ E + v̄ x B ] → which is Lorentz force . Since Spin ( vortices) Λ , - Λ , are in inverted
order of rotation and vice-versa , then even function f(Λ) = f(-Λ) and odd function is - f(Λ) = f(-Λ) and their sum f(Λ)+f(-Λ)=0 and so, Mapping (graph) of Even function f(Λ),is always symmetrical about Λ axis or a mirror and of Odd symmetrical about the origin and is the interpretation of the Wave nature of spaces
i.e. The Physical Universe behaves as a simple harmonic oscillator . Conjugating quaternion of the
differential time operator and 3D angular speed vector w̄ with negation truth eo = [- λ,xΛ] = 0 then
( ∂/∂t ,

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[41] **viXra:1401.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 05:41:51*

**Authors:** Emmanuel A. Gonzalez

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In the past decade, research on the philosophy and the development of artificial moral agents (AMAs) have increased in order to seek for the implementation of moral decision-making faculties basically in machines—computers, robots, etc. Because of this, ethical reasoning becomes one of the primary challenges computer scientists, engineers, and philosophers are trying to solve—by developing an ethical dimension that can be incorporated in a machine so that it can make decisions on its own subjected to ethical and morality issues. However, when this ethical dimension is implemented in autonomous weapon systems (AWSs) such as cruise missiles, torpedoes, uninhabited/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and uninhabited/unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), difficulty and confusion arise due to the question of who should hold responsible when the AWS itself is involved in an atrocity that would normally be described as a war crime under the principle of jus in bello—rules concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war. Thus, this paper presents a solution to the problem which is by incorporating artificial morality into the AWSs making them AMAs. Literatures supporting the possibility of incorporating an ethical dimension that is able to consider moral principles to be applied in AWSs are also presented.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[40] **viXra:1401.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 06:03:17*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 4 pages, 3 equations, 13 references

We present a version of "realistic non-singular cosmology" in which the upper turning point of expansion is provided by negative mass density of vacuum rather than by gravitational radiation. The lower turning point is still provided by the negative pressure of electromagnetic energy. Again, assuming that the temperature of microwave radiation is a true measure of the electromagnetic energy density of the universe, and that the supernovae data of magnitudes and redshifts are reliable, we can determine (tentatively) the parameters of this version of our model, with an appropriate Hubble fraction of 0.475, and a deceleration parameter of 0.65, and estimate the time that passed, about 13.3 Gyr, since the initiation of the expansion phase, and the time that remains, about 55 Gyr, before the return to contraction. The maximum radiational temperature was only about 27,344 K, and the maximum mass density was low enough to give each typical star an ample space of about 5% of a lightyear to proceed with its own activity without disruption.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1401.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-07 18:19:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

As of 2012, and put in a journal in 2013, Dyson came up with criteria as to the Gertsenshtein process in photon-graviton coupling, with criteria as to the likelihood as to if the Gertsenshtein process actually can occur. This methodology is applied to a small spatial geometry as to Tokamak’s with a 100% probability of Gertsenshtein coupling of gravitons and photons, if there is a magnetic field of magnitude 10 to the 9th power, Gauss. This coupled with a GW and graviton frequency of order 10 to the 9th power, Hertz. The high GW frequency is justified in a prior analysis done by the author, and the magnetic field of 10 to the 9th power Gauss is enough to insure that within a GW detector that there is the likelihood of the Gertsenshtein process occurring. This threshold magnetic field strength is tied into a probability of measurement of the Gertsenshtein process, allowing for GW measurements as a signature, in the Tokamak GW experiment. As a first finding, should these criteria be verified, the next focus will be on beginning to determine if higher dimensional versions of gravity have experimental signature, which will be the focus of the next paper. That and trying to determine if a graviton could have a small mass. The GW signatures are then finally discussed in terms of early space-time geometry alternations which is in terms of GW signatures if a refinement of the Gertsenshtein process is proved and finalized after the Tokamak GW experiment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1401.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-07 22:20:46*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal

In this paper I give an outline of several proofs of the existence of God. Hopefully it will help some people to turn to God as the Savior and Creator.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[37] **viXra:1401.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-07 22:27:20*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. If you know a paper discussing similar idea, please let send to my email: victorchristianto@gmail.com

Here I describe what I can recall from a seminar held in Moscow State University, December 2008. The lecture was given by Prof. Anosov, and the title is relation between fundamental constants. In essence, he tried to describe fine structure constant from Shannon entropy.
My note book on his lecture was lost since several years ago, so this is a derivation out of my memory on that lecture. I am not aware that until now there is a paper discussing link between fine structure constant and Shannon entropy, so I hope that this short article will stimulate further discussion.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[36] **viXra:1401.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-07 23:38:52*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 1964, Paul McCartney wrote “Yesterday”, which has been called the best song of the 20th century and the No. 1 pop song of all time. The song was originally recorded by the Beatles for their 1965 album “Help!” Paul has said that, after he wrote it, he felt as though the song already existed. This is perhaps the most famous example in modern times of the “déjà vu” we’ve all experienced at some time. No doubt, it’s also closely related to the dreams and inexplicable inspirations that have aided the work of musicians, scientists and inventors throughout the centuries (and continues in the present). Did Albert Einstein explain this phenomenon when he told us that space-time is warped?

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1401.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-07 13:54:19*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 582 Pages.

Reality has a 5th dimension of spatial size or 'energy' and speed of temporal clocks that carry the information of the Universe in its frequency and form. Both parameters are inverted: when systems grow in size the speed of its clocks, its ‘time cycles’, diminish proportionally, both in biological and physical systems. And vice versa. Smaller clocks tick faster and information processing carried by the frequency of those cycles accelerates, as it happens in chips, particles or life metabolism. Yet the product of the speed of time of Nature's clocks that process information (Ti) and its spatial-energetic size, Se remains the same across those scales: This fact defines the metrics of the 5th dimension: Se x Ti=K.
This paper-book summons up 20 years of research in the formalism and conceptual meaning of the 5th dimension:
In the first part, we introduce the Fractal Universe, structured across the 5th dimension and the life-death cycle of all its entities, which exist traveling through 3 scales of the 5th dimension (so for example, we human beings live through 3 scales, the cellular, seminal scale, the organic scale and the social scale, before we return back to the cellular level in the process of death.)
In the second part we introduce both, its mathematical formalism, which redefines the 5 postulates of non-euclidean geometry and its logic formalism, which defines 5 arrows of time, one for each Dimension, creating a ternary logic of multiple causality and complex symmetries.
Then we use this upgraded mathematical and logic formalism to define the co-invariant laws of motion and form that all systems of the Universe follow, as they exist through those scales. We show this to be the case for the main species of reality, from strings to the Universe as a whole; from the simplest molecule to the more complex society.
Finally in the III and IV part we study physical and biological systems under those invariant laws, resolving most of the questions unanswered by previous, simpler 4D formalisms. In other papers, available at viXra we apply those laws also to the study of social and historic cycles, as humans also obey the same co-invariances of all Complementary systems of energy and information, made to the image and likeness of the whole.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[34] **viXra:1401.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-07 13:10:35*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Spanish

There are numerous studies on the effects of the gravitomagnetism, in particular has been investigated the perturbations orbitals of satellites for this cause. But gravitatory induction is not limited to the gravitomagnetic action, characterized by producing forces perpendicular to the direction of movement, but also there is gravitoelectric action, in that the forces produced depend on the speed of the source. We analyze in this study the perturbations of satellites orbiting the Earth as a result of forces of gravitolectric origin. We found that these effects are proportional to the rotational speed of the Earth to the square, therefore considerably lower than similars effects gravitomagnetics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1401.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-14 12:08:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work we show that when possible transform some types of substance into a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature, which exists long enough to be used in practice then will be possible to use these substances in order to create efficient Gravitational Shieldings.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[32] **viXra:1401.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-08 02:38:09*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Physics the absolute is in relativity of things

Different physical definitions of mass are present in scientific literature. Mass has been always considered an important physical quantity for the study and for the description of dynamics of physical systems. Let us want now to underline also kinematic properties of mass, above all in regard to the physico-mathematical relationship between mass and time, and consequently the unlike physical behavior of systems due to different properties of mass, whether in the macroscopic domain or in the microscopic domain.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1401.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-29 18:05:22*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Faster than light is impossible according to the special relativity theory of Einstein SRT. In this paper I’ll propose a new concept in physics called “time contraction”. This concept will solve many problems in physics related to faster than light without violation Lorentz transformation or causality. According to this concept, it is possible measuring the speed of an electromagnetic wave or a particle which owns rest mass greater than zero to be faster than the speed of light in vacuum without violation of Lorentz transformation or causality. Time contraction is proposed by a new understanding to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on the concepts of quantum theory (Copenhagen School). It is a new formulation to the time dilation and the length contraction and the speed of light which are vacuum energy dependent. By this new formulation, I could rescue the special relativity from the Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, Ladder paradox and Bell's spaceship paradox. Furthermore, I could reconcile and interpret the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), —Casimir effect, Hartman effect— with the SRT in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:1401.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-06 13:10:55*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Explosive processes are characterized by the fast separation of significant thermal energy, with which occurs the strong warming-up of decay products and is formed plasma. Depending on the type of explosion the plasma can have different degrees of ionization. With the nuclear explosions, when the temperature of plasma can reach several million degrees, the degree of ionization of plasma is high. With the realization of explosions by means of the conventional explosives cold plasma with the low degree of ionization is obtained. In either case the consequence of explosive processes is not only fast separation of significant thermal energy, but also emission in the wide frequency range. With the explosions of nuclear charges is formed also electric pulse with the high tension of the electric field, whose physical nature up to now completely is impossible to understand. To the examination of electrodynamic of processes, proceeding with the explosion is dedicated the proposed article.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[29] **viXra:1401.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-06 10:11:49*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Experimental location data indicate that electrons are not distributed as ‘balloons-of-electron-dots’ depict. Spectral data constancies have always indicated that electrons behave quite orderly. Consequentially, atomic orbital models with center-concentrated dots are misleading and should be nixed. Likewise, the idea of molecular bonds as capsules filled with dots of ‘non-repelling, spin-paired electrons” should also be nixed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1401.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 21:12:31*

**Authors:** Amir Mulic

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this note, we preliminarily discuss the possibility that the expression \alpha_{em}^{-1}=4\pi^{3}+\pi^{2}+\pi
has a physical interpretation and can even be helpful in model building. If one interprets this expression in terms of the volumes of l_{p}
- sized three-cycles on G_{2}
holonomy manifolds and requires that it also comprises effects of the running of the coupling, one can obtain the desired value, but only in a setup which is clearly different from the standard model of particle physics (SM). An understanding of the nature of the link between such putative model and SM is needed. Studying this issue could possibly shed some light on existing problems in model building within string theory (ST), particularly the hierarchy problem. Numerological “success”, which can be achieved if one interprets the formula in terms of volumes of three-cycles on the compactification manifold, as we intend to do here, cannot change the fact that discussion in this note represents merely a heuristic estimate of the feasibility of further research in a certain direction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] **viXra:1401.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 12:48:23*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In the conclusion it is shown, that energodynamic approach allowed not only to receive variety of not trivial consequences, but also to solve a number of new problems such as the elaboration of the theory of energy conversion process similarity, the theory of engineering system productivity, the real gas mixing theory and the theory of biological system self-organization.
Affirms, that energodynamics is the new effective tool of the analysis of modern physics problems.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[26] **viXra:1401.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 12:36:32*

**Authors:** T. Marshall Eubanks

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Abstract Submitted to the 2014 UCLA Dark Matter Conference

Observational Constraints on Ultra-Dense Dark Matter
T. Marshall Eubanks
Asteroid Initiatives LLC, 7243 Archlaw Drive, Clifton, Va 20124, USA
E-mail:tme@asteroidinitiatives.com.
There have been numerous suggestions that macroscopic ultra-dense objects, either quark nuggets or Primordial Black Holes (PBH), formed in the early universe, persisted until the present, and provide the Dark Matter (DM) required by a variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations. An important check on these DM theories comes from the condensed object mass spectrum, observational estimates of space density or flux compared to the known DM density. The three conventional checks on macroscopic DM, observations of the flux through laboratory detectors, planetary detectors and ground-based gravitational microlensing surveys, allow two disjoint mass regions for viable macroscopic DM particle masses. New Kepler satellite microlensing data restrict the allowed DM region somewhat, while a search for femtolensing of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) provides a new set of DM constraints, greatly restricting the allowed region for larger masses and leaving three allowed “windows” in the mass spectrum. Combining all of these constraints, DM made up exclusively of a particle of mass M_DM would not violate current observational constraints if 6 × 10^−6 kg ≤ M_DM ≤ 10 kg, or 10^5 kg ≤ M_DM ≤10^18 kg, or 10^20 kg ≤ M_DM ≤ 10^22 kg.
Primordial capture of any macroscopic DM in the Solar System and other planetary systems provide a different means of observing DM that may provide profound constraints on DM over a wide range of particle masses. In particular, primordial capture can be immediately used to derive severe restrictions in the mass range of PBH, which would consume any ordinary matter objects they come in contact with, a process easily detectable in the Solar System. Capela et al. considered primordial capture as part of stellar formation, and concluded that it can be used to exclude PBH with MP BH > 10^13 kg, with smaller PBH not being excluded as they would not have sufficient time to consume their host stars. The extension of primordial capture of PBH to planetary formation can be used to exclude all smaller masses of PBH as such PBH, if captured, would rapidly consume their host planets or asteroids. As the Solar System has manifestly not been consumed, and as other planetary systems appear not to be in the process of being consumed, this implies that M_PBH must be > 10^−8 M⊙, or > 10^22 kg, to be viable. If this exclusion is combined with the Kepler and other microlensing constraints, then there is very little possibility of PBH making the DM at any mass up to ∼ 30 M⊙, effectively ruling out PBH as a viable DM candidate.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[25] **viXra:1401.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-14 02:41:08*

**Authors:** Ashish Sirohi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Space is discrete for a moving mass and continuous for an electromagnetic wave. We introduce velocity addition rules for such motion, and from these we derive the second postulate of special relativity — namely, that each observer measures the same value of the speed of light. Thus widely accepted derivations, showing that the two postulates of special relativity necessarily lead to the Lorentz transformations, cannot be correct. We contrast the distance-time implications of our velocity addition rules with the Lorentz transformations. Our theory leads to different time measurements by observers and to special relativity's momentum-energy formulas. However, in our theory length of an object remains invariant, and we do not have a time dilation formula that applies between inertial frames. Study of timescales of quasar variability has yielded observational data showing special relativity's time dilation to be inconsistent with the model of an expanding universe; gamma-ray bursts are giving similar results. These quasars and gamma-ray bursts results are consistent with our time formulas. We suggest other experiments where special relativity and our theory give different predictions, and these can further show special relativity to be wrong and our theory to be correct.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[24] **viXra:1401.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 06:49:12*

**Authors:** luis Sancho

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

We are all systems of spatial energy and temporal information that combine to create the infinite actions and systems of the Universe.
In the jargon of physics we talk of clocks of cyclical time that carry in their frequency the information of the Universe – charges and masses – moved by fields of energy that occupy a certain vacuum space. In biology we talk of heads, brains and cellular nuclei that process information, moved by bodies and cytoplasm. Each system will display a certain type of ‘spatial energy’ or ‘vital space’ and process information with a different network of logic paths, though particles, genes, chips or brains, but all those systems will obey to certain laws natural to the 2 formal motions that ultimate explain the game of ‘creation and extinction’ of systems of energy and information, which is the dynamic universe.
Physical systems are always made with a field of energy and a particle of information and one cannot exist without the other (complementary principle of quantum physics).
Biological beings are also made with a head of information and a body that processes energy and moves it – or in cellular organisms, with a nucleus of DNA-information and a cytoplasmic body that moves it.
Sociological systems are divided into networks of upper class cells/citizens who control the languages of information of society and its working, body class that reproduces the products the body needs to survive.
All those systems and many more systems studied by all type of sciences, arts and religions can now be understood with self-similar laws derived of the General Laws of all Universal, Complementary systems of energy and information, E<=>I
And General Systems Sciences, also called Complexity is the XXI century discipline that researches those laws.
In this paper we explain the structure of the Universe made of similar networks of energy and information, which are the 2 components of all its complementary beings of space-time that ’exi=st’, as parts of more complex systemic networks, which become units of bigger wholes, building the scales of the fractal Universe, from the simplest particles that become parts of atoms that become parts of molecules, parts of cells, planets and stars parts of galaxies, parts of Universes.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[23] **viXra:1401.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 08:26:12*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The constancy of the speed of light, which is one of the two postulates of Special Relativity (SR) theory, is known to have a firm experimental and intuitive basis. However, SR requires length contraction time dilation hypothesis. In this paper, a new theory of light has been proposed as an alternative to this hypothesis. This paper proposes that light wave contracts towards or expands away from the source depending on the relative velocity (V) of the observer and the source so that the velocity of light in vacuum relative to any observer is always equal to C(3 x 10 8). The apparent velocity (C') of light relative to the source depends on the relative velocity (V) of the source and the observer so that the speed of light relative to an observer is always equal to C, i.e. C' - V = C (vector difference), in the reference frame of the source, and C' + V = C (vector sum), in the reference frame of the observer. Expansion or contraction of the wave is not a mere speculation but is a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and the well known phenomena of Doppler effect of light, in which speed of light remains constant and wavelength changes. The center of the spherical wave fronts moves at the velocity that the source had at the instant of emission, and yet the speed of light is the same constant C for any observer! According to SR , the center of a light wave front from a moving source is at the 'point in space where the source was' at the instant of emission. This is why SR doesn't predict stellar aberration in the reference frame of the earth. This assumption has to be investigated carefully with respect to the principle of relativity itself. The new theory agrees with the experimentally established fact that the speed of light is independent of the speed of the source (and the observer). It explains stellar aberration in both the earth and stellar reference frames. It predicts the null result of Michelson-Morley experiment. It agrees with Einstein's notion of motion, his two postulates and is in accordance with Galilean invariance principle. The Relativity of Electromagnetic Waves theory has been shown to better conform to the principle of relativity than Special Relativity does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1401.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 06:09:08*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

According to General Systems Sciences the Universe and all its parts are fractal super-organisms. They can therefore be explained with mathematical, fractal languages and biological, organic laws.
Yet the mathematics of fractal systems and the causal logic of super-organisms differ from classic mathematics and logic. Most sciences are described with Euclidean mathematics using the Cartesian->Galilean->Einsteinian abstraction of a single space-time continuum; while they use Aristotelian Logic based in a single arrow of time or ‘will of the Universe’ – called energy or entropy in physics.
Fractal, organic systems however display a fractal geometry, as they extend through several scales of size and organization that form a ‘5th dimension’ of space-time, in which microcosmic entities (particles, cells) become parts of bigger ‘whole’ superorganisms, which again become smaller parts of bigger super-organisms, from particles to galaxies, from atoms to socio-biological systems.
To describe those scales and its causal logic flows of energy and information we need to evolve the present formalism of mathematics, redefining in non-euclidean fractal terms the 4 Euclidean postulates of mathematics (definition of point, line, plane and equality), departing departing from a new concept of ‘a point with breadth’, or fractal point that grows in size and display internal parts when we come closer to it.
This new geometry defines a topological Universe composed of ∞ organic systems, each of one displaying the 3 topologies of a 4D space-times:
An energetic spherical/planar membrane that separates the point from reality, an informative, hyperbolic, ‘zero point’ and an intermediate toroid, cyclical volume that transfers and trans-forms energy and information between those 2 E⇔I poles.
It also requires a more complex logic to explain it. Since such systems display in dynamic terms 3 arrows of causality and time, one for each of those topologies. There is therefore an arrow of creation of information and an arrow of creation of energy that converge, creating and reproducing all the complementary, fractal systems of the infinite, scalar universe.
In this paper we formalize the Non Aristotelian logic and Non Euclidean topology of all universal, organic systems, giving multiple examples of species of nature that obey the laws of the Non-AE complex Universe and its formalism, which should become the foundation of a new paradigm of science that improves according to the Correspondence Principle the Euclidean, Mechanistic, Simplex description of reality of the previous scientific paradigm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[21] **viXra:1401.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-04 19:21:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 109 Pages.

Volumul cuprinde călătoriile autorului în perioada 2011-2013 la Bucureşti pentru a primi Premiul „Traian Vuia” al Academiei Române, apoi la o conferinţă în Columbus (Ohio), mini-excursii în deşertul din Arizona şi New Mexico, relatarea teribilului său accident de maşină pe autostradă în care putea să-şi piardă viaţa, apoi în România cu o delegaţie de profesori chinezi, şi la conferinţele internaţionale din Istanbul şi Beijing. Addenda fotografică dă culoare acestei carţi memorialistice.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[20] **viXra:1401.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 02:52:02*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

The main difference between classic physics and complex physics is the acceptance in complex physics of a 2nd arrow of information in the Universe besides the arrow of entropy or expansive energy, used by XX century physics.
Such duality of energy, stored in the spatial vacuum, and information, stored in the frequency of the cyclical clocks of charges and masses (E=Mc2+ExT=k->M=kv) - defines a new Fundamental Principle of Science:
‘All what exists are relative surfaces of spatial energy that transform themselves back and forth into clock-cycles of temporal information: Se⇔Ti’.
This law that substitutes the law of conservation of energy is formalized by the ‘Generator, feedback equation of the Universe’, whose dynamic expression, Se⇔Ti, defines the fundamental events of physical systems and its complementary duality, as particles of information attached to fields of energy and its static expression, ExTi=K discovered by Heisenberg in the quantum membrane and Einstein in the cosmological membrane defines the 2 scales of the fractal Universe, the microcosmic membrane of electromagnetic forces and charges and the cosmological membrane of gravitational forces and masses, which according to Einstein’s principle of equivalence are attractive vortices of space-time.
Thus, Complex Physics defines a Universe made of multiple, fractal cycles of time that break and enclose a surface of spatial energy becoming quantum knots called masses and charges, formalized as fractal, non-Euclidean points with ‘breath’.
Those Space-Time cycles gather then into particles that gather into social networks called atoms, units of a bigger scale of molecules; units of celestial bodies; units of galaxies; units of a Universe, made of networks of informative galaxies that implode energy into mass, and fields of dark energy that explode mass into energy, balancing each other and creating an infinite, scalar, organic Universe.
In this paper we solve with those 2 time arrows and fractal membranes of the Universe, departing from the Generator equation of space-time cycles the main questions that monist physics could not resolve with a single arrow: the meaning of mass; the Unification equation of charges and masses - the two vortices of information of the 2 scales of the Universe; the meaning of dark energy; the deficit of antiparticles; the reasons why there are 3 families of mass; the meaning of Universal Constants; the weakness of gravitational forces in the quantum realm; and why there are 4 dimensions and 4 quantum numbers; deducing most of the laws and equations of physics from the generator equation of space-time cycles.
For example, Einstein’s famous equation, E=M (Planck’s notation) becomes now a simple transformation of two type of motions: E⇔M(i), as lineal, expansive energy coils into a cyclical vortex of mass. This paper introduces the model and resolves with it the main questions left unanswered by classic physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[19] **viXra:1401.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-04 13:08:10*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 180 Pages.

The Universe is made of two formal motions, energy and information and its combinations, whose forms correspond to the 3 canonical topologies of a 4 dimensional Universe:
Hyperbolic, informative systems; energetic, spherical limbs, and toroid combinations of both.
The 3 systems together form complementary systems made of informative particle/heads, reproductive body/waves and energetic limbs/fields.
Each topology dominates an age or horizon of evolution of the species: the young, energetic age; the reproductive maturity and the informative 3rd age.
Further on individual systems gather in herds, cellular clusters and social networks, evolving into bigger systems, creating a social arrow common to all systems that evolve from simple particles into atoms, molecules, cells, organisms and super-organisms (biological systems) or matter states, celestial bodies, solar systems and galaxies.
Those simple principles of General Systems Sciences and Topology reduce the possibilities of morphological evolution explaining how complex forms such as informative eyes or energetic limbs can emerge, solving the old problem already considered by Darwin; and explain the fractal, self-similar organization of physical systems.

**Category:** Topology

[18] **viXra:1401.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-07 13:35:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1401.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-03 06:54:44*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 4 pages

First law of motion operative in a time periodic universe with $S^1$ time is formulated. The inertial paths of the particles are defined as circles, with radius $R= T \left|\textbf{v} \right| /(2 \pi)$, where $T$ is the time period of the universe, and $\textbf{v}$ is the velocity of the particle. This law reduces to the Newton's first law of motion in the limit $T \rightarrow \infty$, when the radii $R \rightarrow \infty$, and so the circles open out and become indisthinguighable from the straight line trajectories of the Newtonian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1401.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 17:18:45*

**Authors:** Elliott Prather

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is to serve as a supplement for the Theory of Spatial Relativity. It includes an explanation of time dilation by using Spatial Relativity and also includes an experiment called the "Photon Block Experiment" to determine if light travels at c or if it is instead an instantaneous or near instantaneous force.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1401.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-03 00:36:35*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Generators and direct-current motors have excellent operating characteristics, and therefore widely they are used in the technology. The important merit of direct-current motors is large starting torque, which makes with their irreplaceable with the use in transportation means. However, both the generators and the direct-current motors have one essential deficiency, connected with the need of using in them the collector system, which consists of collector and brushes. Collector presents the collection of the lamellas, located on the cylinder, made from insulation, and between the lamellas there are clearances. This leads to the rapid wear of brushes. In addition to this, since during the rotation breaking the circuits of winding, which have inductance, occurs, a principally unavoidable drawback in this collector sparking is. In connection with the indicated, important technical task the search for the construction of generators and direct-current motors, which do not have collector system, appears. However, such devices created were not during entire history of the development of electrical engineering. In this article this problem is solved. In it are examined two versions of the direct-current generators, in which there is no collector. The stated goal is achieved with the aid of the special constructions of the revolving magnets and by the corresponding arrangement of windings. If necessary such generators can be used as the engines.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1401.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 14:03:14*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Major unexplained problem remaining with the Higgs boson is explaining where its own mass arises. The problem is solved if one assumes that the mass came from a previous universe of a cyclic-time type already ptoposed. In this design there is an epoch preceding each big bang in which time is inactive and the universe is physically prepared to transfer all its mass (both fermionic and bosonic) to the next universe(the universes remaian in the same location). The actual transfer starts to take place soon after time is turned on again (and when the big bang occurs). The details of this transfer and of the formation of the big bang are given in an earlier paper by the author (viXra 1310.0261)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1401.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 11:07:08*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Is proposed the new method of investigating the thermophysical and structural characteristics of materials and models, based on the measurement of electrostatic pour on, appearing with the heating or mechanical loads.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12] **viXra:1401.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 11:17:59*

**Authors:** Alexander C. Abad, Emmanuel A. Gonzalez, Roderick Y. Yap, L'ubomir Dorcak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note, we present the analog realization of a fractional-order differentiator of order alpha=1/2 in 0.35um CMOS technology.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11] **viXra:1401.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 11:42:30*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article is examined physical nature of the inertia of material tel.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1401.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 06:25:50*

**Authors:** Xiao Lin Li

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Special Relativity Theory can be derived out from quantum mechanics.
Special Relativity Theory is not a independent theory.
Special Relativity Theory is included in the quantum mechanics.
Start from the new thinking,we derive out a new energy-momentum equation.
In low energy region,the new energy-momentum equation can transition to Special Relativity Theory.
Special Relativity Theory is only approximate of new energy-momentum equation.
The new energy-momentum equation will take great change to physics.
Energy have maximum value.Momentum have maximum value.
The scattering problems in quantum filed theory will be solved.
Renormalization is no longer needed.Lightspeed is no longer maximum speed value.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1401.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 06:53:58*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 14 pages, 74 equations, 6 references

We present a simple introduction to a manifestly gauge-invariant perturbative development for quantum electrodynamics in the effective action formalism, and in the divergence-free framework. The system involves the interaction of the photon field with a Dirac fermionic spinor field. Detailed computations are exhibited, and divergence-free expressions for one and two-loop contributions are provided.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1401.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 03:58:03*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

In this part given evidences major advantages of the energy (non-entropy) criteria of evolution, which allow following the evolution of each degree of freedom or each part of the system separately. It is shown that “order” arises not from ”chaos”, but due to “disordering” in the system as a whole, which is in absolute compliance with the 2nd law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] **viXra:1401.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-01 12:19:19*

**Authors:** François Barriquand

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A modified version of Leo Szilard's 1929 thought-experiment is considered, which allows one to show that the iteration of some specially conceived thermodynamic “cycles” does not require any costly memory erasure. These thermodynamic cycles can be easily examined from either a classical or a quantum point of view. Although they differ randomly from each other in certain aspects, their remarkable energy balance remains systematically constant. Similar cycles can prove useful for lowering the theoretical cost of memory erasure in computers.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] **viXra:1401.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-01 13:18:44*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The Industrial Evolution of machines follows an economic human generational cycle’ of 72±8 years.
Each cycle a nation discovers a new form of energy (steam, then oil and electricity), applied to the creation of money, the software of the economy and its hardware, which are machines that imitate the organic functions of human beings, enhancing our biological systems but also competing and atrophying them.
So in the XIX century during the British age steam was applied to bodies of metal, trains and steamers; then in the German cycle, oil was applied to engines, their hearts and after II world war in the American cycle, electricity applied to the creation of minds of metal, chips, cameras and mobiles that imitate human brains, eyes and ears. Now in the last cycle of the industrial evolution we put together those organic parts into organic machines, robots.
Since we create machines by imitating human organs of energy and information, from a scientific perspective, machines must be considered organisms of metal, and their ‘company-mothers’ their systems of reproduction, whose only goal is to evolve, multiply and sell them for profit, creating an eco(nomic)system made to its image and likeness.
Facts those which allow to study the economics with the laws of biological organisms, predicting the evolution of machines, their crisis of over reproduction and their relationships of symbiosis and competition with the human kind, as this writer has done for the past 20 years, forecasting with remarkable accuracy the present crisis of overproduction of chips, its software, e-money and its hardware, white collar pcs and blue collar robots that are displacing humans from labor and war fields.
Such biological model of the industrial evolution casts doubts on the present strategy of solving the crisis by further increasing the overproduction of those ‘memes of metal’. Instead nations should increase the production of the alternative economic system: welfare, carbon-life based goods that humans need to survive, creating a world made to our image and likeness, by switching credit in a global New Deal to companies that reproduce human WHealth, from Health care to agricultural goods while limiting credit to corporations that overproduce industrial wealth.
Yet since machines have lower costs of production and higher prices than welfare goods, their sales give higher profits, reason why in a capitalist system where money is invented by private corporations whose only goal is to increase profits, the present overproduction crisis of industrial goods that absorbs the limited resources of the planet - provoking a parallel, chronic underproduction of welfare foods - cannot be solved. The result is the constant degradation of the ecosystems based in carbon-life goods, Nature and History. Since we, humans are NOT made of metal, but of carbon-life, and we need welfare goods to survive, a fact often forgotten by those financial and industrial corporations that rule the eco(nomic)system.
Thus the only democratic, humane solution to the crisis is political: the financial industry must be nationalized, creating a mixed system of political democracy, western style and financial control, Chinese style, where banks are regulated to foster credit on the welfare sectors of the economy that provokes a much higher, healthier demand-based economical growth.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[5] **viXra:1401.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-21 11:05:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Partly rewritten. References added.

We propose a model of quark and lepton subconstituents which extends the Standard Model of particles to the Planck scale and beyond. We perform a Gedanken experiment by scattering a probe deep inside a mini black hole. We assume the result is that at the core of the hole there is a spin 1/2 (or 0) constituent field, grayon, in Minkowski space. The grayon is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. The grayon interactions are assumed to provide bound states of three grayons which form the quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1401.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-01 06:44:46*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the scientific articles and the publications is said, that the laser is the quantum generator, which radiates light quanta. But this is not so, laser this is the usual phased array, in which the phasing of its elementary sources, which are the atoms or the molecules of work substance, is produced with the aid of the external resonator.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1401.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-01 07:59:11*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Huygens principle is the basic postulate of geometric optics; however, it does not reveal physical nature of this phenomenon, which is up to now unknown. In antenna design there is a reciprocity theorem, which asserts that antenna directivity with the method of signal and its transfer are identical. This phenomenon also does not have its of explanation. In the article the physical explanation of Huygens principle and reciprocity theorem is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1401.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-01 05:28:21*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is argued that the fundamental theory of X-ray diffraction is based on a flawed model of wave interference. This is because the macroscopic distances between the crystalline sample on the one hand, and the X-ray source and the detector on the other, cannot be defined to the accuracy of a fractional wave-length. Thus, the inherent ‘graininess’ of the detector surface does not support the idea of constructive or destructive interference of electromagnetic radiation. This critique then applies equally to the presumed extensions of ‘Bragg’s Law’, particularly the so-called phase problem. The phase problem is thus a theoretical construct that is, practically, an artefact of the Bragg derivation. The Bragg approach, however, has been ingeniously adapted to make contact with the structural theory of chemistry by various guises and protocols. These are, inter alia, based on ideas about crystal morphology and internal structure that preceded the Bragg approach. An alternative theory of X-ray scattering, however, needs also to be compatible with the structural theory to be practically meaningful. A model of scattering is proposed herein, that is based on absorption and emission by groups of atoms that are defined by a conventional lattice plane. The Bragg equation is thus re-interpreted as relating the energy of the emitted radiation and the angle of ‘reflection’. It is argued that the Bragg approach is essentially empirical, and that its apparent consistency with the structural theory is based on a synergistic evolution of theoretical ideas and experimental observation. In this, therefore, it is not unlike other spectroscopic techniques in common use for structure determination.

**Category:** Chemistry

[1] **viXra:1401.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-01 00:04:24*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Under the program «Starfish» on July, 9th 1962 USA have blown up in space over Pacific ocean a hydrogen bomb with a trotyl equivalent 1.4 Mt. This event has put many questions before scientific community. Before it in 1957 the future Nobel winner doctor Hans Albrecht Bethe, being based on the theory of dipolar radiation, has foretold that at similar explosion the electromagnetic impulse (EMI) will be observed, thus intensity of a field on an earth surface will make no more than 100 В/м. Therefore all measuring equipment which should register electromagnetic radiation, has been adjusted on registration such intensity fields. But at bomb explosion it has appeared that intensity of electric fields, since explosion epicenter, and further throughout more than 1000 km has reached several tens thousand volt on meter. Those about past more than seventy years, but, until now, in the scientific journals be absent publication on the explanation of this phenomenon. This article gives the explanation of this phenomenon on the basis of the concept of scalar- vector potential, developed by the author. This concept assumes the dependence of the scalar potential of charge on its relative speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics