[110] **viXra:1005.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 May 2010*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 19 pages, This contribution represents a sequel to CSF 28, (2006), 913-922.

Relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) describes fundamental interactions between
elementary particles occurring in an energy range up to several hundreds GeV. Extending
QFT beyond this range needs to account for the imbalance produced by unsuppressed
quantum fluctuations and for the emergence of non-equilibrium phase transitions.
Our underlying premise is that fractal operators become mandatory tools when
exploring evolution from low-energy physics to the non-equilibrium regime of QFT.
Canonical quantization using fractal operators leads to the concept of "complexon",
a fractional extension of quantum excitations and a likely candidate for non-baryonic
Dark Matter. A discussion on the duality between this new field-theoretic framework
and General Relativity is included.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[109] **viXra:1005.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 May 2010*

**Authors:** Min-Young Yun

**Comments:** 55 pages

The behavior of smallest unit that creating from superstring and quark is indeterminate,
but can be described as one equation according to macroscopic-rules.
So, it is easy to understand in all ages and countries, at any times and places.
Newborns speak out the easiest word 'Mom' at the first time they speaking, which Decided the title of the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[108] **viXra:1005.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper, we study the notion of Smarandache zero divisor in semigroups and rings.
We illustrate them with examples and prove some interesting results about them.

**Category:** Algebra

[107] **viXra:1005.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-23 03:14:29*

**Authors:** Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article represents an extension of (Tabirca 2000a). A new equation for upper bounds is obtained based on the Smarandache f-inferior part
function. An example involving upper diagonal matrices is given in order to illustrate that the new equation provide a better computation

**Category:** General Mathematics

[106] **viXra:1005.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-22 04:22:29*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The hypothesis formulated by Smarandache On the possibility that no barriers exist in the Universe for an object to travel at any speed is here
shortly analyzed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[105] **viXra:1005.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Yi Yuan, Zhang Wenpeng

**Comments:** 3 pages

see paper for abstract

**Category:** Number Theory

[104] **viXra:1005.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 13 pages

In this paper the main properties of Smarandache Square Complementary
function has been analyzed. Several problems still unsolved are reported too.

**Category:** Number Theory

[103] **viXra:1005.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this article we present two new results concerning the Smarandache Ceil
function. The first result proposes an equation for the number of fixed-point number of
the Smarandache ceil function. Based on this result we prove that the average of the
Smarandache ceil function is Θ(n) .

**Category:** Number Theory

[102] **viXra:1005.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Ralf W. Stephan

**Comments:** 10 Pages

Using a personal computer and freely available software, the author
factored some members of the Smarandache consecutive sequence and
the reverse Smarandache sequence. Nearly complete factorizations are
given up to Sm(80) and RSm(80). Both sequences were excessively
searched for prime members, with only one prime found up to Sm(840)
and RSm(750): RSm(82) = 828180 ... 10987654321.

**Category:** Algebra

[101] **viXra:1005.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 203 pages

In this book for the first time we introduce the notion of
Smarandache neutrosophic algebraic structures. Smarandache
algebraic structures had been introduced in a series of 10 books.
The study of Smarandache algebraic structures has caused a
shift of paradigm in the study of algebraic structures.

**Category:** Algebra

[100] **viXra:1005.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 33 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (45)-(70) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[99] **viXra:1005.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 May 2010*

**Authors:** Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 16 pages

In series of articles we continue to advance idea that mathematics and physics is the same.
We bring forward two basic assumptions as principles. First is the primacy of life as
opposed to dominating reductionism, and second - immaturity of epistemology. Second
principle says that we have reached stage of epistemology where we have stepped outside
simple perceptibility only on level of individuality (since Aristotle) but not on level of
collective mind. The last stage have reached only most of religious teachings but not
physical science that is still under oppressive influence of reductionism. This causes that
what we call research in physical science turns out to be simply instrumental improvement
of perception within visional confinement we call field of information. We discuss and try
to apply principle that within field of information we can't invent or discover anything that
doesn't existing.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[98] **viXra:1005.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 11 pages. The author plans to present this paper at the 11th Frontiers of
Fundamental Physics conference, which is in Paris, France July 6-9, 2010.

At the 10^{th} Frontiers of Fundamental Physics symposium, Gerard 't Hooft stated that, for some of
the advances we hope to see in Physics in the future, there must be a great deal of cooperation
between researchers from different disciplines, as well as mathematicians, programmers, technologists,
and others. Accomplishing this requires a new mindset; however, as so much of our past progress
has come out of a fiercely competitive process - especially since a critical review of our ideas
about reality remains an essential part of making progress and checking our progress. We must also
address the fact that some frameworks appear incompatible, as with relativity and quantum mechanics,
which remain at odds despite years of attempts to find a quantum gravity theory. I explore the idea
that playful exploration, using both left-brained and right-brained approaches to learning, allows
resolution of conflicting ideas by taking advantage of our innate developmental strategies. It may
thus foster the kind of interdisciplinary cooperation we are hoping to see.

**Category:** Mind Science

[97] **viXra:1005.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 May 2010*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 11 page

According to the formalism d = v*t fourth dimension of space-time X_{4} = i*c*t is spatial
too. Time is not a fourth dimension of space-time. Material change i.e. motion run in a
timeless space. Fundamental unit of numeric order t_{0},t_{1},t_{2},...,t_{n} of material change is Planck
time t_{p} . We measure numeric order of material change with clocks. Material change t_{n-1} is
"before" material change t_{n} equivalently as natural number n-1 is "before" natural
number n. Numeric order of material change runs in a timeless 4D space and has no
duration. Space-time is a timeless phenomenon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[96] **viXra:1005.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 May 2010*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A reasonable explanation of both redshifts: cosmological (without expansion of the
universe) and intrinsic, is given using a single tired light mechanism. In the first case,
the redshift is produced because the light interacts with microwaves. In the second, the
interaction is with radio waves. And all this is compatible with a static universe with a
space temperature of 2.7 ^{o}K.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[95] **viXra:1005.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 May 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 3 Pages, In Chinese

We can find all solutions of Goldbach conjecture (A) ling in the closed
interval [pr+1, N-pr-1], and we can obtain expression of the number of solutions of
Goldbach conjecture (A).

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1005.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 4 pages

This is a short mathematical note clarifying the use of Cramer's Transactional
Interpretation in the Spinor Qubit Pre-Geometry of Wheeler's IT FROM BIT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[93] **viXra:1005.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Niculescu

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this paper one presents four of the smarandacheian paradoxes in physics
found in various physics sites or printed material.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[92] **viXra:1005.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Leonardo F. D. da Motta

**Comments:** 5 pages

In 1972, Smarandache proposed that there is not a limit speed on the
nature, based on the EPR-Bell (Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, Bell) paradox. Although it
appears that this paradox was solved recently, there are many other evidences that guide
us to believe that Smarandache Hypothesis is right on quantum mechanics and even on
the new unification theories. If Smarandache Hypothesis turns to be right under any
circumstance, some concepts of modern physics would have to be "refit" to agree with
Smarandache Hypothesis. Moreover, when the meaning of Smarandache Hypothesis
become completely understood, a revolution on technology, specially in communication,
will arise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1005.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this short paper we propose four conjectures in synthetic geometry that generalize
Erdos-Mordell Theorem, and three conjectures in number theory that generalize Fermat
Numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1005.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 May 2010*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 5 pages

Demonstration without mathematical formulas of the theory of special and general relativity of Einstein is false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1005.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 May 2011*

**Authors:** Henry D. May

**Comments:** 7 pages

In Part I of this paper [1] it was proposed that a static electric potential of about +800 MV is
present in the heliosphere, sustained by the continual inflow of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) protons. Charge
neutralization cannot occur because the solar wind and magnetic fields allow more protons than electrons to
pass through the termination shock (TS) deeply into the heliosphere. The result is a quasi-static electric field,
at dynamic equilibrium, inside the heliosphere. This paper adds some important details that were not
included in Part I, and makes some clarifications. The presence of the heliospheric electric field opens up the
possibility of accounting for the Pioneer Anomaly, and also the anomalous cosmic rays, as caused by electric
fields.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[88] **viXra:1005.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Chris O'Loughlin

**Comments:** 9 pages

A comparison of the attractive motion experienced by masses due to gravitational interaction
over relatively short distances with the recessional motion of masses at relatively large
distances (that adhere to the velocity increases described by Hubble's v = Hr relation) is
presented to demonstrate the similarities between the two motions. Based on the similarities
of the two motions, and the observation that gravitational acceleration decreases as distance
increases while recessional acceleration decreases as distance decreases the distance at
which the two accelerations are equal in magnitude but in opposite directions resulting in
zero net acceleration is calculated and compared to similar results provided by Chernin et
al. [1]. The summation of the attractive gravitational acceleration and the recessional
acceleration is presented and plotted depicting a smooth, continuous transition from
gravitational attraction to universal expansion. The underlying cause of these accelerations
is not addressed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1005.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 pages

Using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that jP^{n} + 9 - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[86] **viXra:1005.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP^{8} + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1005.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP^{7} + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1005.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP^{6} + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[83] **viXra:1005.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP^{5} + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[82] **viXra:1005.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that if J_{2}(ω) ≠ 0 then there are infinitely many primes P
such that each of jP^{4} + k - j is a prime, J_{2}(ω) = 0 then there are finite primes P such
that each of jP^{4} + k - j is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1005.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 May 2010*

**Authors:** A.K.S. Chandra Sekhar Rao

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is proved that there are infinitely many infinite Smarandache Groupoids.

**Category:** Algebra

[80] **viXra:1005.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 May 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

Common sense left the human mind a hundred years ago.
It was forced out by relativity theory. This wildly imaginative
work of fiction displaced all the logic humankind had labored
so long to establish. People loved it. They were set free of the
constraints of disciplined thought. But today we have a problem:
relativity and all it has sprouted has taken us down a blind alley.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1005.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper, we present an extension of the multicriteria
decision making based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process
(AHP) which incorporates uncertain knowledge matrices for
generating basic belief assignments (bba's). The combination of
priority vectors corresponding to bba's related to each
(sub)-criterion is performed using the Proportional Conflict Redistribution
rule no. 5 proposed in Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT)
of plausible and paradoxical reasoning. The method presented
here, called DSmT-AHP, is illustrated on very simple examples.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[78] **viXra:1005.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper, we present a Non-Bayesian conditioning
rule for belief revision. This rule is truly Non-Bayesian in
the sense that it doesn't satisfy the common adopted principle
that when a prior belief is Bayesian, after conditioning by X,
Bel(X|X) must be equal to one. Our new conditioning rule for
belief revision is based on the proportional conflict redistribution
rule of combination developed in DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache
Theory) which abandons Bayes' conditioning principle. Such
Non-Bayesian conditioning allows to take into account judiciously
the level of conflict between the prior belief available and
the conditional evidence. We also introduce the deconditioning
problem and show that this problem admits a unique solution
in the case of Bayesian prior; a solution which is not possible
to obtain when classical Shafer and Bayes conditioning rules are
used. Several simple examples are also presented to compare
the results between this new Non-Bayesian conditioning and the
classical one.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[77] **viXra:1005.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 May 2010*

**Authors:** Yu Liang, Qichang Liang, Xiaodong Liu

**Comments:** 5 pages

According to Maxwell's theory, the displacement current in vacuum can produce
electromotive force on conducting current. However, the displacement current in
vacuum does not experience electromotive force from conducting current. The
asymmetrical electromotive forces result in non-conserved energy transmission between
any two coils involving displacement current and conducting current. In this work, we
designed and performed the measurements for such effect. We observed the explicit
evidences of non-conserved energy transmission between a toroid solenoid and a
parallel plate capacitor. The measured energy increase is well predicted by the
numerical estimation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[76] **viXra:1005.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 May 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we introduce for the first time the fusion of information on infinite discrete frames
of discernment and we give general results of the fusion of two such masses using the
Dempster's rule and the PCR5 rule for Bayesian and non-Bayesian cases.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[75] **viXra:1005.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 May 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin

**Comments:** 9 pages

In this paper we use extend Harley's measure of uncertainty of a set and of mass to the degree of
uncertainty of a set and of a mass (bba).

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[74] **viXra:1005.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 9 pages

In this paper we review some results on the regularization of divergent integrals of
the form ... (see paper for full abstract)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[73] **viXra:1005.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 22 pages

Modern theory states that matter and energy in their most basic form exist in
discrete amounts, or quanta. The author proffers that space-time also exists as discrete quanta,
and derives a physical model of space-time and elementary particles. The hypothesis for this
space-time model is that the quanta for matter and space-time are convertible states of the same
elementary building block: the quantum mass unit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] **viXra:1005.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 May 2010*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 2 pages

Constancy of the light velocity in different inertial systems and areas of space with different
gravity implies that relativistic effects of relative velocity of material change start on the scale
above photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[71] **viXra:1005.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 May 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1005.2641 [physics.gen-ph].

Solitary-particle quantum mechanics' inherent compatibility with special relativity is implicit in Schrödinger's
postulated wave-function rule for the operator quantization of the particle's canonical threemomentum,
taken together with his famed time-dependent wave-function equation that analogously treats
the operator quantization of its Hamiltonian. The resulting formally four-vector equation system assures
proper relativistic covariance for any solitary-particle Hamiltonian operator which, together with its canonical
three-momentum operator, is a Lorentz-covariant four-vector operator. This, of course, is always the
case for the quantization of the Hamiltonian of a properly relativistic classical theory, so the strong correspondence
principle definitely remains valid in the relativistic domain. Klein-Gordon theory impairs this
four-vector equation by iterating and contracting it, thereby injecting extraneous negative-energy solutions
that are not orthogonal to their positive-energy counterparts of the same momentum, thus destroying the
basis of the quantum probability interpretation. Klein-Gordon theory, which thus depends on the square
of the Hamiltonian operator, is as well thereby cut adrift from Heisenberg's equations of motion. Dirac
theory confuses the space-time symmetry of the four-vector equation system with such symmetry for its
time component alone, which it fatuously imposes, thereby breaching the strong correspondence principle
for the free particle and imposing the starkly unphysical momentum-independence of velocity. Physically
sensible alternatives, with external electromagnetic fields, to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are
derived, and the simple, elegant symmetry-based approach to antiparticles is pointed out.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[70] **viXra:1005.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 13 pages

Using the theory of distributions and Zeta regularization we manage to give
a definition of product for Dirac delta distributions, we show how the fact of one can be
define a coherent and finite product of Dirac delta distributions is related to the
regularization of divergent integrals ... (see paper for full abstract)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[69] **viXra:1005.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K Ilanthenral

**Comments:**
345 pages.

In this book, the authors define the new notion of set vector
spaces which is the most generalized form of vector spaces. Set
vector spaces make use of the least number of algebraic
operations, therefore, even a non-mathematician is comfortable
working with it. It is with the passage of time, that we can think
of set linear algebras as a paradigm shift from linear algebras.
Here, the authors have also given the fuzzy parallels of these
new classes of set linear algebras.
This book abounds with examples to enable the reader to
understand these new concepts easily. Laborious theorems and
proofs are avoided to make this book approachable for nonmathematicians.
The concepts introduced in this book can be easily put to
use by coding theorists, cryptologists, computer scientists, and
socio-scientists.
Another special feature of this book is the final chapter
containing 304 problems. The authors have suggested so many
problems to make the students and researchers obtain a better
grasp of the subject.
This book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter
briefly recalls some of the basic concepts in order to make this
book self-contained. Chapter two introduces the notion of set
vector spaces which is the most generalized concept of vector
spaces. Set vector spaces lends itself to define new classes of
vector spaces like semigroup vector spaces and group vector
6
spaces. These are also generalization of vector spaces. The
fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in Chapter three.
In Chapter four, set vector spaces are generalized to biset
bivector spaces and not set vector spaces. This is done taking
into account the advanced information technology age in which
we live. As mathematicians, we have to realize that our
computer-dominated world needs special types of sets and
algebraic structures.
Set n-vector spaces and their generalizations are carried out
in Chapter five. Fuzzy n-set vector spaces are introduced in the
sixth chapter. The seventh chapter suggests more than three
hundred problems. When a researcher sets forth to solve them,
she/he will certainly gain a deeper understanding of these new
notions.

**Category:** Algebra

[68] **viXra:1005.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:**
4 pages.

In this paper we study the notion of Smarandache
semirings and semifields and obtain some interesting results
about them. We show that not every semiring is a Smarandache
semiring. We similarly prove that not every semifield is a
Smarandache semifield. We give several examples to make the
concept lucid. Further, we propose an open problem about the
existence of Smarandache semiring S of finite order.

**Category:** Algebra

[67] **viXra:1005.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan, S. Saxena, H. P. Singh, S. Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
63 pages.

The purpose of this book is to postulate some theories and test them numerically.
Estimation is often a difficult task and it has wide application in social sciences and
financial market. In order to obtain the optimum efficiency for some classes of
estimators, we have devoted this book into three specialized sections.

**Category:** Statistics

[66] **viXra:1005.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:**
5 pages.

The Smarandache P and S persistence of a prime

**Category:** Number Theory

[65] **viXra:1005.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 May 2010*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:**
2 pages.

The relativistic growth of mass macrobodies differs from microparticles

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1005.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we study the Smarandache pseudo-ideals of a Smarandache ring. We
prove every ideal is a Smarandache pseudo-ideal in a Smarandache ring but every
Smarandache pseudo-ideal in general is not an ideal. Further we show that every
polynomial ring over a field and group rings FG of the group G over any field are
Smarandache rings. We pose some interesting problems about them.

**Category:** Algebra

[63] **viXra:1005.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 16 Pages

We establish the Santilli's isomathematics based on the generalization of the modern mathematics.
(see paper for rest of abstract with equations)

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1005.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Ashwini Kumar Lal

**Comments:** 10 pages, 2 figures, new hypothesis for gravitation ; 'Published in International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (USA) , 2011, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 62-66'

Study of the interiors of the various terrestrial planets, as presented in the
paper, leads to the possibility of planetary gravity being linked to the
electromagnetism generated in the planetary interiors. Findings of the study
undertaken suggest that Earth’s gravitational attraction may be attributed to
magnetic coupling experienced between Earth's electromagnetism and all the
earthly objects – electrically charged or uncharged. More precisely, terrestrial
gravity is deemed to be outcome of the bound state of the planetary
electromagnetism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[61] **viXra:1005.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 May 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
59 pages. 30 minute talk for the Dark Side of the Universe conference, Leon, Mexico,
to be delivered in the morning of June 5 , 2010

Contains specific elaboration of material on Glinkas quantum gas hypothesis, as far as a
counting algorithm, and also attempts to show possible commonality between semi classical
theories, and brane world interpretations ( higher dimensions) while addressing the issue
of what are the implications of a small graviton mass in 4 dimensions, i.e. the violations
of the correspondence/ complimentarity principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1005.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 8 pages

Local observers are defined by orthonormal "non-holonomic" (aka "non-coordinate")
tetrad gravity fields (Cartan's "moving frames"). The tetrads are spin 1 vector fields
under the 6-parameter homogeneous Lorentz group SO_{1,3} of Einstein's 1905 special
relativity. You can think of the tetrad gravity fields as the square roots of Einstein's 1916
spin 2 metric tensor gravity fields. We will see that we must also allow for spin 0 and spin
1 gravity because the spin 1 tetrads, in turn, are Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled
quantum states of pairs of 2-component Penrose-Rindler qubits in the quantum pregeometry.
The Wheeler-Feynman qubits are the square roots of the advanced and
retarded null tetrads and can therefore be called the Galois solvable fourth roots of
reality. The spherical wavefront tetrads are then formally the Bell pair states of quantum
information theory. Penrose's Cartesian tetrads are a different choice from mine here.
The different tetrad choices correspond to the different contours around the photon
propagator poles in the complex energy plane of quantum electrodynamics. Both of his
spinors in his spin frame are retarded in the same light cone, e.g. the forward cone. It
seems that Penrose and Rindler implicitly answered Wheeler's question of how IT comes
from BIT, but no one realized it until now.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] **viXra:1005.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-04 03:19:45*

**Authors:** Vatolin Dm.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Russian

In the article formulated are the geometric axioms from which it follows that the continuum power is more than the power of any well-ordered set.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[58] **viXra:1005.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

We prove that for any partition of a set which contains an infinite arithmetic
(respectively geometric) progression into two subsets, at least one of these subsets
contains an infinite number of triplets such that each triplet is an arithmetic (respectively
geometric) progression.

**Category:** Number Theory

[57] **viXra:1005.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy

**Comments:** 385 pages

K.R.Narayanan was a lauded hero and a distinguished
victim of his Dalit background. Even in an international
platform when he was on an official visit to Paris, the media
headlines blazed, 'An Untouchable at Elysee'. He was
visibly upset and it proved that a Dalit who rose up to such
heights was never spared from the pangs of outcaste-ness
and untouchability, which is based on birth. Thus, if the
erstwhile first citizen of India faces such humiliation, what
will be the plight of the last man who is a Dalit?
As one of the world's largest socio-economically
oppressed, culturally subjugated and politically
marginalized group of people, the 138 million Dalits in
India suffer not only from the excesses of the traditional
oppressor castes, but also from State Oppression - which
includes, but is not limited to, authoritarianism, police
brutality, economic embargo, criminalization of activists,
electoral violence, repressive laws that aim to curb
fundamental rights, and the non-implementation of laws that
safeguard Dalit rights. The Dalits were considered
untouchable for thousands of years by the Hindu society
until the Constitution of India officially abolished the
practice of untouchability in 1950.

**Category:** Social Science

[56] **viXra:1005.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florin Vasiliu

**Comments:** 62 pages

Paradoxism's Main Roots

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[55] **viXra:1005.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy

**Comments:** 16 pages

The new notions of super column FRM model, super row FRM
model and mixed super FRM model are introduced in this book.
These three models are introduced specially to analyze the
biased role of the print media on 27 percent reservation for the
Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in educational institutions run
by the Indian Central Government. This book has four chapters.
In chapter one the authors introduce the three types of super
FRM models. Chapter two uses these three new super fuzzy
models to study the role of media which feverishly argued
against 27 percent reservation for OBCs in Central
Government-run institutions in India. The experts we consulted
were divided into 19 groups depending on their profession.
These groups of experts gave their opinion and comments on
the news-items that appeared about reservations in dailies and
weekly magazines, and the gist of these lengthy discussions
form the third chapter of this book. The fourth chapter gives the
conclusions based on our study. Our study was conducted from
April 2006 to March 2007, at which point of time the Supreme
Court of India stayed the 27 percent reservation for OBCs in the
IITs, IIMs and AIIMS. After the aforesaid injunction from the
Supreme Court, the experts did not wish to give their opinion
since the matter was sub-judice. The authors deeply
acknowledge the service of each and every expert who
contributed their opinion and thus made this book a possibility.
We have analyzed the data using the opinion of the experts who
formed a heterogeneous group consisting of administrators,
lawyers, OBC/SC/ST students, upper caste students and
Brahmin students, educationalists, university vice-chancellors,
directors, professors, teachers, retired Judges, principals of
colleges, parents, journalists, members of the public, politicians,
doctors, engineers, NGOs and government staff.

**Category:** Social Science

[54] **viXra:1005.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Mladen V. Vassilev-Missana, Krassimir T. Atanassov

**Comments:** 67 pages, Book in Romanian, French and English. Proposed and solved problems for students' mathematical
competitions in number theory, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus.

During the five years since publishing [2], we have obtained many
new results related to the Smarandache problems. We are happy to
have the opportunity to present them in this book for the enjoyment
of a wider audience of readers.
The problems in Chapter two have also been solved and published
separately by the authors, but it makes sense to collate them
here so that they can be better seen in perspective as a whole, particularly
in relation to the problems elucidated in Chapter one.
Many of the problems, and more especially the techniques employed
in their solution, have wider applicability than just the Smarandache
problems, and so they should be of more general interest to
other mathematicians, particularly both professional and amateur
number theorists.

**Category:** Number Theory

[53] **viXra:1005.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 171 pages

Solved problems of geometry and trigonometry for college students.

**Category:** Geometry

[52] **viXra:1005.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 27 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 12 pages, 1 table, 1 figure

Spin models are considered on a discretized inner symmetry space with tetrahedral symmetry as
possible dynamical schemes for the tetron model. Parity violation, which corresponds to a
change of sign for odd permutations, is shown to dictate the form of the Hamiltonian. It is
further argued that such spin models can be obtained from more fundamental principles by
considering a (6+1)- or (7+1)-dimensional spacetime with octonion multiplication.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[51] **viXra:1005.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-30 07:05:53*

**Authors:** Ashwini Kumar Lal

**Comments:** 26 pages, 5 figures, minor modification, published in 'Journal of Cosmology' (USA), 2010,Vol.6, pp.1533-1547

Inflationary Hot Big Bang Model is the generally accepted theory for the origin of the universe. Nonetheless, findings of the observational astronomy as also the revelations in the field of fundamental physics over the past two decades question validity of the 'Big Bang' model as a viable theory for the origin of the universe. This paper examines a few of the various factors which undermine the Big Bang theory, including the organization of galactic superstructures, the Cosmic Microwave Background, redshifts, distant galaxies,age of local galaxies, and the gravitational waves.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1005.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 May 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

A theory can be interpreted several different ways.
Which interpretation is "the correct interpretation"
is well nigh impossible to determine. For that reason,
we select the one that best fits our concept of what
reality is. That means we choose on the basis of
metaphysics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[49] **viXra:1005.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 pages

The development of mathematics continues in a rapid rhythm, some unsolved problems
are elucidated and simultaneously new open problems to be solved appear.

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1005.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 pages

This paper considers the problem of estimating the population mean using
information on auxiliary variable in presence of non response. Exponential ratio and
exponential product type estimators have been suggested and their properties are studied. An
empirical study is carried out to support the theoretical results.

**Category:** Statistics

[47] **viXra:1005.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this paper we propose a method of solving a Nonlinear Diophantine Equation by
converting it into a System of Diophantine Linear Equations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[46] **viXra:1005.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 231 pages

This book is a continuation of the book n-linear algebra of type
I and its applications. Most of the properties that could not be
derived or defined for n-linear algebra of type I is made possible
in this new structure: n-linear algebra of type II which is
introduced in this book. In case of n-linear algebra of type II, we
are in a position to define linear functionals which is one of the
marked difference between the n-vector spaces of type I and II.
However all the applications mentioned in n-linear algebras of
type I can be appropriately extended to n-linear algebras of type
II. Another use of n-linear algebra (n-vector spaces) of type II is
that when this structure is used in coding theory we can have
different types of codes built over different finite fields whereas
this is not possible in the case of n-vector spaces of type I.
Finally in the case of n-vector spaces of type II we can obtain neigen
values from distinct fields; hence, the n-characteristic
polynomials formed in them are in distinct different fields.
An attractive feature of this book is that the authors have
suggested 120 problems for the reader to pursue in order to
understand this new notion. This book has three chapters. In the
first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are
introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two
introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II,
n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter
6
suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader
should be well versed with not only linear algebra but also nlinear
algebras of type I.

**Category:** Algebra

[45] **viXra:1005.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 120 pages

With the advent of computers one needs algebraic structures
that can simultaneously work with bulk data. One such
algebraic structure namely n-linear algebras of type I are
introduced in this book and its applications to n-Markov chains
and n-Leontief models are given. These structures can be
thought of as the generalization of bilinear algebras and bivector
spaces. Several interesting n-linear algebra properties are
proved.
This book has four chapters. The first chapter just
introduces n-group which is essential for the definition of nvector
spaces and n-linear algebras of type I. Chapter two gives
the notion of n-vector spaces and several related results which
are analogues of the classical linear algebra theorems. In case of
n-vector spaces we can define several types of linear
transformations.
The notion of n-best approximations can be used for error
correction in coding theory. The notion of n-eigen values can be
used in deterministic modal superposition principle for
undamped structures, which can find its applications in finite
element analysis of mechanical structures with uncertain
parameters. Further it is suggested that the concept of nmatrices
can be used in real world problems which adopts fuzzy
models like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Equations
and Bidirectional Associative Memories. The applications of
6
these algebraic structures are given in Chapter 3. Chapter four
gives some problem to make the subject easily understandable.
The authors deeply acknowledge the unflinching support of
Dr.K.Kandasamy, Meena and Kama.

**Category:** Algebra

[44] **viXra:1005.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 304 pages

The new concept of fuzzy interval matrices has been introduced
in this book for the first time. The authors have not only
introduced the notion of fuzzy interval matrices, interval
neutrosophic matrices and fuzzy neutrosophic interval matrices
but have also demonstrated some of its applications when the
data under study is an unsupervised one and when several
experts analyze the problem.
Further, the authors have introduced in this book multiexpert
models using these three new types of interval matrices.
The new multi expert models dealt in this book are FCIMs,
FRIMs, FCInMs, FRInMs, IBAMs, IBBAMs, nIBAMs, FAIMs,
FAnIMS, etc. Illustrative examples are given so that the reader
can follow these concepts easily.
This book has three chapters. The first chapter is
introductory in nature and makes the book a self-contained one.
Chapter two introduces the concept of fuzzy interval matrices.
Also the notion of fuzzy interval matrices, neutrosophic interval
matrices and fuzzy neutrosophic interval matrices, can find
applications to Markov chains and Leontief economic models.
Chapter three gives the application of fuzzy interval matrices
and neutrosophic interval matrices to real-world problems by
constructing the models already mentioned. Further these
models are mainly useful when the data is an unsupervised one
and when one needs a multi-expert model. The new concept of
fuzzy interval matrices and neutrosophic interval matrices will
find their applications in engineering, medical, industrial, social
and psychological problems. We have given a long list of
references to help the interested reader.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[43] **viXra:1005.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 May 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 21 pages

The author discusses the similarity between the expression for the state
function of the primary gas representing a particle and that of the wave function.
It is observed that the only difference between these two expressions is that in
the former time appears as a real function while in the latter it appears as an
imaginary function. He shows that the primary gas approach which treats time
as a real and the quantum mechanical approach which treats time as imaginary
are two ways of representing the same reality and points to a new symmetry
called the Wick symmetry. He shows that the probability postulate of quantum
mechanics can be understood in a very simple and natural manner based on the
primary gas representation of the particle. It is shown that the zero point energy
of the quantum mechanics is nothing but the energy of the thermal bath formed
by the vacuum fluctuations in the Higgs field. He shows that the quantum
mechanics is nothing but the thermodynamics of the primary gas where time has
not lost its directional symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[42] **viXra:1005.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP^{P0} + j+1 is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[41] **viXra:1005.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P^{P0} + 4^{n} is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[40] **viXra:1005.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes kPsuch that each of P^{P0} + (2j)^{2} is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[39] **viXra:1005.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes kPsuch that each of P^{P0} + j(j+1) is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1005.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
jP^{5} + j +1 is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1005.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
P^{5} + 4^{n} is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1005.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
P^{5} + (2j)^{2} is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1005.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
P^{5} + j( j +1) is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1005.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 May 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

Theory is a template, a schematic of what we think
reality is. We see reality according to the template.
What does not conform to the template is excised.
For that reason, much that occurs in the world is
not seen. That is how we miss the great discoveries
going on right under our noses.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[33] **viXra:1005.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 May 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 12 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1005.1101 [physics.gen-ph]

For Abelian gauge theory a properly relativistic gauge is developed by supplementing the Lorentz condition
with causal determination of the time component of the four-vector potential by retarded Coulomb
transformation of the charge density. This causal Lorentz gauge agrees with the Coulomb gauge for static
charge densities, but allows the four-vector potential to have a longitudinal component that is determined
by the time derivative of the four-vector potential's time component. Just as in Coulomb gauge, the two
transverse components of the four-vector potential are its sole dynamical part. The four-vector potential
in this gauge covariantly separates into a dynamical transverse four-vector potential and a nondynamical
timelike/longitudinal four-vector potential, where each of these two satisfies the Lorentz condition. In
fact, analogous partition of the conserved four-current shows each to satisfy a Lorentz-condition Maxwellequation
system with its own conserved four-current. Because of this complete separation, either of these
four-vector potentials can be tinkered with without affecting its counterpart. Since it satisfies the Lorentz
condition, the nondynamical four-vector potential times a constant with dimension of inverse length squared
is itself a conserved four-current, and so can be fed back into its own source current, which transforms its
time component into an extended Yukawa, with both exponentially decaying and exponentially growing
components. The latter might be the mechanism of quark-gluon confinement: in non-Abelian color gauge
theory the Yukawa mixture ratio ought to be tied to color, with palpable consequences for "colorful" hot
quark-gluon plasmas.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1005.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
jP^{3} + j + 1 is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1005.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
P^{3} + 4^{n} is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1005.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of
P^{3} + (2 j)^{2} is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1005.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove that P, P^{15} + j(j+1)(j=1,...,7) contain no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[28] **viXra:1005.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove that P, P^{9} + j(j+1)(j=1,...,7) contain no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[27] **viXra:1005.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each
of P^{3} + j( j + 1) is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1005.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 May 2010*

**Authors:** Gil Raviv

**Comments:** 255 Pages.

The theory presented here, entitled the theory of unified gravitation, holds that the nuclear strong interaction and gravitation are one and the same force. Detailed and relatively simple mathematics are shown to lead to an explicit strong/gravitational force equation that relies on only three independent parameters, identical to the parameters used in Newton's gravitational theory. The theory is applied on various distance scales to explain a broad range of phenomena, and is shown to provide an unparalleled level of agreement with observations, without requiring an assumption of dark matter, dark energy or inflation. Most notable is its ability to reproduce the morphologies of various types of galaxies and nebulae, as well as the complex structure of Saturn's main body of rings. Additional large-scale phenomena explained by unified gravitation include

- The constant rotation curve observed in spiral galaxies
- The nature of density waves in spiral galaxies
- The mechanism underlying star formation and fragmentation
- The parameters that determine galactic (or nebular) morphology and classification
- The clustering of nearby galaxies, repulsion between distant galaxies, and the creation of galactic voids
- The accelerated expansion of the universe
- The cause of the observed redshift periodicity
- The mechanism responsible for the creation of galactic and stellar wind
- The sudden expansion of gas and matter observed in novae and supernovae
- The formation of planetary ring systems and the composition of planets
- The mechanism responsible for the creation of the planetary and galactic magnetic fields
- A possible mechanism for the creation of the solar corona
- The process of ionization that produces the vast amount of plasma in the universe.

[25] **viXra:1005.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 May 2010*

**Authors:** Steffen Bode

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I establish the existence of a unique binary pattern inherent to the 3n+1
step, and then use this binary pattern to prove the 3n+1 problem for all
positive integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1005.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 May 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 37 Pages. The Warp Drive as a Dynamical Spacetime is one of the most interesting Spacetimes
of General Relativity and is being heavily studied inside arXiv.org.See for example the arXiv papers
1001.4960, 0904.0141,0710.4474,
gr-qc/0009013,gr.qc/0110086,gr.qc/9905084,gr.qc/9702026 or the Post Doctoral Dissertation Thesis gr-qc/9805037.
We feel that it is time for viXra to have its own papers exclusively devoted to this Dynamical
Spacetime:The Warp Drive

Alcubierre Warp Drive is one of the most exciting Spacetimes of General Relativity.It was the first
Spacetime Metric able to develop Superluminal Velocities.However some physical problems associated
to the Alcubierre Warp Drive seemed to deny the Superluminal Behaviour. We demonstrate in this work
that some of these problems can be overcomed and we arrive at some interesting results although we
used two different Shape Functions one continuous g(rs) as an alternative to the original Alcubierre
f(rs) and a Piecewise Shape Function f_{pc}(rs) as an alternative to the Ford-Pfenning Piecewise Shape
Function with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive producing effectively an Alcubierre Warp
Drive without Expansion/Contraction of the Spacetime. Horizons will exists and cannot be avoided
however we found a way to "overcome" this problem.We also introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1005.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 20 pages

In this paper a small survey is presented on eighteen new functions and four new
sequences, such as: Inferior/Superior f-Part, Fractional f-Part, Complementary
function with respect with another function, S-Multiplicative, Primitive
Function, Double Factorial Function, S-Prime and S-Coprime Functions, Smallest
Power Function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1005.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 472 pages

Neutrosophic logic grew as an alternative to the existing
topics and it represents a mathematical model of uncertainty,
vagueness, ambiguity, imprecision, undefined-ness,
unknown, incompleteness, inconsistency, redundancy and
contradiction. Despite various attempts to reorient logic,
there has remained an essential need for an alternative
system that could infuse into itself a representation of the
real world. Out of this need arose the system of neutrosophy
and its connected logic, neutrosophic logic. This new logic,
which allows also the concept of indeterminacy to play a role
in any real-world problem, was introduced first by one of the
authors Florentin Smarandache.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[21] **viXra:1005.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 154 pages

In this book we define the new notion of neutrosophic rings.
The motivation for this study is two-fold. Firstly, the classes of
neutrosophic rings defined in this book are generalization of the
two well-known classes of rings: group rings and semigroup
rings. The study of these generalized neutrosophic rings will
give more results for researchers interested in group rings and
semigroup rings. Secondly, the notion of neutrosophic
polynomial rings will cause a paradigm shift in the general
polynomial rings. This study has to make several changes in
case of neutrosophic polynomial rings. This would give
solutions to polynomial equations for which the roots can be
indeterminates. Further, the notion of neutrosophic matrix rings
is defined in this book. Already these neutrosophic matrixes
have been applied and used in the neutrosophic models like
neutrosophic cognitive maps (NCMs), neutrosophic relational
maps (NRMs) and so on.

**Category:** Algebra

[20] **viXra:1005.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 May 2010*

**Authors:** David D. Tung

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this paper, we will investigate the problem of obtaining
confidence intervals for a baseball team's Pythagorean expectation, i.e.
their expected winning percentage and expected games won. We study
this problem from two different perspectives. First, in the framework
of regression models, we obtain confidence intervals for prediction, i.e.
more formally, prediction intervals for a new observation, on the basis
of historical binomial data for Major League Baseball teams from the
1901 through 2009 seasons, and apply this to the 2009 MLB regular
season. We also obtain a Scheffé-type simultaneous prediction band
and use it to tabulate predicted winning percentages and their
prediction intervals, corresponding to a range of values for log(RS=RA).
Second, parametric bootstrap simulation is introduced as a data-driven,
computer-intensive approach to numerically computing confidence
intervals for a team's expected winning percentage. Under the
assumption that runs scored per game and runs allowed per game are
random variables following independent Weibull distributions, we
numerically calculate confidence intervals for the Pythagorean expectation
via parametric bootstrap simulation on the basis of each team's runs
scored per game and runs allowed per game from the 2009 MLB
regular season. The interval estimates, from either framework, allow us to
infer with better certainty as to which teams are performing above or
below expectations. It is seen that the bootstrap confidence intervals
appear to be better at detecting which teams are performing above
or below expectations than the prediction intervals obtained in the
regression framework.

**Category:** Statistics

[19] **viXra:1005.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 May 2010*

**Authors:** A.G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the previous paper (http://vixra.org/abs/1003.0169), which can be considered as an introduction
to the nonlinear theory, we have shown that the Standard Model (S?) is not an axiomatic, but an
algorithmic theory. In the proposed article the simplest (minimum) axiomatics is examined from the
point of view of the possible forms of its mathematical representation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[18] **viXra:1005.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 May 2010*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 7 pages, 5 Figures.

Attempting to link quantum physics with general relativity is one current approach to
the comprehension of the structure of the universe. However, this could be an
impossible objective as recent theories suggest that gravity is not a fundamental force
but a consequence of the way information about material objects is organised in space
time (e.g. Reference 27). In this theory, gravity is analogous to the flow of water, and
involves a holographic universe, information, entropy, and chaos theory. However,
such theories do not explain acts of observations affecting the results of scientific
experiments. Many researchers, (e.g. Reference 51), including the author, believe
that understanding the structure of the universe lies not just in physics and the above
concepts, but in addition involves consciousness and cognitive neuroscience together
with understanding the nature and perception of information. As Noetics and dowsing
involve all the latter factors, it is proving to be a powerful and relevant research tool.
This paper combines these considerations in a non-orthodox, but heuristic approach,
linked by geometry.
A previous paper, (See Reference 24: http://vixra.org/abs/1001.0004), identified that
geometric alignments of three bodies, be they 3 pebbles, 3 circles drawn on paper, or
3 astronomical bodies produce a subtle energy beam that can be detected by the mind
and measured. Intriguingly, this beam has a divergence angle involving the inverse of
the Fine Structure Constant (137). It has also been shown to instantaneously
communicate conscious information across the solar system. These facts suggest,
together with other findings, that this "consciousness beam" is linked to the structure
of the universe. This avenue of research is now further developed, by quantifying the
limits of the alignment of the 3-bodies that is required to produce the subtle energy
beam. The findings are that for observations made near the outer of the 3 bodies, the
alignment must be less than arcsine 1/4. But for observations near the middle body,
this alignment must be within arcsine1/5.
This article is a summary of the concepts which are augmented on the author's
website http://www.jeffreykeen.co.uk/

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1005.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 May 2010*

**Authors:** Mihály Bencze, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

About an Identity and its Applications

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1005.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-18 09:35:00*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Professor Claudiu Coandă proved, using the barycentric coordinates, a remarkable theorem. We generalize this theorem using some results from projective geometry relative to
the pole and polar notions.

**Category:** Geometry

[15] **viXra:1005.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 May 2010*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 8 pages

It is suggested in this paper that space-time and matter are both derived from a common
entity, the quantum mass unit. A 10-dimensional and 11-dimensional duality model of the
quantum mass unit is presented diagrammatically, and a mathematical argument is put forth
indicating how energetic photons interact with space-time, converting space-time into virtual
particle pairs of matter and anti-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1005.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 May 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

In the 60s, the word was relevance; now it's tuning.
For physics, it means striking a resonance between
the world of making a profit and the preparation of
physicists. The international effort is designed to
solicit the input of industry in restructuring the physics
curriculum. This spells trouble for physics departments.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[13] **viXra:1005.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 May 2010*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:**
4 pages.

The numerous errors, stored fundamental physics, have stopped its development

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[12] **viXra:1005.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 May 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
9 pages, 3 figures. Key words inserted, PACS, and an additional figure
put in, to discuss what may be needed in order to obtain a rate equation. Comparison
with the case of solar axions , and their flux upon the Earth's surface raised. For possible
presentation at the FF 11 conference, in Paris, pending their review. Already submitted
to an IOP journal for review/ possible publication.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given
below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. A comparison with the quantum
gas hypothesis of Glinka shows how stochastic GW/ gravitons may emerge in vacuum nucleated
space, with emphasis upon comparing their number in phase space, as compared with different strain
values

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1005.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

The Neutrosophic Research Method is a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, and
suggests that scientific and humanistic research will progress via studying not only
the opposite ideas but the neutral ideas related to them as well in order to have a
bigger picture of the whole problem to solve.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[10] **viXra:1005.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 May 2010*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The excess of redshift of the quasar might be produced in its interior by the transference
of heat from the light waves to the radio waves.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1005.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 May 2010*

**Authors:** Robert Gallinat

**Comments:** 12 pages

Conceptual approach and heuristic method for an investigation of
the possible algebraic structure of the interdependence between
mathematical and physical reality and about the connection between
local, non-local and global properties in physics and mathematics,
expressed by a General N-fold algebra (continued)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1005.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 May 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 3 Pages, In Chinese

Chen Jing Run proved that "On the representation of a large even integer as the sum of a
prime and the product of at most two primes" and lower bound estimations of the number of
solutions. Jiang Chun Xuan, Tong Xin Ping proved that "An even integer as the sum of a
prime and the product of two primes" and compute formula of the number of solutions. This
paper compares the accuracy of the three formulas

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1005.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we study the Smarandache semi-near-ring and nearring,
homomorphism, also the Anti-Smarandache semi-near-ring. We obtain
some interesting results about them, give many examples, and pose some
problems. We also define Smarandache semi-near-ring homomorphism.

**Category:** Algebra

[6] **viXra:1005.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Schumann, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 121 pages

This book written by A. Schumann & F. Smarandache is devoted to advances
of non-Archimedean multiple-validity idea and its applications to logical reasoning.
Leibnitz was the first who proposed Archimedes' axiom to be rejected.
He postulated infinitesimals (infinitely small numbers) of the unit interval [0, 1]
which are larger than zero, but smaller than each positive real number. Robinson
applied this idea into modern mathematics in [117] and developed so-called
non-standard analysis. In the framework of non-standard analysis there were
obtained many interesting results examined in [37], [38], [74], [117].

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[5] **viXra:1005.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 149 pages

Study of neutrosophic algebraic structures is very recent. The
introduction of neutrosophic theory has put forth a significant
concept by giving representation to indeterminates. Uncertainty or
indeterminacy happen to be one of the major factors in almost all
real-world problems. When uncertainty is modeled we use fuzzy
theory and when indeterminacy is involved we use neutrosophic
theory. Most of the fuzzy models which deal with the analysis and
study of unsupervised data make use of the directed graphs or
bipartite graphs. Thus the use of graphs has become inevitable in
fuzzy models. The neutrosophic models are fuzzy models that
permit the factor of indeterminacy. It also plays a significant role,
and utilizes the concept of neutrosophic graphs. Thus
neutrosophic graphs and neutrosophic bipartite graphs plays the
role of representing the neutrosophic models. Thus to construct
the neutrosophic graphs one needs some of the neutrosophic
algebraic structures viz. neutrosophic fields, neutrosophic vector
spaces and neutrosophic matrices. So we for the first time
introduce and study these concepts. As our analysis in this book is
application of neutrosophic algebraic structure we found it deem
fit to first introduce and study neutrosophic graphs and their
applications to neutrosophic models.

**Category:** Algebra

[4] **viXra:1005.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 13 pages

In this paper we introduce the concept of Smarandache non-associative rings,
which we shortly denote as SNA-rings as derived from the general definition of a
Smarandache Structure (i.e., a set A embedded with a week structure W such that a
proper subset B in A is embedded with a stronger structure S). Till date the concept of
SNA-rings are not studied or introduced in the Smarandache algebraic literature. The
only non-associative structures found in Smarandache algebraic notions so far are
Smarandache groupoids and Smarandache loops introduced in 2001 and 2002. But they
are algebraic structures with only a single binary operation defined on them that is nonassociative.
But SNA-rings are non-associative structures on which are defined two
binary operations one associative and other being non-associative and addition distributes
over multiplication both from the right and left. Further to understand the concept of
SNA-rings one should be well versed with the concept of group rings, semigroup rings,
loop rings and groupoid rings. The notion of groupoid rings is new and has been
introduced in this paper. This concept of groupoid rings can alone provide examples of
SNA-rings without unit since all other rings happens to be either associative or nonassociative
rings with unit. We define SNA subrings, SNA ideals, SNA Moufang rings,
SNA Bol rings, SNA commutative rings, SNA non-commutative rings and SNA
alternative rings. Examples are given of each of these structures and some open problems
are suggested at the end.

**Category:** Algebra

[3] **viXra:1005.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 209 pages

In this book, for the first time we introduce the notions of Ngroups,
N-semigroups, N-loops and N-groupoids. We also
define a mixed N-algebraic structure. We expect the reader to be
well versed in group theory and have at least basic knowledge
about Smarandache groupoids, Smarandache loops,
Smarandache semigroups and bialgebraic structures and
Smarandache bialgebraic structures.

**Category:** Statistics

[2] **viXra:1005.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 May 2010*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 pages

In this paper we have proposed an almost unbiased estimator using known value of some
population parameter(s). Various existing estimators are shown particular members of the
proposed estimator. Under simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) scheme the
expressions for bias and mean square error (MSE) are derived. The study is extended to the two
phase sampling. Empirical study is carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed
estimator.

**Category:** Algebra

[1] **viXra:1005.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 May 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Vasile Mioc

**Comments:** 3 pages, Submitted to the ROAJ, Vol. 20 , No. 2, 2010

GRT predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian
potential, which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading to quantum
corrections at large distances consists of the interactions of massless particles, which only
involve their coupling energies at low energies. Using the quantum correction term of the
potential we obtain the perturbing quantum acceleration function. Next, with the help of the
Newton-Euler planetary equations, we calculate the time rates of changes of the orbital
elements per revolution for three different orbits around the primary. For one solar mass
primary and an orbit with semimajor axis and eccentricity equal to that of Mercury we obtain
that Δω_{qu} = 1.517x10^{-81 o}/cy,
while ΔM_{qu} = -1.840x10^{-46} rev/cy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology